Biol 215 Chemistry Review KEY

1) What is the difference between an intramolecular bond and an intermolecular bond? Intramolecular bonds are the chemical bonds within an individual molecule, holding it together. Intermolecular bonds are the forces between one molecule and its neighbor(s).

2) List and describe the different types of intramolecular bonds. *Listed in order of increasing strength (i.e. ionic is the strongest) a. Covalent – formed when atoms share electrons. Electonegativity differences are small ∆EN < ~0.5 Ex: CH 4

b. Polar Covalent – unequal sharing of electrons between atoms. ~0.5 < ∆EN < ~2.0 Ex. H 2 O

c. Ionic – electrostatic interactions between ions. Formed between elements with large electronegativity differences. ∆EN > ~2.0 Ex. HF

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or F) and an O. making oxidation number more negative B was oxidized. Hydrogen bonds – special type of dipole-dipole intereaction in which an attraction occurs between a H bonded to an electronegative atom (O. *Listed in order of increasing strength.attractive forces between the positive end of one polar molecule and the negative end of another polar molecule. N. a. A + B  A. c. In simple terms: Oxidation = the loss of electrons / hydrogen or gain of oxygen or increase in oxidation state by a molecule. b. making oxidation number more positive. a redox reaction is a type of chemical reaction in which the reactants undergo a change in oxidation number. Gain of Electrons = Reduction) 5) In the reaction below. Provide a brief explanation for your choice. making that end δ-. lost electrons. The other end will be temporarily short of electrons and so becomes δ+.3) List and describe the different types of intermolecular bonds. Dipole-Dipole interactions . London dispersion forces increase as molecular weight increases. *Easy way to remember: LEO goes GER (Loss of Electrons = Oxidation. So. N or F of another molecule. 2 . identify which molecule was oxidized and which molecule was reduced. Van der Waals or London Dispersion Forces – short-lived attractive forces due to constant motion of electrons. atom or ion Reduction = the gain of electrons / hydrogen or a loss of oxygen or decrease in oxidation state by a molecule. atom or ion. 4) What is a redox reaction? Short for oxidation-reduction reaction. at any one instant the electrons might find themselves towards one end of the molecule.+ B+ A was reduced. gained electrons.

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H or O = O d. Thus. As this is a negative log. 12) Define ‘polar’ and ‘non-polar’ in reference to a molecule. H or C = C is slightly more EN c. Ex. Hydrocarbons (e. Electronegativity is a chemical property describing the tendency of an atom (or molecule) to attract electrons towards itself. A base is a proton acceptor. Li or Cl = Cl 10) Explain the following statement: “like dissolves like”. Which of the following elements in the pair is more electronegative?: a. when looking at the Periodic Table of Elements.9) Explain the concept of electronegativity. the system is essentially inverted. This property is affected by both atomic weight and atomic radii. there is a permanent charge dipole (δ+/ δ-) within the molecule. Thus. an acid is a proton donor. 4 . water Non-polar refers to a molecule in which the electrons are evenly distributed and thus there is no charge separation. pH = -log[H+] In simple terms. methane). This is a guideline for predicting solubility. C or O = O b. Thus. Polar refers to a molecule in which the electrons are not evenly distributed among the atoms. a low pH value indicates a highly acidic solution and a high pH indicates a non-acidic (or a basic) solution. In simple terms. pH is a measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution. Ex. electronegativity tends to increase moving left right and bottom to top of the table. 11) What is pH? Differentiate between an acid and a base.g. It predicts that a solute will dissolve in a given solute that has a similar polarity.

system will react to restore K eq The tendency for a system to move toward equilibrium (stable E state) is the driving force behind processes 5 .13) What does the equilibrium constant (K eq ) tell us about a chemical system? K eq = equilibrium constant Tells us the ratio of [product] to [reactant] at equilibrium So at equilibrium. there is no net change in concentrations *Note: equilibrium down not mean equal values/amounts of reactants and products A↔B K eq = [B] eq /[A] eq K eq < 1 < K eq More products < 1 < More reactants If you alter concentrations.

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