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Subject: Business Communication and Report Writing Topic: Modern Technology in Business Communication Submitted To: Sir Ibrar

Anwer Submitted By: Muhammad Ali Contact:

We eat light; drink it in through our skins. With a little more exposure to light, you feel part of things physically. I like feeling the power of light and space physically because then you order it materially, seeing is a very sensuous act theres a sweet deliciousness to feeling yourself see something.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT When we start writing, we stop for while and think what to write? How to write? We have no words to express our feelings. But we have to write to offer our humblebees sense to

ALL MIGHTY ALLAH The most beneficial, gracious and merciful who enable us to perceive higher ideas of life and helped us throughout our life especially in writing this report and all blessing to His favorite PROPHET MUHAMMAD (PBUH) Who is the greatest personality of this universe? After God we owe our heartiest gratitude to our parents and our family whose prayers encouraged us to complete our task. We are also extremely thankful to all of our teachers for their sympathetic treatment, reward less help, precious suggestions, constant encouragement and personal interest and kind guideline that enable to write our report. At the end we shall like to thank all our teachers who always helped us in our studies when we needed we are also thankful to Mr. Ibrar Anwer


To our loving parents. To our honorable teachers. To our lovely Pakistani people. To all those who served and sacrifice for Islam and to those students of our university (IIUI) who sacrifice for our university and for the sake of knowledge. y To all my class members. y y y y


We hereby, declare that, neither as a whole nor a part of this project report has been copied out from any source. The information provided in this project report is based on the data received from the web and from personal resources. It is further declared that we have completed this project report on the basis of our personal efforts and under the sincere guidance and supervision of our teacher Mr. Ibrar Anwer

In the workplace of the future, you may send and receive dozens of messages, interview a candidate for a position in your company through a videoconference, write a report to your manager regarding a new initiative, and download several company files for analysis, all from a PC in your home office or from your laptop if you are not at home. The electronic revolution is changing the way we

communicate, and these changes include formats and conventions of written communication. In the more traditional forms of written communication, your receiver will form an impression of you based on the overall appearance and format of the message. Your cover letter enclosed with your resume when you apply for a job will communicate something about you even before your receiver reads a word of it. This chapter is a brief overview of both the traditional formats of written communication, such as letters and memos, and the newer communication styles developing as a result of the exploding technology.

BUSINESS COMMUNICATION AND TECHNOLOGY Introduction Todays business relies heavily on technology to improve the communication process. Companies and employees who use technology wisely can communicate more effectively and therefore compete more successfully. Anyone who has used a computer knows that the benefits of technology are not automatic. Poorly designed or inappropriate used technology can hinder

communication more than it helps. To communicate effectively, learn to keep technology in perspective, use of technological tool productively, spend time and money on technology wisely, and disengage from the computer frequently to communicate in person. Technology changes the communication trend in the organization. As all of us know that globalization as a business trend has been realized by international trade agreements such as the European Union, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), and the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). This has resulted in a worldwide market in which organizations must compete. Outsourcing of secondary activities is another business trend. Organizations concentrate on their core business and specialize in main activities to reduce costs. This is a consequence of operating in a turbulent environment. Turbulence consists of two components: instability and randomness. Instability refers to the frequency of change. Randomness refers to the unpredictability of both the frequency and direction of change the focus has shifted to the emergence of new ways of doing business. Examples of this include the introduction of electronic trading markets, electronic auctions, and electronic bookstores. ICT has developed from a minor force supporting the organizational processes into a dominant force for shaping these processes. So how these changing trends in the world affect the communication process in our selected organization. An appreciation and understanding of technology majors preferences for business communication tasks and tools in the workplace will aid current business educators in obtaining a barometer of the perceptions that technology majors hold concerning their future roles in business communications. Educators can use this information to clear up many of the common misperceptions techies may have in relation to these roles in the workplace. These facts or fallacies concerning business communications will better prepare technology majors for business. Research has revealed that people in the technology industry often feel that business communications will not be a part of their daily responsibility. Successful teachers know that students learn best when they view what they are learning as relevant. Teachers can create Technology Majors Preference learning environments that stimulate students' enthusiasm for learning if they can relate topics taught in school to career or life goals of students. If technology students become aware of their preferences for business communications and the importance in their future careers, they may gain a greater appreciation of these tools for use in their future.

Objectives o Recognize and interpret the importance of communication, the basic communication process, and the impact technology has on communication. o Explain how participation in career and technology education organizations can promote lifelong responsibility for community service and professional development o Identify and describe new and emerging technological advances within our society including voice mail, pagers, cellular phones, fax, e-mail, Internet, and telecommuting What is Business Communication? As the term suggests, business communication includes all communication that occurs in a business context. Knowledge of business communication presupposes an understanding of both business and communication. That's a lot of territory. Although courses in business communication have their roots in the business English and business correspondence courses common in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centurys business communication has evolved over the years into a broad discipline providing an overview of all communication that occurs in organizational settings. As a discipline, business communication draws on linguistics, semantics, rhetoric, psychology, sociology, graphic design, management, marketing, economics, and information technology. For this reason, different authors typically select specific aspects of communication in business on which to focus. The following related areas of study have evolved over time:

 Managerial Communication: The term, managerial communication, usually refers to an emphasis on communication strategies for achieving specific short-term objectives.  Organizational Communication: Organizational communication usually refers to established communication networks and the communication flow within organizations.

 Human Relations and Team Building: Over the past 30 years or so, business and industry have increasingly recognized the importance of good interpersonal communication between and among those who work together. Such skills are also important to the success of customer relations programs and strategic alliances. By whatever name, courses on these topics typically cover the fundamentals of understanding other people, differences in perception, differences in motivation and other common behavioral strategies, establishing rapport, developing mutual respect, and reaching consensus.  Sales Communication: Sales communication includes all communication specifically designed to produce sales, from media-based advertising, to telephone solicitation, to directmail advertising.  Report Writing: As the term suggests, report writing focuses on written reports, typically including everything from short, informational memos to letter reports (basically long letters that include headings and other report-writing techniques), to complete analytical reports. Books on this subject often include the fundamentals of primary and secondary research, techniques for data analysis, and analytical and presentation graphics.  Communication Technology and Electronic Communication: Whether word processing, page layout and graphic design, electronic mail (email), electronic conferencing, Internet-based services, audio or video conferencing, or multimedia presentations, the technology we use to communicate information technology has changed radically over the past few years. These changes, especially since the advent of the computer, have altered the way we think about communication, and we have yet to see the end of these changes. The ways in which information (computer) technologies and other communication technologies, such as enhanced telephone services, are becoming increasingly interdependent is typically referred to as digital convergence or technological convergence. Car phones, cell phones, and pagers help ensure that one can communicate from virtually anywhere to virtually anywhere else at any time, and email has recently become the principal means of exchanging written communication. As the volume of communication increases, the chance of information overload also increases, which reduces the impact of individual messages.

 International Communication: International communication, also referred to as intercultural communication, focuses on the ways in which cultural differences influence communication expectations and behavior, including the length of time it takes to establish business and personal relationships, differences in the conception of time itself, differences in nonverbal communication, and differences in perceptions as they are influenced by language and culture. Role of Technology in Business Communication Modern business requires modern technology. Any business that expects to thrive today must have at least a basic understanding of the various innovations, programs and devices as well as the knowledge of how to apply these technologies. The many tools and powers that technology makes available to the business owner and employees can help the business succeed in its goals after understanding how to use them properly.

 Collaboration Before anything else, work can be done collaborating projects and documents using such computer programs such as Google Docs, Zoho Writer and, to a lesser extent, MS Word, which allows several users to work on a single document while placing changes/descriptions and even modifying the document in real-time. While the ideal of a "paperless office" is still a few years away, businesses can use the Internet or internal programs to spur real-time work on projects so businesses can quickly finish what is needed to succeed.  Telephony Sometimes, businesses need to make conference calls bringing several people together and technology can help here too. Programs such as Skype or Gizmo Project offer Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) services that allow individuals and businesses to call places all over the world for prices much cheaper than regular landline services. Microsoft pointed out that a Forrester study done in 2006 showed that 17 percent of businesses made converting to VoIP a priority, with another 18 percent already using VoIP to some degree. VoIP allows businesses to be in near-constant communication with employees and others at a fraction of a cost.

 Online Media Sites such as YouTube see millions of hits a day, with online video and audio becoming extremely prevalent on websites. Businesses can capitalize by making their own media. Companies can create in-house advertisements for use on websites, webinars on the use of products that can further communicate between businesses and their consumers, and provide education. These forms of media are also available nearly 24 hours a day, so think of them as day-long commercials for your business.  Social Media With the rise of social networks such as Face book, MySpace, Digg and others, a form of crowd-based media known as social media has emerged. Businesses can take advantage of social media as another aspect of business communication, by performing such tasks as creating profiles on social networks, submitting online media to sites such as Dig, and using websites like Twitter to answer consumer questions. Many businesses have already jumped on the social media bandwagon, with some (Microsoft and Wal-Mart in particular) having experimented with their own social networks.  Automation You can also automate certain tasks. Years ago, sending an email of a document or backing up a computer required extensive time, thus reducing productivity. Backups can be done today with a mere click of a button and automatic emails can be sent on a routine schedule with a minimum of work. A company that works automation to its fullest advantage can concentrate on more important tasks at hand, while reducing cost and increasing productivity in the workplace, as well as optimizing success for the business itself. Technological tools of communication Communication technologies can save time and money, but they can also waste if not used properly and efficiently. You dont have to become an expert to use most communication technologies efficiently, but you will need to be familiar with the basic features and functions of the tools you are expected to use on the job. As a manager, you will also need to ensure that your employees have sufficient training to productively use the tools you expect them to use. The tools for business communication evolve with every new generation of digital technology. Selecting the right tools for each situation can enhance your business

communication in many ways. In today flexible office setting, communication technology helps people keep in touch and stay productive. When co-worker in different cities needs to collaborate, they can meet and share ideas without costly travel. Manufactures use communication technology to keep track parts, orders and shipment and to keep customer well informed. Those same customers can also communicate with companies in many ways at any time of day or night Intranets

y Saving Money and Time Communication technology has changed the way companies do business. It has shortened response times and reduced the costs of paper and phone bills. Costumer service has also changed. In many cases, you no longer have to wait for hours on a telephone; you can chat on-line with representatives to solve problems faster. Businesses now market their products and services through emails and texts. Businesses can even hold visual meetings on-line, from opposite parts of the world, something that was impossible only a few years ago.

y Knowledge Communication technology puts the world at your fingertips. Being able to communicate faster and cheaper with other countries makes people more knowledgeable about world affairs. You can now enroll in an online university or college, and talk with your professor through the internet. People are able to instantly pass on important information during emergencies and disasters. y Personal People can converse almost as well as if they were in the same room no matter where they are. All the little tasks that were hard to coordinate before the advent of electronic communications now become every day. This makes you more efficient and more productive.

y Business A lot of businesses would be impossible or much less efficient without modern communications technology. Service businesses are the most obvious. The pizza or lo Mein is much more likely to arrive hot if customer, dispatcher and customer can

easily communicate. Plumbers and electricians can not only get to the right place quickly but can order new supplies and ask technical questions easily. Communication improves every business that is information intensive and time critical. y Civil The days when criminals can outrun the law are over. Broadcast technology makes it possible to inform citizens about disasters and emergencies. The number of lives saved by satellite reconnaissance and TV technology in hurricane regions is enormous. Similar results in tornado regions come from two other communication marvels radio and Doppler radar. A wired society can function more smoothly. y Sharing Information The Internet has helped broaden communication channels by connecting people all over the world through a single computer network. But before the development of mobile communication devices, the information still needed to be transported back to a computer before it could be sent out over the Internet. With hand-held communications devices, business professionals can instantly share information with clients and vendors regardless of where they are, and friends can share photographs and messages instantly without having to wait until they are logged in to a computer. y Less down Time Because many business professionals are connected to clients and business associates through cellular devices, there is no down time anymore. Business managers, small business owners and professionals are always on call to clients because of the ability of clients to reach business professionals through cellular phone calls, texting or emails. The same mobile communication tools that can make business easier, can also make business a burden when they take away time off.


Aspects of goods & services

Coordination Structure
Use of ict Support

Inter organizational Coordination Structures

The need for coordination arises as a logical consequence for the division of labor in and between organizations (Mintzberg, 1993). A general definition of coordination is proposed by Malone and Crows ton (1994): coordination is managing dependencies. Several mechanisms are available to manage dependencies. Several authors describe coordination processes [e.g. Kumar, 1996; Malone and Crowston, 1994; Mintzberg, 1993; Thompson, 1967; Winograd & Flores, 1986). Processes are, however, not the only mechanisms to achieve coordination. The structure of a group of organizations can also be seen as a mechanism for coordinating activities (Jablin, 1987). The focus of this paper is on coordination structures. A structure, at an abstract level, can be viewed as a collection of elements and the set of relationships that connect these elements (Monge & Eisenberg, 1987). In an inter organizational coordination structure, the elements are the organizations. The relationships between those organizations can be associated with different perspectives such as dyads, chains, industries, and networks (Clegg and Hardy, 1996; Kambil, 1992). These perspectives are visualized in figure 2. Organizations that are members of the same type of industry are labeled with the same letter in this figure. The goods or services flow from A to C. Dyad.


The dyad perspective refers to the relationship between two organizations, a supplier and a buyer. The dyad perspective was not considered since the chain optimized as a whole will be better off than a set of optimized dyads (Sterman, 1989). Chain. The dyad perspective can be extended to the chain perspective by incorporating the supplier of the supplier and so on; a chain consists of two or more dyads. The chain is thus the sequence of primary processes associated with the transformation of the good from raw materials through to the finished product for the final customer. Industry. The industry refers to relationships based on competition. Organizations in the same industry offer products or services that are close substitutes (Kotler, 1994; Porter, 1980). The structure of an industry depends on several characteristics such as concentration, level of product differentiation, and barriers to entry (Barney & Hesterly, 1996). Network. The network perspective stresses the web that is created by all the interdependencies between the processes of different organizations, including competitive relationships as in the industry and supplier- buyer relationships as in chains. The chain perspective was used in this research as a temporary arrangement of organizations in a network. This is explained by the theory of dynamic networks and temporary chains (Jarvenpaa & Ives, 1994; Miles & Snow, 1992). A chain is an arrangement of organizations in a network for the fulfillment of a customer order. After fulfillment, the chain can be dissolved and the organizations in the network are ready to form new chains. There are many different types of inter organizational coordination structures, but they can be categorized into two basic coordination structures (Malone et al., 1987; Thompson et al., 1991). A hierarchical coordination structure is characterized by

long lasting relationships between organizations with fixed rules of behavior and clear authority relationships. One organization has control over the other organizations. The market as a structure coordinates organizations via bidding and pricing systems. In a real market organizations have to build a relationship for every new customer order. All organizations are fully autonomous and make decisions in their own interest. Market coordination relies mainly on price mechanisms, while hierarchical coordination mainly uses authority and other procedural coordination processes. The dichotomy of markets and hierarchies is not as sharp as it may seem. The actual mix of coordination mechanisms to be used in practice can be characterized as hybrid (Powell, 1991). Hybrids vary between the extremes of pure markets and pure structures are insufficient. A more detailed prediction should be possible than saying that the use of ICT may lead to proportionally extra use of markets (Malone et al., 1987). Four aspects of coordination structures are identified for this purpose: Centralized versus decentralized, dominated versus neutral, the number of participants, and long term versus short term agreements. Markets can be characterized as neutral, with a large number of participants, and with short term agreements. Strict hierarchies have a dominated structure, often with a few participants, and with long term agreements. Both markets and hierarchies can be centralized or decentralized, although Brynjolfsson (1994) states that mostly centralized coordination will optimally take place within hierarchies. 1. Coordination structures can be classified into decentralized and centralized structures (Malone & Crowston, 1994). In a decentralized structure, all buyers are able to contact all sellers to negotiate transactions, whereas in a centralized structure transactions between buyers and sellers are negotiated indirectly through a broker. Different types of centralized structures can be distinguished when taking into account on whose behalf the broker operates: on behalf of a buyer, on behalf of a group of buyers, on behalf of a seller, on behalf of a group of sellers, or independently of both buyers and sellers. The types of centralized and decentralized structures are presented in table 1.


Centralized Seller One seller
Buyer decentralized Centralized One buyer Centralized Centralized Group of buyers Centralized Centralized

One seller
Centralized Centralized Centralized

Table 1: Classification of coordination structures 2. The aspect of the coordination structure being dominated or neutral takes into consideration the power of setting prices and rules (Bodendorf & Reinheimer, 1997). In a dominated structure, one organization sets the prices and rules and it is up to the other organization either to accept this or not to agree on the deal. In contrast, a neutral structure enables organizations to introduce their prices and rules and to negotiate them among each other. 3. The third aspect takes into consideration the number and can vary between one organization and the total number of buyers or sellers in the network. A distinction is made between the number of participants in the network with whom agreements are negotiated and the number of participants with whom agreements are settled to form a chain. The number of participants in the network taken into account can influence the results of the negotiations (Kalakota & Whinston, 1996; Porter, 1980): the more participants that take part in the negotiations, the better supply and demand can be coordinated. Williamson (1975) argues that while the number of participants is high the first time negotiations take place between the participants, it is often much lower in renewal stages. The number of participants with whom an agreement is settled can be lower than the number with who is being negotiated. 4. Organizations make agreements about a certain good or service. This agreement could be valid for once only (short term) or for a longer period of time in which the good or service is required more than once (long term) (Williamson, 1985).


Organization selected
Private organization: Bank of Pakistan Online Banking facilities are available to customers maintaining accounts at all online branches across the country. The following facilities are available: y y y y Cash Deposit for immediate credit to a remote branch. Remote Cheque Encashment from any online branch. Instant Funds Transfer between any 2 online branches. Remote Balance Inquiry and Statement of Account.

Additionally, account holders of all online branches can obtain the Allied Cash Shop Visa Debit Card for use at ATMs as well as at POS terminals. To locate a branch simply select the city Consumer: In line with the Banks aim to provide a host of products and services to its customers, substantial ground work has been done to establish a strong consumer banking business. Furthermore, to achieve this objective, professionals from across the industry have been recruited into areas of product development, sales, credit policy, research, consumer analytics, call centers and service quality departments The consumer portfolio, comprising the debit card, credit cards, auto loans, personal loans and mortgages will be established phase by phase. However, we are confident that our strengths, together with our largest network of online branches, a superior technology platform and a big customer base, will take the Banks profitability to new heights.

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Secure and Faster: Encrypted with latest tools and technologies, Allied Direct is the choice for secure and fast Internet Banking. 24x7 Accesses: You now have access to your account 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. You can transfer funds or pay bills, even when it's a holiday. To use Allied Direct Internet Banking, you should be a registered Bank Account holder with a valid ATM Card. If you do not have an account, please visit any of our nearest branches and open your account and obtain an ATM Card. Our friendly branch staff will help you open your account quickly. Pay Anyone: Pay Anyone Service that fits your Lifestyle. !! Pay anyone is a new addition in the features list of our Allied Direct Internet Banking Service. You can send Bank has a vast network of over 573 ATMs installed in over 130 cities, which continues to grow at a rapid pace. For details about Allied ATM Network Network: Additionally, Bank is a member of the 1-LINK ATM sharing switch comprising of over 2,000 ATMs nationwide, therefore, giving its Allied Cash Shop Visa Debit Card holders access to even more ATMs across the country. Utility Bills: Customers can pay their utility bills (e.g. electricity, gas, telephone) at any of the Banks branches. For further convenience, bills are collected on all working days during normal banking hours and also at certain times during the evening. Bills can be paid with cash or cheque, plus customers can even drop crossed cheques in drop-boxes available at all branches. Furthermore, customers can also pay their bills using any of the Banks ATMs or via Internet Banking for SSGC and SNGP bills. Online Banking:

No matter where you are in the country and whichever branch your account is maintained at, you can have your cheque cashed at any of our over 800 online branches located in 250 cities. You can also use the service, from any branch, to deposit cash for instant credit into your account or any other account in Bank. Similarly, the account-to-account Funds Transfer facility is also available for instant remittance. Online Commercial & Retail Banking Group (CRBG) The Commercial & Retail Banking group is organized under four geographical territories consisting of 28 regions and over 800 branches (100% online) spread across the country for providing quality banking services to the customers. Suggestions, Enquiries & Requests: At Bank, we strive to maximize customer satisfaction by providing the highest quality of services. We are constantly looking for opportunities to improve the standard of the services provided to the customers.

Disadvantages of Business Communication Technology

Information technology has enhanced the way organizations conduct business. Technology is commonly implemented into most business operations and functions. A common use of information technology is business communication. Businesses use websites, email, text messages, chatting and other forms of technological communication channels to transfer information to managers, employees and the general public. While this technology has lowered operating costs and often increases the business visibility, a few disadvantages exist with this technology. Impersonal Perception A significant disadvantage of business communication technology is the perception that a business is impersonal. Consumers who are consistently peppered with electronic communication from business organizations are more likely to have this perception. Businesses often use this method of communication to respond to consumer inquiries about orders placed on the company website. Consumers attempting to contact a business who are unable to reach a human being may become frustrated by electronic communication methods. Employees may also see

electronic communication as impersonal if they only receive messages from managers or other employees through email. Email can also create confusion requiring employees to seek more feedback than normal compared to more personal communication methods. Security Issues Using business technology in communication can create various security issues. Emails, text messages and other website communication are often vulnerable to hackers or other individuals who should not have access to certain information. These security issues can create serious legal liabilities if a customer personal information, such as a credit card number, social security number or driver license is accessed by illegal means through a company business technology. Companies must also create internal controls to safeguard information from inappropriate actions by company employees. Equipment Expense Companies typically have to purchase additional equipment to implement business communication technology into its operations. Personal computers, servers, modems and other software or hardware are often necessary components. A business may also need to replace this equipment in a few years to maintain relevance in the business environment. Business communication technology also requires companies to employ an individual capable of handling repair or maintenance issues. While this function can be outsourced, this option is usually more costly than hiring a dedicated information technology employee. Difficulty Training Employees Businesses can face difficulty training older employees to use business communication technology methods. These individuals may have a difficult time understanding the technology and how these processes work. Businesses may need to spend copious amounts of time or resources to train these individuals so that they can use this technology to communicate with internal and external business stakeholders. Hiring practices often need to be adjusted to ensure new potential employees are familiar with the company business communication technology.


Websites Searched
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Books Consulted  Effective Business Communication by Herta A. Murphy, Herbert W. Hildebrandt, Jane P. Thomas, Chapter 7: The Appearance and Design of Business Message  Communication for Business, 4th Edition by Taylor UNIT 4: Introducing the Business Letters  Essentials of Business Communication (By Mary Ellen Guffey, Dana Loewy Markel, Mike)  Technical Communication 6th ed. Boston: Bedford/St. Martins  Business Letters by Gratian Vas