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# Answers for Practice I Sem I Paper 1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. D C B B no answer. In any case if you cant remember the hydrocarbon chem.

. equation, you can always do the following steps: a. find out the volume of CO2 produced & O2 used from the question & get their ratio (from volume) b. check the chem. eq in your answers, see which eq gives you the same ratio, then that answer will usually be the correct one 6. C 7. C 8. A 9. C 10. A 11. C 12. A 13. B 14. B 15. C 16. A 17. B 18. A 19. B 20. no answers (again.. yes, sorry) the answer should be 1.75 atm 21. B 22. A 23. C 24. A 25. no answers (=_= |||) , the answer should be 34.6 oC 26. C 27. D 28. B 29. the question sounds weird, it should be written as, the following conditions are essential for standard electrode potential measurement, EXCEPT .. answer is A 30. C 31. C 32. D 33. A 34. D 35. D 36. A 37. B

38. A 39. D 40. no answers I think the only confusing one (if there is) is statement 1 Ea should be the same Others are quite straightforward Well, I didnt show full working here (especially for the calculation), as I expect some of your feedback, especially for those who have different answers from what is provided. Paper 2 1. Compound X is a brown solid which contains iron, carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. a. 1.327 g of X was burnt in dry oxygen gas and produced 0.392 g of Fe2O3, 3.037 g of CO2 and 0.615 g H2O. i. Calculate the mass of each elements iron, carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in this sample of X. Mass of Fe = 0.274 g (3 s.f.) Mass of C = 0.828 g (3 s.f.) Mass of H2 = 0.0684 g (3 s.f.) Mass of O = 0.157 g (3 s.f.) [4] ii. Calculate the empirical formula of X. FeC14H14O2 (dont worry about the weird formula, doesnt mean its wrong if you havent seen it) [2] iii. Ethanedioate ion, C2O42- are oxidized by acidified aqueous potassium manganate (VII) according to the equation: 2MnO4 - (aq) + 5C2O42- (aq) + 16H+ (aq) 2Mn2+ (aq) + 10CO2 (g) + 8H2O (l) What volume of 0.020 mol dm-3 potassium manganate (VII) is required to oxidize completely 1.0 x 10-3 mole of the salt KHC2O4. H2C2O4? 20. cm3 (2 s.f.) [3] 2. The fullerene molecule, C60, is the third carbon allotrope. The shape of fullerene is shown as follows:

a. State the type of hybridization in the fullerene molecule. - sp2 [1] b. Name other allotropes of carbon which has the same hybridization as fullerene. Graphite [1] c. State one physical property of the allotrope you state in (b). High melting point/ slippery [1] d. Explain the physical property you state in (c), relating to the nature of the allotrope structure. High melting point - giant covalent network - atoms connected covalently -requires large amount of energy to overcome the force Slippery - giant covalent network - atoms arranged in layers - easily slide against each other [3] e. Carbon tetrachloride is another substance that contains carbon. i. Draw the dot and cross diagram of the molecule. - must be DOT & CROSS between one carbon & four chlorine atoms - single pair electrons shared between carbon & chlorine atoms altogether 4 pairs [2] ii. Describe the types of intermolecular force that is/are present in carbon tetrachloride. - temporary dipole-dipole 3

- caused by the uneven distribution of electrons between atoms - presence of permanent dipole-dipole is not present as the molecule is symmetrical [3] 3. Alkanes are often used as fuels in a variety of situations. Methane, CH4, is used as a gas to heat houses and offies whereas octane, C8H18, is used in petrol. Methane burns to form carbon dioxide and water as follows: CH4 (g) + 2O2 (g) CO2 (g) + 2H2O (l) a. Define the term standard enthalpy of combustion. The amount of heat released when 1 mole of reactant is burnt completely in the presence of oxygen at standard conditions [2] b. What volume of air, which contains 20% oxygen, would be needed to burn 1 mole of methane? (1 mole of gas occupies 24 dm3 in room temperature) 240 dm3 for those who obtained the value of 48 dm3 of O2, youll only get 2 marks. Look at the question again! volume of air, which contains 20% oxygen [3] c. Using bond enthalpy information provided in the Chemical Data Booklet, calculate the enthalpy change of combustion of methane. -688 kJ mol-1 (correct sign & unit) Bond enthalpy ( kJ mol-1): C- H = 410 O=O = 496 C=O = 740 O-H = 460 [3] d. Burning 1.00 g of octane produces 48.4 kJ of energy. Calculate the standard enthalpy of combustion for octane. - 5540 kJ mol-1 (correct sign & unit) [2]

e. Suggest why octane is preferred to methane as a fuel for motor cars. In general, 1 mole of octane supplies more heat energy than 1 mole of methane, which makes it more efficient as fuel. [2] *it has much more to do with the ability of octane being compressed without self-ignition in our motor-car engines. But of course, this is more into mechanical engineering. The answer above would be sufficient enough for chemistry context. 4. a. State Le Chateliers principle. when a system in equilibrium is disturbed, the equilibrium composition alters to remove the disturbance [2] b. Chromate ions are in equilibrium with dichromate ions in the presence of acid, as shown in the chemical equation below. 2CrO42- (aq) + 2H+ (aq) Cr2O72- (aq) + H2O (l)

i. Write Kc expression for the equilibrium, quoting appropriate units. Kc = [Cr2O72-][H2O] / [CrO42-]2[H+]2 unit = mol-2 dm6 [2] ii. 0.8 mol of dichromate ions are formed at equilibrium. What is the value of Kc when there is 1.36 and 2.0 moles of chromate ions and acid initially? * It is impossible to get an answer for this question, 0.8mol of dichromate ions requires at least 1.6 mol of chromate ion, which is not enough in this case. So, Kc cant be calculated as the values are inaccurate. * lets say, if there are 2.5 moles of chromate ions, what would be the value of Kc? [3] iii. Explain the effect upon the equilibrium when the concentration of acid is increased at constant temperature. Equilibrium shifts right to produce more dichromate ions and water according to Le Chateliers principle [2]

iv. State an observation based on your hypothesis in (iii). Yellow solution turns orange [1] 5. Phosphoric (V) acid, H3PO4 is a tribasic acid. a. 20.0 cm3 of H3PO4 solution of concentration 0.0590 mol dm-3 required 18.3 cm3 of 0.20 mol dm-3 sodium hydroxide for reaction in a titration, using phenolphthalein indicator. i. Calculate the number of moles of phosphoric (V) acid used. 1.18 x 10-3mol

ii. Calculate the number of moles of sodium hydroxide used. *again, the question is faulty. For those who use the answer in (a)(i) to multiply by 3 and get the answers, your answer will be correct. 1.18 x 10-3x 3 = 3.54 x 10-3mol However, the marks will also be awarded for those who adapted the information from question to calculate the no. of mol of NaOH n = MV = 0.2 x 18.3/1000 = 3.66 x 10-3 mol The REAL QUESTION IS, which is more accurate? iii. Write a balanced equation for the reaction involved. H3PO4 + 3NaOH Na3PO4 + 3H2O [4] b. H3PO4 dissociates in water to form hydrogen and phosphate ions. i. Draw the dot and cross diagram for the phosphate ions. P: electronic configuration: 3s2 3p3 excited to 5 orbitals with single electrons 4 bonding pairs required sp3 with 1 unhybridized orbital Since O will need a double bond to achieve octet electron arrangement, so, the unhybridized orbital can form a bond. O || 3 O atoms bonded with P with single covalent, O-P-O which means each of them has to accept 1 e| through reactions. So a phosphate ion with -3 Ocharges, each contributed by O that accepted

[3] ii. Predict the shape of the phosphate ion. tetrahedral [1] 6. a. i. State the ideal gas equation. PV = nRT ii. Under what conditions of temperature and pressure doe a gas obey the ideal gas equation? High temperature & low pressure [3] b. A 7.16 g sample of an anhydrous aluminium chloride produces 1.00 dm3 of vapour at 180oC and atmospheric pressure. What is molecular formula of aluminum chloride under these conditions? Mr = 266 (3s.f.) , using ideal gas equation, pressure = 101.3 x 103 Pa volume = 1.00 x 10-3 temperature = (180 +273) R = 8.31 J K-1 mol-1 [3] c. Draw the structure of the aluminium chloride formed in the conditions given in (b). Indicate the bonds clearly in your structure. Structure should be drawn in dimer form. Dot & cross diagram not required in this case.

[2]

d. Aluminium fluoride does not melt until the temperature is above 1200 oC. Suggest reasons for the difference in melting point between aluminium chloride and aluminium fluoride. Aluminium fluoride ionic lattice Aluminium chloride ionic lattice at solid state, with covalent characteristic