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NEBOSH Helpful Information for Starter Students

WEB SITE ADDRESS: www.hse.gov.org.uk www.craneaccidents.com www.ilo.org

DEFINITION OF A HAZARD: Anything with the potential to cause harm (e.g. injury, ill health) DEFINITION OF RISK: Risk is the likelihood that the harm from one or more particular hazards is realized/ or occurs DEFINITION OF ACCIDENT: An unplanned, unwanted sequence of events which results in loss of some kind DEFINITION OF INCIDENT: An unplanned, unwanted sequence of events which had the potential to result in loss of some kind ALARP: SFAIRP: ILO: ELI: HSE in UK: IT IS: COMPETENT: AUDIT: JSA: MSDS: As Low As Reasonably Practicable. So Far As Is Reasonably Practicable. International Labor Organization Employers Liability Insurance. Health and Safety Executive Information Training Instruction Supervising. Skill Systematic Job Safety Analysis Materials Safety Data Sheet The relationship between human and machine. The study of peoples efficiency in their working environment Knowledge Formal Experience Independent

ERGONOMIC:

MATHAMATICAL FORMULA OF RISK / HAZARD: Risk = Likelihood X Severity

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FIVE STEPS OF RISK ASSESSMENT: 1. Identify the Hazard 2. Identify Those at Risk 3. Evaluate the Risk 4. Record 5. Review LEV : HAZOP : ROPS : Local Exhaust Ventilation HAZard and Operability Study Roll Over Protective - Structure

M.E.E.P. (Safe System of Work SSW): M E E P Materials Equipment and Plant Environment People

BSAFE (Common Hazards from Electricity): B S A F E Burns Shock Arcing Fires Explosions

SREDIM (Job Safety Analysis): S R E D I M Select Record Evaluate Develop Implement Maintain

ERIC PD (Risk Control Hierarchy): E R I C P D Eliminate Reduce Isolate Contain PPE Discipline (IT IS)

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ENITICE (Machinery Hazards Mechanical): E Entanglement N Nips T Trapping I Impact C Contact E Eject FIAT (Remember the hierarchy of machine control): F I A T Fixed Interlocked Adjustable Trip Devices

PPE : Personal Protective Equipment RPE : Respiratory Protective Equipment RCD in UK (Circuit Breaker): The Spread of Fire : Conduction Details of Signage Color: Residual Current Device Convention Radiation Direct Contact

Yellow Blue Green Red

: : : :

Warning Mandatory Safe Condition Danger

4Cs The activities necessary to promote a health and safety culture are divided into the 4Cs Control Co-operation Communication Competence MUSCULOSKELETAL: Relating to the Musculature and Skeleton together. (Name of the Decease)

HEALTH & SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS HS (G) 65: OHSAS 18001: ILO / OSH 2001: HS (G) 65 ALL ELEMENTS: Successful Health & Safety Systems Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems Specifications ILO Guidelines on Occupational Safety & Health Management systems.

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Students Areas to concentrate on for the written Examination: It is important that you read the questions very carefully, answer the questions you feel comfortable with first and leave the other until you can formulate your thoughts. Remember the rules answer the question that is asked: e.g.

Outline Give the most important features of (less in depth than Explain or Describe, but more in depth than List. Define Provide an generally recognized or accepted definition Describe Give a word picture Explain Give a clear account or reasons for Give Provide without explanation (used normally to give an example) Identify Select and Name List Provide a list without explanation Sketch Provide a simple line drawing using labels to identify specific features State A less demanding form of define or where there is no generally recognized definition.

NOTE: Do not use word like Proper Use Sufficient / Suitable / Adequate. Do not use word like Capable Person Use Competent Person Some Simple examples are: Q: A: List six items of PPE required on a construction site? Hearing Protection Respiratory Protection Eye Protection Protective Clothing Skin Protection Safety Belts and Harness Define the acronym ALARP and give an example where you would use it? The acronym ALARP is As Low As Reasonably Practicable and an example of usage would be After completing the quantified risk assessment the team looked at extra control measure to ensure the risk was as low as reasonably practicable (ALARP) STATEMENT OF INTENT

Q: A:

POLICY :

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The Statement of intent is intended to communicate to all employees the importance of, and the commitment to health and safety. The statement should bear the signature of the owner, managing director, chief executive or other most senior person to give weight to the commitment being shown in what is a very important feature of the policy. Q: A: Outline the three main reasons why manage health and safety and explain which is the most important of those reasons (6). The Moral, Legal and Financial are three main reasons for promoting good standards of health and safety within an organization. The most important reason is MORAL because, we all have moral obligation not to cause harm to others. Employers have a moral obligation toward, their employees and others. Managing health and safety is an integral part of any management of business. Explain the difference between Pro-active and Re-active monitoring and give and example of each (8). Proactive monitoring which monitors the achievement of plans and the degree of compliance with standards before an Accident, Incident on Ill Health. Reactive monitoring which monitors after accidents, ill health and incidents. Examples for Proactive Monitoring: Performance Reviews, Review of Training assessments, Records and needs, Workplace Inspections, Management system audits & Safety Survey. Examples for Reactive Monitoring: Accident Investigation, Accident / Incidence Rates, Ill Health Incident rates, Accident frequency rates, Accident severity rates & Sickness absence. Name the three spheres of influence related to Safety Culture and explain how these three spheres of influence interact to ensure safety at work (8) The three spheres of influence related to Safety Culture are The Organization (The Organizational controls from management) The People (Employees / Contractors etc) The Job (Tasks) The three spheres if influences are known to work together to influence and foster a positive safety culture. The organization that ensure a safe place of work, information, training, instruction, and supervision, together with good risk controls sets the scene for employees to work in a secure and well motivated environment. With this the people within the organization and those connected to it should be competent and believe in the goals and preventative measures set by management, this forms a team of wellmotivated employees. The third sphere of influence is essential to complete the interrelation of the three spheres of influence. This is the ongoing tasks / jobs, which if well organized and controlled by management with good communication, consultation and supervision will go a long way to ensuring and reinforcing a positive safety culture.

Q: A:

Q:

A:

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Q: An employee has been seriously injured after being struck by a reversing vehicle in a loading bay. I. Give four reasons why we should investigate accidents? (6) The reason this accidents should be investigated are numerous and they include Examining the direct cause of the accidents and the root cause of the accident to try to prevent future accidents by identifying and eliminating or reducing the causes. Accidents also give use valuable information in relation to hazards that may exist in the workplace that have not been identified by a proactive approach. To ensure compliance with legislation and accident reporting internally To ensure training and information can be targeted in the areas of concern and management controls can be strengthened. II. Outline the information that should be included in an accident report (6) An accident report should be comprehensive to enable the direct and indirect (root causes) to be identified. The report should ideally contain the events preceding the accident, the date and time of the accident, the precise location information on person(s) involved. A clear account of what was found at the accident scene with the possible direct causes, together with witness statements. Initial injuries of person(s) if medical personnel are at the scene their initial findings should be included. Other information as required, e.g. weather conditions, road or ground conditions etc. If root cause analysis has been carried out this information should be included. A conclusion by the accident investigation team is important for clarity. III. Give four possible immediate causes of accidents and underlying (root causes). (8) Four possible causes of immediate caused of the above accidents may be slips on workplace surface on the level, employee not paying attention, no reversing alarm on the vehicle, fork lift truck operator not be attentive and looking around for pedestrians. The route causes for the above accidents could be: Slips on the workplace level may have a root causes of oil being split and not cleaned up immediately The root cause of a Fork Lift truck could be attributed to the driver being not properly trained and inadequate training in reversing techniques. The root cause of the employee slipping may be that the housekeeping regime is in adequate and not monitored.

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Q: The fork lift truck may not be well maintained to check the reversing alarm is working.

2. Outline the factors you should consider when developing a safe system of work (8) When developing a safe system of work you should consider the following, Materials how and what we will use and under what circumstances. Environment will the environment in which the work is being carried out have sufficient heating, ventilation, lighting etc. will the activity or process have an impact on the environment? People are people competent trained to conduct the specific work / task Equipment is the machinery / equipment to specification for the work and is it is good condition, with guards where necessary Within the consideration risk assessments, inspection and accident reports should be consulted to ensure the safe system of work addresses all hazards and risk which are likely to arise. Also manufactures instruction and information and equipment, machinery and chemicals etc should also be consulted. Safe Systems of Work should be easily understood by all workers at every level.

Q:

3. Explain why PPE should be considered as the last resort in the control of occupational hazards? (8) Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) is considered the last resort in the hierarchy of control measures / precautions, as hazards should be assessed by the risk assessment process and all hazards where possible should be eliminated or controlled at their source e.g. reduce the noise of a compressor by engineering controls by making it quieter with insulation etc, this will help reduce the level of noise at source prior to issuing PPE (ear protection). If PPE is given without trying to eliminate or reduce the hazard (s) we are not using a systematic method of permanent controls. PPE is a good method of control for various hazards, however, if we use PPE without first trying to eliminate or reduce the hazard, the hazard may still exist in its full form and PPE may not be sufficient means of safe control, also different types and ranges of PPE protect at varying levels so health may be compromised, more importantly PPE depends on the user to wear it and this is practice is difficult to ensure to enforce with consistent supervision and regular inspections etc.

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Q: 4. Describe the management system (10) main components of a health and safety

The main components of a management system are: Policy, Organization, Planning and Implementation, Measuring Performance, Reviewing Performance, Audit and Continuous Improvement. The components are explained as follows: Policy should contain Protecting the safety and health of all members of the organization by preventing work related injuries, ill health, diseases and incidents. Complying with relevant OSH national laws and regulations, voluntary programmes, collective agreements on OSH and other requirements to which the organization subscribes. Ensuring the workers and their representatives are consulted and encouraged to participate actively in all elements of the OSH management system: and Continually improving the performance of the OSH management system. Signed / endorsed by senior management and cascaded to all employees.

Organization Section should ideally contain: a chart illustrating the management structure so far as health and safety is concerned. The section should also show details of employees from the lowest levels to the highest with key personnel identified by name as well as by job title. Also arrangements, procedures, instructions or other internal documents used within the framework of the OSH management system. Planning and Implementation An effective planning system for health and safety requires organizations to establish and operate a health and safety management system that, Controls Risk Reacts to changing demands, Sustains a positive health and safety. Measuring Health and Safety performance must be monitored at all levels of the organization from day to day monitoring by line managers and supervisors to periodic audits of management systems. Performance measurement techniques fall into two broad categories: Reactive monitoring which monitor accidents, ill health and incidents Active monitoring which measure the effectiveness of management systems and the extent of compliance with standards and the achievement of plans. Reviewing Performance Annual or periodic review of the performance to ensure the system is working on the ground and assess if any of the components need more attention. Audit An audit is not intended to identify all of the hazards, it is intended as an evaluation of health and safety management systems, and is often independent.

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Q: 5. Outline the topics that may be typically included on the agenda of a safety committee meeting (6) A safety committee would normally include subjects which were of concern to employees on various health and safety issues. The agenda would be made up of suggestions and issues which may have been brought up by employees, contractors and others. The agenda items that may be typically included are any recent accidents, incidents and near misses, any problems arising from workplace inspections, e.g. housekeeping, blocked fire exits etc. Also areas such as the identification of unsafe acts, conditions and hazards that have been reported and perhaps not suitably rectified. Other topics may include, stress at work, due to long hours, or environmental conditions, manual handling issues, worker dissatisfaction with welfare arrangements, food and catering contractors etc. Q: 6 (a). Explain the reasons why young persons may be at a greater risk of accidents at work. (4) Young persons at work are more prone to risk due to various factors. They include their age and physical capability, their lack of knowledge and experience of the workplace. Also the young persons perception of risk has not developed in the workplace setting. The general move from home/school and a tendency of young persons to take risks to respond to peer group pressures is also a factor. 6 (b). Outline the measures that could be taken to minimize the risks to young employees. (4) It is mandatory to conduct a risk assessment of the areas of work and activities where a young person is required to work. This should ensure that all hazards are controlled to as low as reasonably practicable. Young people should not be subject to excessive hours of work, exposed to risks (such as dangerous machinery, heavy lifting manual handling excessive heat or cold etc.). Other control measure should include comprehensive safety orientation (which should include emergency procedures), PPE where required and competent supervision and monitoring. Q: 7. Outline the practical means by which a manager could involve employees in the improvement of health & safety (8) Management can involve employees in many projects and schemes which will enhance and improve health and safety in the workplace. Some of the methods for involving employees in the improvement of health and safety include, active involvement in reporting of near misses, unsafe acts and conditions this could be accompanied by and incentive scheme to encourage participation. Also the involvement of employees in Town Hall meetings and with safety committee is a way of ensuring participation in health and safety improvements. Other methods include; training which outline the results of poor health and safety practices, involvement in the selection of PPE and other safety equipment and materials. Active participation in monthly campaigns such as the health hazards of smoking, and the benefits of wearing PPE are all helpful tools in improving employee involvement in health and safety.

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Q: 8. Outline four active monitoring methods that can be used when assessing health & safety (8) Active (Proactive) Monitoring is intended to reveal hazards that are not controlled to a standard. Reveal visible non compliance with standards relies heavily on visible evidence only When assessing health and safety in the workplace proactive (active) monitoring can be achieved by various methods. Those methods include: Documented workplace inspections which are conducted on a regular basis to spot immediate hazards, unsafe acts and conditions and ensure action is taken for remedial measure as soon as possible. Checklists are often used for inspections, but care should be taken not to miss other hazards that are not part of the generic checklist. Risk assessments is a major active monitoring tool as this systematic method highlights hazards and risks and eliminates of or reduce them to ALARP. Auditing is also a voluble monitoring tool as this method examines the health and safety management systems and outlines areas for improvement. Reporting near misses / incidents is very important as this can lead to prevention of major accident in the future. Q: 9 (a). Explain the purpose of the Statement of Intent of a health & Safety Policy (2) The statement of intent is intended to communicate to all employees the importance of, and the commitment to health and safety. The statement should bear the signature of the owner, managing director, chief executive or other most senior person to give weight to the commitment being shown in what is a very important feature of the policy. Q: 9 (b). Outline the circumstances which would require a health and safety policy to be reviewed. (4) A health and safety policy is not a static document and should be reviewed at regular intervals, those intervals can be determined by certain factors and they include: The circumstance that may lead to a need to review the health and safety policy: Passage of time at least annually is there have not been organizational changes. Technological, organizational or legal changes when new technology has been introduced into the workplace that may pose further hazards, the workface or management has been reduced or increased or new legislation required that changes is area of health and do safety be reflected in the policy e.g. if a pattern accidents in a certain area have been highlighted.

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Q: 10. Giving reason in each case, identify FOUR categories of persons who may be considered a useful member of an accident investigation team. (6) Accident team members must be chosen for their knowledge, skill and experience in certain areas. Four members who could be useful are: Health & Safety Manager the individual would bring the skills and knowledge of a health and safety professional and have in depth knowledge of accident investigation. Supervisor this individual would have first hand knowledge of the workers task and activities and the on the job hazards. Worker Representative this individual would bring the experience of the work and have information gained via interaction with colleagues on a range of issues in the workplace. Worker and the Site Engineer This person would probably be the most senior to lead the investigation, the professional engineering background would bring a systematic methodology of examining any mechanical failures etc. Q: 11. Identify the factors to be considered to ensure the health and safety of persons who are required to work on their own away from the work place. (8) Risk assessment is essential to examine the hazards and potential risks of lone workers who are more vulnerable. Control measure include Procedures will need to be put in place to: monitor lone workers to see they remain safe. These may include supervisors periodically visiting and observing people working alone; regular contact between the lone worker and supervision using either a telephone or radio. Automatic warning device which operate if specific signals are not received periodically from the lone worker, e.g. systems for security staff; Other devices designed to raise the alarm in the event of an emergency and which are operated manually or automatically by the absence of activity. Checks that a lone worker has returned to their base or home on completion of a task. Lone workers should be capable of responding correctly to emergencies. Lone workers should have access to adequate first aid facilities and mobile workers should carry a first aid kit suitable for treating minor injuries.

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