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Sreekumar Reviewed work(s): Source: Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 25, No. 35/36 (Sep. 1-8, 1990), pp. 1981-1983+19851987+1989-1990 Published by: Economic and Political Weekly Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/4396713 . Accessed: 18/02/2012 09:10
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leaves out Keralaas a special case [Mohan and Panth.underdevelopmentof the third world is in while develop. Third.capitalismand its impact in the thirdworld pretationof the spatialcategoriesand social [Stater. Dependency is underdevelopment conceptualisedas the theory gives emphasis to the fact that the originalstate of affairs manifestedby tradi.Thus the problematicof the present enquiry revolvesround two major issues (i) In what respectsare the temporal of difchangesin the spatialstructure Kerala ferent from other third world regions? of (ii) What are the major determinants the production of spatial forms in Kerala? II Kerala and World System The political and social conditions of Malabar at the end of the 15th century immediately before the arrival of the Portuguese in 1498 presents some striking features. banisation. It is equates the process of change with movethe *surprisingthat although the empirically ment betweentwo fixed points. ring the fact that they are greatly separated Prior to the second world war the process in time and space [Reisman.1985].Therewas nothingin the natureof royalpowerand the whole land was divided 1981 Economic and Political Weekly September 1-8. It the spatial dynamics of these regions.Nagaraj.or ratherit is its history [Castells.the majorrole second world war period which saw an unin the global dynamics of urban growth is precedented spurt in the literature on playedby less opulentcountriesto whichthe economic development.The most urban process would also reveala growing fundamentalproblem with the modernisadisillusionment among researchers with tion paradigm is that its conception of theoreticalmodels that change is overly linear. The of urbangrowthwas accentuatedby highly originof this approachgoes back to the post industrialised regions. In the dependency approach we find an processesin the third world can be broadly classified into two: (i) the modernisation exact inversionof the fundamentalassumptheory and (ii) the dependencytheory.The tion of modernisationtheory regardingthe logical pillarof the modernisationtheory is nature of relations between industrialised a traditional-modernduality thesis where countries and the third world.ing away of these features.Thus. any formulationwhich neglectsthe ecological and other historical differences that exist among the third world countries influencingthe productionof spatial forms. But a cursory glance at the ever world cities also differ from their counteraccumulating literatureon the third world parts in the West [Safa.dustrialisedcountries.So an understandingof origin and causes of this unique spatial formationdoes constitutean object of study. would lead to partial and reductive conclusions. teleological and some of the pop'ular try to explain the complexities couched in historical [Chinchilla. In a Rostovian provided is that the specific historically sense [Rostov. One is the sequential sectoral The dependency theory was linked to the developmentof the economy. 1977:401. 1954].The classic can delineatethreeinterrelated aspectsof ur.Generallyurbanisation been treated as one specific feature within the overallformulationsof dependencytheory. 1983:107]. He arguedthat the process is of areaswheresecondaryand tertiaryactivities of urbanisation the expression the social are located.Neither Rural Nor Urban Spatial Formation and Development Process T T Sreekumar In manyrecentanalysesof urbanpatternsin India. 1986: 146-8]. Safa also argued that the different patterns of urbanisation in the less developed countries originate fromtheirlate entryinto the globalcapitalist system and dependenceon advancedcountries for capital. 1982. the analysis of urban question initially by growing concentration of population in Castells . In this study we have taken the case of in spatial transformation Keralastateas our particular object of analysis. 1977]. It is also noted that ed to the field of comparative urban the class structureand ecology of the third research. perialistdominationat the centreof the proWithin the modernisationparadigmone blematic [Quijano.1960]development appearsto determined characterof the social formabe a path already traced that societies are tions in the third world cannot be analysed -supposedto follow if they manifest a spirit properlywithoutplacingthe questionof imof enterprise [Castells. 1990 . Keralaemergesas a special case.mode of production historically formed in differences. the diffusion of the dynamic of the penetrationof the capitalist development process leading to the dis.referenceto this approach is Frank . Its problematicrevolvesround two major issues:(i) In whatrespects the temporal are changesin thespatialstructure Kerala of different from otherthirdworldregions? (ii) Whatare the major determinants the production of spatialforms in Kerala? of assumed relationshipbetweenurbanisation and economic development has been 'proved' by several scholars using highly AT the beginning of the 19th century less sophisticated mathematical techniques than threeper cent of the world population [Losch. The major approachestowardsthe inter.nance.The modernisationtheorists the lived in urbanareas. most of the conceptua1l for examining the spatial expansion of still remain unresolved. Although the dependency approach in terms of analytical rigour enjoys tremendous superiority over the modernisation approach. Some recent macro level disaggregated studies which analysethe emergingurbanpatternin India. export market and has technology. Posing as it does certain problemsin the very definitionof an urbanunit with its high ruraldensity and big villages. and the problemsconventionallyassociated such as economicdevelopwith urbanisation only through ment wereviewedas resolvable the breaking of dependency relations and actuation of a process of revolutionary transformation [Slater. 1986:10].the principalinsightthis theory . Now there is a equivocal term 'third world' is commonly general recognition that the historical process of urbanisation in the third world is applied. 1986:2]. 1982:3]. appearanceof rural-urban I Introduction FollowingCastells. Every form of matter has history.000.This Europe. into the remainderof the World. This articlelooks at the origin and causes of this uniquespatialformation. Second. Further.Towards end of the would argue that the industrial urban is 20th centurywhat we experience an urban developmentin the west and the urbanprorevolution by which half of the world cess in the thirdworldtodayis the samebarpopulation have become urban dwellers.According to them. 1964]. Keralaposes certain problems in the definition of an urban unit itself with its high rural density (556 per sq km) and big villages with a population more than 5. The practical and political significance of this new phenomenon is distinctly different from that of the inreflectedin the increasingattention accord. of perspective this approach orientedstudiescontinueto expandat a con.fact the negative effect of external domitionalismand backwardness ment is envisualisedin terms of the wither.non-materialist framework issues fails to providean interpretative siderablepace.Today.
Despitethe re. the emerged as the undisputed masters of the tion liv.etc. But the town density (number of there was hardly any systematicincreasein TABLE 1: POPULATIoN GROWTH AND EXPANSION OF CULTIVATION the numberof towns or increasein the size of already existing trading centres. countries. The volumeof tradealso increased considerably. Thus URGD becomes highly also sprangup around cantonmentsand as in Kerala.48 5.coconut.296. tea.11 3. Keralaranks units and declassification of urban units as specialisation and links between villages. rubber. 1981a.95 1.83 tenurial patterns that existed in these two 1941 10.0 of expansion. The variathe districtofficersof the companyand later behind the correspondingall-India figures tions in UROD are likely to be the result of the the British government could tour and throughout eight decades.120 927. period. This also might Growth Urban DifferUrban Differhavecontributed the expansionof cultivato Populaential Populaential tion.sation has not experienced any secular continued unimpaired even during this troduced for the movement of military acceleration since the turn of the century.3The 1981 18.especiallyin the last two decades. Source: T C Varghese [1972:71]. In the last two ed villagesbegan to growinto townsbecause But a cursoryglance at Table2 would reveal decades we find a convergence in the trends they wereadministrative centresfrom which that Kerala has been invariably lagging in URGD for Kerala and India.401.unprecedented speed is experienced in the built at Cochin.27 3.6 3. cardamom etc.2 Kerala India Degree Another major developmentwas the specAnnual Urban Degree Annual Urban of UrbaGrowth tacularincreasein population in the second Year Rural of UrbaGrowth Rural nisation Rate of Growth nisation Rate of half of the 19th century. coconut etc.77 0. ing the 1941-51 decade only.975 1.2 1. The developmentof the transportsystemin rate of growth of urban population is higher Technological backwardnesswhich was a north Keralawas particularlycharacterised in Kerala than all-India.84 3.hereafter URGD) shows that for Kerala.3 2.Withthe riseof the Portuguesethere troopsinto the interior. Table I gives the data regarding tion tion cultivatedarea and population in Malabar It and Travancore. etc.development of Year Area in Increase in of Growth of Population transportfacilities. population growth. India company. urbanisationin Keralawas a depen.70 and increase in population led to a rapid 1961 1-5.35 17. 1901-1981 coffee.78 3.462 3.8 ferentparts of the region.1 percent in 1901the degree of rurai population and urban population.803 3.158 culture.0.26 1.8percent in 1981.3 0.60 14.14 swampy areas reclamation schemes were workedout.64 3.tapioca. deceleration in the subsequent decades. Source: Census of India. Waste lands were cleared and in 1881 1911 1.Travancore 702.7 3.1820 2.82 1.ingin urban areas as defined in the pace of urbanisation was higher only durto Malabartrade.035 lected wild cardamomsonly as plantation 1881 1. of all Dutch factories one by one and of urbanisation(the percentageof popula.24 3.46 of development transportfacilitiesin Kerala 1971 it .Note: The figures for India exclude Assam and Jammu and Kashmir.23 11. Food cropslike paddy. the Dutch also built up a URBANISATION SINCE 1901 again.0 . TABLE 2: GROWTH OF URBAN POPULATION iN KERALA AND INDIA. Ryotsgrew (i) Malabar 1826 581. the pace of urbanicharacteristic featureof Malabaragyrk61ttfre by the growth of railways which was in. 1985].20 23. 1990 .71 regions.29 2.The increasein the volume of trade 1951 13.46 1.015.into a number of petty principalities.census)has increased 18. lucrativecommercealong the Keralacoast.45 1.99 1.54 0.587 ted the process of eommercialised agri. dant one as in the majority of third world decade 1941-1951 followed by a sharp They also built fortresses at Thankasseri. what we discern is an acAll was a diversion of trade from Calicut to colonialism had playeda significant role in celeration in the rate of urbanisation whereas Cochin and Goa which weakenedthe hold the processof urbanisationin Kerala. becamecommercialproductsin addition to plantation crops like pepper. Quilon and Cannanore.In a it decelerated in the following decade.Portuguesefactorieswere sense.level of urbanisation.15 products. these suggestthat From 1901 to 1931.T C Varghese 1921 Travancore 8.705 pepper on limited scale and hill tribes col1.The investmentof Britishcapital 1911 and efforts of ChFistian missionaries.39 10.34 1.97 attributes this to the differences in  1931 9.11 20.52 2.34 0.39 12.29 in the latter half of the 19th century. Cultivated Total Yearly Average Geometric Rate Expansionof cultivation.initia.' Smallltowns cent acceleration the paceof urbanisation population.the variations in the rate of growth of rural in supervise the country side. sensitive to the emergence of new urban trade develqped leading to functional it is one of the lowest in India.73 2.79 0.The most convenientlyplac.61 than in Malabar.05 1.942. can be seen that the rate 1901 7.Till the beginning half Period of the 19th century attention was concen(Per Cent) tratedon the cultivationof staple food items like paddy. The differentindicesof urbanisation given of urbanisation in Kerala is very low (18. 1982 Economic and Political Weekly September 1-8.428.2 3.560 906. Keralahas had a relativelyslow but conThe urban rural growth differential (the A real turning point in the urbanhistory of the regionis the arrival the BritishEast sistent growth in its urban population (see difference betweenthe annual rate of growth of 2). only thirteenthamong Indian states in the rural[Nagaraj.11 11.1 2. It must be noted that till the second half of the 19thcentury in Table2 indicate that though the annual per cent). Acres Cultivation Population are some of the factors which actuatedthe Area for (Per Cent) in in processof urbanisation Kerala the-latter the Whole of the 19th century.119 1.The British got possession Table From7.4 Cranganore and Beypore.4 0. It has already been noted that the degree urbanismbegan to get imbricatedinto dif.75 18.57 1.76 2.544 2. ductsto differentpartsalong the coastalline.of cultivation was higher in 1911 7.tapioca.146. Following the The latest picture is one of acceleration Portuguese.365.11 roadsand canalswerebuilt fromeast to west the facilitating movementof plantationpro. An of the Zamorins.86 2.
129 0.103 0.264 2.184 1.051 1981 0. highly unstable and continually evolving in response to influences from outside. Kerala 2. But bigger towns are wavering too much in their growth performance. The same for all India is 21 per cent (Singh.7 In this section we would like to understand the basic features of Kerala's urban system in terms 4: NUMBER OF TOWNS AND TOWN DENSITY ACROSS SIZE CLASS 1961-1981 Size Class 1961 1 11 III IV V VI 4 5 31 33 18 7 Number of Towns 1971 5 7 40 25 9 2 1981 6 8 64 21 6 1 1961 0.851 population of already existing towns which India 0.540 0.7 in 1971. But with the development of transport facilitiesthese towns wereby and largecongrafted into a regionalurbansystem. Higher town density is an indication of the better diffusion of town and also urban features over space. 1971and 1981.99 16.111 1.34 9. The figures for urban to urban migration seems to be quite insignificant. The majorityof towns are now clustered in the coastal low land.0 Source:J P Singh [1986:92]. cities8of internationaltradeby colonialists.stability.Table3 showsthe figuresfor towndensity in the four South Indian states and allIndia for the years 1961. The sluggishness of class II towns in the second decade is indeed striking.It can be seen that only Andhra Pradesh is strikingly similarto the all-IndiapictureNot surprisinglyKeralais on the other extreme. Towns in the high land region including the remaining class I town are in the Palghat gap.0 75.1 per cent to 8.-Central in Trivandrumroad Kottayamstretch. the growth rate has come down in 1971-81 decade. Table 7 also illustr4tes that at the district level.999 Talnil Nadu 1.987 continue to be towns either due to immigraSource: Sreekumar [1988:301. OF TABLE6: PERCENTAGE DISTRiBUTION INTRASTATELIFETIMEMIGRANTSIN KERALA IN 1961AND1971 Migration Stream 1961 1971 Rural-rural Urban-rural Rural-urban Urban-urban Total 78.9 in the 1961 census to 11.304 1985].1971and 1981.026 Town Density 1971 0. 1986:93). Invariably for towns in all size classes. five are on the coastal strip. It shows a very marginal increase from 10. The second important stream is however the rural to urban stream. the same set of urban units are considered. This gives a preciserecordof the growthperformance of different towns across size classes. Along with this. it is argued that certain 'pull factors' operate in the urban areas which attract people in the rural countryside and thus contribute to urban growth. Table 5 gives the growth rates for towns in different size classes for the period 1961-1981 calculated using the continuous method. The major streams of migration are (i) rural to rural (ii) rural to urban (iii) urban to rural and (iv) urban to urban. Karnataka 1. Class IV towns also show a comparatively lower variation.6 But it must also be noted that the 1971 census shows a decline in the percentage share of rural to rural migrants compared to 1961 census. Another set of towns have emerged'in the midland along the Main.But it has been rightly pointed out that the urban systems are morecomplexmechanismscharacterised by the inter-dependency urban units and of their interactionwith the rural hinterland.728 Urbanisation has two positive compo1. At this juncture.Of the six Class I towns.7 3. Table 8 shows the comparative figures for the components of urbanisation in Keralaand Tamil Nadu.154 0.029 0. Thiscomplexityis the recognition that urban systemsaresocial systemsratherthan simply mechanicalor naturalsystems.749 0.3 100. Such system might also exhibit an impressive internal capacity for self regulation through mechanism that could dictate their form and evolution.367 2. an urban system could be inherently complex.It shows that the crowd of medium towns in Kerala accounts for its higher town density. The picture of towns densityacrossdifferentsize classes wouldbe of much interest.000 sq km) is relativelyvery high.7).7 100.20 55. there are wide variations in the growth performance of towns. It can be sten that except for class Ill towns. call this incremental component)(ii) increase in urban population due to the emergence of new towns (we call this extensionalcomponent) and (iii) decreasein urbanpopulation due to declassificationerstwhileurban areasas rural(we call this decremental component).22 I II III IV 20.180 0. etc. a close look at the volume of rural to urban migration in Kerala would be in order.06 and Source: Censusof India [1961.463 0.towns per 1.7 11. Initially there were few links between these towns. As social systems.1 10. It can be seen that in the case of Keralaboth the extensional and the decremental componentshave played a more significant role.647 0.129 0. III Modern Urban System Conventionally an urban system would mean the set of cities and towns in a region or nation and its attributes.232 0.06 16.026 of its hierarchicalfabrication.92 18. They served as gateway Source: Census of India 11961. the majority of the rural migrants in urban areas are front within the state Kerala's urban population Oontains only less TABLE 3: NUMBEROF TOWNS PER 1000 KM2 than one per cent of population from rural 1961-1981 areas of other states.5 per cent (see Table 7). suburbanisation. There 1983 Economic and Political Weekly September 1-8.Table4 gives the number of towns in each size class and town density for the years1961. 1990 .770 0. functional structure.845 1. It can be seen that migrants are heavily concentrated in the rural to rural stream.6 6. there could be some 'push factors' in the rural areas which force people to quit village life and migrate to cities. The proportion of rural migrants in urban population is highest in India/State 1961 1971 1981 Cannanore (26 per cent) and lowest in Kozhikode (11 per cent).206 1.849 0.79 0.884 nents and one negative component [Nagaraj. At the same time the share of urban to rural migrants has increased over time (from 6.154 0.5 In the first method tabulations are based on size classes without making allowance to the fact that the number of towns in each size class may changebetween censuses. tion or natural increase in population (we TABLE TABLE5: GROWTH RATEFORTowNs BELONGING To DIFFERENTSIZE CLASSES. 1961 Size Class Decadal Growth Rates 1961-1971 1971-1981 53.768 0. 1971 and 19811. Table 6 gives a picture of these migration streams.9 8. To study the rate of growth of towns belonging to different size classes two methodsare usually adopted:(i) the instantaneous method and (ii) the continuous method. High town density in itself does not of precludethe possibilityfor the emergence new towns. Class III towns show a remarkable degree of consistency in their growth. They are (i) the net addition to the Andhra Pradesh 0.Nor arethey strictly economic or political systems.771 0.26 34. Analysis of migration statistics is of vital significance in the study of urbanisation. As we have seen in the last section the majority of the towns in Keralaare along the coast. Conventionally.1971 1981]. The contribution of rural to urban migrants to the urban population of Kerala is 15.643 0.9 4. In the second method in orderto calculatethe growthratesfor towns belonging to different size classes.
Madrasand Bombay in their respectiveurban systems 1977].84 10.9 15. Table9 gives the Usually urban systems are characterised concentration of urban population in difby the existence of a dominant mode.46 17.11 (-30) 38 (100) Tamil Nadu 1971-81 1961-71 35. Ninety-two per cent of the towns import plantation-based products. manufactured commodities related to plantation based products.69 16.17 20.8 25. lut at the same time it must be noted that the averagesize of these Class I cities in Keralais less than that of all-India 1977]. A precise quantitative classification ot' towns was not attempted due to lack of information [Janaki.5 Kottayam of a series of layerswhich ostensibly reflect 14.95 7. Of the 25 mono-functional towns in '1971.00 (71. 13 were under primary activity.12 Source: Sreekumar [1988:441. Source: J P Singh [1986:961. There were nine towns where industrial employment was the major component.4 11. Palghat. Now-Kerala has the highest road 'density (242 kilometres per 100 square kilometres of area among Indian states [State Planning Board. Kottayam and Neyyanttinkara were identified as major agricultural market towns.3 14.93 1.that the Keralapatternis distinctlydifferent. In 58 per cent of the towns plantation products are the most important commodity manufactured.8 11.07 (91. Tellicherry. The 1971 census had classified the towns in Kerala into three broad categories (i) mono-functional and bifunctional multi(ii) (iii) functional. Ernakulam.4 12. One In all the otherthreestateswe find that more fundamental feature of Kerala's urban than 50 per cent of the urbanpopulation is concentratedin the big cities.99 12. coir. 1985].38 5. This is-manifested the share the South Indian states. spices etc has been of paramount importance in the economy of Kerala. Cannanore. i e.1 0.74 2.6 0.3 20. 14.3 Alleppey the spatial imprint of development [Berry 16. system is the conspicuous absence of such a dominant node. tion and urban economic activities.5 1. a ferentsize classes of towns in year 1981for primatecity.40 (-11.02 0. It is seen that the degree of concentrationof population and urban activity in the biggest city is the lowest in Keralacompared to Calcutta. Alleppey.50 (9.7 0.40 1. timber. Changanassery.74 42. Nlattachery.09 Population Concentration Karnataka Tamil Nadu 62.3 (62) -13 (-36) 36 (100) 27.4 Kozhikode nation state or geographical unit result in 12.3 12. OF BY POPULATION SIZECLASS ToWNS.5 14. 1971 Functional classification of towns is an importantfield in urbanstudieswhichessenMigrants from Total District Within Outside tially deals with the spatial ordering in the District District of and distribution structure urbanfunctions in an urban system [Smith.44 (100) 26.9 Cannanore economic processes of development in a 0. It was argued that the towns in Kerala originated as fishing villages or as seats of local chieftains as in China and many of them were fortified and garrisoned by subsequent invaders and commerce became the most important function. In two towns she major share of employment Source: Census of India [1971 and 19811.01) .19) 27. [Sankaranarayanan.75 0.60 6.2 Trivandrum An attempt to understandthe functional 0.23) 7. 1970].7 15. Equallyimportantis the fact that Kerala URBAN HIERARCHY exhibits a low degree of concentration of populationin the big cities. In forty-four per cent of the towns the major export items were plantationbased products [Chathopadhyaya. 1983].was a steady increase in the road and rail densityin the state in all the three regionsMalabar.Keralapossesses a fairly well-developedroad network which links the towns with their corresponding hinterlands. roleof Class I cities in Kerala's we would argue that they have become the nodes of the six urbansub-systemsof towns in Kerala.4 Palghat spatial structuringof the economic base of 21.00 (58. Hill produces were thus the primary resource base of the trade centres.In the post colonial period also there was an impressive transport growth. Secondary ac1985 Economic and Political Weekly September 1-8.46) 38.9 Processing and trading activities based on commercial agriculture forms an integral part of Kerala's economy.089 (-3.32 1.3 (73) 23. Cochin. Varkala.4 Malappuram different patterns of urban evolution and 1.5 19. It can be observed by of the biggestcity in its total urbanpopula. the towns 0.87 0.0.1981 OF 9: TABLE SHARE URBAN Size Class Kerala I 11 III IV V VI 39. Apart from commercial and industrial functions three other functional groups were delineated. The role of OF TABLE 7: PERCENTAGE RURAL-UPABAN small and medium towns in these states are BY To TOrAL URBAN POPULATION NIGRANTh quite insignificant. was in the service activity.6 2.78 (20. 1961-1981 Kerala 1971-81 1961-71 I Incremental component 11 Extensional component 111Declassificatory component Total 26.19 15.3 15. Only West Bengal and Tamil Nadu have come nearer to Kerala's performance.58 Andhra Pradesh 53. Uneven 27. In the 1872 census the port towns of Cannanore. Calicut and Cochin along with 33 other minor and medium ports were identified as specialising in the export of various plantation as well as other hill produces.8) 22.17 (94. We would argue that before classifying towns into functional groups an enquiry into their resource base is in order.18) 2.76 0.75 13. DisTRICTS. 19541.6 Total fabrication of the urban settlements in The Keralawas first made by Janaki 11954]. urbansystem.7 15.14 58. (ii) agricultural market towns and (iii) temple towns. This is naturally retlected in the employment pattern observed in the urban settlements.23) -4.78 (100) main objective of this study was to examine the influence of physical and economic factors on the functions of towns in Kerala and of the interrelation between the functions and growth of towns. Ettumanoor and Vaikom were some of the famous temple towns. Sixtyf isc per cent of the towns in 1971.1 21. 1965]. TABLE 8: COMPONENTS OF URBANISATION IN KERALA AND TANIIL NADU. This.8 Trichur differentcities and towns. in fact had tremendous impact on the emanation of trade-based urban centres along the coastal plane.5) .52 7. They are (i) administrative towns. Coming to the [Sankaranarayanan. Cochin and Travancore since 1900 [Ibrahim1978].2 Quilon and Horton.6 20. Historically export of indigenous commodities like pepper. Quilon and Nagercoil (now in Tamil Nadu) were identified as commercial and' industrial towns. Thus. A preliminary analysis of the 1971 census data also revealed that the predominance of plantation products in the trading spectrum of urban centres in Kerala still persist. Trivandrum and Calicut were serving predominantly administrative functions.1 20.7 1. 1990 .0 Ernakulam and cities of an urban system are made up 1.
In addition to this Kerala possessed numerous navigable waterways flowing down from the ghats to the coasts. tion of population and activities in partiincrease in urban population due to the cularregion. 1985]. etc.Limits vary from region to region. More and more plantation companies were opened. various steps such as the creation of titles to land. was always very low in Kerala. In the study of urbansystems the notion of stability and instability is of vital significance.We found that be observedthat in Travancore. productionwas decenThe modern urban tions almost difficult.The the midlandare comparatively them a larger or smaller amount of capital and then to household production. etc. So terised by the conspicuous absence of a place. 1986]. abolition of slavery. is the result of complex mechanisms . The emergence of new towns which contribute to urban extension has. In this section concenobviouslyexistedto the progressive we intend to providea scaffold of explanatrationof productiveforcesand population tion for the specificities related to the proin the few dominant centres. These salient features of Kerala's urban evolution cannot be viewed in isolation. 1990 . The area under cash crop cultivation increased considerably during that period. In fact these three factors are interrelated in a specific manner.The degreeand States. We have seen in Section I that towns began to emerge in Kwala as a result of its integration into the world system of capitalism. migration streams and occupational structure.Thoughtradebegan to absorblarge numbersof the population [Varghese."1 townsin the coastalstripin fact formsa confrom the motherland. were taken under state initiative to promote cash crop cultivation. British capital was mainly invested in the plantations [Varghese 1972]. The major industriesin Keralaarestill of towns. As per the definition of urbanarea. Australia. handloom. Manyof the roadswere built from east to west cutting across the main land. are more or less peasants who work themsystem as it developed in Keralais characselves and whose main object. It must also be noted that it is the agro-processing industriesthat dominate the secondarysector in Kerala. changes in the system of taxation and mode of payment. The level of population concentration is only very moderate. The expansion of area under plantation crops is equally fascinating.The practicalvalueof the geographical concept of stability in the study of urban system have been discussed elsewhere [see Nagraj. cashew. are not capitalists. The already existing towns on the other hand showed very poor growth rates.Insteadthere'developed crowd a emergenceof new towns (i e the extensional of small towns along the coast which were component) and the decrease in urban in fact naturalharboursor ports builtunder population due lo de-classification of colonial initiative. Majority of the towns There are colonies proper. This indicates a high degree of disorder in the emerging urban system in Kerala. almost all the cash crops produced in Kerala had a growing demand from outside. Agglomeration of population and productive forces in places of location advantage bechmethe rule. Here the mass of the like beedi. although only in a formal sense.This refersto the proliferation of and disappearance urbanunits in a given area. It is observed in all the three regions. 1972] region.On the other hand the primary sector has a greater say compared to the all-India picture. played a very significant role in 1960s and 1970s At the same time the degree of declassification was also very high. Some inland towns also existing towns into villages is higher in developedas centres of exchangeand agroKerala.Larget-scale incess of spatial formationin Kerala.The functionalstructure the system appears to be highly diversified. the introduction of the kangani system of recruiting labour in the plantations. ln the early decades of the 20th century.To begin dustrialisation. coconut products. to spread of urbanisationin the highland and farming colonists although they bring with percolate down to small-scale production verylow. The integrationof particularregionsinto the global dynamicsof capitalistaccumulation in turn had effectedthe transformation of the spatial imprint in those regions. Within a span of 40 years beginning from 1905 there was a phenomenal increase in the number of plantation companies. is to produce their own livelihood. of towns appeared to be confined to the a distinction between different colonies: In addition to this there was a tendency narrowcoastal strip. and there was a increase in the area under cash crops in Travancore Cochin and Malabar during this period. During the 19th century canals were dug under colonial initiative which linked up these natural water ways. The latter can also be due to Spatial Forms and Development the fact that the colonial administrative Process operations in the region were mainly concentratedin Madraswhich might haveacted Productionof spatialforms in any society as a primate city. We have seen in the last section that the it did not lead to large-scale agglomera-. coir.They are populationgrowth. The role played by speculationfigurefrom small towns to grow at an acceleratedpace. Transportfacilities weredeveloped in such a manner that the plantation produce could be brought from the ghats directlyto the ports.tivities do not play a very significant role in the urbaneconomyof the state. import of paddy which in effect released land and labour from food crop cultivation. It can rities involvedin the process. This peculiar nature of transport development affected the spatial system in a unique manner. in the first tralisedand it was movingdown fromhigher forms of organisation to lower forms. treatment of waste lands. Since the urban units are defined in termsof spatial concentrationof population on the basis of certain limits of dimensiondensity and occupationalheterogeneity. only when the agriculturalcharacterof a particular region changes it could be designatedas urban. Another majoifTeature of the urban system is that it is highly unstable. Many of the urbancentres emergedas specialising exportof various the cash crops. Factories were establishedat rivermouths and these canals wereused for transporting timberand other hill produce including plantation products and for the carriage of heavy and bulky articles such as laterite. Instead. Marx  in fact had observed this in 1986 Economic and Political Weekly September 1-8. These seen. etc. 1932]. etc [Subramanyam. the stability of the system constitutedby these units is influencedby three major factors. as we have operating at severalstructurallevels. This partly explains disorder in Kerala'surban system.The dispersal his Theoriesof Surplus Valuewhile making based on the natural resourceendowment and of the region[Subramanian Pillai.such as the United among some of the major industries are clusteredin the lowland. The degree of urbanisation. In there were some structural limits for the the big colonjes-plantationsthe second type of dominant node.leadingto agglomeration of with let us recapitulatethe major peculiapeople and capital did not take place. Populationgrowthcan change the occupational ordering in a worldmarket. the intricate relations of these specific patterns with the historical geography of the development process must be-scrutinised properly. On the one hand they were forced to buy goods produced in foreign countries and on the other hand they were forced to sell their produce in the international market [Parameswaran. They of productiveforces. In Travancore. 19511. This points to a high degree of processing industries. the uniquespatialdispersalof townsand the absence of a dominant node in Kerala's IV urban system. Population growth eitlier due to natural increase or migration cannot in itself generate urban forms. agriculture was diverted to produce goods for the world market and the peasants became dependent on the world market in two ways. capitalist the modeof production exists. wherecommercial citiesin the urbansystemis also moreor less is the startand production intendedfor the Thus it appears that the colonial factor is of insignificant. In fact the influx of British capital began entering into the region to a considerable extent only during the second half of the 19th century. nor concentration Thus insteadof a progressive tinuous belt making the ruralurbandistincdo they carry on capitalist production. the abolition of viruthi. majority the characterisedby a very low degree Kerala-is of industries were of the agro-processing of urbanisationwith a high spatialdispersal type.tiles.
Rs.Thus the averagesize of a Keralavillage stands in shaip contrast to their counterparts elsewhere in India. SEETHARAMA RAO *B. Nucleated settlements are confined to the more difficult regions of the gaps. by the time of the visit of Ibun Batuta in the 14th century. 19291. L. One must be skeptical of projecting hydrologic conditions as the single explanatory variable for the emergence of particularsettlementpatterns. These big villages.NARENDRABABU oN. capitalism and (vi) the stage of modern capitalism[Bobeck. Ghodke. M SATYA *O. This processwas completed before 11thand 12th centuries [Gurukkal. SRIVASTAVA K. 'K. V.000 whereasit is only one per cent in all India.HUSSAIN KHAN * V.The rural J EncyclopaedicDictionary of Economics (5 Volumes)-N. for example. 1962]. It has been argued that the settlement pattern in Kerala has always been of the dispersed type [Mencher. The transformation of these grouped settlements into dispersed settlements coincided with agricultural progress [Demangion 1962]. BRAHMANANDAM R. (iii) the stage of clan peasantry. 2 He suggested that it could be in areas where there is a threat of frequent floods. themselves with high population dimension and density can for all practical purposes be considered as agriculturaltowns. L. 1966: 184].100 [ISBN81-7099-135-8] foothills of main ghats and the high land region.Examplesof settlementtypes whereone cannot establish any strong correlation between hydrologic conditions and population distributionare cited by Demangion . Shenkota and Gundalloor mountains might have formed nucleated settlements and gradually started spreading out to the midlands and the low lands [Gurukkal. Menon  who identified both dispersed and nucleated settlements in different parts of Kerala (the dominant being the former) has illustrated at length how the specific geographic features conditioned particular settlement types. BALA RAMULU *A. For every man has his own orchard with his house in the middle and a wooden fence around it [Batuta.. Nearly 88 per cent of villages in Kerala have population 5. 1990 (INDIA) NEW DELHI-110059 1987 . resembled the seperate farm houses in Assam.Rs. there is not a space free from cultivation. (iv) the stage of feudally or autocraticallyorganised agrariansocieties. (v) the stage of early urbanism and rent. Generally. Gupta. ANANDA KUMAR *M. 1989. Narayana (Eds. LINGAMURTHY*V. But this seems incorrect since the early settlers who entered Kerala through the Palghat gap. Rs. In the coastal region and the laterite plateaus where water is abundant and no co-operative effort is needed for cultivation we find dispersed settlements.The houses of tenants werebuilt separatelyon such big lands. V. large land owners preferredto divide their domains among a large number of tenants and adopted the systemof dispersedsettlement[Demangion. M.14But since. the would be a danger of inundation in the streets as most of the water would be discharged immediatelyfrom the housesand yards into the street. PATEL *B.250 CONTRIBUTORS *P.In contrastto this. people live in such isolated homesteads. DAS *P." In fact a more plausible hypothesis in the case of Kerala would be to relate the evolution of this unique. V.largely responsible for the emergence as well as the differential evolution of urban process in Kerala.But as we have already noted. 1962].from a geographic stand point the states of social and economic evolution are the following: (i) Food gathering stage. where there is a dearth water or O Rural Economy of India-N. MADHUSUDAN *N. in Tamil Nadu of the 155 new towns that emergedin 1971only twenty were medium towns [Sankaranarayanan. PAPI REDDY 'A. 1987]. JANARDHANRAO *P. The new towns which emerged in the 1960s and 1970s are mediumand small towns. This would suggest that the settlement patternin Keralawas determinedboth by its physical geography as well aE socioeconomic organisation.. Its length is a journey of two months from Sindabar to Kawlam. the census definition gives emphasis to the nonagriculturaldiversification of the occupational structure.As we have noted there is a diffused spatial ordering of separate homesteadsamidst coconut orchardswhich resultedin a situation wherethe fixation of the village boundary becomes arbitrary. Lithuania.Rs. 200 each CJ India as I Knew It-Michael O' Dwyer. The unit of exploitation (as it hap- pened in Kerala)was largeenough to occupy and supporta family. RAo *K. 1981:111]. 1986]. the dispersed pattern had become dominant. Malabar. PArrERN AND URBAN SETTLEMENT PROCESS Another major factor which conditions the modern urban system as it emerges in Kerala is the peculiar settlement pattern. Dann  pointed out that excessive rainfall Rush your order to: Phone: 5552070 MITTAL PUBLICATIONS GARDEN A-110. S. CHAKRADHAR NARASIMHA RAO *T. 350 O India in the Year A. RANGA REDDY *S. a crowdof small tenantsat the middle and agrestic slaves at the bottom.settlement patternwith the organisation of property conditioned by Brahmin colonisation. NAGA RAJA *P. Sourirajan  argued that the Tharavadu which was the main household system in Kerala. And in all this space of two months journey. Row *A. It is argued that grouping would be the first effort of man and the ancient familial organisation would be the framework of the first village communities.But when their economic structure change they slowly graduate to urban status. With respectto population densityKeralaranksfirstin India.). This new organisation of production as characterised a landed aristocracyat the by apex. B. RAMAIAH*CH. However. Batuta records that: We next came to the country of black pepper. MOHAN itself tou1d be a reason for the open compound since it ensuresa more rapiddisposal of water. Mechner [19661 also seems to support this hypothesis. 1962]. Coupled with this there is a very high populationpressure. NARAYANA *A. The settlement pattern in turn had a tremendous impact on the process of urbanisationin Kerala. MURALIDHAR RAO *K. William Logan has noted that this description was equally applicable to the Malabar coast of his period also [see Logan. TIWARI * unfavourable conditions for economic development. Estonmia).these villages do not come underthe categoryof urban. In the Baltic countries (Latvia. 1986: 231]. the original tendency was to cluster together rather than disperse. 2000-Iqbal Narain & Surendra K.D. N. If houses are closely built there Economic and Political Weekly September 1-8. Murthy & K. 1977]. The most probable primary form of rural settlement would be an agglomerated one [Demangion. (ii) the stage of specialisedcollectors. M.It seems that the stage of autocratically organised agrarian systemwas forcedon the indigenoussociety by Brahmin colonisers [Gurukkal.
peculiarity of the economic structure. The statisticalempiricismof the census definitions need not necessarily capture the dynamisminvolvedin the process. This includes transfer of prodown the natural increasein population. Lawrence and Wishart. Logan.. Isaac . L and Horton.One has to look for other meaningfulmeasuresand criteria for delineating urban centres in Kerala. Modern Reader. Dann. Dependency and Articulation of Models of Production' in Chilcote.: A Geographical Perspective. Chathopadhyaya. London. D L (eds). very high degreeof de-classification. S (1985). R (1932). there is a fairly imple in Bihar it is 86 per cent and in West pressivespread of health and educational Bengal it is 81 per cent according to 1971 facilities in this region. special Number. New Jersey. V K. Another example is on the Hungarianpuzia where water is found in a shallow depth which can be reached by the most elementary wells as in the case of Kerala. R H and Johnson. 2 The nature of these economic processes in Ttavancore has been analysed in detail by Nadar ."5 Similarly the census [see Singh 1986]. N S (1983). urban migration stream. T T M (1984). W (1981). Vol 3. grouped villages. Part Il-A. Johnsoii. Gulati. 'Demographic'lansition in Kerala: Facts and Factors' in Economic and Political Weekly Special Number. For examstatus. absorb the increased population in non8 A model of development of gateway cities agriculturalactivities. 'Age of Marriage of Women and Population Growth' in Economic and Political Weekly. Part 11-A. Mode of Production or Dependencv? Sage. could resultin a is provided in Johnston .] I Similarprocessesare observedin other parts of world also. we find dispersed settlements in the west and agglomeratedsettlements in the east. Trivandrum. (forthcoming in Agarwal. Damangion. Krishnan. Class Struggle and Industrial Structure: A Study of Coir Weaving Industry in Kerala 1859-1980. 15 See for a discussion of these aspects TharakanPanikarand Soman . Economics of Location. Growth and Policy. R H and Johnson. Basil Blackwell. London. Janaki. Kerala. Series 10. Kantian. See Panikar . D L (eds) (1983). Latin America. New York. PrenticeHall. Oxford. Forty-two per previous censuses. R J (1982). E F (1970). V A (1954). Delhi. Historically. In terms of agriculture changes the economic structure volume this stream seems to be smaller in of the villages and they graduateto urban Keralacompared to other states. 3 The development of modern transport began in Keralaon in the sesbnd half of the 19th century though the first land routes were built during 1776-1793. see Ibrahim .ruralto rural 7 For a detailed account of the argument see migration. Nair .There 9 Expert does not mean report to outside is also a fall in the fertility rates bringing Kerala only. C:iatells. Beverly Hills. State of Urban Environment in India. Kerala. P (1978). The Urban Question: A Marxist Approach. A (1967). Oxford University Press. 'The Development of TransportFacilities in Kerala:A Historical Review' in Social Scientist Vol 6. London. Series 9. 'Interpreting Social Change in Guatimala: Modernisation. though there is a super abundance of springs. Readings in Cultural Geography. Nos 3 and 4. etc.But it must be borne in mind and that it is underdevelopment deprivation whichled rather thaneconomicdevelopment to this unique spatial ordering. References J Berrey. etc. it may take varied forms. London. Vol VII. In a relativelyhomogeneous lime stone region in France. 'General Population Tables. 'Kerala and Madras: A Comparative Study of Ecology and Social Structurc' in Ethnology.inability of particularregionsto Bourne and Simnons . The American Urban Sys ten. Isaac.'6 ducts from towns to other places also. -(1971). System of Cities. Here people have formed nucleated settlements.The University of Chicago Press. Notes [The author wishes to thank P K Michael Tharakan. (1981). In 1%1. On the plateau of the Ardeanes.M (1977).Leela Gulati [19761and Krishnan . Bobeck. New Delhi). the Caux. Centre for Science and Environment. 'General Population Tables'.4 The first post colonial census was in 1951 economic structure on the other hand is and this was conducted with more rigour characterisedby a relative dominance of leading to lesser under counting than non-agriculturalactivities. 'The Urban Geography of Malabar' in The Journal of Madras Geographical Association.the inhabitants opted for compact. Malabar. Part Il-A. Theoriesof Development. A (1962). 'State of Urbanisation in Kerala'. physicalamenities of life and development 6 Rural to rural migration is the dominant of trading activities based on commercial stream in many Indian States. Longnan. Ibrahim. unpublished PhD thesis submitted to the Jawaharlal Nehru University. A G (1969). 16 For a discussion of the reasons for the tall in the fertility rates in Kerala. Frank. Engelwood Cliffs. 12 It is the physical form and not the familial organisation that is taken into account. etc. Delhi. Vol VI. Yale University Press. Edward Arnold. Harvey. Chinchilla. Oxford University Press. L (1976). 13 The humid lands of frequent rains in WesternEurope is characterisedby dispersed settlements. Srikumar Chattopadhyaya. Therefore geographers argue that the question of water in traditional societies plays only a secondary role. however there cent of all male workersin rural Keralaare were some major definitional changes as to employedin non-primaryactivities.Space is socially produced. 5 For a discussion on the relative merits and Generallyit could be arguedthat the urbandemerits of these methods see Mohan and rural economic continuum in terms of Panth 119821. rconomic and Political Weekly September 1-8. Bourne. op cit. General Population Tables. 'The Main Stages in the Socio:Economic Evolution from a Geographic Stand Point' in Wagnerand Miksell (eds). This is manifestedby the slow rateof growth 10 Marx's analysis of the question of space under capitalism is discussed in Harvey of towns in the absence of a strong ruralto .The Urbanisation of Capital: Stdies in the History and Theory of Capitalist Urbanisation. Chilcote.They can be eithercalled 'rurban' semi-urban. V 11 See Kannan. for example there are many aggrogorodas meaning agriculturaltowns [see Valentey 1978]. 14 In Russia. 'The Origins and Causes of Settlement Types' in Waguer and Mikesell (eds). Kerala. 'Functional Classification of tLrban Settlements in Kerala'in Journal of M S University of Baroda. P Mohanan Pillai. No 5. etc.The indesignate an area as urban resulting in the stability which we observed in Kerala's declassifi'cation of many of the erstwhile modern urban system is partly due to this urban areas as rural. A (ed). K (1972). Trivandrum. decayof traditionalindustries.K P Kannanand G N Rao foi helpful comments. L S and Simmons. Geographic Perspectives on Urban Systems. K P (1988). J (1966). Charithram Publications. [19881. Marx. March. Underdevelopment or Revolution-EssaYs on the Development of Underdevelopment antdthe Immediate Enemy. Menon. D (19851.New York. Cenisus of India (1961). Theories of Surplus Value. For a discussion on the history of transport development in Kerala. Losch. Logan (1981) had remarked that towns and towns life are not congenial to the tastes and habits of Malayalees. 'Geographical Basis for Conclusion The aboveobservationsbring to light the fact that the urban process in Kerala.the transformation the relationshipbetween of society and space is rather unique.The various historical process had ultimatelycreateda situation wherethe emergingspatial form is neither rural nor or urban.J(1953). Readings on Structure. 1990 1989 . Of Rural Proletarian Struggles: Mobilisation and Organisation of Rural Workers in South West India.T N (1976). See for eample Peil and Sada [1984:18]. Centre for Earth Science Studies. Pyarelal  Rajagopalan . op cit. No 8. Mencher. H (1962). J W (eds) (1978).
K (1985).. Madras. Centre for Development Studies. Bombay. 1890-1930' in Chilcote. K K and Mohanan Pillai. Parts 14.. Vol VI. L (1964). T (1988). Oxford University Press. Centre for Development of Nineteenth Century Tlavancore' in Studies. op cit. Parameswaran. To make Keralathe first Indian State to achieve cent per cent literacy. P(1984). V K (1932). And yet. T Sreekumar. Sourirajan. unpublished MPhil thesis submitted to Jawaharlal Nehru University. 1920-1985.. New Delhi.Vol XVII. Working Paper No 54. R (1986). P R G (1981). Trivandrum. Cjlencoe. StatePlanning Board(1983). Malabar' in The Journal of Madras Bombay. A (1983)Imperialism. Nadar. W W (1960). 'Agricultural Subramani4m. A long-cherished dream comes true. H I (1982). J P (1986). New York.D I (edX1978). 1860-1900' in Journal of Kerala Studies. and 4. Madras Institute of Development Studies. 1961 to 1981. 'Socio-Economic submitted Jawaharlal to NehruUniversity. Eiconomicand Political Weekly. No 2. S (1951). M P K (1984). Samooham: Rajan Gurukkal (1987). Working Paper 122. and the State in Peru. 1850-1960. Varghese.. Nos 3 graphers. New Delhi. and Nagraj. Sankaranarayan. 'A Note on Economic Consequences Land Tenuws in Transport and Communications in Kerala.. tion: Essays inMarxist Research.. P Geography theMalabar of District' The in (1986). Peoples Publishing House. True. The Left Democratic Front Government of Keralais committed to the eradication of illiteracy . Department of Public Relations Government of Kerala. 46. Smith. Factors in Educational Development: Cm New Delhi.Nos 45. A Study of Population and Spatial Configurations. 'Kerala's Industrial Backwardness: Journalof MadrasGeographical AssociaExploration of Alternative Hypotheses' in tion. Reisman. Organisationof Production in Beedi Industry: A Study of Cannanore District. Inter India Publications. September. Agrarian Change and Subramanayam.Transport System Valentey. Rostow. Panikar. Cambridge. Handloom Industry in North and South Kerala:A Study of Production and Marketing Structure. Social Classes. No 3. Peil. R H T (1965). 'Keraleeya Janmi Sambradayathilekkulla Parinama Prakriyakal' in Vichinddnam AprilSeptember. Studies.. R and Panth. The Stages of Economic Growth: A Non-Communist Manifesto. 1900-1981' unpublished MPhildissertation Tharakan.. 'Method and Purpose in Functional Town Classification' in Annals of the Associations of American GeoGeographical Association.. in No 14. T C (1972). Some Contrasts. The Agrarian Question in Kerala. R H and Johnson D L (eds). Nair. Progress and Prosperity through literacy. C R (1985). Vol VII.. 'Capitalism and Urbanisation at the Periphery:Problems of Interpretation and Analysis with reference to Latin America in Urbanisation. Panikar.. M (1932). Urbanisation in Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Illinois. Nos 38 and 39. 'Commercialisation of Agricultural Products and the New Economc Order in Tlavancore. Background paper for the High Level Committee Physical on Infrastructure Publishers.P G K and Soman. V (1977). Centre for Development Trivandrum.Urbanisation Kerala. New Delhi. Nos 3 and 4.Trivandrum. Centre for Development Trivandrum. Croom Helm. TowardsDemystifying Kerala's Fertility Experience. Singh. M and Sada.The Theory of Populain Kerala. Delhi. New Hamshine. in The Developing World. Moscow.. Centre for Development Studies. Economic and Political Weekly September 1-8. Rajagopalan. African Urban Society' Johnviley and Sons. Trivandrum. The Urban Process. Towardsa Political Economy of Urbanisation in Third WorldCountries. Patterns of Rural Urban Migrationin India. A State-wide literacy campaign is on . . Vol XXI. Quijano. Working Paper No 57. 7Twnsin TamKYarnataka Andhra Pradesh. Cambridge University Press. and Transport'l Tivandrtm. To make every Keralitelitecate. Progress A B C OF KNOWLEDGE. Allied Publishers.the Distribution and Pattern of Rural Settlement in Kerala'in Journal of the M S University of Barods. Keralahas often been called the most literate and the Malyalees the most educated . Safa. Health Status of Kerala: The Paradox of Economic Backwardness and Health Development. the world of words.MPhil thesis submitted to JawaharlalNehru University. P G K (1981). Economic and Political Weekly. Mohan. C (1982). M (1980).IV.. Cities in Industrial Societies. 'Morphology of Urbanisation in India: Some Results from 1981 Census'" in Economic and Political Weekly. V (1986). about 10 per cent of the population is still far away from the world of alphabet. 'Decline in Birthrate in Kerala' in Economic and Politicaf Weekly Annual Number. Pyarelal. 1990 . Slater. Studies. Vol VI. D (1986).
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