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GENERAL INFORMATION

METRIC CONVERSIONS

METRIC CONVERSIONS

Metric conversions are making life more difficult for the

mechanic. In addition to doubling the number of tools required,

metric-dimensioned nuts and bolts are used alongside English

components in many new vehicles. The mechanic has to decide which tool

to use, slowing down the job. The tool problem can be solved by trial

and error, but some metric conversions arent so simple. Converting

temperature, lengths or volumes requires a calculator and conversion

charts, or else a very nimble mind. Conversion charts are only part of

the answer though, because they dont help you "think" metric, or

"visualize" what you are converting. The following examples are

intended to help you "see" metric sizes:

LENGTH

Meters are the standard unit of length in the metric system.

The smaller units are 10ths (decimeter), 100ths (centimeter), and

1000ths (millimeter) of a meter. These common examples might help you

to visualize the metric units:

*

*

*

An aspirin tablet is about one centimeter across (.4 inches).

A millimeter is about the thickness of a dime.

VOLUME

Cubic meters and centimeters are used to measure volume, just

as we normally think of cubic feet and inches. Liquid volume

measurements include the liter and milliliter, like the English quarts

or ounces.

*

*

*

A liter is about one quart.

A liter is about 61 cubic inches.

WEIGHT

The metric weight system is based on the gram, with the most

common unit being the kilogram (1000 grams). Our comparable units are

ounces and pounds:

*

*

An ounce is about 28 grams.

TORQUE

Torque is somewhat complicated. The term describes the amount

of effort exerted to turn something. A chosen unit of weight or force

is applied to a lever of standard length. The resulting leverage is

called torque. In our standard system, we use the weight of one pound

applied to a lever a foot long, resulting in the unit called a footpound. A smaller unit is the inch-pound (the lever is one inch long).

Metric units include the meter kilogram (lever one meter long

with a kilogram of weight applied) and the Newton-meter (lever one

meter long with force of one Newton applied). Some conversions are:

*

*

*

A foot pound is about 1.4 Newton-meters.

A centimeter kilogram (cmkg) is equal to .9 inch pounds.

PRESSURE

Pressure is another complicated measurement. Pressure is

described as a force or weight applied to a given area. Our common

unit is pounds per square inch. Metric units can be expressed in

several ways. One is the kilogram per square centimeter (kg/cm ).

Another unit of pressure is the Pascal (force of one Newton on an area

of one square meter), which equals about 4 ounces on a square yard.

Since this is a very small amount of pressure, we usually see the

kiloPascal, or kPa (1000 Pascals). Another common automotive term for

pressure is the bar (used by German manufacturers), which equals 10

Pascals. Thoroughly confused? Try the examples below:

*

*

*

*

Atmospheric pressure

Atmospheric pressure

Atmospheric pressure

One pound per square

at sea level is

at sea level is

at sea level is

inch is about 7

about 1 bar.

about 1 kg/cm .

kPa.

CONVERSION FACTORS

CONVERSION FACTORS

TO CONVERT

TO

MULTIPLY BY

LENGTH

Millimeters (mm)

.03937

Inches

Inches

25.4

Millimeters

Meters (M)

3.28084

Feet

Feet

.3048

Meters

Kilometers(Km)

Miles

.62137

AREA

Square Centimeters (cm )

Square Inches

Square Centimeters

6.45159

.155

Square Inches

VOLUME

Cubic Centimeters

.06103

Cubic Inches

Cubic Inches

16.38703

Cubic Centimeters

Liters

61.025

Cubic Inches

Cubic Inches

.01639

Liters

Liters

1.05672

Quarts

Quarts

.94633

Liters

Liters

2.11344

Pints

Pints

.47317

Liters

Liters

33.81497

Ounces

Ounces

Liters

.02957

.03527

Ounces

28.34953

Grams

2.20462

Pounds

WEIGHT

Grams

Ounces

Kilograms

Pounds

Kilograms

.45359

.8676

Inch Pounds

Kilograms/Sq.Centimeter

.07031

WORK

Centimeter Kilograms

Pounds/Sq. Inch

Bar

Pounds/Sq. Inch

14.504

Pounds/Sq. Inch

Atmosphere

Pounds/Sq. Inch

Bar

Pounds/Sq. Inch

Atmosphere

.06895

14.696

.06805

Fahrenheit Degrees

( Cx(9)/5)+32

Centigrade Degrees

( F-32)x(5)/9

TEMPERATURE

Centigrade Degrees

Fahrenheit Degrees

INCHES

DECIMALS

mm

1/64 ......................

1/32 ......................

3/64 ......................

1/16 ......................

5/64 ......................

3/32 ......................

7/64 ......................

1/8 .......................

9/64 ......................

5/32 ......................

11/64 .....................

3/16 ......................

13/64 .....................

7/32 ......................

15/64 .....................

1/4 .......................

17/64 .....................

9/32 ......................

19/64 .....................

5/16 ......................

21/64 .....................

11/32 .....................

23/64 .....................

3/8 .......................

25/64 .....................

13/32 .....................

27/64 .....................

7/16 ......................

29/64 .....................

15/32 .....................

31/64 .....................

1/2 .......................

33/64 .....................

17/32 .....................

35/64 .....................

9/16 ......................

37/64 .....................

19/32 .....................

39/64 .....................

5/8 .......................

41/64 .....................

21/32 .....................

43/64 .....................

11/16 .....................

45/64 .....................

23/32 .....................

47/64 .....................

3/4 .......................

49/64 .....................

.016

.031

.047

.063

.078

.094

.109

.125

.141

.156

.172

.188

.203

.219

.234

.250

.266

.281

.297

.313

.328

.344

.359

.375

.391

.406

.422

.438

.453

.469

.484

.500

.516

.531

.547

.563

.578

.594

.609

.625

.641

.656

.672

.687

.703

.719

.734

.750

.766

........................ .397

........................ .794

....................... 1.191

....................... 1.588

....................... 1.984

....................... 2.381

....................... 2.778

....................... 3.175

....................... 3.572

....................... 3.969

....................... 4.366

....................... 4.763

....................... 5.159

....................... 5.556

....................... 5.953

....................... 6.350

....................... 6.747

....................... 7.144

....................... 7.541

....................... 7.938

....................... 8.334

....................... 8.731

....................... 9.128

....................... 9.525

....................... 9.992

...................... 10.319

...................... 10.716

...................... 11.113

...................... 11.509

...................... 11.906

...................... 12.303

...................... 12.700

...................... 13.097

...................... 13.494

...................... 13.891

...................... 14.288

...................... 14.684

...................... 15.081

...................... 15.478

...................... 15.875

...................... 16.272

...................... 16.669

...................... 17.066

...................... 17.463

...................... 17.859

...................... 18.256

...................... 18.653

...................... 19.050

...................... 19.447

25/32 .....................

51/64 .....................

13/16 .....................

53/64 .....................

27/32 .....................

55/64 .....................

7/8 .......................

57/64 .....................

29/32 .....................

59/64 .....................

15/16 .....................

61/64 .....................

31/32 .....................

63/64 .....................

1 .........................

.781

.797

.813

.828

.844

.859

.875

.891

.906

.922

.938

.953

.969

.984

1.000

......................

......................

......................

......................

......................

......................

......................

......................

......................

......................

......................

......................

......................

......................

.....................

19.844

20.241

20.638

21.034

21.431

21.828

22.225

22.622

23.019

23.416

23.813

24.209

24.606

25.003

25.400

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