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CAP 201

Assignment 1
Course Code : CAP 201 Course Instructor : LECT RAMANDEEP KAUR

Date of submission : 21-01-2012 Students Roll No: RD1002 Declaration: I declare that this Assigment is my individual work. I have not copied from any other students work or from any other source except where due acknowledgment is made explicitly in the text, nor has any part been written for me by another person. Students Signature : RD1002B58 Section No. :

Prashant singh
Evaluators comments: ______________________________________________________

CAP 201

Q1: What drawbacks present in Open System Interconnection model lead to the development and implementation of TCP/ IP Model? Answer- Disadvantages of OSI style that lead to the development and rendering of TCP/IP odel are as follows: Due to the complexness of the system poor performance is acquired, especially in some real-time programs. Direct alternative of levels is not always possible e.g. if a LAN with transmitted functionality is loaded below a system method that did not support this ability, then this service would be lost to the higher levels. Although defending equipment from becoming outdated it at the same time prevents technical progression. OSI referrals is incapable to deal up with tv television and stations system. OSI style has the method which past system models had trouble in internet social media with r / c stations and tv television system. So a new style was required which has the functionality of attaching several system together. This was done by the TCP/IP style. The major variations between the two designs are as follows: 1.OSI is a referrals style and TCP/IP is an rendering of OSI style. 2.TCP/IP Methods are regarded to be requirements around which the internethas designed. The OSI style however is a "generic, protocol-independent conventional." 3.TCP/IP includes the display and time coating concerns into itsapplication coating. 4.TCP/IP includes the OSI information website and actual levels into the system accessibility coating. 5.TCP/IP seems to be a easier style and this is mainly because of the truth thatit has less levels. 6.TCP/IP is regarded to be a more reliable model- This is mainly due to thefact because TCP/IP protocols are the requirements around which the internetwas designed therefore it mainly profits creditability due to thisreason. Where as in comparison systems are not usually designed around the OSImodel as it is merely used as a assistance device. 7.The OSI style involves 7 structural levels whereas the TCP/IP onlyhas 4 levels.

CAP 201

Q:2 Why there is a need of networking? If we need to establish a network of 30 computers which topology would you adopt and why? Answer- There is a need of social press because, if we have to convey with each other we need a interaction between two and more and this interaction will be founded with the help of social press. With the help of social press we research various different methods of interaction with each other we research that by using which topology and which interaction press we type a system so that we can reveal our details with each others. There are many benefits of social press which reveals the our need of social press and they are as follows: Increased Storage Capacity- As there is more than one pc on a program which can easily reveal details, the issue of shed prospective gets resolved to a large. A individual pc might are failed of shed storage, but when many pcs are on a program, shed of different pcs can be used in such case. One can also style an outbuilding web host hosting server on the program in order to have a enormous shed prospective. Increased Cost Efficiency- There are many program available in the market which are very pricey and spend some time for set up. Pc techniques take care of this issue as the program can be stored or set up on a program or a web host hosting server and can be used by the different perform channels. Resource Sharing: Resource providing is also an important advantage of a program. For example, if there are four people in a family, each having their own pc, they will need four places (for the Internet connection) and four designs, if they want to use the alternatives as well. A program, on the other hand, provides a less costly substitute by the offer of source providing. In this way, all the four pcs can be linked, using a program, and just one system and publishing system can effectively offer the services to all four affiliates. The capability of spread details can also be used by near family members.

File Sharing: The significant benefits of a program is that is allows computer computer file providing and mobile portable remote management control computer computer file accessibility. A person placed at one workplace of a program can easily see the details provide on the other work station, offered he is certified to do so. It will save the time which is misused in duplicating a computer file from one system to another, by using a hard drive. Moreover to that, many people can accessibility or upgrade the details saved in a data source, making it up-to-date and precise.

CAP 201

Star Topology In a star topology, each network device has a home run of cabling back to a network hub, giving each device a separate connection to the network. If there is a problem with a cable, it will generally not affect the rest of the network. The most common cable media in use for star topologies is unshielded twisted pair copper cabling. Category 3 is still found frequently in older installations. It is capable of 10 megabits per second data transfer rate, making it suitable for only 10 BASE T Ethernet. Most new installations use Category 5 cabling. It is capable of data transfer rates of 100 megabits per second, enabling it to employ 100 BASE T Ethernet, also known as Fast Ethernet. More importantly, the brand new 1000 BASE T Ethernet standard will be able to run over most existing Category 5. Finally, fiber optic cable can be used to transmit either 10 BASE T or 100 BASE T Ethernet frames. Two variations of the star topology used by most larger Ethernet networks today are the star bus and star tree topologies. Essentially, the star bus topology has multiple data closets interconnected by bus trunk lines of thin net, while the star tree topology links multiple data closets with twisted pair or fiber optic. These types of network topologies allow a network to cover a much larger physical area. There are size limitations to star topologies utilizing Ethernet. The maximum number of network devices is 1,024 and the maximum number of data closets is four. When using Category 3 or 5 twisted pair cabling, individual cables cannot exceed 100 meters. In regard to total network length, the maximum when linking data closets with twisted pair is 500 meters between the furthest two devices. If multi-mode fiber optic is used to link closets, then the distance between closets can be up to 2,000 meters.

CAP 201

The advantages of star network topology are:

It is very easy to install and manage star network topology as it is the simplest of the lot when it comes to functionality. It is easy to troubleshoot this network type as all computers are dependent on the central hub which invariably means that any problem which leaves the network inoperable can be traced to the central hub. In star topology, the data packets don't have to make their way through various nodes which makes sure that the data transfer is fast. At the same time, the fact that the data packets only make it through three different points ensures that the data is safe. As the nodes are not connected to each other, any problem in one node doesn't hamper the performance of other nodes in the network. Adding new machines or replacing the old ones is a lot easy in this network topology, as disruption of the entire network is not required to facilitate the same.

The disadvantages of star network topology are:

The foremost problem with star network topology is the fact that it is highly dependent on the functioning of central hub. The size of the network is dependent on how many connections can be made to the hub. This network type requires more cable as compared to linear bus topology which means the expenses incurred would be relatively high.

CAP 201

The performance of the entire network is directly dependent on the performance of the hub. If the server is slow, it will cause the entire network to slow down. If one of the numerous nodes utilizes a significant portion of the central hub's processing capability, it will reflect on the performance of other nodes.

Q:3 Which are the transmission media available in the market? Which one is the most appropriate to establish a connection between two LANs in two different buildings? Why? Answer- A laptop or computer system, often simply generally known as a system, is a selection of elements components and laptop or computer systems connected by interaction programs that allow giving of options and information. The following are the indication press available in the market:-

a. Twisted Pair b. Coaxial Cable c. Optical Fiber Twisted Pair The wires in twisted pair cabling are twisted together in pairs. Each pair consists of a wire used for the +ve data signal and a wire used for the -ve data signal. Any noise that appears on 1 wire of the pair will also occur on the other wire. Because the wires are opposite polarities, they are 180 degrees out of phase (180 degrees - phasor definition of opposite polarity). When the noise appears on both wires, it cancels or nulls itself out at the receiving end. Twisted pair cables are most effectively used in systems that use a balanced line method of transmission: polar line coding (Manchester Encoding) as opposed to unipolar line coding (TTL logic).

CAP 201

Coaxial Cable Coaxial cable consists of two conductors. The inner conductor is held inside an insulator with the other conductor woven around it providing a shield. An insulating protective coating called a jacket covers the outer conductor.

Coaxial Cable The outer shield protects the inner conductor from outside electrical signals. The distance between the outer conductor (shield) and inner conductor plus the type of material used for insulating the inner conductor determine the cable properties or impedance. Typical impedances for coaxial cables are 75 ohms for Cable TV, 50 ohms for Ethernet Thinnet and Thicknet. The excellent control of the impedance characteristics of the cable allow higher data rates to be transferred than with twisted pair cable.

Communications satellites The satellites use microwave radio as their telecommunications medium which are not deflected by the Earth's atmosphere. The satellites are stationed in space, typically 35,400 km (22,000 mi) (for geosynchronous satellites) above the equator. These Earth-orbiting systems are capable of receiving and relaying voice, data, and TV. Wireless LANs Wireless local area network use a high-frequency radio technology similar to digital cellular and a low-frequency radio technology. Wireless LANs use spread spectrum technology to enable communication between multiple devices in a limited area. . Infrared communication can transmit signals between devices within small distances of typically no more than 10 m.

CAP 201

It all will depend on the quantity of information you need to exchange from one developing to another i.e. If very less:- Infra-red interaction would be the best as it is less expensive and simple to generate. If regular data:- we can use Wifi LANs as they a more appropriate and shorter difficult to exchange the information. If hefty data:- We can use microwaves or interaction satellite because the information that needs to be transmitted is very essential and hefty in dimension. This type of press is more costly but very powerful than any other type of wireless press. Q:4 The data link layer of OSI reference model ensures the correct receipt of the data packets to the destination. Prove the above statement to be true with appropriate reasons. Answer Open Systems Interconnect (OSI) style was designed by the Worldwide Requirements Company (ISO) and allows to find how the features of the methods hook up with each other. By displaying how the features hook up, we'll determine how the components of the method collection go to let models to successfully convey. As we look at the OSI style, keep in mind it is just a conceptwe don't actually see it when two serves work together. The style, however, is the conventional and to convey we must stick to the conventional. If both pcs trying to determine marketing and sales communications are designed according to the conventional, marketing and sales communications will take place. If they're not, you may end up getting mistake mail messages, fall short to initialize services, or you may get no marketing and sales communications at all.

The OSI model contains seven layers:

Application Layer. Presentation Layer. Session Layer. Transport Layer. Network Layer. Data link Layer. Physical Layer.

CAP 201

Q:5 why do we call internet as a connectionless Network? Give reasons to support your answer. Answer- The internet is one big connectionless supply system in which all supply supply are managed by IP. However, TCP contributes connection-oriented solutions on top of IP. TCP provides all the upper-level connection-oriented time demands to make sure that information is provided effectively. MPLS is a relatively new connectionoriented marketing structure for IP systems that places up quick label-switched routes across sent or coating 2 systems. A WAN assistance that uses the connection-oriented style is shape communicate. The company places up PVCs (permanent exclusive circuits) through the system as necessary or expected by the client. ATM is another marketing technological innovation that uses the connection-oriented exclusive routine strategy. Q:6 Compare the transmission speed and quality of optical fibre and the broadband coaxial cable. Answer Coaxial cable is the kind of copper cable used by cable TV companies between the community antenna and user homes and businesses. Coaxial cable is sometimes used by telephone companies from their central office to the telephone poles near users. It is also widely installed for use in business and corporation Ethernet and other types of LAN

Coaxial cable is called "coaxial" because it includes one physical channel that carries the signal surrounded (after a layer of insulation) by another concentric physical channel, both running along the same axis. The outer channel serves as a ground. Many of these cables or pairs of coaxial tubes can be placed in a single outer sheathing and, with repeaters, can carry information for a great distance. Coaxial cable was invented in 1929 and first used commercially in 1941. AT&T established its first cross-continental coaxial transmission system in 1940. Depending on the carrier technology used and other factors, twisted copper wire and optical fiber are alternatives to coaxial cable.

CAP 201

Fiber optics

)A technology that uses glass (or plastic) threads (fibers) to transmit data. A fiber optic cable consists of a bundle of glass threads, each of which is capable of transmitting messages modulated onto light waves. Fiber optics has several advantages over traditional metal communications lines: Fiber optic cables have a much greater bandwidth than metal cables. This means that they can carry more data.

Fiber optic cables are less susceptible than metal cables to interference. Fiber optic cables are much thinner and lighter than metal wires.

Data can be transmitted digitally (the natural form for computer data) rather than analogically.

The main disadvantage of fiber optics is that the cables are expensive to install. In addition, they are more fragile than wire and are difficult to splice. Fiber optics is a particularly popular technology for local-area networks . In addition, telephone companies are steadily replacing traditional telephone lines with fiber optic cables. In the future, almost all communications will employ fiber optics. Q:7 How we are using a Public switched telephone networks to carry all our digital contents? Also explain the hardware requirements. Answer- The public switched telephone network (PSTN) is the system of the community circuit-switched phone systems. It involves phone lines, fibre optic cords, indication links, cellular systems, marketing and sales communications satellite, and underwater phone cords, all inter-connected by switching companies, thus allowing any phone in the world to communicate with any other. Initially a system of fixed-line example phone, the PSTN is now almost entirely digital in its core and includes mobile as well as set phones.

CAP 201

Network topology PSTN network topology

The PSTN system structure had to change over the years to assist more and more members, calls, relationships to other nations around the world, immediate dialling and so on. The style designed by the US and North america was implemented by other nations around the world, with variations for regional marketplaces. The unique idea was that the phone deals are organized into hierarchies, so that if a call cannot be managed in a regional group, it is approved to one greater up for forward course-plotting. This decreased the number of attaching trunks required between employees over long ranges and also kept regional traffic individual. However, in contemporary systems the cost of indication and devices is reduced and, although hierarchies still are available, they are much slimmer, with perhaps only two levels. Digital channels Telephone exchange As described above, most computerized phone deals now use electronic transferring rather than technical or example transferring. The trunks attaching the deals are also electronic, known as tour or programs. However example two-wire tour are still used to connect the last kilometer from the exchange to the phone in the home (also known as the local loop). To carry a typical contact from a calling celebration to a known as celebration, the example audio indication is scanned at an 8 kHz example rate with 8-bit image resolution using a special type of nonlinear rhythm code modulation . The contact is then sent from one end to another via phone deals. The contact is moved using a contact set up method between the phone deals under an overall course-plotting strategy. The contact is carried over the PSTN using a 64 Kbit/s route, initially designed by Gong Laboratories.

CAP 201