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E-Learning: Training On-line


November 2, 2011

November 2, 2011 Dr. Kamaluddin Ahmed, Faculty School of Business North South University Dhaka Re.: Submission of the Report Dear Sir, I am pleased to submit the report that you asked me to prepare as a requirement for the course HRM 603 (Training & Development) under Masters of Business Administration (MBA) program. This report titled E-Learning: Training On-line has given me the opportunity to learn about on-line training, why it should be developed and implemented and how to overcome different obstacles. I have also tried to analyze the present scenario in Bangladesh and how on-line training can be a big advantage for different organizations in Bangladesh. I believe this genuine and honest analysis will help you to have a positive viewpoint upon me. I will be pleased to deliver you with added explanations or clarifications that you may feel necessary in this regard. Thank you. Sincerely, Sheikh Ahmed Durlov Adnan ID # 1020 557 560 MBA Program


First, I would like to express my gratitude to Almighty Allah to give me the strength to complete the report within the stipulated time. I am deeply indebted to my Faculty Dr. Kamaluddin Ahmed, Senior Lecturer, MBA Program, North South University, Dhaka for his whole-hearted supervision during the preparation of the report. His suggestions and comments were really a great source of spirit to make the report a good one. I would like to give my special thanks and inexpressible greets to my inmates, seniors, and fellow MBA students who gave me their constant support, good advice, suggestions and inspiration. I am unspeakably grateful to my family for the moral support. Without which I could never be in a place like where I am today. Lastly, I would like to express my gratitude to Almighty Allah again for granting me the opportunity to live and serve.

Table of Contents

1. Introduction.01 2. What is Online

Training..............................................................01 3. E-Learning

Objectives.....02 4. Online Training Delivery:

. 5.

Developing E-



Communication technologies used in E-



Benefits of using E-Learning for Employee

Training and Development 08 8. Barriers to e-

learning.11 9. Handling Online Training


Table of Contents



10. E-Learning scenario in USA.14 11. Present scenario in



Why should different organizations in

Bangladesh consider online training.17 13. Conclusion....21 14. Reference

Executive Summary

E-learning or training online is defined as the use of the Internet or an organizational intranet to conduct training on-line. The information and communication systems serve as specific media to implement the learning process. E-learning is essentially the computer and network-enabled transfer of skills and knowledge.

The rapid growth of e-learning makes the Internet or an intranet as a viable means for delivering training content. Online training is self-paced learning activities accessible via a computer and trainees can proceed on their own time, is interactive, tapping multiple trainee senses, allows for consistency in the delevery of training, enables scoring of exercises/assesments and the appropriate feedback, incorporates built-in guidance and help for trainees to use when needed, relatively easy for trainees to update content, can be used to enhance instructor-led training, and good for presenting simple facts and concepts. However, E-Learning poses some learning challenges as well. Because not all trainees may be ready for e-learning, all the trainees may not have easy and uninterrupted access to computers, requires significant upfront cost and investment and adequate top management support to be successful. In addition to concerns about employee access to and desire to use e-learning, some employers worry that trainees will use e-learning to complete courses quickly but will not retain and use much of their learning. Online training can be a big advantage if we can effecively handle the problems. While training is not the universal answer for all human performance issues, it can provide viable solutions to many of the new challenges that face corporations. Well constructed computer based training, if employed appropriately, can yield significant improvements in learning and performance. This positively affects ROI and significantly improves a corporations competitive advantage.

Training is something we hope to integrate into every managers mindset
-Chris Landauer Training is a process whereby people acquire capabilities to aid in the achievement of organizational goals. The competitive pressure facing organizations today require employees whose knowledge and ideas are

current, and whose skills and attitudes can deliver results. As organizations compete and change, training becomes even more critical than before. Employees who must adapt to the myriad of changes facing organizations must be trained continually in order to maintain and update their capabilities. Also, managers must have training and development to enhance their leadership skills and knowledge. In a number of situations, employers have documented that effective training produces productivity gains that more than offset the cost of the training.

What is Online Training

E-learning or training online is defined as the use of the Internet or an organizational intranet to conduct training on-line. Many people possess a familiarity with the Internet, which has so dramatically altered the way people do business, locate information, and communicate. An intranet is similar to the Internet, but it is a private organizational network behind firewall software that restricts access to authorized users, including employees participating in e-learning. The explosive growth in the use of the Internet changes many aspects of how training is done in organizations. As more and more employees use computers and have access in Internet portals, their employers look at the World Wide Web as a means for distributing training to employees located in widely dispersed locations and jobs.

E-Learning Objectives:
E-Learning represents an innovative shift in the field of learning, providing rapid access to specific knowledge and information. It offers online

instruction that can be delivered anytime and anywhere through a wide range of electronic learning solutions such as Web-based courseware, online discussion groups, live virtual classes, video and audio streaming, Web chat, online simulations, and virtual mentoring. E-Learning enables organizations to transcend distance and other organizational gaps by providing a cohesive virtual learning environment. Companies must educate and train vendors, employees, partners, and clients to stay competitive, and e-Learning can provide such just-in-time training in a cost-effective way. Developing and deploying effective e-Learning programs may require products and services supplied by a variety of vendors, leaving one to connect the dots. One way to start is to define the goals of the desired learning solution. Definition of the goals of an e-Learning solution is driven by the following factors:

Perform task analysis

Determine the tasks to be taught, identify subtasks and other elements involved, and identify the knowledge, skills, and attitudes required to complete the tasks efficiently and effectively.

Perform training needs analysis

Identify the target audience for the training. Identify the shortfall in knowledge, skills, and attitudes of this audience and determine what the target learners need to know.

Review existing capabilities

Review existing methods and infrastructure for providing training or meeting learning needs.

Determine expectations
Identify concrete expectations and/or ROI requirements from the desired e-Learning solution.

The development of an e-Learning strategy begins by setting goals. What will the e-Learning strategy accomplish? Without a true understanding of the goals of the e-Learning strategy, it will be difficult, if not impossible, to be successful. Before implementing e-Learning, organizations need to set common goals or objectives. Common goals and objectives include the following:

To reduce learning costs

As a small business owner, we know that online transactions cost a fraction as much those requiring paper or staff. Its the same with eLearning because there are no papers, no delays, and no travel expenses. To reduce the time required for effective learning Electronic learning is sometimes called just-in-time learning. Such learning enables employees to take what they have just learned from their computer screens and apply it to the tasks at hand.

To motivate employees
e-Learning is considered an effective way to keep up with new technology, to generate new ideas, and to keep the workforce fresh and inspired.

To improve flexibility of course delivery

Most smaller businesses dont have the staff to manage their training and development initiatives. E-Learning technologies can overcome these administrative restrictions.

To expand the capabilities of the business

Small organizations need to get more out of their high-potential employees. E-Learning helps employers take these employees to a higher level of contribution. Other goals and objectives include the following: To reduce the need for classroom training

To track employee progress To track training effectiveness (or absorption) To link training with Knowledge Management To reduce time away from the job To improve job performance To support business objectives To make learning available anytime, anywhere

Online Training Delivery: Considerations

A variety of considerations must be balanced when selecting the online training method. The common variables considered are: Nature of training Subject matter Number of trainees Individual vs. team Self-paced vs. guided Training resources Costs Geographic locations Time allotted Completion timeline

Developing E-Learning
E-learning does not simply mean putting existing training courses and materials on a Web site. Rather than being adopted just for its gee-whiz effect, e-learning is meant to meet strategic training needs. Certain criteria to consider before adopting e-learning include the following.

Sufficient top management support and funding are committed to developing and implementing e-learning. Managers and HR professionals must be retrained to accept the idea that training is being decentralized and individualized. Current training methods (compared to e-learning) are not adequately meeting organizational training needs. Potential learners are adequately computer literate and have ready access to computers and the Internet.

Webenable course content

Developing E-Learning
Modulariz e content Link Module content to training objectives Customize for Lerner centric use Identify elearning measuremen t means

Trainees attending pre-scheduled training programs are geographically separated, and travel time costs are concerns.

Sufficient numbers of trainees exist and many trainees are selfmotivated enough to direct their own learning.

As this figure indicates, e-learning can be developed following several steps. First, training content must be Web enabled, meaning it is converted to electronic form. Consequently, the framework, presentation, and flow of the content must also be seen in light of electronic delivery,

and rarely does it occur without glitches. For instance, it is insufficient to put current PowerPoint presentations on-line and call it a training course. Modularizing of content permits trainees to complete segments of training materials, rather than sitting for several hours at a time to complete an entire course. Once modules are developed, then the e-learning must be made learner centric, which means that users can customize their learning. For instance, rather than taking an entire module or course, an employee wanting to learn one segment could access that information specifically. Finally, e-learning should be measured, usage tracked, and training evaluated to see whether it meets the objectives set. To establish and implement e-learning requires considerable investment in resources and time by HR and training staff, managers, and employees, and the return on that investment should be assessed. Often, employers turn to outside consultants and firms specializing in e-learning for assistance. Frequently, application service providers (ASPs) are used to facilitate and implement e-learning for individual employers.

Communication technologies used in E-learning

Communication technologies are generally categorized as asynchronous or synchronous. Asynchronous activities use technologies such as blogs, wikis, and discussion boards. The idea here is that participants may engage in the exchange of ideas or information without the dependency of other participants involvement at the same time. Electronic mail (Email) is also asynchronous in that mail can be sent or received without having both the participants involvement at the same time. Asynchronous learning also gives participants the ability to work at their

own pace. They have the opportunity to complete their work in a low stress environment. Synchronous activities involve the exchange of ideas and information with one or more participants during the same period of time. A face to face discussion is an example of synchronous communications. In an "E" learning environment, an example of synchronous communications would be a skype conversation or a chat room where everyone is online and working collaborativelly at the same time. Synchronous activities occur with all participants joining in at once, as with an online chat session or a virtual classroom or meeting. Virtual classrooms and meetings can often use a mix of communication technologies. Participants in a virtual classroom use icons called emoticons to communicate feelings and responses to questions or statements. Participants are able to 'write on the board' and even share their desktop, when given rights by the instractor. Other communication technologies available in a virtual classroom include text notes, microphone rights, and breakout sessions. Breakout sessions allow the participants to work collaboratively in a small group setting to accomplish a task as well as allow the instractor to have private conversations with his or her participants. The virtual classroom also provides the opportunity for participants to receive direct instruction from a qualified instractor in an interactive environment. Participants have direct and immediate access to their instructor for instant feedback and direction. The virtual classroom also provides a structured schedule of classes, which can be helpful for participants. The virtual classroom also provides a social learning environment. Most virtual classroom applications provide a recording feature. Each class is recorded and stored on a server, which allows for instant playback of any class. This can be extremely useful for

participants to review material and concepts for an upcoming training session.

Benefits of using E-Learning for Employee Training and Development

Due to rapid changes in technology, new techniques, such as business skills training online via the Internet, are available for employee development that generally offers better results. Employers find the need for continual training of employees to keep up with innovations. For example with computers forming an essential part of most businesses, it becomes necessary to train staff in any new programs that hit the market that are valuable to the organization. One cannot employ new people each time a new program is invented. One of the best training methods can be online learning. The benefits of using e-learning for employee training and development in order to upgrade employee knowledge base are attracting an increasing numbers of employers for several reasons. Time is money and most employers realize the setback their business suffers when employees have to put their work on hold and travel to attend training seminars and programs. It is a catch 22 situation for the employer who finds that if the employee is sent to study then the work suffers and if the employee is kept back then too there is a backlog of work. Online business skills training programs solve this problem by enabling the employer to introduce employee training and development plans through the process of e-Learning.

Employees can increase their productivity by following the online employee training and development programs in the comfort of their office or home. Thus, one of the most important benefits of using elearning for business skills development is the time saved which also saves money. E learning programs are available at the place of convenience to the employee or the employer rather than the other way round. E-Learning for employee training and development also translates to increasing productivity of the employee. Since the programs are taught online, one can over see the entire process and judge how it is affecting the productivity of the employee. Because the instruction is online day-to-day progress of the employee can be monitored and tracked, resulting in maximum benefit of the training program. Employees can grasp and understand the instruction of these online employee training and development programs at their own pace. With regular seminars and training programs, if the employee is unable to understand a concept it is not always possible to go through it again. On the other hand, with e leaning training programs one can replay any aspect of the program until comprehended absolutely. Since e-Learning is not restricted by time, it allows one to go through the entire curriculum without having the pressure of time on the mind. At the same time, it is easy to skip the parts that one already knows about thus saving time doing repetitive study. There are many good employee training and development programs available online which cover a variety of subjects like accounting and bookkeeping, sales, management, business communication, and negotiation skills development. Both employers as well as employees can review the entire selection of online employee training and development courses on web directories like and select the program most applicable to them. One can undertake to study several

programs at the same time if so required since physical presence is not required while studying online. Using E-Learning for employee training and development enables one to takes various online tests and quizzes that enable one to judge the present knowledge base of the participant. Employers can go through these test results and decide exactly where the employee stands. It was believed that online employee trainings lack the competitive spirit and so fails to provide the necessary push to learn as well as perform. However, with chat rooms and virtual discussion rooms coming alive eleaning programs have given a new meaning to interaction. Similar ranked employees all over the globe are able to compete as well as gain insight from each other. Only e learning can bring together such a large array of students. Using e-learning for employee training and development also saves incidental overhead expenses. Various travel and lodging expenses have to be incurred by the employer when choosing to send an employee for a training program. Apart from the incidental costs, these programs have hefty fees, which also have to be paid by the employer. On the other hand e-learning programs have a nominal one time cost. There is no such provision in the case of regular employee training seminars and courses. The benefits of using distance learning for employee training and development has translated into a phenomenal growth in online studies and the trend seems to be growing rapidly.

Barriers to e-learning

Many people still see the classroom as best for cutting-edge advanced skills, group and teamwork activity, and instruction in which face-to-face interaction is crucial. It's safe and predictable. Change to new methods represents risk, uncertainty and instability. The implementation of classroom-based training is easy and something we know how to do, whereas e-learning provides a different level of complexity. At an organizational level the following barriers to implementation exist:

persuading management to invest in e-learning making the case for e-learning ensuring there is the technical capability to deliver e-learning and there is no difficulty for learners to access the material

overcoming workplace constraints that can impact e-learning, such as supervisors not providing sufficient time for the learning to occur

equipping learners with the skills to participate in e-learning engaging learners in using e-learning and linking this to employability (making the learning exciting and relevant)

measuring the effectiveness of e-learning outcomes and linking them with business targets

overcoming negative perceptions of e-learning (for example, that it is impersonal, or not as good as classroom training, or that the medium is seen as a threat).

At an employee level these are the main predictors of barriers in using elearning:

organizationallack of proper policy and planning and supportive culture (for example, time for training, incentives, resources)

self-efficacylack of behavioral skills such as taking responsibility for learning and time management

computer competenceinsufficient computer and Internet skills, and fear of exposure in a new environment.

Handling Online Training Problems

Online training can be a big advantage, but it only works as well as the computer systems it has been installed on. Running software on outdated or slow computer systems can cause problems. Most training software comes with a list of system requirements and should be followed exactly. These requirements include: 1. Minimum hard drive space needed for program installation 2. Computer RAM requirements (i.e. 500mb RAM required to run the program) 3. Operating system requirements (Windows or Mac) Some training programs may conflict with other programs. If the instruction manual says to close other programs before running, this should be followed. Interruptions in electrical power may affect training. A power surge or a single second of interrupted power may cause the program to shut down or crash. Surge protectors can prevent these problems. Using an uninterruptible power supply, or UPS, prevents losing data during temporary power outages. The UPS is a battery backup, which automatically starts when the electricity is cut off. The UPS keeps the

machine running for as long as the battery reserve lasts, keeping the training or testing session from being interrupted. During the testing phase of online training, you may be required to take the entire test session over again if there's data loss, computer crash, or other technical problems. Many online training tests don't allow users to stop and start the test over again. A third issue to contend with is computer hacking. The illegal compromise of a computer or computer network is the classic definition of hacking. People break into computers and networks for a wide variety of reasons, including data theft. If an online training program is hacked, third parties get illegal access to username and passwords, test results and any other confidential information. To avoid hacking, many companies offer training on closed systems. If training is offered on public Internet connections, steps need to be taken to safeguard private data. These may include using: When you take online training, you may experience problems with the computer, accidentally exit out of the program or need to go back to a specific section of your training for review. While the instruction phase of your training should cover these general issues, sometimes they're overlooked. It's best in these situations to contact the person who supervises the online training for help. It's particularly important to know what to do in case of problems during the testing phase of your online training. If anyone has any doubts, should ask the training supervisor before the online testing phase of the training begins. A common problem for online testing programs is losing the network connections due to inactivity. If this is the case, trainee may need to get a training supervisor's help to re-establish the connection. A trainee may not be able to back out of the test phase or step away from the computer once testing begins.

E-Learning scenario in USA

The growth of e-learning is seen in a number of statistics. One study forecasted that U.S. spending on e-learning is increasing 400% every three years and is expected to total about $15 billion by 2004. Adding in global employers raises this figure even higher. Another indicator comes from American Society of Training & Development (ASTD), which found that the firms surveyed delivered about 8.4% of their training through elearning. Even though e-learning has leveled off some in smaller companies, larger companies continue to make the most use of elearning-almost 14% of their training is done using e-learning. This higher percentage is understandable because larger firms have more resources, and they also benefit most from the saving in distribution and travel costs due to the economies of scale provided by e-learning. For example, Delta Airlines uses on-line delivery to provide government-required training to about 70% of its workforce. Previously the courses were paper based and took 6-8 hours. E-learning training now allows employees to complete the training in an hour, with course participation and test results being tracked online. Significant cost savings for Delta have resulted because the training takes less work time and most employees no longer have to travel to centralize training facilities.

Present scenario in Bangladesh

In Bangladesh we have not seen that organizations are updating themselves enough as time passes and for that reason the present human resources of different organizational sector are becoming obsolete in comparison with modern day business concepts & strategies. In recent days we have seen some pragmatic steps but these are not enough and

much improvement is still possible. Senior executives and Board of Directors in numerous organizations and financial institutions dont have much idea about online training and its benefits for the trainees and the organizations at the same time. We have seen banks and other financial institutions send their entry level employees for different training programs at BIBM, BMDC, ICMAB and other institutions. But if these companies have enough facilities and equipment for organizing online training program, it can save significant amount of time and cost for these organizations. In different organizations senior executives dont have strong mindset and clear vision toward designing online training programs and they are not too conscious about developing and implementing it and ensuring sufficient facilities regarding that. All the employees are not professionally trained enough in the computer literacy part. For that reason, the EOP (Expected Organizational Performance) is always much below than the AOP (Actual Organizational Performance). So, the triggering effect always indicates to provide training upon basic computer literacy to each and every individual worker of the organization which will lead to improved professionalism and also is the major pre-requisite for online training. Without adequate computer literacy, online training will not be successful and beneficial for the trainees and their respective companies as well. Successful implementation of online training program will be helpful for increasing the competence level of the employees and organizational culture will be improved by changing employees attitude and behavior.

Why should different organizations in Bangladesh consider online training

There are four main reasons to consider a program of online training: 1. Reduce Costs

When we consider the costs involved with live training, online training begins to seem like a no-brainer. Facility and audio/video equipment rental costs, travel and hotel expenses, and meals and refreshments for attendees all add up. In addition, consider the value of the time lost to the attendees, employees or members, as they travel to and from the training session. Online registration and web conferencing are very inexpensive, and allow the attendees to attend from almost anywhere.


Expand Reach

When the training is live, audience reach is often not what we would desire. Some potential attendees cannot afford the travel or to be away from the office. For others it is just simply inconvenient to attend, particularly if the training site is not

centrally located to them. When we make our training and education program virtual, our potential audience suddenly becomes worldwide. Someone across the country can attend for the same cost and time as someone in the next office. Implement virtual training and watch our attendance rates soar. Archiving our sessions for future viewing will help us to expand our reach even further.


React Quickly

When a law or regulation changes, a crisis erupts, or a new product must be quickly rolled out to gain or retain market share, time is of the essence. The time lost in planning to get our constituents together for live training can cost our organization dearly. Having a virtual system at the ready for these communications can allow the organization to react quickly, almost instantly in these cases. Bring the members up to speed on the latest information before the competitors do. Bring the new product or service to market first. Arm our audience with the knowledge they need to make them the most knowledgeable and up-to-date in their industry, before anyone else.


Integrate Technology-Based Learning into Business

Utilizing the latest in technology shows our constituents that we are cutting edge and up-to-date. Our audience, particularly those who are of younger generations, will be looking to affiliate with associations and organizations that utilize the full benefits of technology. Our audience will appreciate the ease with which they will be able to obtain training and education and the time and money online methods will save them.

More Benefits of Online Training


Increase Time-to-Competency

Bring our staff or members up to date as quickly as possible. Utilizing virtual training and education methods allows us to schedule updates on-demand, and more frequently if needed. Frequent, timely information will increase the overall competency of our audience, making them the experts in their fields.


Strengthen Client Relationships

Become a strategic partner in the success of our clients. Use online methods to bring information on changing laws, regulations, and other timely information to our clients before our competitors do. Establishing us as the go-to organization for information cements us as the vendor of choice for our clients. Information adds value to any relationship.


Increase Revenue

Create revenue-generating opportunities by charging for training and education. Associations strive to maintain relevance in todays world. Those who are successful have discovered the rewards of offering education, training, and information as a value-add to their members. The benefits are many. Associations benefit from the non-dues revenue, increasing membership, and member retention. Members benefit from low-cost information, training, and continuing education units, often required for their job, certification or license. Associations today are fighting for membership dollars. Those who provide online services will rise above their competitors as they increase the value of their membership. Some programs may even be offered at no-charge or minimal charge to members when underwritten by a vendor or other sponsor.


Increase Sales Effectiveness

Increase sales effectiveness by enabling our sales team to sell

new products and services as soon as they are released. Accelerate time-to-market by gathering our sales team online whenever a new product or service is rolled out, a product recall is announced, or a new marketing plan is being introduced. Allow our teams to be armed with the latest information as quickly as possible, to enable them to be a step ahead of the competition. Have our salespeople utilize online services to demonstrate products and make virtual sales calls.


Utilize Subject Matter Experts (SMEs)

Utilize virtual means to allow the organizations subject matter experts to interact with our potential clients. For example, if selling software, whether the sales call itself is live or virtual, have the IT expert on the product interact with the potential client on the sales call virtually. We cant take our experts out of the office to make sales calls, but we can have them add their expertise quickly and easily through conferencing. The added presence of a SME adds an extra layer of expertise and credibility to our sales process and helps to distinguish us from the competitors. Many subject matter experts are more effective communicators online than in front of a live classroom, making this medium perfect for adding their expertise within their comfort level.


Increase Client Satisfaction

Imagine how easy and cost efficient it could be to connect with our clients via conferencing, in order to bring them the latest updates, or to offer them free or reduced-cost training on complex products and services. This is a way to really add value to our clients and increase their satisfaction. We dont want to be viewed only as a vendor, but as an integral partner. Client retention is increased when the training and educational services we provide after the sale become integral to our clients success.

Looking at our product line to see if theres a way to utilize online training with our clients to provide something our competitors dont.


Increase Collaboration and Interaction

Todays online tools allow for collaboration through polling, chatting, live conversation, and desktop sharing. Many have found that the interaction of the group is actually increased when meeting online, compared to those who attend in a lecture setting.

In sum, e-learning is the latest development in the evolution of training delivery. However, some of the biggest obstacles will continue to be keeping up with the rapid change in technological innovation, knowing when and how much to invest, and dealing with employee and manager resistance to change. Undoubtedly, e-learning will have a major impact on HR and training because online training is easily accomplished through todays web conferencing and streaming services. Our attendees can attend the training sessions from their home or office; anywhere they have a computer and an Internet connection. While the most obvious impact of e-learning is the significant time and cost savings it can produce over traditional training, more significant impact on ROI (Return on Investment) can be achieved as a consequence of e-learning. Well constructed e-learning is not only faster and less expensive than classroom training but also more effective. Numerous studies have shown that people learn faster with multimedia training; they more accurately recall what they learned over a longer period of time, and they are better able to transfer what they learned to actual performance.

Studies conducted by the military, education and industry cite a 15-25% increase in learning with significant increases in retention and transfer of training. Brandon Hall (1995) reviewed a number of studies on multimedia training and return on investment. In all studies reviewed the results indicated significant increases in the quality of learning when computer based training was compared with traditional classroom instruction. While training is not the universal answer for all human performance issues, it can provide viable solutions to many of the new challenges that face corporations. Well constructed computer based training, if employed appropriately, can yield significant improvements in learning and performance. This positively affects ROI and significantly improves a corporations competitive advantage.

Human Resource Management Robert L. Mathis & John H. Jackson, 10 ed., Thompson Learning Inc




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