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Steelmaking

Fabrication of Steel
Budinski Chapter 12
Study Unit 1

Science of Materials
MTK 3A11

Study division goals


To develop
Insight into South Africa's role in global

metal

production
An understanding of how

steel is made

A knowledge of the steel products that are

commercially available
An understanding of steel terminology and steel

specification procedures
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Study division goals To develop


An understanding of the metallurgical

reactions that occur in heat treatment


A knowledge of the common

heat

treatments used on steels


Guidelines on how to specify

heat

treatments on engineering drawings


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Having completed study unit 1 you should be able to


MTK 3A 11 Steelmaking Ch12

Describe the process of fabricating steel


and the workings of a typical steel mill

Discuss the processes involved in steel


refining

List the steel products that are


commercially available

Define certain steel terminology and


specifications
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South Africa's role in

GLOBAL METAL PRODUCTION


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SA mineral production

The worlds

largest turnover of platinum-groupmetals*


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*Chromium
Corrosion and oxidation resistance Mild hardenability agent Improves wear resistance Promotes the retention of useful strength levels at elevated temperatures Chromium is an irreplaceable constituent in all stainless steels
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Cr
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*Manganese
Desulfuriser and deoxidiser Flat rolled carbon and HSLA steels contain up to 2% Mn for microstructural refinement Manganese may be substituted for part of the nickel content in austenitic SS

Mg
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Tool and die steels rely on manganese for deep hardening


Farm equipment Plough
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* Vanadium
Approximately 80% of vanadium produced is used as ferrovanadium or as a steel additive - specialty stainless steel, e.g. for use in surgical instruments and tools - rust resistant and high speed tool steels - mixed with aluminium in titanium alloys used in jet engines and high-speed airframes
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Va
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Bushveld Igneous Complex


The largest known deposit of platinum group metals (PGMs) platinum, palladium, rhodium, ruthenium, osmium and iridium are recovered, as well as small amounts of gold, nickel, copper and cobalt.

Largest resources of chromium and vanadium in the world


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Fabricating steel and the workings of a

TYPICAL STEEL MILL


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Steelmaking
Iron ore, coke & limestone Blast furnace & oxygen Molten iron Refine Solidify & form
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Iron ore
Alloy of Fe & C Iron ore Coke Sinter

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Integrated steel mill


A coke plant A blast furnace Various steel-refining processes A number of product lines
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Blast furnace

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Blast furnace process


Coke + Charge introduced into the furnace at
the top

Blasts of heated air are injected into the


furnace through openings at the bottom of the shaft Coke is burned along with the injected fuels, producing the necessary heat and reducing gas to remove oxygen from the ore in the reduction process
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Blast furnace process


Carbon combines with oxygen in the ore As the iron melts, it descends and accumulates in
the crucible

Molten pig iron (5%C) and slag are drained


from the crucible through different tapping holes

Gas that exits from the top of the furnace goes through a cleaning process
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Blast furnace

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Direct reduction process


Iron ore, coal and oxygen are reacted in a single melting vessel steel Steel an alloy of iron and a restricted amount of carbon
C < 0.005% is considered pure iron C > 0.06% lower limit commercial steel C > 2.00% cast iron

More C brittle
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Steel refining

Turning pig iron into steel


Basic oxygen furnace (BOF) Electric arc furnace (EAF)
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Basic oxygen steelmaking

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Basic oxygen furnace (BOF)


converts the molten

Cr
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iron from the blast furnace into refined steel


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Electric arc furnace (EAF)


Reduce iron from iron ore Heat is generated from an electric arc Oxygen is blown into the furnace, and lime and other materials are added to combine with the impurities and form slag Molten iron is extracted and poured out via a tapping spout Can then be processed again in an electric arc furnace to make steel (special quality steel)

Cr

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Secondary Steelmaking
Speciality steels alter chemical composition reduce non-metallic inclusions Vacuum degassing Ladle stirring injection Ladle furnace heating
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Special refining processes


VAR Super alloys VIM Specialty Alloys EBR To purify specialty alloys ESR Tool steel and special purpose steels

Cr
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Continuous casting

Refinement of the casting process for the

continuous, high-volume production of metal sections with a constant cross-section

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Continuous casting

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Stand casting process and shapes produced

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Standard shapes

W-Shape

S-Shape

T-Shape

Rail

C-Shape

L-Shape

Square & rectangular tubing

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Hot and cold finishing

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Hot rolling

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Cold rolling

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On your own
Steel terminology
Familiarise yourself with the terms used to describe mill processing operations

Steel specifications
Regardless of the identification system used, essential items need to be addressed in purchasing a steel. Discuss these characteristics
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Next

Phase diagrams
Study unit 2

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