1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Shigley’s Mechanical Engineering Design (In SI Units) – (TMH) Machine Design – An Integrated Approach – Robert L. Norton (Pearson Education) Design of Machine Elements – M. F. Spotts (Pearson Education) Design of Machine Elements – V B Bhandari (TMH) A Textbook of Machine Design – Khurmi & Gupta (S. Chand) Machine Design DataBook – K. Lingaiah (TMH) Machine Drawing – N D Bhatt (Charotar Publication)

Design of Machine Elements + Machine Design Practice

ProE.INTRODUCTION Creation of new and better machines/machine elements and improving the existing one. CAD. ANSYS. NASTRAN. (AutoCAD. Engg. (Practice + Experience) • Efficient • Economical • Overall cost of production & operation Knowledge: Mathematics. CAM. LS-DYNA. Adaptive Design 2. Mechanics of Solids. SolidWorks. CFD related softwares). Drawing. New Design . CAE. ABAQUS. UG. Mechanics. Theory of Machines. Workshop Processes. Classification: 1. Development design 3. Engg. Metrology etc.

Workshop facility 10. Load type 2. Safety features 9. Remanufacturing/resource recovery . No. Convenient & economical features 7. Cost of production 12. Material Selection 5. Marketability 14. Stresses developed 3. of machines to be manufactured 11.General Considerations: 1. Parts size 6. Motion of parts 4. Use of standard parts 8. Plant facility for assembling 13.

Tolerances. Clearances etc. Fits. Government sources. Acquiring Technical Information (Library. Professional societies. Allowances. ASTM. Internet) Standards & Codes: AGMA. Conventional Drawing (Orthographic projections. . IBR.Design Tools & Resources: 1. BSI. AWS etc.) 2. ASME. Isometric views etc. Economics Dimensions & Tolerances: Limits. Computational Tools (CAD. Commercial vendors. BIS. CAE) 3.

Recognition of need 2. Modification 7. Production . Detailed drawing 8. Force Analysis 4. Design of elements 6.General Procedure: 1. Synthesis (Mechanism) 3. Material selection 5.

Hardness Materials Manufacturing Processes . Stiffness 3.Fatigue 13.Resilience 11.Creep 12. Machinability 10. Plasticity 5. Elasticity 4.Engineering Materials & Properties Mechanical Properties (Metals): 1. Malleability 8. Brittleness 7. Toughness 9. Strength 2. Ductility 6.

RIVETED JOINTS Classification of joints: 1. Examples: keys. cotters. boiler shells etc. . welded and riveted joints. Permanent – cannot be disassembled without destroying the connecting parts. tanks. Riveted Joints: Structural works. brazed. ship building. Examples: soldered. 2. flange couplings etc. bridges. pins. Temporary – disassembled without destroying the connecting components.

IS: 1148-1982 (Reaffirmed 1992) – specification for hot rolled rivet bars (upto 40 mm Dia) for structural purposes. IS: 2100-1970 IS: 1148-1982 (Reaffirmed 1992) – specification for steel rivets and stay bars for boilers. Hot riveting – making leak proof joints.Methods of Riveting: 1. When strength and fluid tight joint is the main consideration – STEEL. 3. Manufactured according to standards: 1. boiler Materials: Tough and Ductile Steel (Low Carbon). Cold riveting – structural joints (upto 12 mm) 2. aluminium. Manufacture: Cold heading or by hot forging. (large dia) eg. copper etc. brass. IS: 1148-1982 (Reaffirmed 1992) – specification for high tensile steel rivet bars for structural purposes. 2. .

Pan heads – max strength. Dia < 12 mm. Snap heads – structural work & machine riveting.Types of Rivet Heads: IS: 2155 – 1982 (Reaffirmed 1996). but these are difficult to shape . general purpose. Conical head – hand hammering. Counter sunk heads – ship building since flush surface necessary.

Butt joint .Types of Riveted Joints: 1. Lap joint 2.



Caulking and Fullering: .

5 d 2. Tearing of the Plate at an edge: m = 1. Tearing of the Plate across a row of rivets: .Failures of a Riveted Joint: 1.

Shearing of the rivets .3.


4. Crushing of the plate or rivets: .

Strength of the Riveted Joint: Efficiency of a Riveted Joint: .

Lozenge Joint (Structural Use): . girders etc. bridge work. .Roof.

Number of rivets: . Diameter of rivet hole: Unwin’s empirical relation 2.1.

From the number of rivets. the number of rows and the number of rivets in each row is decided. 4. Efficiency of the joint: . Thickness of butt strap: 5.3.


5 d to 3d . Marginal Pitch (m) = 1.5 d 8.6. Pitch of the rivets = 3 d + 5 7. Distance between the rows of rivets = 2.

Eccentrically Loaded Riveted Joint: .

g. Secondary shear load is proportional to the radial distance of the rivet under consideration from the c. .Assumption: 1. 2.g. Direction of the secondary shear load is perpendicular to the line joining the center of the rivet to the c. of the rivet system. of the rivet system.


B. I. – Indian Boiler Regulations .Butt joint Circumferential joint – Lap joint with one ring overlapping the other alternately is used.Design of Boiler: Longitudinal joint .R.

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