Steelmaking

Fabrication of Steel
Budinski Chapter 12
Study Unit 1

Science of Materials
MTK 3A11

Study division goals
To develop
Insight into South Africa's role in global

metal

production
An understanding of how

steel is made

A knowledge of the steel products that are

commercially available
An understanding of steel terminology and steel

specification procedures
MTK 3A 11 Steelmaking Ch12 2

Study division goals To develop
An understanding of the metallurgical

reactions that occur in heat treatment
A knowledge of the common

heat

treatments used on steels
Guidelines on how to specify

heat

treatments on engineering drawings
MTK 3A 11 Steelmaking Ch12 3

Having completed study unit 1 you should be able to
MTK 3A 11 Steelmaking Ch12

Describe the process of fabricating steel
and the workings of a typical steel mill

Discuss the processes involved in steel
refining

List the steel products that are
commercially available

Define certain steel terminology and
specifications
4

South Africa's role in GLOBAL METAL PRODUCTION MTK 3A 11 Steelmaking Ch12 5 .

SA mineral production The world’s largest turnover of platinum-groupmetals* MTK 3A 11 Steelmaking Ch12 6 .

*Chromium Corrosion and oxidation resistance Mild hardenability agent Improves wear resistance Promotes the retention of useful strength levels at elevated temperatures Chromium is an irreplaceable constituent in all stainless steels 7 Cr MTK 3A 11 Steelmaking Ch12 .

*Manganese Desulfuriser and deoxidiser Flat rolled carbon and HSLA steels contain up to 2% Mn for microstructural refinement Manganese may be substituted for part of the nickel content in austenitic SS Mg MTK 3A 11 Steelmaking Ch12 Tool and die steels rely on manganese for deep hardening Farm equipment – Plough 8 .

* Vanadium Approximately 80% of vanadium produced is used as ferrovanadium or as a steel additive . for use in surgical instruments and tools .rust resistant and high speed tool steels . e.mixed with aluminium in titanium alloys used in jet engines and high-speed airframes 9 Va MTK 3A 11 Steelmaking Ch12 .g.specialty stainless steel.

nickel. rhodium. as well as small amounts of gold.Bushveld Igneous Complex The largest known deposit of platinum group metals (PGMs) platinum. Largest resources of chromium and vanadium in the world MTK 3A 11 Steelmaking Ch12 10 . copper and cobalt. osmium and iridium are recovered. palladium. ruthenium.

MTK 3A 11 Steelmaking Ch12 11 .

MTK 3A 11 Steelmaking Ch12 12 .

MTK 3A 11 Steelmaking Ch12 13 .

Fabricating steel and the workings of a TYPICAL STEEL MILL MTK 3A 11 Steelmaking Ch12 14 .

Steelmaking Iron ore. coke & limestone Blast furnace & oxygen Molten iron Refine Solidify & form MTK 3A 11 Steelmaking Ch12 15 .

MTK 3A 11 Steelmaking Ch12 16 .

MTK 3A 11 Steelmaking Ch12 17 .

MTK 3A 11 Steelmaking Ch12 18 .

Iron ore Alloy of Fe & C Iron ore Coke Sinter MTK 3A 11 Steelmaking Ch12 19 .

Integrated steel mill • A coke plant • A blast furnace • Various steel-refining processes • A number of product lines MTK 3A 11 Steelmaking Ch12 20 .

MTK 3A 11 Steelmaking Ch12 21 .

Blast furnace MTK 3A 11 Steelmaking Ch12 22 .

producing the necessary heat and reducing gas to remove oxygen from the ore in the reduction process MTK 3A 11 Steelmaking Ch12 23 .Blast furnace process • Coke + Charge introduced into the furnace at the top • Blasts of heated air are injected into the furnace through openings at the bottom of the shaft • Coke is burned along with the injected fuels.

it descends and accumulates in the crucible • Molten pig iron (±5%C) and slag are drained from the crucible through different tapping holes • Gas that exits from the top of the furnace goes through a cleaning process MTK 3A 11 Steelmaking Ch12 24 .Blast furnace process • Carbon combines with oxygen in the ore • As the iron melts.

Blast furnace MTK 3A 11 Steelmaking Ch12 25 .

06% lower limit commercial steel  C > 2.005% is considered pure iron  C > 0. coal and oxygen are reacted in a single melting vessel → steel  Steel → an alloy of iron and a restricted amount of carbon  C < 0.Direct reduction process  Iron ore.00% cast iron More C → brittle MTK 3A 11 Steelmaking Ch12 26 .

MTK 3A 11 Steelmaking Ch12 27 .

Steel refining Turning pig iron into steel • Basic oxygen furnace (BOF) • Electric arc furnace (EAF) MTK 3A 11 Steelmaking Ch12 28 .

Basic oxygen steelmaking MTK 3A 11 Steelmaking Ch12 29 .

Basic oxygen furnace (BOF) converts the molten Cr MTK 3A 11 Steelmaking Ch12 iron from the blast furnace into refined steel 30 .

31 .

Electric arc furnace (EAF) Reduce iron from iron ore Heat is generated from an electric arc Oxygen is blown into the furnace. and lime and other materials are added to combine with the impurities and form slag Molten iron is extracted and poured out via a tapping spout Can then be processed again in an electric arc furnace to make steel (special quality steel) Cr MTK 3A 11 Steelmaking Ch12 32 .

33 .

Secondary Steelmaking  Speciality steels  → alter chemical composition  → reduce non-metallic inclusions • Vacuum degassing • Ladle stirring injection • Ladle furnace heating MTK 3A 11 Steelmaking Ch12 34 .

Special refining processes VAR – Super alloys VIM – Specialty Alloys EBR – To purify specialty alloys ESR – Tool steel and special purpose steels Cr MTK 3A 11 Steelmaking Ch12 35 .

MTK 3A 11 Steelmaking Ch12 36 .

Continuous casting  Refinement of the casting process for the continuous. high-volume production of metal sections with a constant cross-section MTK 3A 11 Steelmaking Ch12 37 .

Continuous casting MTK 3A 11 Steelmaking Ch12 38 .

MTK 3A 11 Steelmaking Ch12 39 .

Stand casting process and shapes produced MTK 3A 11 Steelmaking Ch12 .

MTK 3A 11 Steelmaking Ch12 .

Standard shapes W-Shape S-Shape T-Shape Rail C-Shape L-Shape Square & rectangular tubing MTK 3A 11 Steelmaking Ch12 42 .

Hot and cold finishing MTK 3A 11 Steelmaking Ch12 43 .

Hot rolling MTK 3A 11 Steelmaking Ch12 44 .

Cold rolling MTK 3A 11 Steelmaking Ch12 45 .

On your own  Steel terminology • Familiarise yourself with the terms used to describe mill processing operations  Steel specifications • Regardless of the identification system used. essential items need to be addressed in purchasing a steel. Discuss these characteristics MTK 3A 11 Steelmaking Ch12 46 .

Next Phase diagrams Study unit 2 47 .