Trust (EWET

)

Final Evaluation of the In School Entrepreneurship Education Programme Implemented by the Education with Enterprise
March 2008
Conducted by:

Impact Consulting CC

Commissioned by The Monitoring and Evaluation Unit Capacity Building and Research Division Umsobomvu Youth Fund 11 Broadwalk Avenue Halfway House 1685 Midrand Email: info@uyf.org.za Website: www.youthportal.org.za 08600 YOUTH (96884) © Umsobomvu Youth Fund, March 2008

Disclaimer
Views expressed by the evaluator are not necessary that of UYF and the findings and recommendations of the evaluation are with some certain limitations and they can not therefore be generalized to all UYF projects. The UYF is not liable for the any views expressed or misprint in the evaluation report..

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CONTENTS
Page EXECUTIVE SUMMARY INTRODUCTION 1 CONTEXT 1.1 1.2 ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN A GLOBAL CONTEXT JOB CREATION IN SOUTH AFRICA 7 13 13 13 13 13 14 15 16 16 16 17 18 18 18 19 19 19 20 22 23 24 24 25 25 25 25 26 26 26 27 28

1.2.1 Unemployment in South Africa 1.2.2 Entrepreneurship in South Africa 1.2.3 Government strategy 1.3 1.4 ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS THE UMSOBOMVU YOUTH FUND

1.4.1 Organisational description 1.4.2 The In-School Entrepreneurship Education Programme 2 PROJECT DESCRIPTION 2.1 EDUCATION WITH ENTERPRISE TRUST (EWET) 2.1.1 Organisational history 2.1.2 Programme development 2.1.3 Services and programmes 2.2 THE YOUTH ENTERPRISE SOCIETY (YES) 2.2.1 Programme description 2.2.2 Intended programme outcomes 2.2.3 The 17 Business Competencies 2.3 2.4 DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE OF AREA OF OPERATION PROGRAMME STAKEHOLDERS

3 EVALUATION DESCRIPTION 3.1 3.2 PURPOSE OF THE EVALUATION EVALUATION ETHICS 3.1.1 Reasons for the evaluation 3.2.1 Consent and confidentiality 3.2.2 Reporting results 3.3 EVALUATION PARTICIPANTS 3.3.1 Sampling and selection 3.3.2 Participant recruitment

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3.4

DATA AND INFORMATION COLLECTION

28 28 29 29 29 30 30 30 30 30 31 31 31 32 32 33 34 35 38 39 41 41 44 50 52 55 55 57 57 58 59 59 59 59 61 61 64

3.4.1 Documentation analysis 3.4.2 Focus group discussions 3.4.3 Interviews 3.4.4 Advisor survey 3.4.5 Simama Ranta observation 3.5 EVALUATION CHALLENGES 3.5.1 Timing of evaluation 3.5.2 Limited site visits 3.5.3 Survey 4 FINDINGS 4.1 PROGRAMME CONTENT AND MODEL 4.1.1 Programme development 4.1.2 Perceptions of programme relevance 4.1.3 Criteria for selection of beneficiaries 4.1.4 Perceptions of EWET advisor training 4.1.5 Advisor perceptions of YES material 4.1.6 Learner perceptions of YES material and model 4.1.7 Sustainability 4.1.8 Replicability 4.2 SERVICE DELIVERY/IMPLEMENTATION 4.2.1 Achievement of objectives according to SLA 4.2.2 Level of implementation 4.2.3 EWET management 4.2.4 Monitoring and evaluation 4.3 COLLABORATION AND WORKING RELATIONSHIPS 4.3.1 Relationship between UYF and EWET 4.3.2 Extending the relationship between EWET and UYF 4.3.3 Relationship between EWET and YES societies 4.3.4 Collaboration between EWET and other partners 4.3.5 Collaboration between YES clubs and other partners 4.4 CHALLENGES 4.4.1 National strike 4.4.2 Challenges from an advisor perspective 4.4.3 Challenges from a learner perspective 4.4.4 Challenges for EWET 4.5 OUTCOMES

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4.5.1 Outcomes for learners 4.5.2 Outcomes for Advisors 4.5.3 Outcomes for EWET 5 RECOMMENDATIONS 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 5.10 DEVELOPING AN INTEGRATED MONITORING AND EVALUATION SYSTEM ALUMNI DEVELOPMENT DEVELOPING MOTIVATION STRATEGIES CONSISTENTLY RUNNING SIMAMA RANTA DEVELOP A MARKETING AND MEDIA STRATEGY FURTHERING A COLLABORATIVE RELATIONSHIP WITH UYF REPORTING ON TIME INCREASING HUMAN RESOURCES MAINTAINING PROMPT INITIAL FOLLOW-UP VISITS MATERIAL

64 68 70 71 71 71 72 72 72 73 73 73 73 74 75 75 75 75 75 76 76

6 LESSONS LEARNED 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 PROGRAMME MODEL/METHODOLOGY TRAINING AND FOLLOW-UP WHAT DOES A SCHOOL NEED FOR EFFECTIVE IMPLEMENTATION? PROGRAMME MANAGEMENT MONITORING AND EVALUATION UYF’S ROLE

7 COMPARISON BETWEEN EWET AND SAIE MODELS REFERENCES

77 83

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FIGURES Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 TABLES Table 1 Table 2 Table 3 Table 4 Table 5 Table 6 Table 7 Table 8 Table 9 Table 10 List of activities, deliverables and responsibilities for the In-School Entrepreneurship Education Project YES Business Competencies Evaluation participants and methods Number of subjects taught Number of grades taught Advisor perceptions of YES Training Teacher perceptions of material I could continue implementing the YES programme even if we got no more materials, training or support from EWET Average number of YES members per school Advisors perceptions of enabling factors 44 47 24 27 28 28 33 35 39 18 Learners at the 2007 Simama Ranta competition proudly display their business products Learners at the 2007 Simama Ranta competition proudly display their business products YES club members during a focus group with Impact Consulting YES learners working together as a team during a focus group activity YES members during a focus group YES members during a focus group Distribution of YES members per school Regularity of YES society and club meetings Distribution of total competencies completed by schools Enabling factors by frequency of YES club meetings Learners keenly discussing their business strategy during one of the rounds of the Simama Ranta competition YES member hard at work creating products during the 2007 Simama Ranta YES member hard at work creating products during the 2007 Simama Ranta 74 74 31 37 40 40 44 45 46 47 68 22 21

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Table 11 Table 12 Table 13 Table 14 Table 15 Table 16

Advisors perceptions of support Challenges to implementation Advisors’ perceptions of outcomes for learners Advisors’ perceptions of learner’s entrepreneurial knowledge and skills Advisors’ perception of learners behaviour Advisors’ perceptions of ability and intent to start their own businesses

48 60 65 66 67 69

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
One of the greatest challenges the South African government faces today is creating sustainable employment opportunities for our youth. The number of young unemployed South Africans is particularly high, with only about 10 per cent of young people who leave school being able to find formal employment1. The Umsobomvu Youth Fund (UYF) is a government-funded organisation which has been created as part of an integrated strategy to tackle this challenge, and focuses on initiatives to encourage young people to consider selfemployment and increase entrepreneurial activity, whilst assisting them with overcoming challenges experienced during setting up a business. The Education with Enterprise Trust (EWET) was one of the implementing organisations of the UYF’s In-School Entrepreneurship Programme – a business education initiative designed to provide selected secondary school learners with practical business skills and experience as well as business insight. The main objectives of the In-School Entrepreneurship Programme include: • • • • stimulating entrepreneurial characteristics among learners through the schooling system develop entrepreneurial skills among learners develop the capacity of teachers to offer quality entrepreneurship programmes. which in turn should lead to the enhancement of the Economic Management Sciences (EMS) and Business Studies (BS) curriculum and improving the standard of EMS, BS and entrepreneurship teaching. Impact Consulting was contracted by the UYF to evaluate the implementation and outcomes of EWET’s Youth Enterprise Society (YES) programme. The study also sought to assess the extent to which EWET achieved their goals and objectives. EWET is a non-profit organisation that works in all nine South African provinces, with the aim of enabling beneficiaries in poor rural communities to become self-reliant by educating and training them in economic and enterprise development. EWET’s flagship programme, Youth Enterprise Societies (YES), focuses on developing 17 business competencies through experiential/action learning in youth at secondary school through an extramural

1

UYF document (2007)

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entrepreneurship society/club movement. YES societies in a school are initiated, supported and managed by local business community, youth leaders, community leaders, teachers and, in some instances, the Local Government. Teachers and other community-based adults serve as advisors in the programme. The societies are established and implemented by communities with constant supervision from EWET. EWET provides services such as Local Partnership training, YES Advisor training, YES youth executive training, the Annual National YES SIMAMA RANTA competition and ongoing support, promotion, evaluation and coordination. To conduct this evaluation, Impact Consulting employed a formative rapid assessment mixed-method approach, based on a combination of thorough programme documentation analysis, stakeholder interviews, participant interviews, focus groups with teachers and learners, observations and an advisor survey. A total of 194 individuals participated in this study. The findings of this evaluation indicate that the programme meets a very real need in the community and that YES Advisors and learners are generally satisfied with and enjoy the YES programme. YES Advisors have positive perceptions of the YES programme training and find the material simple and easy to understand. Learners were overall satisfied and excited with the content, learning process and material. Learners did, however, feel that the programme could be further improved through ensuring a timely start in the school year, that each learner receives their own handbooks and that teams who came second and third in preliminary rounds be allowed to participate in the Simama Ranta competition to increase motivation. The YES programme would remain sustainable without further UYF funding. However, continued UYF support could extend the programme and strengthen EWET’s organisational capacity. The YES programme is successfully operating in all provinces in South Africa and is therefore clearly replicable. It must be noted that this UYF funding has allowed the programme to be implemented in EWETs home province for the first time. In 2007, EWET implemented the Youth Enterprise Societies (YES) programme at 46 schools in the Thabo Mofutsanyane District in the Free State. Most of these YES Clubs met on a weekly basis and the standard size per club was 62 members. On average, Clubs completed five business competencies in 2007; however clubs who had advisors with training in BS or EMS completed significantly more. The cost per learner was R1 473.00 excluding the costs

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for Simama Ranta competition and the cost per advisor was R8 858,30 (based on 127 advisors trained and including Simama Ranta costs). The YES programme managed to achieve quite a high level implementation. For advisors, a number of factors contributed towards the successful implementation of the programme. The most important of these was learner commitment which was identified by 31% of advisors who participated in the advisor survey. The programme design, market receptiveness, advisor commitment and school support from teachers, HODs and principals were also deemed as crucial by advisors to the successful implementation of the programme. EWET achieved or exceeded most of its outcomes, although some of these were achieved outside the designated timeframes in the service level agreement (SLA) with UYF. Out of 25 outcomes, EWET exceeded or achieved 18 (72%). EWET exceeded its targets for the selection and training of EMS and BS teachers and participating schools, the successful implementation of the YES programme at 40 schools and the participation of 1800 learners in entrepreneurial competitions in the Free State. EWET achieved its targets in terms of selecting learners and advisors, training advisors, submitting monthly and quarterly reports to UYF, conducting quarterly follow-up workshops with advisors, monthly school visits and hosting review visits by UYF. It also achieved its targets for the distribution of YES handbooks and teacher resource guides, ensuring integration with stakeholders and donors, and enabling positive change in the delivery of entrepreneurial programmes at schools. EWET only partially achieved its targets in relation to establishing collaboration with the DoE, DoL and DTI and the selection and training of YES advisors in Quarter Two. It only partially managed to achieve linkages with other UYF programmes, establish a steering committee or ensure the successful completion of tasks and demonstration of facilitation skills. EWET has sound financial and management systems in place. The organisation’s staff are passionate about their work and have a clear understanding of the programmes goals, target and market. Staff turnover is low; however there is a shortage of human resources, particularly if the recommendations made in this report are implemented. EWET has an informal internal monitoring and evaluation (M&E) system in place which consists of training follow-ups (to ensure that advisors have understood the training and are implementing the programme), school visits and some data collection. The organisation

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would benefit significantly from an integrated M&E system, including a longitudinal impact assessment. Advisors identified the main challenges to implementation in 2007 as the teachers strike, a lack of time, resources and learner commitment. Further obstacles to successful implementation included the need for further training on how to use the YES materials and difficulties associated with making photocopies of the material for learners. For learners the main challenges were a lack of teacher support and encouragement, a lack of opportunity for interaction with other clubs and the fact that the current model did not provide each learner with their own YES Club handbooks. Implementation challenges for EWET included delayed funding, difficulties with material accreditation, establishing a steering committee for the programme, meeting reporting requirements and timeframes and maintaining DoE priories with the programme. From the school side obstacles to implementation included a lack of teacher continuity and teachers who did not fully understand the programme. EWET has generally been able to build good relationships with its stakeholders, which has played an important role in facilitating the smooth implementation of the YES programme. EWET has a good working relationship with the Umsobomvu Youth Fund although this relationship could be further enhanced through improving communications from both sides and developing a mutual understanding of each others’ organisational processes. EWET is viewed as an approachable organisation by schools. A common request from both sides was the desire for greater contact between the organisation and learners participating in the programme. EWET has an informal relationship with the DoE. Both the DoE and the UYF would like this relationship to be more formally established. The DoE would like to ensure that YES Club plans are integrated with DoE plans. Our evaluation indicates that the YES Club programmes have had had a range of positive and significant outcomes for both learners and advisors involved in the programme. As a result of their participation in YES Club activities learners reported an increased awareness of entrepreneurship as a career and the acquisition of entrepreneurial skills and knowledge. A total of 90% of advisors agreed or agreed strongly that as a result of being part of YES

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learners have a more positive attitude towards entrepreneurship as a career. 82% agreed or agreed strongly that more school leavers are considering being entrepreneurs because of using YES. In addition, learners reported an improvement in school performance and the discovery of new or hidden talents which had been stimulated as a result of the YES Club programme. It was also found that YES members are better disciplined, more confident, some have taken up leadership positions and they act as role-models at their schools. Advisors emphasized that being part of the programme had broadened their career options, improved their teaching skills and led to personal development. Through implementing the YES Club programme in the Free State, EWET has also had some outcomes – they have been able to extend the reach of the programme and establish it in their home district. There has been an improvement in their monitoring and evaluation system and financial control mechanisms. Through its experience of training advisors, EWET has come to realise the importance of immediate follow-ups to rectify any problems before they escalate and this has led to an enhancement in the YES Club model. The YES model offers a number of important lessons. One of the most important of these is the fact that the voluntary nature of the programme builds strong buy-in from advisors and learners. Another lesson learnt is the importance of maintaining learner and advisor motivation and interest in the programme. The second intervention training shortly after the first training session is vital to keep advisor involvement and motivation high and to build on existing skills. The SIMAMA RANTA competition provides a good incentive for learners, especially towards the end of the year. However, YES societies at a school level require more incentives in the short-term to motivate learners. A further key lesson is the importance of having on-the-ground contacts for effective implementation. The pre-implementation work that EWET conducts with the potential beneficiary schools develops a level of buy-in before the programme starts, while having project associates in the communities where YES operates helps EWET react quicker to challenges presented in the field. With regards to monitoring and evaluation the difficulties EWET has experienced with collecting and using programme data reveal the fact that without an effective M&E system, it is difficult to monitor the programme’s achievements accurately. The successful implementation of a programme model such as YES requires a number of criteria. Firstly, support from school management is crucial. Secondly, motivated learners and advisors are necessary. Thirdly, sufficient programme material and advisors in the

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programme are required. The strong commitment of EWET’s staff allows them to maintain programme implementation notwithstanding the fact that they are understaffed. UYF needs to play a more effective role in developing steering committees for the programme.

Recommendations for the future improvement, and continued funding of the YES club programme include: • The development and implementation of a formalised, standardised and integrated M&E system to enable the efficient collection of data and the monitoring of programme processes and outcomes • Ensuring that YES Club members continue to develop their learning and receive support once they finish their schooling by developing collaborations with other organisations • Developing a strategy to maintain and enhance the level of motivation of learners and teachers, for example by encouraging more interaction between YES Clubs from different schools, holding more regular competitions, organising YES Club camps and initiating a speaking tour with successful YES members and business entrepreneurs • Simama Ranta is a key event in the YES Club calendar eagerly awaited by both learners and advisors and could benefit by being run regularly and by ensuring competition assessors are independent • Developing a marketing and media strategy to provide their programme with more public exposure, support and awareness that would help to promote new membership, keep learners and advisors motivated and solicit funding • • • • Developing a closer and more collaborative working relationship with UYF would allow UYF to ‘open doors’ for EWET Acquiring additional human resources Ensuring the maintenance of their prompt training follow-up system with initial posttraining visits taking place within three months of the training Adding a glossary to the YES Club material to assist learners and advisors with vocabulary and concepts they are not familiar with.

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INTRODUCTION

This evaluation was commissioned by the Umsobomvu Youth Fund (UYF) as part of their Inschool Entrepreneurship Programme. The In-School Entrepreneurship Programme is a business education initiative designed to provide selected secondary school learners with practical business skills and experience as well as business insight. The Education with Enterprise Trust (EWET) was one of the implementing organisations of the In-School Entrepreneurship Programme. In 2007, EWET implemented their Youth Enterprise Societies (YES) programme at 46 schools in the Thabo Mofutsanyane District in the Free State. This evaluation sought to assess the implementation and outcomes of the YES programme in 2007, as well as to examine the extent to which EWET achieved their stated goals and objectives. The formative, rapid assessment employed a mixed-method approach based on a combination of thorough programme documentation analysis, stakeholder interviews, participant interviews, focus groups with teachers and learners, observations and an advisor survey.

1. CONTEXT

1.1

ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN A GLOBAL CONTEXT

Global trends show a loss of jobs in the formal sector and the growth of the informal economy; hence entrepreneurship is becoming a progressively more important sector for employment and job creation. This is especially so in the face of increasing international levels of youth unemployment.2 1.2. JOB CREATION IN SOUTH AFRICA 1.2.1 Unemployment in South Africa The level of unemployment in South Africa’s stood at approximately 26% in 20073. The reliability of available data on the employment rate is however much disputed, some

2 3

Labour Force Survey (2007) p iii ibid

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commentators indicating that it may even be around 42%4. The number of young unemployed South Africans is particularly high, with no more than 10% of young people leaving school able to find formal employment5. In response to these serious problems, policy-makers have gradually started to focus more on initiatives encouraging young people to consider self-employment and on increasing entrepreneurial activity, whilst assisting them with overcoming challenges experienced during setting up a business. According to Statistics SA, although employment has increased slightly since 2003, our unemployment rate remains considerably higher when compared to international trends. In March 2007 South Africa’s unemployment rate stood at 25.5 percent6. National statistics also show that previously disadvantaged groups face a disproportionate burden of this unemployment. For example, unemployment among black people is higher than it is among Indian Asian, coloured and white people by a large percentage7. A disproportionate burden of unemployment also falls on certain sectors within our population, such as young people. The younger you are in the marketplace, the more likely you are to face unemployment. The unemployment rate among young people between the ages of 15 to 24 is considerably higher than those in the age group 25-34 years. Following this pattern, the unemployment rate of people between the ages of 33-44 is higher than that among those between the ages of 45 to 54 years8. We also know that most discouraged work-seekers belong to these younger age groups. In fact more than half of those reported as discouraged work-seekers are younger than 30 years old9. Therefore, one of the greatest challenges faced by our government today is the need to create sustainable employment opportunities in an increasingly globalised economy. Employment creation is linked to another essential socio-economic responsibility for government – the reduction of poverty. There is a strong recognition within government that employment and job creation is key to reducing poverty. 1.2.2 Entrepreneurship in South Africa South Africa ranks considerably below other countries in terms of the degree of entrepreneurial activity present in the country10. Although true entrepreneurial activity exists,

4 5 6

ibid UYF document (2007) Labour Force Survey (2007) p iii 7 Labour Force Survey (2007) p xv 8 Labour Force Survey (2007) p xviii 9 Labour Force Survey (2007) p xix 10 A Nation in the Making: A Discussion Document on Macro-Social Trends in SA (2006), p 21

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much entrepreneurial activity is survivalist or opportunistic in nature11. The GEM 2004 Study found that the proportion of young South Africans without tertiary education who believe that they have the skills to start their own business is considerably lower than the number in other countries, who are at similar levels of development.12 This evidence once again points to the need for development of effective strategies to encourage entrepreneurial skills among young people in our country. Research has indicated that South Africa has a deficit of young people who are confident in their skills and abilities to start a business, able to recognise good start-up opportunities and knowledgeable about entrepreneurship in general13. It was also established that South Africa ranks the lowest of all developing countries in entrepreneurship activity, when all measures of entrepreneurship are measured. South Africa has high levels of survival entrepreneurship, but is very low in new firm activity. Job creation and economic growth is not maximised and start-ups have low levels of survival. Over the past five years, education and training have been identified as two of the central factors inhibiting entrepreneurial activity in South Africa, as in-school entrepreneurship programmes have not been “providing adequate instruction in entrepreneurship and economic principles, nor encouraging creativity, self-sufficiency and personal initiative”14. 1.2.3 Government strategy Recognising the importance of sustainable job creation, the post-apartheid government’s national policy placed emphasis on entrepreneurship and related economic, business and financial skills15. In March 1995 the government released its White Paper on National Strategy for the Development and Promotion of Small Business in South Africa. This was the first comprehensive strategy on small business development. In conjunction with this new strategy, the government has put into place a number of polices, programmes and institutions to support entrepreneurship and small businesses, including the Umsobomvu Youth Fund.16 In 2005 the cabinet approved the Integrated Strategy on the Promotion of Entrepreneurship and Small Enterprises. The main objective of this strategy is to ensure that the task of developing and encouraging entrepreneurship and small businesses is carried out
11 12 13

A Nation in the Making: A Discussion Document on Macro-Social Trends in SA (2006) Wood and Shay (2005) UYF document (2007) 14 GEM Report (2006) 15 Orford (2005) 16 Integrated Strategy on the Promotion of Entrepreneurship and Small Enterprises (2005)

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adequately and effectively. This strategy is articulated in a number of government policies, and focuses on the youth as a specific target group. It is hoped that the actions leading from this strategy will foster an entrepreneurial culture in South Africa17.

More recently, a number of new government policies relating to entrepreneurship and small business development have emerged. These include the Accelerated and Shared Growth Initiative for South Africa, the Broad-based Black Economic Empowerment strategy and the National Youth Enterprise strategy18.

1.3 ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS One assumption is that the development of entrepreneurship has to start as early as possible in order to enhance the culture of entrepreneurship in a country19. In line with the government’s national policy, entrepreneurship forms an integral part of the new learning areas of Economic Management Sciences (EMS) and Business Studies (BS) from foundation phase onwards. In reality however, the implementation of effective entrepreneurial training in schools is unreliable and incomplete. This in turn is linked to the broader context of education in South Africa where schools face problems with the general skills levels of learners, lack of resources, and inadequate support and training for teachers. As a result teachers often lack the skill and confidence to teach EMS and BS, as well as the capacity to deliver effective entrepreneurial training20. Schools in disadvantaged areas tend to be more affected. Learners in black schools face a considerably lower probability of acquiring the valuable entrepreneurial skills and attitudes that are necessary for making successful young business owners21. 1.4 THE UMSOBOMVU YOUTH FUND 1.4.1 Organisational description The Umsobomvu Youth Fund (UYF) aims to assist in the creation of an enabling environment for aspirant and existing micro and small enterprise owners in order to reach their full potential. The main focus of the Entrepreneurship Education (EE) interventions are to provide training and development interventions geared toward the acquisition of entrepreneurial
17 18 19

ibid ibid GEM Report (2006) 20 Orford (2005) 21 Wood and Shay (2005)

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knowledge, skills, as well as attitudes that will lead to entrepreneurial behaviour22. The main aims include SMME and entrepreneurship development and capacity- building of training providers and suppliers of services. The EE interventions are based on the assumptions that entrepreneurship can be culturally and experientially acquired, while also recognising that psychological attributes play an important role in predicting whether a person will pursue entrepreneurial activities; it is therefore not sufficient to provide learners or the youth with only business management skills. The UYF attempts to align its education products with key national strategies, considering policies and strategies from institutions such as the Department of Education’s National Curriculum within the National Curriculum Statement, National Human Resource Development Strategy, National Skills Development Strategy, Accelerated Shared Growth Initiative of South Africa (ASGISA), National Youth Policy and the Broad Based Black Economic Empowerment Industry Charters23. 1.4.2 The In-School Entrepreneurship Education Programme The In-School Entrepreneurship Education Programme is a business education initiative designed to provide selected secondary school learners with practical business skills and experience as well as business insight24. Internal integration occurs through collaboration with the Capacity Building and Research (CBR) and its “Training of Trainer” initiatives as well as close corporation with the Youth Advisory Centre (YAC) in order to ensure that schools have access to the relevant services and information packs. The main objectives include: • • • stimulating entrepreneurial characteristics among learners through the schooling system developing entrepreneurial skills among learners developing the capacity of teachers to offer quality entrepreneurship programmes.

This, in turn, should lead to the enhancement of the Economic Management Sciences (EMS) and Business Ventures (BS) curriculum and improving the standard of EMS, BS and entrepreneurship teaching. To buffer the effect of high unemployment levels, the UYF decided to expand its In-School

22 23

UYF document (2007) UYF document (2007) 24 UYF document (2007)

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Entrepreneurship Programme, thereby providing broader communities with entrepreneurial skills. A tender was published informing potential service providers of the nature and scale of the project and two of the service-providers who were selected for this purpose are the Enterprise with Education Trust (EWET) and the South African Institute for Entrepreneurship (SAIE). Activities, outcomes/deliverables and designated actors were established as displayed in Table 1 below:

ACTIVITY Collaboration with the National DoE and Provincial offices for the integration of entrepreneurship within the school curriculum Briefing meetings with District Heads of Departments and possible Steering Committee members Establishment of alliances within communities Financial reporting and accountability for budgets and expenditure Ongoing monitoring and documentation of programme progress Development and maintenance of database (schools, teachers, learners, steering committees and other stakeholders) Development of policy recommendations for the inclusion of entrepreneurship training in school

OUTCOME/DELIVERABLE Programme endorsement for use in schools and buy-in from the Department of Education Programme promotion, recruitment and setting up of Steering Committees Community involvement in programme activities Quarterly income/expenditure reports

RESPONSIBLE UYF and service provider

Service provider

Service provider UYF and service provider UYF and service provider UYF and service provider UYF

Statistical reports, newsletters and other reporting media and formats Establish data capturing system

Policy guidelines for EMS learning area

Table 1: List of activities, deliverables and responsibilities for the In-School Entrepreneurship Education Project

2. PROJECT DESCRIPTION

2.1 EDUCATION WITH ENTERPRISE TRUST (EWET) 2.1.1 Organisational history The Education with Enterprise Trust (EWET) was initially established in 1992 as a community-based initiative in the municipality of Maluti A Phofung within the rural North-

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Eastern Free State. EWET has since evolved into a fully fledged nonprofit organisation which works in all nine South African provinces, with the aim to enable beneficiaries in poor rural communities to become self-reliant by educating and training them in economic and enterprise development. EWET has successfully executed projects from 52 funding contracts with a total value in excess of R20,000,000.
“The major strength of EWET is building and sustaining local community ownership of initiatives through process facilitation for the attainment of better livelihood status. This is attained by engaging in group dynamics, dispute resolution, agreement on ground rules, the development of community constitutions and business plans before actual programme implementation”25.

2.1.2 Programme development Prior to the design of its entrepreneurship programmes, EWET conducted a research study to assess the level of enterprise education and skills development in the North-East Free State, in collaboration with various partners.26 Based on the findings, national and international experts27 were commissioned to design, develop, test and disseminate its programmes. 2.1.3 Services and programmes EWET’s main services are: • • • • entrepreneurship education agricultural development for SMMEs accounting and bookkeeping services to existing and emerging SMEs training for teachers and in-school youth (including training in life skills).

The two main programmes run by EWET are: 1. Start or Improve Your Business training with the International Labour Organisation (ILO) 2. The Youth Enterprise Society (YES). 2.2 THE YOUTH ENTERPRISE SOCIETY (YES)

25 26

27

MANCOM proposal (2006) Partners included Mr Peter Gay, International Training Services; Peter Senge, Massachusetts Institute for Technology; Ms Marie Kennerson, The Learning Circle; Kim Maertens, Future Search and Dr Deon Tustin, the Bureau for Market Research from UNISA. Including contributions from Dr Cathy Ashmore, Ohio State University’s Centre of Education and Training for Employment (CETE); Dr Harvey Adams, the University of Natal’s Faculty of Education; Professor Bell, John Hopkins University; Professor Jack van der Linde, University of the Free State’s Unit for Small Business Development and Research Institute for Educational Planning.

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2.2.1 Programme description YES, EWET’s flagship programme, is outcomes-based and learner-centred. It focuses on developing 17 business competencies through experiential/action learning in youth at secondary school through an extramural entrepreneurship society/club movement. YES societies in a school are initiated, supported and managed by a Local Partnership (LP). The LP is comprised of the local business community, youth leaders, community leaders as well as teachers and, in many instances, the Local Government. Teachers and other community based adults serve as advisors in the programme. The societies are established and implemented by communities with constant supervision from EWET. EWET provides services such as LP training, YES Advisor training (teachers and volunteering adults), YES youth executive training, the Annual National YES SIMAMA RANTA as well as ongoing support, promotion, evaluation and coordination. EWET provides all programme supplies and these include stationery and print materials required for LP and YES operations, YES Newsletter and YES attire. The implementation of the programme is supported by various funding organisations and it (programme) is offered in most provinces. YES clubs Learners participate in YES clubs, whose activities usually operate as an extra-mural activity. The club serves as a platform for learners to practice the business and entrepreneurial principles from the mainstream curriculum. The learners: • • • • • • • scan real markets conceive business ideas conduct market assessments undertake break-even analysis determine sales and income projections manufacture products or provide services establish businesses.

They take various positions in the established businesses and are given job descriptions relating to their specific portfolios. The portfolios range from administrator to chief executive officer. The Human Resources director is responsible for appointing new staff, promoting and/or demoting non performers. Each YES Club records its financial performance and other pertinent information. The information is analysed by YES Advisors and the LP who allocate points to the club.
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Simama Ranta The programme culminates in a competition called Simama Ranta in which the best performing YES Clubs in each province are selected to participate. 22 learners represent each participating province and these top learners are grouped and form mock businesses over a period of three days. The learners are expected to establish, manage and liquidate a business. The team that makes the most money and demonstrates outstanding business acumen becomes the YES Club of the year. In 2007, the businesses actually sold to the public, so real income was generated. Winners are drawn in the following categories: • • • • YES Pioneers (Grade 9): Based on enterprising behaviour, Business Documents and Radio Advertising YES Champions (Grade 10): On business promotion campaigns, Business Operations Competency Series and Public Speaking YES Entrepreneurs (Grade 11): On sales competency, business plan, loan application and sales demonstration. Team Events: Based on management decision making, outstanding fund raising events, establishment of a business and outstanding YES promotional project. Five major annual awards are handed to winners: 1. Local Partnership of the year 2. YES Team of the year 3. YES Society of the year 4. YES Advisor of the year 5. YES Member of the year.

Figure 1: Learners at the 2007 Simama Ranta proudly display their business products

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Figure 2: Learners at the 2007 Simama Ranta proudly display their business products

2.2.2 Intended programme outcomes Upon completion, YES programme participants are expected to demonstrate: • • • • • • • Greater awareness of entrepreneurship as a personal career choice Greater comprehension of the importance of business ownership in a free market economy Better understanding of financial, human, and social capital requirements in operating an enterprise Ability to determine entrepreneurial opportunities, according to industry, location, and other factors Knowledge of fundamental business methods, such as planning, financing, accounting, and managing Skill in determining the scope of potential consumer markets and customer needs Ability to establish business operations that yield some income.

While achieving the above, the programme addresses some misconceptions that might develop among learners during their participation, including notions that: • • • Working for someone else is somehow an anomaly and undesirable. Business ownership is the ultimate – there is no need to further one’s education and explore other career choices. Self-esteem and self-respect are only acquired with the ability to start a business and

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make money. • They (learners) already know everything there is to know about business and need not pursue higher education opportunities. 2.2.3 The 17 Business Competencies Each Grade develops the basic business management competencies but on a different level of advancement. All school grades are exposed to the above competencies. The difference between the grades is in the level of sophistication and complication. There are seventeen identified business/entrepreneurial competencies and each is supported by a set of appropriate activities for the learners to perform, as outlined in the table below:
COMPETENCY 1. Life Skills LEARNING OUTCOME Learners identify and internalise life skills needed to effectively succeed not only as integrated human beings but also in the effective execution of planned projects and endeavours such as business enterprises. Understanding how the free enterprise market system works, based on the law of supply and demand and the freedom of making economic choices by individual agents. The ability to creatively identify realistic ideas and to translate them into profitable business opportunities. Understanding and recognising community needs and wants, available resources, local competition and economic base of the country are the aspects being introduced to YES Members by this competency. Ability to identify WHY one should set goals and HOW to achieve them. Understanding different business environments, adapting to the constantly changing market needs, the potential and ability to identify existing and potential customers for business products and services. Understanding the important of having a well formulated business plan as well as the ability to draft a simple working document. Effective planning of finances for setting up and operating one’s own business. Managing human resources and performing all HR functions. Promoting and marketing of one’s own business. The ability to sell products and/or services for profit. Effectively manage business financial operations. Understanding the importance of keeping daily, weekly, monthly and annual business records, as well as the ability to do collect and keep business information. 14. Leading and Managing 15. Business Understanding the meaning of and the ways of being an effective leader and manager. Communication skills and effective communication channels to operate a

2. Understanding the market economy 3. Business Idea Generation 4. Evaluating and scoping the Community 5. Goal Setting 6. Market Research

7. Business Planning 8. Financing a Business 9. Human Resources 10. Business Promotion 11. Selling Products/Services 12. Business Accounting 13. Business Records

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Communications 16. Entrepreneurship as a Career 17. Our Business

business. Demonstrating entrepreneurial (setting up one’s own business) intrapreneurial (identifying corporate employment opportunities) abilities. and

Integrating skills to realise the interdependence and interaction between various attributes required to run a small business successfully. It relates to the ability to plan, start, run, manage and evaluate own business.

Table 2: YES Business Competencies

2.3 DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE OF AREA OF OPERATION EWET’s head office is based in the Free State, as was the UYF-funded work. The province has a population of 2,965,60028 with an unemployment rate of 26.5%29. The Free State consists of 6.7% of the South African population, with 64% of those residing in the Free State speaking Sesotho and 12% speaking Afrikaans30. The Free State contributes 6,2% of the national GDP, with mining and quarrying being the major contributors31. It is the second most rural province in the country. The Thabo Mofutsanyane district, one of the five districts in the Free State, was selected to be the focus area for EWET’s YES activities. This district has a population of 725,93232 with the highest level of poverty in the province and an unemployment rate of 37%33. 2.4 PROGRAMME STAKEHOLDERS The following organisations and groups can be considered major stakeholders in the EWET YES programme funded by UYF: The Department of Education Education District office The Local Partnership / Steering Committee Programme advisors EWET staff Schools Principals and HODs

28 29

Statistics South Africa (2007) Statistics South Africa (2006) 30 Statistics South Africa (2006) 31 Department of Provincial and Local Government (2008) 32 Independent Development Trust (2008) 33 Independent Development Trust (2008)

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Beneficiaries o o Educators Learners.

3. EVALUATION DESCRIPTION

This formative, rapid assessment employed a mixed-method approach with a focus on programme implementation and outcomes. The evaluation was based on a combination of thorough programme documentation analysis, stakeholder interviews, participant interviews, focus groups (teachers and learners), observations and an advisor survey. The evaluators triangulated34 evaluation findings by engaging with multiple stakeholders through multiple methods using multiple researchers. 3.1 PURPOSE OF THE EVALUATION The overarching purpose of this evaluation is to evaluate the implementation and outcomes of the UYF’s In School Entrepreneurship Programme, as implemented by the Education with Enterprise Trust (EWET). The evaluation also sought to assess the extent to which EWET achieved their goals and objectives. 3.1.1 Reasons for the evaluation Some key reasons for the evaluation emerging from the planning workshop were to: • • • • • • • identify lessons learnt highlight best practices identify key challenges identify effective entrepreneurship teaching methods assess the replicability of the programmes compare this in-school programme with another UYF-funded in-school programme inform future entrepreneurship programmes

3.2 EVALUATION ETHICS

34

Research triangulation aims to enhance credibility and validity of qualitative results by multiple data collecting, sources, procedures and strategies and the analysis of data through collaborating with other researchers.

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In keeping with general evaluation standards35 and with the values of Impact Consulting, ethical guidelines were upheld throughout the evaluation process. Evaluators treated participants in the study in a professionally acceptable way, with respect, consideration and courtesy. All identifying information, contact information and data will be stored safely at Impact Consulting offices in hard and electronic copy for a period of five years. 3.2.1 Consent and confidentiality

Informed and voluntary consent was secured from each participant prior to them engaging in any interviews or focus groups. Consent forms were distributed to all participants, who were informed of the reasons for the evaluation and the confidentiality of information supplied by them. Principals at participating schools signed consent for the evaluation team to hold focus groups with learners. All participants were given the choice to engage at every stage of the evaluation and their right to exclusion was respected. Participant details are kept strictly confidential by Impact Consulting and will not be divulged to any other party. 3.2.2 Reporting results

The results of this evaluation have been made available with careful attention to the rights of the participants outlined above. Confidentiality is assured and no identifying characteristic of any participant (names, addresses etc) have been or will be disclosed. In addition, no contact information received from participants was disclosed to anyone who was not employed specifically through Impact Consulting to work on this project. The evaluation team has made every effort to represent all participant voices, while still only reporting valid results. Please note that any errors in this report are not deliberate, and that every effort has been made to counteract any possible mistakes. 3.3 EVALUATION PARTICIPANTS A total of 194 individuals participated in this study as shown in Table 3 below:
PARTICIPANTS Beneficiaries Principals Teachers/HODs Individual interview Group interviews 2 6 EVALUATION METHOD COUNT

35

As outlined by Durrheim & Wassenaar (1999)

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Teachers/HODs Learners Learners Service providers EWET staff and associates Other stakeholder groups UYF TOTAL

Survey Focus groups Simama Ranta observation Interviews Interviews

85 94 (1900)36 6 1 194

Table 3: Evaluation participants and methods

3.3.1

Sampling and selection

Site visits: Beneficiary schools In the evaluation planning workshop it was decided that, due to budget and time constraints, two schools from the region in which the programme operated (Free State, Thabo Mofutsanyane) would be visited. This would include one school with a highly functional programme and one with a poorly functioning programme. The evaluators managed to exceed this goal and visited three schools during the fieldwork. At each school, individual or group interviews were held with principals, heads of department (HOD) and teachers involved and the learners involved in the programme were engaged through interactive focus group sessions. Stakeholder interviews Table 3, above, shows the individuals who were interviewed regarding the YES programme. Advisor survey All advisors involved in the EWET YES programme were targeted with a survey, however only 85 advisors responded (70% return rate), representing 20 different schools. The vast majority of survey respondents were teachers (89%; n=83), while 5% of advisors were employed (not as a teacher) and 5% were unemployed. One advisor was a student.

36

The Simama Ranta participants have not been included as official research participants. Although the researchers did observe them at the Simama Ranta, these participants did not formally contribute to the findings of this report.

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The advisor survey revealed that the average number of subjects that YES advisors who are teachers teach is two, with almost 52% of YES advisors teaching two subjects, 37% teaching only one subject and less than 12% teaching more than two subjects.
# of subjects taught 1 2 3 4 % of advisors 37 52 9 2

Table 4: Number of subjects taught (n=79)

Very few YES advisors (10%) teach more than three grades, with the remaining 90% split almost equally between teaching one, two or three grades.
# of grades taught 1 2 3 4 5 % of advisors 21 36 33 6 4

Table 5: Number of grades taught (n=81)

Almost a third of teachers (30.77%, n=78) reported having had specific training in teaching entrepreneurship (other than the YES training) and almost a third (30.38%, n=79) have had formal training in Business Studies (BS) and/or Economic Management Sciences (EMS). 3.3.2 Participant recruitment

Participant recruitment was managed by EWET staff members. The YES programme manager contacted and scheduled visitations with schools they selected based on the sampling criteria described above. 3.4 DATA AND INFORMATION COLLECTION 3.4.1 Documentation analysis

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The evaluation team was provided with a variety of UYF and EWET documentation and material. These included service level agreements (SLA), strategy documents, project logic/theory, project reports, YES material and programme output information. The material was analysed to gain an in-depth understanding of the programme as well as to investigate programme outputs against projected goals. 3.4.2 Focus group discussions In each school, a group of approximately 30 learners was engaged in a focus group – 10 EMS learners from Grade 9, 10 EMS learners in Grade 10 and 10 BS learners who were in Grade 11. The learners who had been exposed to the programme were engaged in various group and individual exercises in which they were asked to: • • • • • • • • introduce themselves, including what they liked and did not like about school describe how YES was implemented in their schools last year express their opinions about the YES material, content and learning process note if they had witnessed any changes in YES advisors since they had been involved in the programme relate any interaction they had had with EWET describe any entrepreneurship activities at their school in 2007 identify any changes that they felt had occurred in them since being a part of the YES programme Make any suggestions to improve the programme.

3.4.3 Interviews All interviews with principals, HODs, programme staff, teachers and UYF were semistructured, face-to-face interviews conducted by the evaluators. Teachers were engaged in one-to-one or group interviews at the schools, depending on their availability. The interviews covered themes of need for the programme, programme implementation, outputs, outcomes, satisfaction with programme material, satisfaction with training, challenges and suggestions. The interviews were directly transcribed on-site. 3.4.4 Advisor survey

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The survey questionnaire was developed and designed by Impact Consulting along with Don Shay, and, as agreed in the planning workshop, the survey was implemented with the help of EWET and UYF. The questionnaire contained a range of multiple choice items, scaled items and open-ended questions which investigated programme implementation, outputs, outcomes, satisfaction, challenges and suggestions. The questionnaires were printed by UYF and couriered to EWET, who distributed the survey to, and retrieved the survey from, their participating schools via their associates and fieldworkers. Thereafter, EWET couriered the questionnaires to Impact Consulting who managed the data entry, cleaning and analysis. 3.4.5 Simama Ranta observation The evaluators were fortunate to be present for two days at the annual competition in Harrismith in November 2007. The team witnessed staff “at work” on the event and spent many hours observing the learners’ taking part in various stages of the competition. 3.5 EVALUATION CHALLENGES 3.5.1 Timing of evaluation Unfortunately, the evaluation had to be conducted at the end of the year (2007), coinciding with school exams. This made school visits difficult and the evaluators had to rush the fieldwork in some schools in order to let the learners and advisors return to their work. 3.5.2 Limited site visits The budget limited the field research to few site visits, which meant that in-depth insight into the programme was based on these few examples. Fortunately, the survey enjoyed a response from a representative sample and allowed more information about the programme. 3.5.3 Survey EWET managed the implementation of the survey, which afforded the evaluation team no control over the quality of the data collection. The survey was also conducted at a very busy time for schools, limiting the response rate. However, a representative sample was achieved

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as a result of the efforts of EWET staff and associates.

Figure 3: YES club members during a focus group with Impact Consulting

4. FINDINGS

4.1. PROGRAMME CONTENT AND MODEL 4.1.1 Programme development The material was initially developed with the University of Free State, but was not appropriate for the context in which it was being developed. Collaboration was then sought with Durham University and organisations in the United States. After the content had been developed, the actual material was re-developed – written by local writers and illustrated by local artists. Teachers, youth and principals were consulted with regards to the model. Within a three month period, the competency books were compiled. From 1993 to 1996 the programme was piloted, with implementing teachers being paid an honorarium to attend project meetings and give continuous feedback. After revision, a package was created and support was gained from organisations such as the United Nations. EWET has since been working to obtain funding for implementation in schools, while evaluating and revising the content and model

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regularly. The club model used by the programme has been very effective. With the shift from a model of honoraria to a voluntary one, however the model struggled in some areas. But according to programme staff, as advisors became familiar with it, the model has begun to work again. In one area a club was able to sustain their activities without the support of any adults. The programme is constantly evolving. One of the examples of this is the Simama Ranta, which changes every year. Although it began as a public speaking forum, it has evolved into a simulation centre where evaluation of individuals becomes very powerful. One of the differences between the EWET model and other programmes are that most others are resource-based, while EWET believes in an activity-based model where structure is given to the participants and skills developed by providing basic instruction. They invest in skills training rather than material provision. EWET staff are also very cognisant of their roles as a “rural developers” and therefore ensures that their materials and formats are all relevant to the context in which they operate: “You could have a lot of glamorous stuff, but underneath you
may not have such great stuff. We are rural developers, and we don’t want to oversell ourselves.”

EWET is clear that they aim to change the attitudes of learners to make them aware of entrepreneurship as a career option. The materials developer and founder noted that studying and the old style of education is based on conforming, and that the YES clubs are specifically designed not to be based on conformity. 4.1.2 Perceptions of programme relevance Principals, teachers and learners all noted that the YES programme directly catered to their needs and the needs of their communities. They reported that there was a high level of unemployment with very little prospect for learners after they left school. They felt that “YES
arms the learners to face the future and stand for themselves. It enables them to be independent and serve their community better”. Beneficiaries felt that “teaching young people about business skills is empowering, especially in a community with no job opportunities beyond matric”. The attitude of

being job creators was perceived as particularly important in such a community and that such skills could help to decrease the levels of crime and help build the community as members of YES were good role models to other youth. 4.1.3 Criteria for selection of beneficiaries EWET is based on a model of self-selection. Usually, EWET is approached by schools to run

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the YES programme – often because they have heard about it from other clubs. The community (which can be a school) has to form a local partnership to drive the society before EWET provides any material or training. The learners who comprise the YES society are also usually self-selecting – they apply to become YES members out of interest. This ensures that the programme is demand-driven and that there is full buy-in and ownership of the programme from the outset. This is a major strength of the EWET model as it allows for a high level of implementation from the beneficiary side. UYF specifically requested that the YES programme be implemented in the Thabo Mofutsanyane district in the Free State in 2007, although they had not previously worked there and so had not had many requests for the programme. Nonetheless, EWET was careful to maintain the buy-in aspect of their programme and went around to schools in the district to present YES to them and then allowed them to apply to take part, rather than imposing the programme on anyone. This has meant that YES is generally being wellimplemented in the area. This process was part of the reason for the delay in the actual official “start” of the programme – UYF funds only arrived mid-December 2006 when schools had already closed, so the bulk of this groundwork was only done in the first quarter of 2007. 4.1.4 Perceptions of EWET advisor training Advisors generally held very positive perceptions of the EWET training. They complimented the EWET trainers for being effective facilitators who were well-informed and encouraged participation from all. Findings from the advisor survey indicate that two-thirds (67%) felt that there was enough time allocated for the YES training. Only 17% felt that there was not enough time. Some comments about time for training were that they would have appreciated having more free time as that might have helped them to absorb the material a bit better.
% of teachers
Strongly Strongly Disagree Neutral Agree agree n 85 82

Statement The YES training as easy for me to understand There was enough time allocated for the YES training After the YES training, I felt confident using the YES materials with learners

disagree

0 1 0

0 16 2

5 16 9

53 33 41

42 34 47

85

Table 6: Advisor perceptions of YES Training

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The survey also revealed that almost all advisors (95%) agreed or strongly agreed that the YES training was easy for them to understand. Only 2% indicated that they did not feel confident using the YES material with learners after the YES training. A resounding majority also indicated that they felt confident to facilitate YES exercises. As the some of the comments collected in the advisor survey below indicate, through the training process YES advisors came to feel empowered, and equipped with the necessary skills and knowledge to be able to implement the programme:
“It was the first time I was learning about entrepreneurship. Learning entrepreneurial skills, learning new things was interesting” “The facilitation was excellent and the presentations were good… it gave us enough and knowledge by the end.” skills

Some advisors did feel uncertain and unfamiliar with the concepts on beginning their training.
“The first day it was our attitude that was wrong. But maybe the first day could involve more explanation on the terms and concepts because they were very new to us.”

Advisors noted that the training was “very encouraging to teachers who sometimes feel that
education is not enough for the learners from poor communities”.

4.1.5 Advisor perceptions of YES material Table 7 below shows that teachers find the YES material very simple and easy to use. Advisors also report that they are using the YES material to prepare for their classes. 78% of advisors agreed or strongly agreed that learners find the YES material easy to understand, while 20% were neutral. Advisors indicated that learners enjoy using the material and it encourages them to take the initiative to find out more.

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% of teachers
Strongly Strongly Disagree Neutral Agree agree n 84

Statement The YES materials (handbook, kit etc) are easy to use Learners are able to understand the YES material I feel confident facilitating the YES exercises

disagree

0 0 0

2 1 2

15 20 1

39 49 59

43 29 37

83 83

Table 7: Teacher perceptions of material

Even for those who initially find the material difficult, these issues become ironed out and they feel more comfortable with it after attending the facilitation workshop. Almost all advisors (96%) felt confident facilitating the YES exercises. Advisors do, however, have some concerns about the material and feel that it could be further improved in the following ways: • • • Some felt that the material supplied was insufficient and that they need more. Learners need material to take home for self-study to cement learning and revision A few advisors find the content difficult and feel that it doesn’t get straight to the point.

Some advisors felt that the terminology used was sometimes a challenge for teachers who are not conversant with business subjects, but that it is good that it makes use of scenarios and examples that the present generation can relate to. Some suggestions for additions to the material include: a glossary of terms posters pictures a booklet for advisors to assist with facilitation challenges a learners guide. 4.1.6 Learner perceptions of YES material and model

The learner focus groups conducted indicated that learners were satisfied with the contents of the YES material. Learners indicated that they like the logo and the design of the handbook: “YES handbooks and badges are nicely designed, it makes you proud to be a member,
makes you feel special”. They indicated that the material is clear in terms of what the YES aims

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are and the material and language used is easy to read and helps to improve their English. They indicated that the activities and projects are enjoyable and that the examples were often helpful in understanding.
“Even when examples are not easy – they encourage us to go and seek further information. If you do not understand something you ask the advisor/teacher”

“We understand the content and the knowledge we gain helps us know more about business and life skills”

Many learners felt that it would be beneficial if they could have their own handbooks so that they could use it outside of school to help community members to start businesses and to do their own reading after hours. A few learners that we spoke to indicated that some parts are difficult to understand and that their advisors (usually the ones who are not EMS/BS teachers) can sometimes not help because they do not understand it themselves. In these cases, teachers: • • • • contact EWET to ask for help ask other YES advisors ask the EMS/BS teachers at their school do further research to find the answers.

Learners expressed a high degree of satisfaction with the learning process involved in the YES Club programme. As the comments below indicate, learners feel satisfied with the learning process and the way in which they are facilitated to run the Clubs:
• “When I first joined I was nervous that we would have to write something like an exam – but I enjoy the way we do our competencies.” •

“I’m happy with the way things but we should make an extra effort to make YES members be proud of what they are doing in YES.”

• •

“We were given information from the start. We knew the process.”

“Being elected gave us a chance to be leaders of a team – we gained skills, enabling us to lead others.”

“I like the support we get from our advisors”.

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“I feel like a businessman when I do YES activities.”

Figure 4: YES learners working together as a team during a focus group activity

There were some areas where learners felt the process could be improved, as outlined in the learner comments below:
• • • “The society started late in our school so we couldn’t do any activities.”

“We need clear timelines for competencies so we can finish one before starting on another.” “It’s sad that the societies that came 2nd and 3rd in the competition are not going to Simama Ranta. They should motivate us.”

• •

“The advisor should have handed out handbooks to every member.”

“After I joined YES I didn’t see the things I expected to see. We could not raise funds properly and we do not have enough money to start our own business.”

Besides the actual learning material, advisors and learners all indicated that the YES badges are very significant. Learners feel that it sets them apart from others: “make us stand out”.

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“The badges are beautiful –it identifies me as a YES member. I even wear it in the township to advertise YES.”

“I love the badges because they make others learners notice us and want to know more. It helps us promote YES.”

YES members use the badges as a means of ensuring that their peers remain as good rolemodels, for example a YES member was stripped of her badge for fighting a fellow learner for a month and her behaviour was monitored by her fellow YES members before they would allow her to wear it again. 4.1.7 Sustainability

EWET is a sustainable organisation that has a diverse source of funding (mainly multi-year agreements) and generates income apart from donor funding. Staff are confident that the programme would continue in the area if UYF were to withdraw their funding, but not at same level as with UYF.
“We wouldn’t be able to provide follow-up training that would enhance the programme. It would be more skeletal. With UYF, we are seeing the difference – we are able to provide advisors with advisor training, Start Your Own Business training, Local Partnership training and Facilitation training. When you provide them all, you have good operating societies”

EWET believes that they will continue to exist because the need is still there. “With the little
that we would still have we would exist. With UYF, we strengthen our capacity”. A UYF

representative agreed that EWET would benefit from additional resources, particularly to improve their communication, reporting and monitoring and evaluation. The vast majority (71%) of trained advisors strongly agreed (21%) or agreed (50%) that they felt that they could continue using the YES material and running the YES clubs even if they received no more materials, training or support from EWET. Only 12% disagreed or strongly disagreed with this statement.

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% Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strong agree 7 5 17 50 21

Table 8: I could continue implementing the YES programme even if we got no more materials, training or support from EWET (n=84)

A resounding 94% of advisors indicated that they planned to run the YES societies in their schools in 2008. EWET currently has a list of 20 schools in the district that still need to be trained. They are waiting for confirmation of further funding from UYF before they begin this training. This buyin and support means that all the groundwork has been done and that implementation can begin immediately with them as soon as the funds come through. 4.1.8 Replicability

The YES programme is successfully operating in all provinces in South Africa and is therefore clearly replicable. Because the model is based on clubs and societies setting their own implementation schedule, it is appropriate in different contexts. It must however be noted that this UYF-funded programme has been running in EWETs home province where the organisation is well established. This needs to be taken into consideration when looking at the replicability of the programme in other provinces as the organisation is likely to be able to offer more support in the area where the project managers and head office staff are located.

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Figure 5: YES members during a focus group

Figure 6: YES members during a focus group

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4.2 SERVICE DELIVERY/IMPLEMENTATION 4.2.1 Achievement of objectives according to SLA TIMEFRAME Expected Actual
1. Development of assessment guidelines and selection criteria 120 Grade 8 to 10 EMS and BS teachers selected per Q1 school Q3 Exceeded target Achieved more than required but only in Q3. 127 teachers were selected, but they are not all EMS and BS teachers – the model is not geared to target only those teachers. EWET works with Grade 9 to 11 learners, but advisors can be any teachers in any grade. List of 40 participating schools in Free State Q1 Q3 Exceeded target Learners are selected in line with criteria 2. Selection and Training 120 Yes Advisors (YES Advisors Programmes) Q1 Q3 Exceeded target 120 Yes Advisors (YES Local Partnership Programmes) Training to lead to acquisition of competencies to Q1 facilitate YES sessions for 120 teachers in Free State 120 Yes Advisors trained in Start & Improve Your Q1 Business programmes 120 YES Advisors trained Q2 Q4 Q3 Q3 Exceeded target Exceeded target Partially 127 were trained, but only in Q3 rather than Q1 as initially expected. 27 were trained by Q3 but additional sessions were held at the Q1 Q3 Achieved 127 trained Achieved outside timeframe, started Q1 only completed Q3 Achieved, but outside timeframe. Started in Q1 but only achieved the target in Q3 127 trained, but only achieved in Q3 Q1 Q1 Fully achieved Achieved more than required – 46 schools - but not within stipulated timeframe Achieved – learners are self-selecting, as described in 4.1.3

DELIVERABLE

ACHIEVEMENTS Level Notes

(YES Facilitation Programmes)

achieved

Simama Ranta in November 2007. available in time for this report.

Final figures were not

120 YES Advisors (YES Office Assistant Programmes)

Q2

Partially achieved

27 were trained by Q3 but additional sessions were held at the Simama Ranta in November 2007. Final figures were not available in time for this report.

3. Distribution of material 120 teachers successfully complete training course Q1 Q3 Exceeded target 120 teacher resource guides & YES Club Handbooks Q1 distributed 120 YES Handbooks Q1 Q3 Achieved Q3 Achieved Achieved more than the required number, but in Q3 rather than Q1 as initially expected. . Achieved, should have been achieved in Q1 but was only achieved in Q3 Achieved, should have been achieved in Q1 but was only achieved in Q3 4. Monitoring and Implementation Yes Programme successfully implemented at 40 Q2 & Q3 schools Review visits by UYF and EWET Linkage with other UYF programmes Steering committee meetings Q2 & Q3 Q2 & Q3 Q2 & Q3 Q2 & Q3 Q3 Exceeded target Achieved Not achieved Not achieved The required number of 40 schools were only achieved in Q3 and 46 implemented in total Achieved Needs further discussion with UYF EWET attempted to set this up, but was hindered. requested assistance from UYF in this regard. 5. Mentorship and assistance Quarterly follow up workshops and reports Monthly school visits and reports Q2 & Q3 Q2 & Q3 Q2 & Q3 Achieved Achieved Achieved More successful at some schools than others. Refer to 4.2.2 for a They have

Positive change in the delivery of entrepreneurship Q2 & Q3

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programmes at schools 6. Reporting to UYF Monthly and quarterly narrative and financial reports Q1,Q2, Q3 Q1, Q2, Achieved Q3 7. Marketing and Promotion Successfully set up steering committee in Free State Q1 Not achieved

description of the level of implementation.

Reports often arrived late, but they were all submitted.

EWET attempted to set this up but was hindered. They requested assistance from UYF and this still needs to happen

Collaboration with the provincial DoE, DoL and DTI offices

Q1

Partially achieved

So far, EWET presented YES programme to the Department of Education and it was very well received. EWET has requested that UYF help them further with this objective.

Interaction with stakeholders and donor agencies 8. Career Guidance event 1800 learners (135 per school) participate

Q4

Achieved

EWET does work regularly with stakeholders and donors

in Q3

Q3

Exceeded target

1900 YES members participated in the event.

entrepreneurship competitions activities in Free State 9. Educator final assessment for accreditation Successful completion of tasks and demonstration of Q4 facilitation skills Q4

Not achieved

EWET material is not accredited, but this is a condition of the UYF funding. The accreditation although they did start the process in 2007 of their own accord. They have requested assistance from UYF with this objective.

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Level of implementation EWET’s database of schools and learners involved in the UYF-funded YES programme shows that at 37 implementing schools, 1502 learners took part in the programme; an average of 41 learners per school. Profile of YES societies and clubs According to the advisor survey, the average number of YES members per school (full society) is approximately 62 (n=84). The largest YES society in the Free State has 240 members, while the smallest society has 15 members. Removal of the extreme values (clubs above 200 members) results in an average size of 41 members per school (n=75).

40 35 # of s c hoo ls 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240

# of YES learners

Figure 7: Distribution of YES members per school (n=84)

The average number of YES members per grade in each club is displayed in Table 9 below.
Grade Average number of YES members 9 10 11 26 (n=48) 32 (n=59) 32 (n=58)

Table 9: Average number of YES members per school

YES society and club meetings All YES meetings happen after school on weekdays, while one school has an additional meeting on Saturday mornings. One school which we visited was not able to meet after school due to a full extracurricular schedule and so they met during class. This proved to be problematic as other teachers were not keen to release their learners and YES members had to catch up the classes that they had missed. In general, full YES society meetings range from regularly (23% meet twice a week) to monthly (23%), with more than a third (35%) meeting only on a weekly basis. The majority of YES clubs (78%) met on a weekly basis: 40% twice weekly and 38% once weekly, while 8% met more than twice a week and 10% monthly.
35 30 25 No of obs 20 15 10 5 0 4% 1% <1/month 1 every 2 weeks 1/month 1/week 2/week >2/week 12% 10% 8% 4% 2% 23% 23% Full YES society Separate YES clubs 40% 38% 35%

Figure 8: Regularity of YES society and club meetings (n=80)

These results suggest that most societies are implementing the clubs efficiently, with respect to regularity of meetings held. Completion of business competencies Schools completed an average of five business competencies in 2007 (min=1; max=15; n=82), which is under half of the expected competencies. Ideally a YES society would complete all 17 competencies by the end of the year. The low number of competencies completed was because the programme only began very late – due to the challenges expressed in the section on challenges (4.2).
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Figure 9 below shows the number of competencies completed by schools:

22 20 18 16
# of schools

26%

14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0
0% 0% 0% 0% 4% 4% 4% 5% 5% 6% 13% 13% 12% 9%

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

Total # of competencies achieved

Figure 9: Distribution of total competencies completed by schools (n=82)

Advisors with formal training in BS and EMS report completed significantly more competencies on average than those teachers without the formal training. There is no difference between those who did and did not have any training in teaching entrepreneurship. Therefore, the findings show that formal training in BS and EMS positively influences the success of the programme in terms of numbers of competencies completed.37 Factors necessary for the successful implementation of the programme This evaluation has clearly revealed a number of factors that contribute to the successful implementation of the YES programme. What is evident is that advisors’ commitment and learners’ motivation is key to the programme’s success, as well as enablers such as support from other teachers, HODs and school principals; market receptiveness (in other words the need and desire for the programme in the area); and the programme design or model itself which advisors found easy to use, practical, motivating and fun.

Reasons that make the programme work 1. Community and parent’s involvement and support 2. School support: teachers, HODs, Principals 3. Service Provider support 4. Learner commitment

% advisors 6 24 13 31

37

This analysis crosses levels of analysis: teacher and club, and therefore no firm conclusions can be drawn.

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5. Advisor commitment 6. Market receptiveness 7. Programme design/model 8. Outcomes 9. Regular meetings 10. Other

25 25 28 11 12 1
38

Table 10: Advisors perceptions of enabling factors (n=85 )

Figure 10, below, suggests that those clubs who are implementing more efficiently (i.e. who hold more meetings) regard the programme design as the biggest enabling factor, while those that implement to a lower degree regard learner and advisor commitment as the most important (use codes from Table 10 above).

45% 40% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% 1 2 3
2% 11% 26% 21% 17% 11%

42%

42%

40%

26% 24% 19% 12% 18% 14% 8%

24%

2%

3% 0%

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

What makes programme work? M infrequently (n=38) eet M frequently (n=42) eet

Figure 10: Enabling factors by frequency of YES club meetings

One of the key requirements necessary for the success of YES clubs is the buy-in and support of the learners involved. The learners we spoke to expressed enthusiasm about the opportunity to join a YES Club:
“I was happy to join YES because I taught me to be a job creator, taught me more about business” “When I first heard about the society I was excited because I’d always wanted to start my own

Multiple responses were allowed from respondents; therefore the table does not represent a distribution but rather the proportion of the total population who indicated this response.

38

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business”

Learners feel that the YES society was started at the right time “when we were in the dark and knew
nothing about business”. The clubs have provided learners with skills and confidence to be able to

begin thinking about setting up their own businesses. One member stated that when they first started the other learners thought it was a joke, but that the YES society is so serious that they have now set up their own fundraising so that they can start their own business at school. Another stressed “I feel proud to be YES member, now I can advise other people who want to start their business”. As seen in the survey results (Table 10), support from various internal and external stakeholders was identified as important to the successful implementation of the programme. Table 11 below shows that advisors do perceive that they are supported internally and externally. The fact that 91% of teachers feel it would be easy to get help from EWET shows how they are perceived as highly accessible to their beneficiaries.
% of teachers
Strongly Strongly Disagree Neutral Agree agree n 85

Statement If I ever needed help with YES, I think it would be easy to get help from EWET My principal supports the use of YES at my school My HOD supports the use of YES at my school

disagree

0 1 6

0 0 4

9 14 14

26 28 31

65 57 46

83 85

Table 11: Advisors perceptions of support

In terms of in-school support, advisors identified the following as being particularly important: • Support from the school principal by him/her showing an interest in YES, acknowledging their achievements, encouraging other learners and by ensuring that YES Clubs have a suitable venue for their meetings • • Support in the form of assistance with resources at school such as photocopying, faxing, telephoning Support from fellow teachers who need to encourage and not discourage learners from being part of YES Support through the establishment of a shop in the school so that learners are able to gain handson experience. Sources of external support identified by advisors included: • Support from the service providers in terms of providing:

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-

Regular field visits to encourage and motivate YES Clubs and to provide ideas and assistance with projects Transport and supervision to allow for inter-school YES Club interactions and exchanges Assisting with other ways to provide networking with other schools other than the competitions, e.g. learner camps, site visits to each others’ schools or to places where activities are being completed

• •

People in the community such as parents and friends who believe in the programme Support from business people in the community

One of the major motivational factors witnessed by the evaluation team was the Simama Ranta. Learners in all focus groups expressed a very strong desire to achieve so that they could go to the competition. At the competition itself, learners were given their own ensuite rooms in a hotel and for many this was the first time they had ever even slept in a brick room, let alone by themselves, let alone with their very own bathroom. This experience creates aspirations for the learners – they have something to work for and can experience what life would be like if they “made it”. In addition, the participating learners were inspired by each other and went back home full of added energy and motivation.

Cost efficiency The cost per YES member per year (for the establishment year) is approximately R1,473.00 (including the cost of training the advisors). For maintenance, it is approximately R223 per year (additional material etc). This does not include Simama Ranta costs, but Simama Ranta orientation is included. Cost per advisor for training is a maximum of R3,871 per advisor, when training 120 advisors. In 2007, the EWET cost per advisor39 was R8,858.00 for a start-up year (based on 127 advisors trained). As all the trained advisors implement the programme, this was the actual cost per advisor in 2007.

As we have been unable to obtain a specific figure of cost per advisor, figures for both the SAIE and EWET programmes were obtained by taking the total amount of funding given teach project and dividing this by the actual number of advisors trained.

39

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4.2.3 EWET management Organisational strategy All staff members were clear about what EWET aims to do and how they plan to achieve this. All staff members were passionate about their work and the overall aims of the organisation and showed a good understanding of the needs of their target market and a commitment to changing the lives of the people with whom they work. Governance EWET became a legal trust in 1992 and is governed by a chief executive officer and a board of trustees who meet four times a year. All staff members noted that the board was supportive and cooperative. Although the founder of the organisation no longer leads, he remains on the staff as a materials specialist. The current CEO was previously a programme manager and therefore has a deep understanding of the work itself, as well as the needs of and issues faced by implementers. Organisational culture EWET is a small team and the strengths thereof are evident. Although each staff member has a clear job description and tasks, they work together as a team where necessary. The evaluation team witnessed this in full force during the Simama Ranta event, where each and every member had a strong presence and was actively involved in the implementation of the event. In addition, there was a strong sense of respect and understanding for each other as people and as colleagues, with the organisation lacking an air of authoritarianism and “bureaucracy”.

Human resources Staff turnover is low at EWET, with most staff members being at EWET for over ten years. Staff members note that although the workload is high, they have job satisfaction and that the remuneration is relatively high for the province (although not relative to other provinces). There is no formal staff development strategy, but staff members feel able to request any training or development that is necessary for their jobs. New staff members are inducted and orientated thoroughly. A more formal policy might become necessary if more associates are brought on board. Staff have authority to make operational decisions that relate to their jobs, particularly when they are in situation “on the ground”. However, staff also work according to a plan and are expected to

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stick to that plan as much as possible and report to the CEO when this plan needs to be changed for whatever reason. The programme managers also need to consult the budget in order to make programmatic decisions and there is a level of flexibility within budgetary constraints. Strategic decisions are handled by the CEO. Although the current staff complement are managing to implement the programmes and produce on agreed deliverables, further human resources would greatly strengthen their administrative functioning, for example their monitoring and evaluation, information management etc. An associate model is being pursued where junior programme managers who are based in areas in which EWET works are hired on a part-time basis, where they are given specific assignments to complete and then paid according to the delivery of those tasks. This is a good strategy for managing unstable income and EWET finds that the associates “are easing a lot of work…so we can
now follow up on initiatives on the ground”. EWET alumni are also asked to assist to ease workload

when necessary, for example when UYF requested a database of learner information.

Financial management EWET has sound financial systems and controls, and is effectively managed by the dedicated financial manager. There is only one cheque account that is run for the organisation and each funder has a linked market link account in which their funds are stored. UYF funds are paid directly into such a market link account. Transactions are paid from the general cheque account and then refunded from the relevant funder account into the cheque account. This transaction system is problematic for UYF as what is reflected on the bank statements are a few lump sum amounts that go from the UYF separate account and into the general EWET account. This makes it difficult to see actual project expenditure and to ascertain whether funds are being used for the project specifically. For example, it would be difficult to see whether EWET was using the project funds to pay the entire organisational telephone bill or only the project portion. All transactions are done via cheque, apart from staff salaries which are processed via electronic funds transfer, transfers between accounts and payments to Telkom which are done via debit order. Even if cash is needed, a cheque is requested and cash is drawn from this. Some staff have credit cards to pay for travel costs and necessary project costs in the field. All these funds are carefully recorded in these instances. Purchases are usually made in bulk, rather than once-off ad hoc purchases, but cash cheques are issued on occasion if necessary. This cheque system is used for control purposes as the audit trail is better. A purchase requisition is done as follows:
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• • • • •

A requisition slip is completed by a staff member (three quotes are attached for larger purchases) with an indication of fund allocation from the CEO. The financial manager checks whether there are available funds. The financial manager processes a cheque for the amount needed. The CEO signs the cheque. The financial manager updates the transaction log and the availability spreadsheet.

Financials are logged onto a system called SYSPRO. An “availability spreadsheet” is generated every month for each budget line item, to track what has been spent against the planned expenses and what remains.

Other income, aside from donor funding, is kept in a EWET trust fund and this can be accessed to accommodate any overspending if necessary. However, in most cases where something cost more than estimated, funders are approached to cover these additional expenses or to request a relocation of funds from one line item to another. In some cases, like with UYF, EWET requests funding to be moved over from one period to another. Management accounts reporting is done monthly, but can be generated weekly if needed. These are sent to the CEO and project staff so that staff know what is left to be spent and manage their work accordingly. Cash flow is also communicated to staff and this is discussed at “leader circle” meetings. Annual audited financial statements are produced. Financial reporting to UYF is done using the UYF reporting template. 4.2.4 Monitoring and evaluation Internal M&E systems Monitoring of school implementation Current monitoring and evaluation at EWET is as follows: 1. After the initial training of the advisors and the distribution of the YES material, advisors go back to schools and set up clubs. The clubs draft an implementation plan that outlines what activities they will complete by which dates. 2. EWET programme managers and associates conduct site visits to clubs within three months of the initial training, to assess how the clubs are implementing according to their individual implementation plans. They also check what challenges are present and provide any necessary support and assistance. 3. After advisors have had a chance to complete two competencies (and therefore have actually tried to facilitate a YES club or society), they are invited to a facilitation training
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session. Follow-ups (site visits or telephonic) are completed again after this training. Aside from the proactive visits from EWET’s side, schools sometimes contact EWET for assistance. This is most common during the competition “knock-outs”. They also sometimes ask for help with fundraising and to request more material. Monitoring of associates There is no formal monitoring of the associates, nor do they have standardised site visit tools or report templates for their school visits. They use their own discretion in terms of who to see, what to ask, what to record and what to report. Their findings are only stored in a narrative form and are not searchable. Data capture and information management Some examples of information being collected include: • • • • site visit reports learner register advisor training attendance registers alumni details (this has only started being collected recently)

These are all stored in separate spreadsheets or in Word documents and not in a format which can be easily searched across different variables or cross-referenced with each other. Therefore, statistics are not able to be easily generated. The evaluation team’s analysis of information management at EWET is that they have made a very good start in terms of actually collecting data, but that their organisational capacity could be greatly enhanced by developing an integrated M&E system/framework and then mirroring this with an electronic information management system – preferably a web-based one that could be accessed by associates in different offices. The benefits of such an integrated M&E and information management system are huge. Impact assessment There has thus far been no formal impact assessment of EWET’s work and no systematic tracking of YES alumni. Not only would such a study (a longitudinal impact evaluation with a baseline) be a brilliant marketing exercise for the organisation, it would also greatly inform strategy and enhance the impact of the organisation. UYF monitoring and evaluation The following monitoring has taken place:
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• • • • • •

a due diligence review the submission of monthly financial reports according to a report template quarterly narrative reports according to a report template an annual financial review an independent evaluation two visits to EWET from a UYF representative

UYF monitoring visit 1 This first visit was reportedly beneficial because UYF clarified some issues about the report format and the contract and cleared up some misunderstanding. However, EWET staff felt that this is something that should have happened prior to programme implementation (and preferably prior to the contract being signed) rather than during a site visit. UYF monitoring visit 2 At the second visit, the need for receiving reports on time was discussed again and the UYF project manager accompanied EWET on some school visits. Although staff felt that this visit was useful because it motivated the YES clubs and educated UYF, they wondered whether it is meaningful “monitoring or evaluating: if the donor does not really understand the programme”. UYF noted that these visits are not only to verify details reported to them, but also to build working relationship and further partnerships and this does involve clarifying expectations and mutual processes. Independent evaluation EWET staff members noted to the Impact Consulting team that they “appreciated the way you have
done the evaluation”. They felt that it was very important that UYF had commissioned independent

evaluators. As this is the first time they have participated in such an evaluation, they are very keen to see the results and to be able to learn from them and thus grow as an organisation – “it would
show areas where we could improve and we would take it into consideration for the development of the organisation. Not many organisations have a chance to enjoy an evaluation”. They also noted that they

had enjoyed the evaluation planning meeting held in Johannesburg prior to the evaluation itself and “were very pleasantly surprised” that they had been involved in the evaluation process from the outset. This involvement has made them feel like it is a learning experience where they have been given a chance to reflect and talk freely about the year’s work, rather than an exercise in which they feel that they are being “policed” or “interrogated”.

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4.3 4.3.1

COLLABORATION AND WORKING RELATIONSHIPS Relationship between UYF and EWET

On the whole, EWET staff and UYF staff noted that there was a good working relationship between the two parties. EWET feels comfortable with UYF, although they have experienced instances of a
“paternalistic” attitude from particular UYF staff members. EWET did experience problems around

the contract negotiations where they were unsatisfied with some if the conditions of the contract. These difficulties damaged the relationship somewhat at the outset. However, the relationship was built up as they continued to work together. The UYF representative was satisfied with the relationship between the two organisations and was pleased with the interaction experienced thus far, particularly with EWET’s passion for their work and their willingness to go out of their way to achieve their objectives. Understanding each other’s processes EWET staff did note that some frustration was caused by having to work with individuals who do not seem to understand the YES programme fully. They felt that it is very important for funders to understand the programme so that they can understand the challenges faced or why some timeframes are unrealistic. For example, they felt that UYF do not understand that the process of engagement and implementation differs from one school to another and did not seem to be aware of the impact of the teachers’ strike on EWET’s implementation plans. EWET feels that it is important for UYF staff to listen to them and really hear their suggestions about changing plans before they respond. “For us, it’s human development. We have plans to achieve
stuff, but on the ground it may change... But we realised that some of them need to know that we are dealing with people and communities”. EWET noted that other service providers for UYF operated as FETs.

But EWET is different in that “we have to start with the community, check if what we have meets their needs.” EWET has less of a captive audience than a normal FET organisation – they have to arrange meetings with advisors and the participants do not always arrive, so these meetings have to be shifted. EWET staff noted that they are committed to quality, not quantity. They would prefer to train fewer advisors but ensure their buy-in and effectiveness.

From the UYF side, there are a lot of processes and mechanisms that need to be followed – many of which are because of external pressures and obligations, e.g. the Public Finance Management Act (PFMA). However, UYF understands that situations do arise in which plans need to change and so they have tried to build in processes for flexibility. There are mechanisms in place to allow
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for variances in SLAs. For example, if a particular objective is not able to be achieved in a particular quarter, one can apply for the funds to be reallocated into another quarter. Or, if implementation plans need to change because of unforeseen circumstances, funds can be moved from one line item to another, or additional budget can be allocated, as long as there is an explanation. The grantee does, however, need to understand these processes and comply with the requirements. Funding Late payments due to the delay in signing the contract, coupled with expectations to still meet the original timeframes caused dissatisfaction amongst EWET staff. The expectations were seen as demanding considering the delay. Reporting Staff also noted that they had to work hard to produce reports in a particular format for UYF and then they often do not receive any acknowledgement or feedback from UYF after submission. In many instances, they found that UYF would contact them asking for the same information that was in the report, which led them to feel as if they hadn’t even read the reports that they had insisted on. Although there was an agreement at the outset about what information needed to be provided, UYF would regularly request additional information at later stages. For example, they “demanded a
register database. They said we have to do these things, then they ask us for something else more important, then we do that and then they ask for the register again”. This placed a burden on EWET staff

as they had to deal with reporting obligations to other funders as well, and consequently strained relationships between the parties. Learning forums A process orientation workshop was held in August 2007, but EWET strongly feels that this should have happened prior to the contract beginning as expectations would have been much clearer.

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4.3.2

Extending the relationship between EWET and UYF

Dovetailing with other UYF programmes In addition, EWET notes that they would like to take advantage of UYF’s policy to dovetail initiatives. They would like to see YES alumni in a new cooperative act and get suggestions as to how their programme can cooperate with others, e.g. YES alumni can start to work within the National Youth Service. “There are lots of UYF programmes that can absorb our YES people, it could form
an exit strategy for our kids. I hope we can look at these things after the pilot”.

UYF as a support mechanism to EWET EWET staff felt that it would be very helpful if UYF could assist them in achieving certain goals rather than merely supervising. For example, they would appreciate UYF using its leverage and position to assist with the accreditation process, to open doors for them with the Minister of Education by introducing and endorsing them. “If they give us that exposure, we could be on a different level.” 4.3.3 Relationship between EWET and YES societies

Teachers and principals who were interviewed as part of the evaluation all indicated having a good relationship with EWET and that the staff were always supportive and friendly. The evaluation team witnessed this during school visits when EWET staff accompanied us. Schools noted that EWET staff visited regularly to: • • • • • • bring them material let them know how to take care of material inform them of forthcoming events/meetings such as Simama Ranta assist in the election of office bearers conduct a status check to see whether any learners or teachers have lost interest check whether they can provide assistance or support of any kind with any problems encountered.

YES schools do not generally send any information or reports to EWET apart from their action plans, but a few schools do send them reports of how they are working and how many competencies they have completed. EWET reported that they do not usually talk to learners during site visits, which the learners also noted. Learners felt that they would love to be a part of site visits as it would motivate them to
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show off their achievements: “We would like more visits, that they can talk to us and not just the teachers
and encourage us.”

4.3.4

Collaboration between EWET and other partners

EWET works with the following partners in the Free State: Department of Education The relationship has not as yet been formalised, but there was a positive response to and buy-in for the programme from the department after EWET made a presentation to them. They have been encouraging schools in the Free State to use it and in 2007, some DoE staff even attended and participated in the Simama Ranta. EWET staff feel that a formal relationship would be beneficial in many ways, one example is by integrating the YES activity plan with the DoE plan:
“We asked them to formally recognise us and release teachers for functions and so on”. Simama Rantas

and other competitions could be coordinated with the Department to maximise participation from schools and department officials and cause the least disruption for the school programme. UYF would also like to see YES societies enlisted as a registered extra-curricular programme with the Department. This would help with getting venues provided for necessary meetings and with ensuring that teachers received automatic permission to attend YES activities rather than having to apply each time. Other NGOs EWET offers the programme to other NGOs in a “franchise” model – “They implement the YES
programme, but fundraise on their own.” In some instances, the franchisees “are even competing with us now”. One example of a franchisee in the Free State is the Thabo Mofutsanyane Youth Network

who are using the YES programme in their youth development projects. EWET has worked with them to build organisational capacity and helped them to formalise their organisation. The network is now at a point where they are independent and sustainable, with donors such as the Nelson Mandela Children’s Fund. EWET also works with Lovelife to try to consolidate their activities at schools and “not bombard schools with too many facilitators from different organisations”. EWET also expressed an interest in forming relationships with the Department of Labour and the Department of Trade and Industry so that YES members have opportunities once they leave school.

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4.3.5

Collaboration between YES clubs and other partners

Very few clubs are working with partners. There is however a keen desire to work with local partners such as: • • • • Unemployed youth who are not in school Business people in the community would also assist with advice ‘hands on’ experience to the learners Municipality – “we need to make the aware of the program so the support or learners by sponsoring
the program”

Motivational speakers visiting the school and encouraging learners

4.4

CHALLENGES

There were numerous challenges in the implementation process – for both the schools and for EWET themselves. 4.4.1 National strike

The national strike resulted in all activities in Quarter 2 being disrupted. Many teachers cited the strike as a major obstacle to implementing the programme as desired. Programme staff report that most teachers indicated that they wanted to stop implementing the programme because of the strikes, but that they (EWET) went around to schools encouraging them. A realignment of quarterly activities took place in order to enable EWET to be in a position to meet timeframes according to the SLA.

4.4.2

Challenges from an advisor perspective

Advisors reported a range of challenges that prevented them from completing competencies:
Challenges There is not enough time to do YES I need more training in using the YES material It is too difficult for me to photocopy extra YES material Lack of learner commitment Other I do not feel confident facilitating YES sessions Strike/recovery plan % 79% 45% 24% 20% 11% 9% 9%

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Programme schedule clashing with school activities Programme started late in the year/delay with YES material My HOD does not support the use of YES I do not enjoy using the YES material My principal does not support the use of YES

7% 7% 5% 2% 1%

Table 12: Challenges to implementation (n=8540)

As can be seen from Table 11, above, by far the most significant reported challenge was the lack of time to implement the programme. This was confirmed by the qualitative results where teachers cited lack of time due to work overload. Much of this was due to the strike and schools having to catch up work. Most of the challenges presented in Table 11, above, were confirmed by the results of the teacher focus groups. Although 98% of advisors reported feeling confident using the materials after the initial training, almost half of them (45%) indicated a need for more training. Lack of resources to photocopy materials (due to large clubs) was also cited repeatedly – both in the survey and during group interviews with teachers. Some other challenges reported by teachers were the school’s context – learners come from poor communities and cannot always relate to some of the examples given in the handbooks – and the fact that they couldn’t afford to take learners on trips with the aim of networking with other societies. The ‘Other’ category in the survey includes reasons such as: • • • • lack of community resources hungry learners learners have to travel far after school not enough advisors.

The ideal level of capacity at a school is two advisors per 15 learners to ensure adequate advisor support for YES societies and clubs and to alleviate problems of overworked teachers. In reality, there are usually one to two teachers between 30 learners, and sometimes only one teacher for an entire society. Interviews with teachers and EWET staff revealed some of the reasons that advisors might drop out of the programme: • • •
40

Teachers get moved around at the school and are unable to continue being a YES advisor due to added workload or extra-curricular schedules Teachers leave the school Ill-health or death

Multiple responses were allowed from respondents; therefore the table does not represent a distribution but rather the proportion of the total population who indicated this response.

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• •

Sometimes advisors don’t allow other teachers to join the programme: “Ownership is so
strong for one teacher, sometimes they protect it41”.

Teachers don’t understand the programme even after the training and report that they are implementing it. It is only after a status check or site visit that EWET finds that the programme is not actually running.

4.4.3

Challenges from a learner perspective

The following challenges came to light from learners during the focus groups:
• • • •

No support from the principal or some teachers: “When we won in Simama Ranta, the principal
did not even mention it at Assembly.”

The teachers discourage learners and say “being in YES will not make you pass.”
“We do not get opportunities to meet other local schools who also have YES societies.” “We do not have enough time for our meetings.”


• • •

No resources like a copier, fax or telephone so they can communicate with other societies.
“We also need our own YES handbooks instead of taking notes.” “We have to pay for transport when we go to YES related events, other learners stay behind because they have no money.” “We need more reading material from EWET”.

4.4.4

Challenges for EWET

Timing The major challenge that EWET faced with this project was timing. The key issues regarding timing are explained below. Extended pre-contract phase The time lapse between the submission of the proposal to UYF (November 2005), the official beginning of the project after the signing of the contract (1 November 2006) and the first tranche of the funding (16 December 2006) was problematic as all pre-contract work was funded by EWET themselves. Timing of the first payment The first tranche of the grant was only received in mid-December 2007 when schools were already closed and so work could not properly commence until mid-January 2007. As EWET has not previously worked in the Free State, there was a lot of groundwork to be done in terms of their

41

Interview with EWET staff member (2007)

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approach and way of working in a new area – they had to garner buy-in for their programme from scratch, by presenting it to schools, waiting for these schools to organise a local partnership and them to request to be part of YES before any training could commence. EWET was not willing to give up this vital part of their model – local buy-in and society ownership is critical to their work. National strike The national teachers’ strike further delayed implementation by the schools. Regardless of these delays, UYF still expected EWET to achieve the same objectives within the same timeframes. Doing so would mean that EWET would have had to begin implementation before having received any funds, which was not possible, or would have to change one of the strongest elements of their model. EWET did achieve their overall objectives by the end of 2007, but these were not always within the stipulated timeframes. Expenditure not aligned to SLA EWET underspent in Quarter 1 and Quarter 2 according to the SLA, but EWET justified this because: • • In reality, the first quarter was only two working months and three days because schools only opened mid-January (activities did commence straight after the schools opened) They expected a much higher expenditure in Quarter 3 because of SIMAMA RANTA.

Capacity to implement

Although EWET makes use of associates, they still find it a challenge to maintain their service to schools with their current complement of human resources. Although EWET has managed to achieve almost all their objectives, the expansion of their work would benefit from further human resources. Ultimately, EWET would ideally have two more senior project managers, four junior project managers, a project assistant who provided specific administrative support to programme implementation and an associate in every province to handle queries and provide assistance on the ground. The board has already approved the appointment of one project manager and an assistant. Because they own the building in which their offices are located, they could easily renovate it to comfortably accommodate all the extra staff members. In the interim, in order to deliver on UYF requirements, senior programme managers were joined by associate junior programme managers based in areas in which EWET works. These associates are not full-time, but are given specific assignments to complete and have to develop activity plans to deliver on these. They then submit their work timesheets and are paid according to the delivery of the tasks and on a per hour basis. They are required to clear any school visits with the YES Programme Manager in advance. The associate model is a good strategy for managing
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unstable income (paying them only for tasks that need to be completed) while ensuring that support is available in the field, and EWET finds that the associates “are easing a lot of work…so we
can now follow up on initiatives on the ground”. “We can keep the organisation small, but still be able to work anywhere”. As this is a new initiative, a monitoring system for associates is still undeveloped

with some spot checks being completed and ad hoc feedback being received from the schools. It is strongly recommended that this system is developed if the associate model is to be pursued. Material accreditation A major challenge for EWET in 2007 was the material accreditation process. This is a UYF condition of support, but EWET has been struggling to move forward with this objective. It is recommended that UYF assist them here. Establishing a steering committee As part of the grant, UYF requested that a steering committee was formed to guide the implementation of the YES programme in the Free State. The grants agreement states that “The
Project Steering Committee is a body constituting of personnel from the Fund’s provincial office, local Department of Education, the local business community, youth leaders, community leaders and the local government of the Thabo Mofutsanyane Municipality whose role on the project would be among others assessing the progress on project activities”42. In the schedule of deliverables, an indicator is “successfully set up steering committee in Free State”43.

There was no steering committee set up in the Free State in 2007. The contract is not clear and both UYF and EWET acknowledge that this deliverable was confusing, particularly in terms of who was responsible for it. EWET staff all agreed that UYF had made a commitment to lead the process and organise a provincial meeting after EWET informed them that they had had challenges trying to establish relationships with the authorities:
“We thought they would help us to do that, that they had a provincial person to help us and facilitate these relationships...that they would make a presentation to the Department of Education… We thought that there would be a meeting set up with the provincial UYF person and [the UYF programme manager], the District Education office and some special project people. That would maybe start the process. When we checked with UYF, nobody is clear. But [we thought] it was meant to be them facilitating the process.”

UYF notes that they are clear that this is a task for the service provider to achieve, so there is clearly a miscommunication here. It seems likely that the process will be easier if UYF drives it and

42 43

Grants agreement between UYF and EWET, signed on 8 November 2006 ibid

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opens the necessary doors using their “clout”. Maintaining DoE priorities Another challenge is keeping abreast of what the Education Department wants and ensuring that EWET activities are in line with their priorities without compromising their own strategic goals and the model that has proven to be successful. Reporting The UYF put emphasis on quarterly reports as per SLA, EWET submitted these late on occasion whilst not fulfilling the requirements set out by the UYF. EWET indicated that schools had to reopen for the third quarter in order to get a true idea of what the status of the YES programme was. EWET indicated that the required methods of reporting by both EWET and YES advisors at schools were very time-consuming, taking up a large percentage of the limited time that was available to these actors. Two additional staff members were employed in order to assist with the greater workload EWET experienced due to the UYF project. EWET admitted that they were weak with submitting reports on time and that they were afraid that they would lose the grant because of this. However, UYF did grant them some flexibility in this regard and went out of their way to follow reports up with telephone calls to retrieve missing information so that next tranche payments could be processed on time. 4.5 OUTCOMES 4.5.1 Outcomes for learners
“YES learners are different people at the end of the year”44

Awareness of entrepreneurship as a career According to advisors, learners have begun thinking of self-employment as a viable career path. The YES programme has exposed learners to this alternative, which, in many cases, was never before considered an option. Table 13, below, shows that advisors overwhelmingly perceive the programme to have positively influenced learners’ perceptions of entrepreneurship.

44

Advisor

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% of teachers
Strongly Strongly Disagree Neutral Agree agree n

Statement Because of being part of YES, I think that the learners have a more positive attitude towards entrepreneurship as a career Because of using YES, I feel that more school leavers are considering entrepreneurship as a desirable career option

disagree

0

0

7

38

52

84

0

0

18

40

42

85

Table 13: Advisors’ perceptions of outcomes for learners

Learners are considering entrepreneurship seriously, as advisors and learners both reported learners who had realised the opportunities from the programme and started their own small businesses. One learner “realised the viability of having one’s own business so he started one and then
his parents managed it during the day while he was at school.” Another learner has started a business

taking photos for student cards. The majority of those who have started their own micro enterprise are selling sweets, snacks and cakes. Many clubs have identified business opportunities within their communities through the YES programme but have not taken the opportunities. External speakers also built up learners’ positive perception of entrepreneurship:
“At first the kids didn’t understand it [entrepreneurship]. Then we got a past pupil to help us. She came to speak to the learners about YES. She was linked to EWET. If she did not come and help us out it would have been very difficult. She was very important at the beginning. It was very important that she was young like the kids. That they could relate to her.”

The outcomes are often more pronounced towards the end of the year: ”But only now at the end of
the year close to the competition do the kids really take it seriously... only now are they really getting involved.”

Some comments from learners regarding their small businesses:
• • • “I’ve started selling sweets and cakes at school and opened a savings account at the post office”

“I started selling snacks but used up all the profit”

“I use what I’ve learnt in YES to advise my parents in their business”

“I have asked my sister to be my business partner.”
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Skills and knowledge Advisors, who were almost all teachers, overwhelmingly agreed that the YES programme has equipped the learners with the knowledge and skills to start their own businesses.
% of teachers
Strongly Strongly Disagree Neutral Agree agree n

Statement Because of using YES, I feel that the learners have the knowledge and skills to start their own business

disagree

0

1

12

47

40

83

Table 14: Advisors’ perceptions of learner’s entrepreneurial knowledge and skills

Some examples of the skills and knowledge gained are: • • Developing your own business How to manage your money and your life

How to start a business, attract customers and make a profit. The project has also transferred to other areas of learning. For example learners reported that their understanding of EMS has improved and that their reading skills have also improved as a result of the YES programme. Self-development Learners and advisors reported a range of personal outcomes for learners. Amongst these were: • • • • • • • • Improved confidence and communication skills - learners are more confident and are able to stand up and speak in public. Improved self-esteem Respect for others Goal-directed behaviour and increased ambition Independence: “We are leaders of tomorrow”, “We are masters of our own universe” Leadership skills Creativity Improved behaviour at school

There has been a particular improvement in discipline and behaviour at many schools, as one learner explains: “there was one alumnus who used to be into dagga and other drugs. After joining YES
and spending some time in the programme, he changed completely. He started his own business and now
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supports his parents and his own family.” Almost all advisors agree that being part of YES has

improved learners’ behaviour and discipline.

% of teachers
Strongly Strongly Disagree Neutral Agree agree n

Statement

disagree

Because of being part of YES, I think that the learners are better behaved and more disciplined
0 0 3 45 51
64

Table 15: Advisors’ perceptions of learner’s behaviour

Teachers report that attendance, punctuality, discipline and respect have all improved from YES learners: “You can tell a YES learner for other learner”. According to teachers learners’ attendance is better partly because of the level of responsibility that is instilled but also because they look forward to YES and do not want to miss it and they are not allowed to join a YES meeting if they were not at school for the day.

School performance There is no actual data to prove that school marks have improved with YES members. However, focus groups revealed that those in lower grades (Pioneers) are more motivated to study harder as they want to pass school so that they can become Champions the next year, be part of the YES board and go to Simama Ranta. The programme has inspired them by giving them something to look forward to, something to aspire to. Some learners and teachers indicated an improvement in school marks, but many felt it was too early to tell.

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Figure 11: Learners keenly discussing their business strategy during one of the rounds of the Simama Ranta competition

Uncovering hidden talents In some instances, YES has not improved school performance, but has allowed youth to discover other strengths. For example, one learner was not doing well at school but participated well at YES and was very talented at demonstrating products. He dropped out of school, but was hired at Shell where he quickly became the cashier of the month. While working, he also set up a spaza shop at home and he now supports his parents. While this is a special case as YES does aim to generally improve school performance, it does illustrate how the programme has impacts outside of the traditional school system. 4.5.2 Outcomes for advisors

All advisors involved in the evaluation focus groups said they gained from the programme and that were very pleased to have gone on the EWET training. The EWET training and the implementation of the programme has resulted in direct learning for advisors. Entrepreneurial activation in advisors

Almost all advisors (91%) of advisors felt that the programme has equipped them to start their own business and none felt that they had not been provided wt the necessary skills and knowledge, while many (83%) reported plans to do so (see Table 16).
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% of teachers Strongly Statement Because of using YES, I feel that I have the knowledge and skills to start my own business Because of using YES, I have plans to start my own business/ have started my own business 1 4 12 49 34 85 disagree 0 Disagree 0 Neutral 9 Agree 45 Strongly agree 46 n 85

Table 16: Advisors’ perception of ability and intent to start their own businesses

There has been a shift in teacher thinking around career options: “We used to think that we are stuck
in teaching and only have our pension funds to look forward to, but now we realise we can spread our wings”. Teachers are becoming more business-minded, wanting to open their own businesses.

Assisting with teaching other classes A few teachers mentioned the transferability of the knowledge and concepts in the EWET material, which has assisted them in teaching a variety of classes. Educators have used some of the examples and material in the YES manuals in their class. For example: • • maths: percentages, profit and loss, budgets, interest rates, bar graphs social studies: unemployment, life skills, values.

Learners’ perceptions of changes in teachers Learners also perceived a personal change and development in teachers. Some learner observations around this theme were:
• • • • • • • • • • We interact more with the teachers who are our advisors They have more respect for the learners They have gained more knowledge from EWET and passed it on to us learners They understand the business world better They sacrifice their time for us They acknowledge and support us. They are patient with us, always there to listen to our opinions. They talk to us more than before They have more patience and treat us well They don’t shout at us but advise us They know how to communicate with other people. Has improved the business skills of one advisor who has a business.
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4.5.3

Outcomes for EWET

Monitoring and evaluation Although it was difficult to gather beneficiary data upon request from UYF, EWET has recognised that it is a useful tool and they are using it.
“It has taught us to incorporate gathering such data into our work. For example, if we train we must keep those lists. And we must work on our database development. UYF made us realise that these things are important. Initially we didn’t have the register database. It used to be that the school gave us the list of members who have applied, and we sent material according to that. But now we use the register. It gives us all the information, it’s very helpful.”

The push from UYF to monitor and track programme alumni was considered a positive step for EWET and something they had been meaning to develop. Adding financial control mechanisms

When UYF came to test the due diligence of EWET in 2005, they were required to make certain changes which have been incorporated into the organisation, most notably the CEO has taken more responsibility for funds allocation and oversees this more carefully than previously. Reassessing the model EWET staff realised the importance of follow-up training because of the UYF project and demonstrated how it improves the effectiveness of the programme. The funding also gave EWET a chance to test the associate model and develop their relationship with the District Education Department. Extending the reach of the YES programme The UYF funds have allowed EWT to reach more people and have garnered more respect for EWET themselves as UYF is a reputable parastatal: “so when we collaborate and deliver, people get to
respect us more.” Importantly, EWET has established a major presence within its own region. It has

always been a concern for them that they were not operational here, but UYF provided the funds to do this: “Through UYF, charity began at home. If our own people are proud of us, then others will follow”.

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5. RECOMMENDATIONS

As the evidence presented in this report demonstrates, the YES programme is working effectively already. The recommendations presented in the section below should therefore be seen as ways to enhance an already functioning programme. 5.1 DEVELOPING AN INTEGRATED MONITORING AND EVALUATION SYSTEM It is strongly recommended that EWET develops and implements a formalised, standardised and integrated monitoring and evaluation (M&E) system to enable the efficient and successful collection of data. Doing so will allow EWET and its funders to monitor the processes and outcomes of the YES Club programme more effectively. Such an (M&E) system must include the following elements • • • • • The development of standardised site visit data collection tools and formats Clear guidelines on what data is to be collected, who is going to collect it (roles) and when it is to be collected (timeframes) Improved and consistent information management - including the development of an information management system The development of method for monitoring associate junior programme managers Developing an alumni base as well as a system for monitoring their alumni.

EWET also needs to begin a long-term impact assessment using a longitudinal quasi-experimental approach. EWET will need to secure funding for this long-term impact evaluation.

5.2 ALUMNI DEVELOPMENT It is important that YES Club members continue to develop their learning and receive support once they finish their schooling. For EWET to be able to facilitate this they need to from collaborations with other organisations, such as the UYF, that provide such support. Through doing so, EWET would be able to feed their YES club members into other programmes/opportunities once they leave school. Enabling former YES Club members to access micro finance would be another important part of such a strategy. We recommend that EWET discuss with the UYF a way for those former YES Club members who are aspiring entrepreneurs to obtain some sort of micro funding as part of an ‘incubator’ or ‘learning‘ stage, before they apply for other micro finance opportunities. Developing such collaborations would also be extremely useful for EWET in terms of helping them to maintain
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their alumni data base, and to be able to track the progress of former members for their long term impact assessment. 5.3 DEVELOPING MOTIVATION STRATEGIES A key element of the success of the YES Club programme is the enthusiasm and motivation of YES Club members and advisors. EWET needs to develop a strategy to maintain and enhance the level of motivation of learners and teachers. Such a strategy would also provide the programme with important exposure, and help tackle the problem of drop-outs encouraging learners to remain motivated once they have joined. The following suggestions could be employed as part of this strategy to encourage and motivate current YES Club members as well as persuade new learners to join the programme: • Starting a speaking tour of schools where successful YES members and business entrepreneurs would go around to different schools and speak about the YES programme and their business experiences. • Encouraging more interaction between YES Clubs from different schools; one way to do so would be through organising different YES Club Camps where learners could be exposed to leadership and other skills and interact with each other • More regular competitions; this again would give learners the opportunity to interact with other YES Club members and to share ideas and experiences

5.3 CONSISTENTLY RUNNING SIMAMA RANTA From talking to YES Club members and advisors it has become very clear that that both eagerly look forward to, and enjoy, participating in the Simama Ranta competition. In the advisor survey however advisors stressed quite strongly that they felt the competition could be improved with the following recommendations: • • Advisors stressed that they felt the competition assessors should be independent and not connected with EWET Advisors also requested that they are informed well in advance about up coming competition rounds so that they could prepare properly. 5.5 DEVELOPING A MARKETING AND MEDIA STRATEGY EWET needs to develop a sophisticated marketing and media strategy to provide their programme with more public exposure. This would be an excellent way encourage new YES Club members and Advisors to join, and maintain their interest once they have become members. It would also
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help to create awareness amongst entrepreneurs in the country and encourage the support and interest of this community. In addition such exposure would assist EWET to develop a public credibility which would be valuable in helping the organisation to develop closer relationships with the DoL, DTI and other government bodies. Simama Ranta would provide an excellent platform for media exposure. One of the ways to do this would be to commission the making of a documentary following a team leading up to the competition. 5.6 FURTHERING A COLLABORATIVE RELATIONSHIP WITH UYF EWET needs to develop a closer, more collaborative working relationship with the UYF. The UYF has many useful contacts and relationships and has stature and credibility in government which EWET could benefit from. The UYF would be able to ‘open doors’ for EWET particularly in relation to helping EWET to set up a steering committee and to develop closer working relationships with other government Departments like the DoE. 5.7 REPORTING ON TIME In order to complete its reports on time EWET needs to develop a more user friendly and systematic method of data collection. Developing an integrated monitoring and evaluation system would enable EWET to do so.

5.8 INCREASING HUMAN RESOURCES One of the reasons why EWET has struggled to submit reports on time and complete outputs according to its scheduled time frames has been because of a shortage of staff on the ground. EWET needs more human resources - it needs to obtain additional funding to hire more staff. 5.9 MAINTAINING PROMPT INITIAL FOLLOW-UP VISITS EWET needs to maintain their prompt training follow-up system. Once a new YES Club is established at a school, its initial follow up visit must take place withinin the first three months. It is much easier to catch problems and deal with issues in the first few months of a clubs formation, before such problems become entrenched or escalate. For example this allows EWET to supply the societies with more material at an early stage if needed.

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5.10

MATERIAL

The addition of a glossary would assist learners and advisors with vocabulary and concepts they are not familiar with.

Figure 12: YES member hard at work creating products during the 2007 Simama Ranta

Figure 13: YES member hard at work creating products during the 2007 Simama Ranta

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6. LESSONS LEARNED

This chapter presents specific lessons learnt from the implementation of the YES programme during 2007. 6.1 PROGRAMME MODEL/METHODOLOGY • • The voluntary nature of the programme (teachers/advisors choose to become part of the programme) builds strong buy-in from advisors and schools. The pre-implementation work that EWET conducts with the potential beneficiary schools (building the relationship) develops a level of buy-in before the programme starts that mostly continues through implementation. • • The learner-centered approach and self-selection aspects promotes buy-in from learners. Having project associates in the communities where YES operates helps EWET react quicker to challenges presented in the field. This ‘on-the-ground’ contact builds relationships with communities and brings EWET closer to their beneficiaries. • The SIMAMA RANTA competition provides good incentive for learners, especially towards the end of the year. However the YES societies at a school level require more incentives in the short-term to motivate learners. 6.2 TRAINING AND FOLLOW-UP

Second intervention training shortly after the first training session is vital to keep advisor involvement and motivation high and to build on the initial skills imparted to advisors, thus entrenching these. 6.3 • • • • 6.4 WHAT DOES A SCHOOL NEED FOR EFFECTIVE IMPLEMENTATION? Support from school management Enough advisors in the programme Motivated learners and advisors Enough programme material. PROGRAMME MANAGEMENT

The strong commitment of EWET’s staff allows them to maintain programme implementation notwithstanding the fact that they are understaffed.
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6.5 • • •

MONITORING AND EVALUATION While EWET has embarked on developing a database of beneficiaries, the organisation does not have a systematic, standardised M&E system. Without an effective M&E system it is difficult to monitor the programme’s achievements accurately. A quasi-experimental longitudinal impact assessment would be of great benefit to track actual impact on learners.

6.6 • •

UYF’S ROLE Service providers may need UYF’s support in issues such as accreditation of material. UYF needs to play a more effective role in developing steering committees for the programme.

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7. COMPARISON BETWEEN EWET AND SAIE MODELS

Dimension Model

EWET Because the YES Club model is voluntary, its participants are selfselecting. This gives the programme a distinctive advantage over the Business VENTURES programme as this self-selection process results in more committed advisors and learners and hence more successful implementation than SAIE as participants apply to become YES members out of interest. In this way the model is able to bypass learners and advisors who would not be interested and focus on those who are. EWET is outspokenly process-driven. The YES model is activity-based, compared to many other entrepreneurship education programmes which are resource-based. In YES, skills are developed by providing basic instruction to participants. The main investment is in skills training rather than material provision and the model can be used in schools with very limited resources. SAIE is tacitly material-driven.

SAIE SAIE works through the District Department of Education in the Eastern Cape and Kwa-Zulu Natal who choose which schools should receive the BV programme. Teachers are then instructed to attend the BV training by their principals. Because they are not self-selecting, not all schools who are chosen are interested or motivated to implement the programme after the training.

BV is resource-driven. The BV kits are designed in such a way that each group in a class works on a different card with a different concept. It is clear that this is not appropriate to large classes and is a deterrent to teachers to use the material. Teachers who are successfully using the programme have adapted it so that they photocopy one work card and then get the whole class to work on the same card (in groups). This can halt use of the programme when schools do not have the necessary equipment to make copies of cards.

EWET is cognisant of its role as a “rural developer” and therefore ensures that materials and formats are all relevant to the context in which they operate. The model is based on clubs and societies setting their own implementation schedule, and is therefore appropriate in different contexts and is flexible in any context.

The BV model is based on the school curriculum for Business Science and Economic Management Studies and works within the school timetable. As it is designed to adhere to the same time-frames as the curriculum, there is less flexibility with regards to timeframes for the completion of each section of the programme. Case studies of local businesses, eg Nandos, KFC, MTN and Pick ‘n Pay, in the BV material were particularly noted as good because these businesses are well-known and learners in any context can relate to them.

Cost efficiency45

EWET cost per advisor is R8,858.00 for a start-up year (based on 127 advisors trained). As all the trained advisors implement the programme, this was the actual cost per advisor in 2007.

SAIE cost per teacher is R7,295 (based on 310 teachers). As there were 299 teachers trained in 2007, this fee goes up to R7,564.00 (205 trained in the Eastern Cape and 94 in KwaZulu-Natal). However, if one calculates the figure according to successfully implementing teachers – using the estimate of 60% (186 teachers) – this fee goes up to R12,159.00 per implementing teacher. Non-implementation therefore drastically influences the cost effectiveness of the programme, and therefore this risk needs to be mitigated for.

Effectiveness

EWET achieved or exceeded 18 of its 25 objectives in the SLA (about 72%), although some of these were achieved outside the timeframe for which they had been set. EWET exceeded its targets for:

SAIE exceeded or achieved a total of 12 out of 36 outcomes (33,3%). SAIE exceeded its targets for:

• • •
The selection of EMS and BS teachers and participating schools

List of participating schools in both the EC and KZN Distribution of 221 BV kits in EC

SAIE achieved its targets for:

We have been unable to obtain a specific figure of cost per teacher or Advisor for both the SAIE and EWET programmes. The figures given above have been obtained by taking the total amount of funding given to each project and dividing this by the actual number of teachers or advisors trained.

45

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• • •

The completion of training of 120 YES advisors in several different areas The successful implementation of YES programme at 40 schools The participation of 1800 learners in entrepreneurial competitions in the Free State.

• • • • •

Selecting learners in line with specific criteria for both EC and KZN Conducting teacher training sessions in KZN with a register Follow-up training workshops for teachers in both KZN and EC (although the response rate waa extremely low) Monthly and quarterly narrative and financial reported in both EC and KZN Interaction with stakeholders, donors and DoE

EWET achieved its targets for:

• • • • • • • • •

Integration with stakeholders and donors Monthly and quarterly financial and narrative reports Quarterly follow up workshops and reports Monthly school visits Positive change in the delivery of entrepreneurial programmes at schools Review visits by UYF and EWET Distribution of YES handbooks and teacher resource guides Selection and training of 120 YES advisors Selection of learners in line with the criteria SAIE only partially achieved the following targets

• • • • • • •

Selection of teachers for both EC and KZN Training leading to the acquisition of 14 credits for SAQA accreditation in EC and KZN Six Subject Advisors trained in BV over 5 days BV successfully implemented in 42 schools Quarterly school visits Positive change in the delivery of entrepreneurial programmes at schools in EC and KZN Teacher training sessions conducted with register in KZN Distribution of BV kits in KZN BV programme successfully implemented in 42 schools in KZN Monthly school visits and reports in KZN

EWET only partially achieved the following targets:

• • •

• •

Collaboration with the DoE, DoL and DTI Selection and training of YES advisors in Q2 for both YES facilitation and YES Office Assistance programmes

SAIE did not achieve the following outcomes: EWET did not achieve the following outcomes ;

• •
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Linkages with other UYF programmes in EC and KZN Monthly school visits and reports

Linkage with other UYF programmes

• •

Successfully setting up a steering committee Successful completion of tasks and demonstration of facilitation skills

• • • •

Establishment of steering committees in EC and KZN Programme launch and expansion to other schools in EC and KZN Successful completion of tasks and demonstration of facilitation skills in EC and KZN Quarterly school visits in KZN

Relevance

The programme is highly relevant to the needs in the communities in which it was implemented. The service provider is a sustainable non-profit organisation overall with a diverse source of funding (mainly multi-year agreements) and generates income apart from donor funding. Staffare confident that the programme would continue in the area if UYF were to withdraw their funding, but not at the same level as with UYF.

The programme is highly relevant to the needs in the communities in which it was implemented. The service provider is a sustainable non-profit organisation overall with a diverse source of funding (mainly multi-year agreements) and generates income apart from donor funding. The programme is sustainable even without UYF funding. If UYF were to stop their funding, the organisation would not stop operating in the designated areas, but would find a way to continue to support teachers that have already been trained. They would not, however, be able to expand the programme in these schools, e.g. provide Grade 11 and 12 BV kits.

Sustainability

The vast majority (71%) of trained advisors strongly agreed (21%) or agreed (50%) that they felt that they could continue using the YES material and running the YES clubs even if they received no more materials, training or support from EWET.

When asked whether they could continue using the Business Ventures material in their class even if they got no more materials, training or support from SAIE, only 11% strongly agreed (n=55). Encouragingly, a further 24% agreed that they could continue, but 47% disagreed or strongly disagreed, which indicates that SAIE needs to continue working with teachers who were trained in 2007.

Replicability

The YES programme is successfully operating in all provinces in South Africa and is therefore clearly replicable. Because the model is
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The programme is easy to replicate across schools and provinces because it aligns directly with the EMS and BS curriculum. This has

based on clubs and societies setting their own implementation schedule, it is appropriate in different contexts. Management Working relationships Managed effectively Further human resources would enhance programme management. EWET has close relationships with its beneficiary schools as the model puts emphasis and effort into developing a relationship with a school before they implement, as well as maintaining contact and relationships with teachers through local associates and fieldworkers. There is limited contact with learners at their schools, although EWET staff interact directly with learners through the competitions. Staff also sometimes make presentations about the YES programme to learners and teachers at schools. EWET has recently presented the YES programme to the DoE and it was well received; however they do not have good relationships with these officials in the Free State.

already been proven as the programme is being implemented in all nine provinces already. Managed effectively Further human resources would enhance programme management. SAIE fieldworkers do make some site visits and support schools telephonically. However, the emphasis is more on the material than the process and most contact is handled indirectly through the DoE in the area. Therefore, relationships with schools are not strong. SAIE has no direct contact with learners.

SAIE has close working relationships with DoE officials in the Eastern Cape and there is strong support from these officials. In KwaZulu Natal, this relationship is between the SAIE associate and the DoE and is good.

EWET and UYF generally have a good relationship, with flexibility on both sides. EWET has felt that UYF can be paternalistic and imposing at times, but the relationship is developing well as the two organisations get to know each other better. M&E systems Needs considerable development and programme would benefit from a longitudinal impact assessment (possibly using a quasi-experimental methodology) Material Is useful for acquiring the skills necessary to become an entrepreneur

SAIE and UYF do not have a good relationship – they both feel that the other is inflexible. This relationship needs to be developed for the sake of the expansion of the programme and to maximise the impact on beneficiaries and Needs considerable development and programme would benefit from a longitudinal impact assessment (possibly using a quasi-experimental methodology) Aligned to curriculum so provides a tool for quality education in EMS and BS, particularly for entrepreneurship.

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Outcomes

The programme has resulted in a range of positive and significant outcomes for both learners and advisors. Outcomes for learners include:

The programme has resulted in a range of positive and significant outcomes for both learners and teachers involved. Outcomes for learners include:

• • • • • • • • • • •

Increase in confidence and motivation An improvement in school performance Acquisition of entrepreneurial skills and knowledge Ability to work in a team Increased awareness of and positive attitude to entrepreneurship as a career The discovery of new or hidden talents An improvement in behaviour and discipline The identification and development of leadership skills YES members become role-models for other learners at school Some of started their own businesses and created jobs Ability to help other members of the community with their businesses

• • • • • • • •

Increase in confidence and motivation Improved school performance Acquisition of entrepreneurial skills and knowledge Development of research and analytical skills Increased belief and ability to start and manage own businesses Some entrepreneurial activation Increased levels of healthy competition Ability work in a team

Significant outcomes for teachers include:

• • •

Enhanced teaching ability Increased confidence Inspiring some teachers to start their own businesses

Significant outcomes for advisors include:

• • •

Broadened their career options Improved their teaching skills Personal development

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REFERENCES Department of Provincial and Local Government. 2008. Provincial Profiles. http://www.ndmc.gov.za/comp/Profiles/Provincial_Profiles/FS_Economy.htm

Education with Enterprise Trust website. 2008. http://www.ewet.org.za/ Free State Youth Commission. 2008. Youth poverty alleviation programmes & skills requirements. http://www.fsyc.org.za/programmes/porvalleviation.html Khoza, T. 2006. Umsobomvu Youth Fund. Mancom Submission for Implementation Grant. Youth Enterprise Society Programme by Enterprise with Education Trust – Free State. Maas, G and Herrington, M. 2006. University of Cape Town Graduate School of Business. Global Entrepreneurship Monitor. South African Report. Municipality of East London, King Williams Town and Bisho. 2008.

http://www.buffalocity.gov.za/business/province.stm Shay, D and Wood, E. 2005. GEM 2005 South Africa Report. Chapter 6. “Are South African Schools developing entrepreneurial skills?” Statistics South Africa. Census 2001 Statistics 3.html Statistics South Africa. 2007. Labour Force Survey. http://www.statssa.gov.za/publications/statskeyfindings.asp?PPN=P0210&SCH=4006 Statistics South Africa. 2007. Mid-year population estimates. http://www.statssa.gov.za/PublicationsHTML/P03022007/html/P03022007.html South Africa. 2006

http://www.statssa.gov.za/PublicationsHTML/P0210September2006/html/P0210September2006_2

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