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Monarchy of Ireland
A monarchical polity has existed in Ireland during three periods of its history, finally ending in 1801. The designation King of Ireland (Irish: Rí na hÉireann) and Queen (regnant) of Ireland was used during these periods. Since 1949, the only part of Ireland that retains a monarchical system (as part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland) is Northern Ireland.
Gaelic Kings and Kingdoms
Gaelic Ireland consisted of as few as five and as many as nine main kingdoms, subdivided into dozens of smaller kingdoms. The primary kingdoms were Connacht, Ailech, Airgíalla, Ulster, Mide, Leinster, Osraige, Munster and Thomond. Until the end of Gaelic Ireland they continued to fluctuate, expand and contract in size, as well as dissolving entirely or being amalgamated into new entities. The role of High King of Ireland was primarily titular and rarely (if ever) absolute. The names of Connacht, Ulster, Leinster and Munster are still in use, now applied to the four modern provinces of Ireland. The following is a list of the main Irish kingdoms and their kings. • Kings of Ailech – divided into Tír Eóghain and Tír Conaill in twelfth century • • • • • Kings of Connacht – all the land west of the Shannon except Thomond. Kings of Leinster – Its last de facto king died in 1632. Kings of Mide – Ireland's central kingdom, annexed by Connacht in the 11th century. Kings of Munster – an overkingdom of late prehistoric origins Kings of Ulster – properly, Ulster east of the lower and upper Bann.
Ard Ri co febressa:High-Kings with Opposition
Maire Herbert has noted that Annal evidence from the late eighth century in Ireland suggests that the larger provincial kingships were already accruing power at the expense of smaller political units. Leading kings appear in public roles at church-state proclamations ... and at royal conferences with their peers. (2000,p. 62). Responding to the assumption of the title ri hErenn uile (king of all Ireland) by Mael Sechlainn I in 862, she furthermore states that ... the ninth-century assumption of the title of "ri Erenn" was a first step towards the definition of a national kingship and a territorially-based Irish realm. Yet change only gained ground after the stranglehold of Ui Neill power-structures was broken in the eleventh century. ...The renaming of a kingship ... engendered a new self-perception which shaped the future definition of a kingdom and of its subjects. (Herbert, 2000, p. 72) Nevertheless, the achievements of Mael Sechlainn and his successors were purely personal, and open to destruction upon their deaths. Between 846-1022, and again from 1042–1166, kings from the leading Irish kingdoms made greater attempts to compel the rest of the island's polity to their rule, with varying degress of success, until the inauguration of Ruaidri Ua Conchobair (Rory O'Connor) in 1166,
He was arguably the first undisputed full king of Ireland. proceeded to Dublin where he was inaugurated King of Ireland without opposition. died 1198 Ruaidhri. However. 979-1002. Only with the arrival of MacMurrough's Anglo-Norman allies in May 1169 did Ruaidri's position begin to weaken. his caput remained in his home territory in central Connacht (County Galway). Ruaidri's position as king of Ireland was increasingly untenable. Ruaidhri ordering the blinding of Muirchertach. 955-978 Mael Sechnaill mac Domnaill. died 1121 Toirdelbach Ua Conchobair. led by one of Ruaidri's sons. A series of disastrous defeats and ill-judged treaties lost him much of Leinster. though many of the lesser kings and lords welcomed his arrival as they wished to see him curb the territorial gains made by his vassals. died 1156 Muirchertach Mac Lochlainn. a recognised prerogative of the High Kings. died 1086 Muirchertach Ua Briain. King of Ireland Upon the death of Muirchertach Mac Lochlainn in early 1166. but even within his home kingdom of Connacht he had become politically marginalised. They were expelled. One of Ruaidri's first acts as king was the conquest of Leinster. was ruled by Hasculf Thorgillsson. 846-860 Aed Findliath. A low point came in 1177 with a successful raid into the heart of Connacht by a party of Anglo-Normans. 861-876 Flann Sinna. and made a number of notable charitable gifts and donations. who had submitted to Ruaidri. He then celebrated the Oneach Tailtann. but over the next six years his rule was increasingly diminished by internal dynastic conflict and external attacks. He lived quietly on his estates. Through the intercession of Archbishop Lorcán Ua Tuathail (Lawrence O'Toole). Ruaidri then obtained terms and hostages from all the notable kings and lords. and encouraged uprisings by rebel lords. Dermot MacMurrough. Prince Muirchertach. He was twice briefly returned to power in 1185 and 1189. King of Connacht. died 1072 Toirdelbach Ua Briain. 943-954 Domnall ua Neill. as the events of the Norman invasion of 1169–1171 brought about the destruction of the high-kingship. which resulted in the exile of its king. 1002–1014 Donnchad mac Briain. no other Gaelic king was ever again recognised as king or high king . By the time of the arrival of Henry II in 1171. who continued to gain territory in Ireland. Ruaidri at first remained aloof from engagement with King Henry. died 1064 Diarmait mac Mail na mBo. Ruaidri was allowed to keep all Ireland as his personal kingdom outside the petty kingdoms of Laigin (Leinster) and Mide as well as the city of Waterford. died 1119 Domnall Ua Lochlainn. 915-917 Donnchad Donn. Finally. With the possible exception of Brian O'Neill (died 1260). died 1166 2 • Ruaidri Ua Conchobair. and died at the monastery of Cong in 1198. Ruaidri and Henry came to terms with the Treaty of Windsor in 1175. Ireland's recognised capital. in 1183. Ruaidri agreed to recognise Henry as his lord. Ruaidhri. in return. 1014–1022 Brian Boruma. 918-942 Congalach Cnogba. He was also the only Gaelic one. and the direct involvement of the Kings of England in Irish politics.Monarchy of Ireland High-Kings of Ireland 846-1198 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Mael Sechnaill mac Maele Ruanaid. Henry was unwilling or unable to enforce the terms of the treaty on his barons in Ireland. 877-914 Niall Glundub. Dublin. he abdicated.
(1327–1377) Richard II of England. (1171–1189) Richard I of England.Monarchy of Ireland of Ireland. that Irish affairs remained at best a secondary concern. By the mid-13th century much of the island was under the direct and/or indirect rule of the king of England.1260 the size of the actual lordship began to recede. royal power in Ireland was weak. (1189–1199) John of England. 1258–1260 • Edward I of England. two English kings. the country being dominated by the various clans and dynasties of Gaelic (O'Neill. O'Brien. Butler) origin. instead using Ireland to draw upon men and supplies in the wars in Scotland and France. (1461–1470 and 1471–1483) Edward V of England. (1199–1216) Henry III of England. (1413–1422) Henry VI of England. For the duration of the 15th century. Henry II and Richard I. (1509–1542) . and claims of allegiance from various Gaelic kings and lords. (1422–1461 and 1470–1471) Edward IV of England. Richard II of England made two journeys to Ireland during his reign to rectify the situation. (1399–1413) Henry V of England. Affairs closer to London ensured. but from c. 3 The Lordship of Ireland:1198-1542 By the time of Ruairi's death in 1198. FitzGerald. (1307–1327) • • • • • • • • • • • opposed by: Edward Bruce. Successive kings of England did so as lords of Ireland. McCarthy) or Anglo-Norman (Burke. had exercised rule over the areas inhabited by the Anglo-Normans. (1315–1318) Edward III of England. (1216–1272) • opposed by: Brian O'Neill. The problem was recognised as significant at the parliament of 1297. This was the last time that a medieval king of England visited. as a direct result of his second visit in 1399 he lost his throne to Henry Bolingbroke. (1483) Richard III of England. By the 1390s the king's lordship had effectively shrunk to small enclaves on the coasts with the rest of the island under the control of independent Gaelic-Irish or rebel Anglo-Irish. well into the 1530s. (1483–1485) Henry VII of England. yet successive English kings did little to stem the tide. (1377–1399) Henry IV of England. (1272–1307) • Edward II of England. Lords of Ireland 1171–1541 • • • • Henry II of England. as various families died out in the male line while the Gaelic-Irish began to reclaim lost territory. (1485–1509) Henry VIII of England.
Monarchy of Ireland 4 The Kingdom of Ireland:1542–1949 The Kingdom of Ireland:1542–1801 The title "King of Ireland" was created by an act of the Irish Parliament in 1541. Parliament at London voted to restore the monarchy and Charles II returned from exile in France in 1660 to become King of England. the Kingdom of Ireland merged with the Kingdom of Great Britain creating the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. and so its first holder was Henry VIII of England. only in name. Irish Catholics. his son Richard emerged as the leader of this pan-British-Isles republic.J. By the terms of the Act of Union 1800. King of Scotland and King of Ireland. the remaining constituent parts were renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in 1927. victorious in the English Civil War. English Monarchs: Henry VIII. on 1 January 1801. in opposition to the claims of the 1542. and Ireland under one government. But in 1649. which had existed since 1171. 1st Duke of Richmond and Somerset. providing that whoever was king of England was to be king of Ireland as well. with the Kingdom of Ireland. The Crown of Ireland Act 1542 established a personal union between the English and Irish crowns. but he was not competent to maintain it. recognised Charles I and later Henry VIII claimed the title "King of Ireland" in Charles II as legitimate monarchs. and signed a formal treaty with Charles I. Scotland. an additional merger took place between the two Crowns. After the Irish Rebellion of 1641. (See also Cromwellian conquest of Ireland. organised in Confederate Ireland. The effect was to create a personal union between the Crown of Ireland and the British Crown. the Rump Parliament. would create another threat like the King of Scotland. during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms from the impeachment and execution of Charles I to the Restoration of the monarchy in England. The Parliamentarian general Oliver Cromwell came across the Irish sea to quash any attempt to restore the monarchy by temporarily — though illegally — uniting England. University of California Press) For a brief period in the 17th century. English Parliament. Later. replacing the Lordship of Ireland. with a ruler other than that of England. and made England a republic. styling himself "Lord Protector" of the three kingdoms. executed Charles I. there was no 'King of Ireland' in fact. The Acts of Union 1707 merged the kingdoms of England and Scotland into the Kingdom of Great Britain. five years after the establishment of the Irish Free State). (J. Following the separation of the southern part of Ireland from that political entity. This entity was also known as the British Crown.) After Cromwell's death in 1658. This followed the failure of the plan to make Henry FitzRoy. . Scarisbrick. the King's counselors feared that making a separate Kingdom of Ireland. or "Commonwealth". the King of Ireland. Although FitzRoy was made Lord-Lieutenant.
The monarchy continues in Northern Ireland.By the Grace of God. Defender of the Faith. Emperor of India • From 1927–1937 . the Free State was a constitutional monarchy with the monarch as its head of state. Ireland. . Irish Free State / Ireland (1936–1949) From 1936 to 1949 the role of the King in the Irish Free State was greatly reduced and ambiguous. as a result of the establishment of the Irish Free State. unless the context otherwise requires. 26 of Ireland's 32 counties left the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland as the Irish Free State (renamed Ireland in 1937). The King's title in the Irish Free State was exactly the same as it was elsewhere in the British Empire. to make such alteration in the style and titles at present appertaining to the Crown as to His Majesty may seem fit". Defender of the Faith. (Ireland's six northeastern counties opted to remain in the UK. which came into force in April 1949. The position of the King in the Irish state ended with the Republic of Ireland Act 1948. decorated for the visit of King George V and Queen Mary in 1911. This purely external role continued when the new Constitution of Ireland was introduced in 1937.Monarchy of Ireland 5 Irish Free State (1927–1936) In 1922. four years after Ireland had left the Commonwealth. That development did not formally occur until 1953. being: Leinster House. which remains a part of sovereign state of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. by the Grace of God. and the British Dominions beyond the seas King. mean Great Britain and Northern Ireland. This Act repealed the External Relations Act and declared the state was a republic.By the Grace of God. 1927. Under the External Relations Act of the same year he continued to represent the Free State in international affairs. • "Parliament shall hereafter be known as and styled the Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland" (instead of the Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland). a self-governing Dominion of the British Empire. of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and of the British Dominions beyond the Seas King. of Great Britain." According to The Times the "Imperial Conference proposed that. of Great Britain. The Act therefore provided that: • "It shall be lawful for His Most Gracious Majesty by His Royal Proclamation under the Great Seal of the Realm. The Crown of Ireland Act was formally repealed in the Republic of Ireland by the Statute Law Revision (Pre-Union Irish Statutes) Act. Emperor of India The change in the King's title was effected under an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom called the Royal and Parliamentary Titles Act." The change did not mean that the King had now assumed different Styles in the different parts of his Empire. Within a decade it was the seat of the Oireachtas of the Irish Free State.) As a Dominion. • "In every Act passed and public document issued after the passing of this Act the expression "United Kingdom" shall. issued within six months after the passing of this Act. Emperor of India. • From 1922–1927 . the title of the King should be changed to "George V. Defender of the Faith. An amendment to the Constitution of the Irish Free State in 1936 eliminated all but one of the King's official duties. Ireland and the British Dominions beyond the Seas King. 1962. The Act was intended to update the name of the United Kingdom as well as the King's title to reflect the fact that most of the island of Ireland had left the United Kingdom.
(1553–1558) • Philip II of Spain.Monarchy of Ireland 6 List of monarchs of Ireland Monarchs of Ireland • Ruaidri Ua Conchobair. (1689–1702) & Mary II of England. joint sovereigns of Ireland • James I of England. inauguraged at Dublin. (1714–1727) George II of Great Britain. (1685–1688) William III of England. • Henry VIII of England (1542–1547). jure uxoris (1554–1558) • Elizabeth I of England. (1603–1625) (James VI of Scotland. (1727–1760) George III of Great Britain (1760–1801) Monarchs of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1801–1922) • George III (1801–1820) • George IV (1820–1830) • William IV (1830–1837) • Victoria (1837–1901) • Edward VII (1901–1910) • George V (1910–1927) . (1558–1603) An Irish groat depicting Philip and Mary. Lord of Ireland. (1702–1714) George I of Great Britain. (1547–1553) • disputed claimant: Lady Jane Grey. spring 1166. I of England and of Ireland) • Charles I of England. Died 1198. (1689–1694) Anne of Great Britain. (1553) • Mary I of England. (1625–1649) Interregnum • • • • • • • Charles II of England. (1509–1542) • Edward VI of England. (1660–1685) James II of England.
Gearoid mac Niocaill. James Hogan. George VI was the first actually so crowned. 1933. Rudolf Thurneysen. II. • Henry: Einrí • Richard: Risteárd • • • • • • • • • • • • • John: Seán or Eoin Edward: Éadhbhard or Éamonn Jane: Sinéad Mary: Máire Elizabeth: Eilís James: Séamas or Séamus Oliver Cromwell: Oilibhéar Cromail Richard Cromwell: Risteárd Cromail Charles: Cathal or Séarlas William: Liam or Uilliam Anne: Áine George: Seóirse Victoria: Victeoiria 7 The royal arms of Ireland. and III had reigned as "King of Ireland"." Edward VIII was the first monarch to accede to the British throne with the Northern Ireland designation attached to his title. Irish Jurist 3 (1968). • Synchronismen der irischen Konige. irishstatutebook. published Dublin. His brother. March 4. in Feil-Sgrighinn Eoin Mhic Neill. 1938 • Early Irish History and Mythology. after a constitutional change Georges III & IV had reigned as "King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. html#zza22y1948s2) of the Republic of Ireland Act 1948. 1970 . He was also the last Monarch to reign as King in all of the island of Ireland. 1969. pp. • The rise of the Ui Neill and the high-kingship of Ireland. 1946 • The heir-designate in early medieval Ireland.F. References  The Times. Dublin. 1927  Section 1 (http:/ / www. ie/ 1948/ en/ act/ pub/ 0022/ sec0001. 326–29. O'Rahilly. O'Donnell Lecture. 1927  The Times. 406–444. ZCP 19. John Ryan. Monarchs' names in Irish Below is a list of the names of the monarchs and ruling Lord Protectors of Ireland in the Irish language. March 4.Monarchy of Ireland Monarchs of Great Britain and Ireland (1922–1949) • George V (1927–1936) • Edward VIII (1936) • George VI (1936–1949) Monarchs of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (1949–) • George VI (1949–1952) • Elizabeth II (1952–) Kings George I. pp. pp. ed. Francis John Byrne. T. 81–99 • The Ui Brian Kingship in Telach Oc.
1973. 26–62. Nieke. the kingship of Leinster and the regnal poems of "laidshenchas Laigen:a reflection of dynastic politics in leinster. 159–224. in A New History of Ireland. op. Maire Herbert.cit. Katharine Simms. 1–35. 650-1150. 2000 • Leinster states and kings in Christian times pp. ed. ed. in The Propagation of Power in the Medieval West. Taylor. Ailbhe Mac Shamhrain and Paul Byrne. Dublin. in Seanchas:Studies in Early and Medieval Irish Archaeology. pp. • High-Kings with Opposition.. church and dynasty.a. History and Literature in Honour of Francis John Byrne. A. Edinburgh. in EtC 30 (1994). 2000 • Irish Kings and High Kings. Four Courts Press. king of Desmond. society and sacrality:rank.Byrne. in Irish Leaders and Learning Through the Ages. Volume One:Pre-Historic and Early Ireland. 1995 • Kings over overkings. 2000 • The Conntinuation of Bede. Historical Studies 11. in Nationality and the pursuit of national independence. genealogies. Edel Bhreathnach. Charles Doherty. F. M. ed. Elizabeth FitzPatrick. Belfast. Donnchadh O Corrain. high-kings. ed. Groningen. 63–84. pp. F. 165–68. ix:maps. pp. 2005 • Kings named in "Baile Chuinn Chechathaig" and the Airgialla Charter Poem. pp. Propaganda for pre-eminence in early medieval Ireland.a reappraisal.Monarchy of Ireland • Irish regnal succession . S. pp. pp. Martin. Donnachadh O Corrain.B. edited T. Richard B. CMCS 3.T. 2004 • Kingship in Early Ireland.cit. pp. The Ua Maelechlainn kings of Meath. 750. Vanderjagt. 2003 • Finghin MacCarthaigh. Ri Alban. s. Kenneth Nicholls. Edel Bhreathnach. 1972 • Ri Eirenn.J. and the mystery of the second nunnery at Clonmacnoise. 2008 8 . Dublin. 351–8 • Kings. pp. 137–145. pp. pp. Dublin. 1995 • The Kingship of Tara in Early Christian Ireland. power and ideology in early medieval Ireland. in The Kingship and Landscape of Tara. Seam Mac Mathuna. Driscoll and M. Moody. in Regions and Rulers in Ireland 1100-1650. N. Studia Hibernica 11. 2001 • Dal Cais. 1996 • An inaugural ode to Hugh O'Connor (King of Connacht 1293-1309. in op. in Power and Politics in Early Medieval Britain and Ireland. Moody. 1978 • The Irish royal sites in history and archeology. A. T. Fear.X. T. • Kingship. Bart Jaski. Conleth Manning. Marilyn Gerriets. Christian kings of Connacht. S. kingship and identity in the night and tenth centuries. 1971. Maire-Therese Flannagan. kings of Tara and Bretwaldas. 1987 • The King as Judge in early Ireland. Nollaig O Muraile. ed. pp. ed. Peritia 12 (1998). • High Kingship and Tiberius Claudius Cogidubnus. Warner. in Traditio 49 (1994) pp. pp. 3rd reprint. 62–72. Wailes. • The inauguration of Tairrdelbach Ua Conchobair at Ath an Termoinn. pp. Dublin. 47–68. Paul Walsh. 1–69 • Nationality and kingship in pre-Norman Ireland. ZCP 49-50.. 177–194.M. Daibhi O Croinin. Francis John Byrne. J. Donnchadh O Corrain. Oxford. in Kings clerics and chronicles in Scotland. pp. lists:a companion to Irish history part II. 90–107. 1988 • From Kings to Warlords:The Changing Political Structure of Gaelic Ireland in the Later Middle Ages. 163–76. Gosman. 1982. Aitchison.W. David Edwards. pp. 1997. • Early Irish Kingship and Succession.W. Eiru 24. 20–26.T. Thomas Charles-Edwards. Charles-Edwards. Dublin. Dublin. 3–31. pp. ed. 1973.R. Four Courts Press. B. Dublin. CMCS 13 (1987). pp7–39 • Gaelic and Gaelicised Ireland. 39–72. 45–47 • Kings and kingship in Early Medieval Ireland. Bart Jaski. 33–52. Four Courts Press. 1984 • The archaeology of early Irish kingship. Veenstra. 1–29 • A New History of Ireland vol. pp.
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