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Project Scope Planning

Khalid Ahmad Khan, PE, PMP

Head of PMU Planning & Development Department Government of Punjab Lahore, Pakistan

Topic 1: Project Scope
Exercise 1 Scope Definition Exercise 2 Scope Definition ADB Study on Scope

Topic 2: Work Breakdown Structure

Exercise 3 WBS

Wrap-up Q&A

Topic 1
Project Scope

Defining the Project Scope

The work that needs to be accomplished to deliver a product, service or results with the specified features and functions. PMI PMBOK 3rd Edition Project scope is a definition of the end result or mission of your project a product or service for the public.

Defining the project scope sets the stage for developing a project plan.
Why is the project scope / mission so important? Why should the customer and the project manager be involved in the development of the project scope?

Project Scope Checklist

The following checklist can be used to define the project scope:
Project Objectives Deliverables Milestones Technical Requirements Limits and Exclusions Reviews with Customer

Project Scope Checklist cont

Project Objectives
Define major objectives to meet your customers need(s). For example:
Rehabilitate 12 primary school buildings in the district, convert 2 primary schools into middle schools, and 1 middles school to high school. Hire teacher for the new schools, acquire new furniture and teaching aids. Project to be completed during the fiscal year 2004/5.


Define deliverables. For example:

The 1st deliverable out of the Design Phase of a bridge construction project could be design specifications The 2nd deliverable out of the second phase could be the detailed design and estimate. The 3rd deliverable could be the constructed bridge.


Define milestones because they represent events. For example:

Completion of the design phase. Land acquisition. Tender process completion. Notice to Proceed. Laying of foundation stone. Formal opening.

Project Scope Checklist cont

Technical Requirements:
Define technical requirements. For example:
The new fall should be capable of handling a discharge of 50 cusecs The transmission tower should be able to handle winds of up to 200 km/hr The data network should be able to handle traffic loads of 5GB/day

Limits and Exclusions:

Define items that are NOT part of the scope. For example:

Dismantling of existing structure will not be part of the project. Books and teaching aids will not be included in the school improvement program. Fabrication of new gates for the barrage will be independent of the current contract.

Reviews with Customer:

Review the checklist with the customer. Be sure to answer the following questions while reviewing the checklist with the customer:

Social mobilization Does the project definition identify key accomplishments, budgets, timing, deliverables, and performance requirements? Does the customer understand limits and exclusions?

Constraints Canal Project

30 Days

40 Days

30 Days

Closure 1
Diversion for Fall 56+625 Head Regulator 65+000

Closure 2
Closing Diversion for Fall 56+625 Diversion for Fall 65+781 Fluming at Bridges Head Regulator 65+000 Cattle Bath Stations

Closure 3
Closing Diversion for Fall 65+781

Year 1
Fall at 56+625 Bank Raising & Reinforcement Providing Monitoring Facilities

Year 2
Fall at 65+781

ADB Study: Lessons from Failures

Higher Level Objectives Particularly the" Goal and Purpose are unclear meaningless, Feelgood, Motherhood statements, Cryptic, Technical Jargon Statements at the Wrong level, Indicators Poor, not Targeted, or vague (Improve, More) Immeasurable
To facilitate development of the market-oriented economy by improving efficiency and safety of the road transport. To establish a conducive investment climate consistent with the country's operational comparative advantage and to promote export growth, and diversify industrial base

Lessons cont
The Loan targets social development and sustainable economic growth. The measurable targets include
medium-term sustainability of public finances; capacity building for prudent management of public expenditure and debt; improved tax administration; expenditure reallocation to social sector; plan indicating how to meet national norms on health and education; alleviation of social impact of development; strengthened corporate governance; policy, regulatory, and institutional frameworks of key sectors; Improved environmental sustainability of the reform process; Achievements to be measured in terms of a lower primary deficit and reduced debt stock of the State.

Lessons cont
Many design faults are foreseeable Lack of:
Development Objectives (Goals & Purposes) Assumptions & Risks

Optimism at Project design stage is not sustainable

Topic 2

Work Breakdown Structure

Work: Sustained physical effort to achieve an objective or result Breakdown: To divide into parts or categories Structure: Something arranged in a definite pattern of organization

Definition of WBS
A deliverable-oriented grouping of project elements that organizes and defines the total work scope of the project. Each descending level represents an increasing detailed definition of the project work (PMI PMBOK 2000)

WBS Characteristics/Purpose
It is representative of work that has tangible result It is arranged in a hierarchical structure It has an objective or tangible deliverable

Purpose: WBS has two goals

To ensure that the project includes the work needed to achieve the scope To ensure that the project includes no unnecessary work

WBS Benefits
Help define:
Solution strategy or general approach Implementation tactics

Support more accurate estimates of project duration and cost than can be made at the project level Provide a basis for estimating project resources:
Departmental or subcontractor support Vendors and their products Services Any other identifiable resource

Getting Started with WBS

Think through the entire project (dividing highlevel deliverables) Think deliverables (what is provided/required) Think through the production of deliverables (methods, processes, quality, etc)

Formulate a vision of the final product:

What are its constituent parts? How do the pieces work together? What needs to be done?

Steps for developing WBS

Step 1: Identify the final product (s) of the project. Step 2: Define the products major deliverables. Step 3: Decompose major deliverables to a level of detail appropriate for management and integrated control. Step 4: Review and refine the WBS to a level where execution and control will successfully produce the desired outcomes.
1. Clinic 1. Clinic

1.1 Design 1.1 Design

1.2 Construct 1.2 Construct

1.3 Equip 1.3 Equip

1.2.1 Foundation 1.2.1 Foundation

1.2.2 Structure 1.2.2 Structure

1.2.3 Finishes 1.2.3 Finishes Walls Walls Slab Slab Beams Beams

Validate Your WBS

All major elements been identified at top level? Decomposed into measurable components? Lower level(s) items necessary? All inclusive? Would stakeholders agree WBS is satisfactory? Can elements be scheduled, budgeted, and assigned to a unit that will accept responsibility? Too much or too little visibility and control ? Can status reports be generated at all levels?


BOQ Basis BOQ Basis




Package A 0-15 KM


Package A Package A

Package B Package B

Package C Package C

Package D Package D

Earthwork Earthwork

Stonework Stonework

Carriage Carriage

Concrete Concrete

Brickwork Brickwork

Other work Other work

Wet Earthwork Dry Earthwork

Aircraft System

Project Management
Systems Engineering Management Supporting PM Activities



Air Vehicle

Support Equipment


Test and Evaluation


Technical Orders

Organizational Level




Engineering Data

Intermediate Level


Operational Test


Management Data

Depot Level

Developmental Test






Fire Control

This WBS is illustrative only. It is not intended to represent the full project scope of any specific project, nor to imply that this is the only way to organize a WBS on this type of project.

MTMIS Project
1. MTMIS Project

1.1 Driving License

1.2 Vehicle Registeration

1.3 Project Management

1.1.1 Application

1.1.2 Prod & Dist

1.1.3 Management

1.2.1 Application

1.2.2 Prod & Dist

1.2.4 Management

1.3.1 Contracts

1.3.2 Coordination Infrastructure DL Card SOP Infrastructure Plate VR Card SOP Card Prod System System Integration Training System Infrastructure System Integration Training Civil Works Training Production Operations Training Prod System Production Operations Distribution Distribution HR Distribution Distribution HR