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# Vector Calculus: Homework 3.

## Due Fr Jan 20 in-class

Center-of-mass, Moment-of-inertia. You hand-in only the homework problems not the practice problems. Answers to odd-numbers exercises are at the back of the book Practice problems: 14.5: 1,11,28,31. Homework Problems 14.5 Problem 7 Find the CM of the constant density (x, y) = 1 lamina bounded by the curves y = x2 , y = 0, x = 1. Comparing the location of the CM with the corresponding example of the same lamina from the lecture notes, why the x location of the CM is here further away from the right vertical boundary? Give a qualitative answer (the answer should not depend on the fact that the two problems have vertical boundaries at dierent locations).

14.5 Problem 9 Find the center of mass of the plane region bound by the curves y = 0, y = x2 4. Take (x, y) = 1. 14.5 Problems 27,39 Find the Center of Mass of the region x2 + y 2 a2 , y 0 with density function (x, y) = r. Then calculate the radius of gyration.

14.5 Problems 33 Find Iz for the disk bounded by r = 2 cos when the density is a constant (x, y) = 0 .

Problem A Prove the parallel axis theorem: The moment of inertia I of a body about a given axis is I = Im + M d2 (1)

where M is the mass of the body, Im is the moment of inertia of the body about an axis through the center of mass and parallel to the given axis, and d is the distance between the two axes.

Problem B A partially silvered mirror covers the square area with vertices (1, 1). The fraction f of incident light which it reects at the point (x, y) is 1 (2) f = (x y)2 . 4 Assuming a uniform intensity of light, nd the fraction reected by the whole mirror. (f = reected intensity of light / incident intensity of light, per unit area of mirror)

Problem C When an appliance is designed, one concern is how hard it will be to tip over. When tipped, it will right itself as long as its center of mass lies on the correct side of the fulcrum, the point about which the appliance is pivoting. Suppose the prole of an appliance with approximately constant density is parabolic (like an old-fashioned radio), so it lls the region 0 y a(1 x2 ), 1 x 1, in the xy-plane (see the gure at right). What values of a will guarantee that the appliance has to be tipped more than 45 to fall over?

y=a(1-x2)
c.m.

c.m.

x
fulcrum

Bonus problem The probability distribution wn (Gibbs distribution) of a large system given that a body in the system is in a denite quantum state with energy En is given by wn = Ce
En T

(3)

where T is the temperature of the system. For example, in the previous homework (Bonus) the translational 2 2 energy of a molecule was E = 1 m(vx + vy ) which led to the Maxwell distribution of velocities. 2 In rotational motion there is an analogous distribution which now must depend on the angular velocities and moment of inertia of the bodies. Assuming that the atomic vibrations within the molecule are small, and 1 2 2 given that the kinetic energy of rotation of a molecule (in 2-D) regarded as a rigid body is E = 2 (I1 1 +I2 2 ) show that the probability distribution for angular velocity is dw = Ce 2T (I1 1 +I2 2 ) d1 d2
1 2 2

(4)

Find the value of the constant C. (This is just a 2-D Gaussian integral). Show that the mean square of the absolute magnitude of the angular velocity of the molecule is 2
2 2 (1 + 2 )dw = T (

1 1 + ) I1 I2

(5)