D N SHARMA – TRAINING OFFICER Training Programme for CoE Instructors FOREMEN TRAINING INSTITUTE, DGE & T , Ministry of Labour, Govt

. of India, Bangalore

HAND BOOK ON WELD DEFECTS

FOREMEN TRAINING INSTITUTE BANGALORE

D N SHARMA – TRAINING OFFICER Training Programme for CoE Instructors FOREMEN TRAINING INSTITUTE, DGE & T , Ministry of Labour, Govt. of India, Bangalore
Any process results in some deviations in the final product normally due to several variations in the process parameters-minor or major. These deviations results in discontinuities in the final product / service. When these discontinuities are not affecting the intended application / sections, then these discontinuities are acceptable. If they are unacceptable, then these discontinuities are treated as defects. These defects can be repaired; there by the product can be made fit to the intended job. Then it is said that the part is salvaged. Sometimes if the defect is to severe the part can be rejected out rightly. Welding process is no exception. Hence discontinuities / defects do arise during welding. In this booklet, various weld defects and their origin is described at length. As the presence of imperfections in a welded joint may not render the component defective in the sense of being unsuitable for the intended application, the preferred term is imperfection rather than defect. For this reason, production quality for a component is defined in terms of a quality level in which the limits for the imperfections are clearly defined, for example Level B, C or D in accordance with the requirements of BS EN ISO 5817. For the American standards ASME X1 and AWS D1.1, the acceptance levels are contained in the standards. The application code will specify the quality levels which must be achieved for the various joints. Imperfections can be broadly classified into those produced on fabrication of the component or structure and those formed as result of adverse conditions during service. The principal types of imperfections are: Fabrication:
• • • • •

lack of fusion cracks porosity inclusions incorrect weld shape and size

Service:
• • •

brittle fracture stress corrosion cracking fatigue failure

Welding procedure and welder technique will have a direct effect on fabrication imperfections. Incorrect procedure or poor technique may produce imperfections leading to premature failure in service. FOREMEN TRAINING INSTITUTE BANGALORE

D N SHARMA – TRAINING OFFICER Training Programme for CoE Instructors FOREMEN TRAINING INSTITUTE, DGE & T , Ministry of Labour, Govt. of India, Bangalore
Welding Codes are documents establishing legal obligations spelled out through laws and rules to be complied with whenever engaging in the manufacture of certain constructions regulated by the appointed Authority. In other words Welding-codes are laws covering minimum mandatory requirements essential to guarantee public safety and reliability of large structures. Some of the regulated items, object of law enforcement by means of Welding-codes, are grouped in two types: 1. for pressure containment: Unfired Pressure Vessels, Power Boilers, Pipelines, etc. 2. for structures: Bridges, High Rise Structures, Ships, Lifts and lifting equipment etc. Welding-codes describe the types of construction they are concerned with. Welding Specifications cover requirements for voluntary adoption and no enforcement is meant unless they are agreed upon between procuring agency and contractor as spelled out in a Purchase Order. One could say that Welding-codes are essentially enforced Specifications. Welding Standards cover industry agreed upon conventions like definitions of terms and of symbols as used in the industry for conveying information. Welding Recommended Practices reflect the recommendations of some of the most knowledgeable professionals in the field with the purpose of helping people improve the practical implementation of different techniques and procedures and obtain best results. One should always inquire which Authority is in charge of safety in the particular place, and which are the latest binding Welding-codes applicable to the construction considered. The contractor should understand Welding-codes as they represent legal obligations between the manufacturer and the purchaser (or owner). Welding-codes meeting is needed for Quality implementation. When built into the product, Quality is not an expense it is a powerful asset contributing to the economic success of any enterprise. Can you assess the Quality of your welded Production? FOREMEN TRAINING INSTITUTE BANGALORE

Inclusions v. Ministry of Labour. However thicker material will normally need edges cut at a V angle and may need several passes to fill the V with weld metal. . Introduction Common weld defects include: i. Welding Defects 1. On-time-Delivery and Quality The last one is possibly the most important. Bangalore Implementing Quality is NOT scrapping defective parts! Of the three essential parameters for measuring the success of an industrial operation • • • Price. Lack of penetration (LOP) or excess penetration iii. 2. Cracking vi.D N SHARMA – TRAINING OFFICER Training Programme for CoE Instructors FOREMEN TRAINING INSTITUTE. Lamellar tearing Any of these defects are potentially disastrous as they can all give rise to high stress intensities which may result in sudden unexpected failure below the design load or in the case of cyclic loading. Undercut vii. Lack of fusion (LOF) ii. Govt. of India. Porosity iv.To achieve a good quality join it is essential that the fusion zone extends the full thickness of the sheets being joined. failure after fewer load cycles than predicted. Where both sides are accessible one or more passes may be made along the reverse side to ensure the FOREMEN TRAINING INSTITUTE BANGALORE . Thin sheet material can be joined with a single pass and a clean square edge will be a satisfactory basis for a join. DGE & T . Types of Defects i and ii.

Govt. For Quality Level (moderate) short lack of penetration imperfections are permitted. Incomplete root penetration is not permitted in the manufacture of pressure vessels but is allowable in the manufacture of pipework depending on material and wall thickness. make sure it is of adequate size and does not close up during welding Do not use too high a current level causing the weld pool to bridge the gap without fully penetrating the root. FOREMEN TRAINING INSTITUTE BANGALORE .is more of a problem with thin sheet as a higher level of skill is needed to balance heat input and torch traverse when welding thin metal. DGE & T . do not use too large a root face and ensure the welding current is sufficient for the weld pool to penetrate fully the root In MMA welding. Lack of root penetration is not permitted for Quality Level B (stringent) and Level C (intermediate). Bangalore joint extends the full thickness of the metal. use the correct current level and not too large an electrode size for the root In MIG welding.burning through . Excess penetration . Ministry of Labour. Best practice in prevention The following techniques can be used to prevent lack of root fusion: • In TIG welding. of India. • • • • Acceptance standards The limits for lack of penetration are specified in BS EN ISO 5817 for the three quality levels.D N SHARMA – TRAINING OFFICER Training Programme for CoE Instructors FOREMEN TRAINING INSTITUTE.Excess penetration arises from to high a heat input and / or too slow transverse of the welding torch (gas or electric). Lack of fusion results from too little heat input and / or too rapid traverse of the welding torch (gas or electric). use a sufficiently high welding current level but adjust the arc voltage to keep a short arc length When using a joint configuration with a joint gap.

in MMA welding. usually termed arc blow. Bangalore Remedial actions If the root cannot be directly inspected. BS EN ISO 10042:2005 Welding . Often the only effective means is to demagnetise the steel before welding.Quality levels for imperfections.D N SHARMA – TRAINING OFFICER Training Programme for CoE Instructors FOREMEN TRAINING INSTITUTE. Magnetic arc blow When welding ferromagnetic steels lack of fusion imperfections can be caused through uncontrolled deflection of the arc. followed by re-welding in conformity with the original procedure. nickel.fusion-welded joints in steel. Remedial action will normally require removal by gouging or grinding to sound metal. for example using a penetrant or magnetic particle inspection technique. Govt. titanium and their alloys (beam welding excluded) . Ministry of Labour. Distortion of the arc current magnetic field can be minimised by positioning the current return so that welding is always towards or away from the clamp and. for example in pipeline welding position of the current return The effect of welding past the current return cable which is bolted to the centre of the place. Relevant standards BS EN ISO 5817:2003 Welding . The interaction of the magnetic field surrounding the arc and that generated by the current flow in the plate to the current return cable is sufficient to deflect the weld bead. of India. Arc deflection can be caused by distortion of the magnetic field produced by the arc current through: • • • residual magnetism in the material through using magnets for handling earth's magnetic field. FOREMEN TRAINING INSTITUTE BANGALORE . DGE & T .Quality levels for imperfections.Arc welded joints in aluminium and its alloys . detection is by radiography or ultrasonic inspection. by using AC instead of DC.

not too high a welding speed) to promote penetration into the joint side wall without causing flooding ensure the electrode/gun angle and manipulation technique will give adequate side wall fusion use weaving and dwell to improve side wall fusion providing there are no heat input restrictions if arc blow occurs. FOREMEN TRAINING INSTITUTE BANGALORE . Ministry of Labour. use AC (in MMA welding) or demagnetise the steel • • • Acceptance standards The limits for incomplete fusion imperfections in arc welded joints in steel are specified in BS EN ISO 5817 for the three quality levels (see Table). of India. Govt. For Quality level D (moderate) they are only permitted providing they are intermittent and not surface breaking. These types of imperfection are not permitted for Quality Level B (stringent) and C (intermediate). short arc length.D N SHARMA – TRAINING OFFICER Training Programme for CoE Instructors FOREMEN TRAINING INSTITUTE. Bangalore Interaction of magnetic forces causing arc deflection Weld bead deflection in DC MMA welding caused by welding past the current return connection Best practice in prevention The following fabrication techniques can be used to prevent formation of lack of sidewall fusion imperfections: • • use a sufficiently wide joint preparation select welding parameters (high current level. reposition the current return. DGE & T .

short imperfections are permitted but the total length of the imperfections is limited depending on the butt weld or the fillet weld throat thickness. Bangalore For arc welded joints in aluminium. detection is by radiography or ultrasonic inspection. FOREMEN TRAINING INSTITUTE BANGALORE . Acceptance limits for specific codes and application standards Application Code/Standard Acceptance limit Level Steel BS EN ISO 5817:2003 breaking. or grinding. followed by re-welding as specified in the agreed procedure. Ultrasonic inspection is normally more effective than radiography in detecting lack of inter-run fusion imperfections. not and D. they can be detected using a penetrant or magnetic particle inspection technique. DGE & T . Ministry of Labour. For sub-surface imperfections. permitted. for quality levels C and D.D N SHARMA – TRAINING OFFICER Training Programme for CoE Instructors FOREMEN TRAINING INSTITUTE. long imperfections are not permitted for all three quality levels. Govt. imperfections C C. However. Pressure vessels PD5500:2006 Storage tanks Pipework BS EN 14015:2004 BS2633:1994 Not permitted Not permitted 'l' not greater than 15mm (depending on wall thickness) 'l' not greater than 25mm Line pipe API 1104:2005 (less when weld length <300mm) Detection and remedial action If the imperfections are surface breaking. D. Level D short imperfections permitted but not surface Short imperfections permitted. of India. Remedial action will normally require their removal by localised gouging. B and C not permitted. Levels Aluminium BS EN ISO Long Levels 10042:2005 B.

Bangalore If lack of fusion is a persistent problem. These may arise from damp consumables or metal or. DGE & T . Identification Porosity is the presence of cavities in the weld metal caused by the freezing in of gas released from the weld pool as it solidifies. The porosity can take several forms: • • • • distributed surface breaking pores wormhole crater pipes Cause and prevention Distributed porosity and surface pores Distributed porosity is normally found as fine pores throughout the weld bead. This can be avoided by ensuring all consumables are stored in dry conditions and work is carefully cleaned and degreased prior to welding. on the metal in the vicinity of the weld. the welding procedures should be amended or the welders retrained ii. Surface breaking pores usually indicate a large amount of distributed porosity FOREMEN TRAINING INSTITUTE BANGALORE . and is not caused by magnetic arc blow. from dirt. particularly oil or grease.This occurs when gases are trapped in the solidifying weld metal. Porosity . Govt.D N SHARMA – TRAINING OFFICER Training Programme for CoE Instructors FOREMEN TRAINING INSTITUTE. of India. porosity The characteristic features and principal causes of porosity imperfections are described. Ministry of Labour. Best practice guidelines are given so welders can minimise porosity risk during fabrication.

Leaks in the gas line. too high a gas flow rate. Surface breaking pores (T fillet weld in primed plate) Cause Porosity is caused by the absorption of nitrogen. porosity is likely to result especially when using welding processes other than MMA.5% results in gross surface breaking pores. Bangalore Fig. fluxes or the workpiece surface. oxygen and hydrogen in the molten weld pool which is then released on solidification to become trapped in the weld metal. Ministry of Labour. draughts and excessive turbulence in the weld pool are frequent causes of porosity. Govt.D N SHARMA – TRAINING OFFICER Training Programme for CoE Instructors FOREMEN TRAINING INSTITUTE. may generate copious amounts of fume during welding. of India. DGE & T . Surface coatings like primer paints and surface treatments such as zinc coatings. FOREMEN TRAINING INSTITUTE BANGALORE . As little as 1% air entrainment in the shielding gas will cause distributed porosity and greater than 1. Hydrogen can originate from a number of sources including moisture from inadequately dried electrodes. It should not be necessary to remove the primers but if the primer thickness exceeds the manufacturer's recommendation. Uniformly distributed porosity Fig. Nitrogen and oxygen absorption in the weld pool usually originates from poor gas shielding. The risk of trapping the evolved gas will be greater in T joints than butt joints especially when fillet welding on both sides Special mention should be made of the so-called weldable (low zinc) primers. Grease and oil on the surface of the workpiece or filler wire are also common sources of hydrogen.

Entrapment is more likely in crevices such as the gap beneath the vertical member of a horizontal-vertical. wormholes are elongated pores which produce a herring bone appearance on the radiograph. of India.seal any air leak .clean the joint edges immediately before welding . DGE & T .clean and degrease the workpiece surface Surface coatings .use filler with adequate level of deoxidants . Govt.D N SHARMA – TRAINING OFFICER Training Programme for CoE Instructors FOREMEN TRAINING INSTITUTE.reduce excessively high gas flow . Ministry of Labour. Cause Wormholes are indicative of a large amount of gas being formed which is then trapped in the solidifying weld metal. Bangalore Prevention The gas source should be identified and removed as follows: Air entrainment . When welding T joints in primed plates it is essential that the coating thickness on the edge of the vertical member is not above the manufacturer's recommended maximum. FOREMEN TRAINING INSTITUTE BANGALORE . Excessive gas will be formed from gross surface contamination or very thick paint or primer coatings. T joint which is fillet welded on both sides.check that the weldable primer is below the recommended maximum thickness Elongated pores or wormholes Wormholes Characteristically.avoid draughts Hydrogen . typically 20µm. through over-spraying.avoid weld pool turbulence .dry the electrode and flux .

Gas generation . In TIG welding. will cause crater formation and the pipe imperfection.progressively reduce the welding current to reduce the weld pool size FOREMEN TRAINING INSTITUTE BANGALORE . Bangalore Prevention Eliminating the gas and cavities prevents wormholes. of India.clean the workpiece surfaces .remove any coatings from the joint area .grind out the stop before continuing with the next electrode or depositing the subsequent weld run Welder technique . autogenous techniques.use run-off tag in butt joints . Removal of stop .D N SHARMA – TRAINING OFFICER Training Programme for CoE Instructors FOREMEN TRAINING INSTITUTE. conditions which exaggerate the liquid to solid volume change will promote its formation. or stopping the wire before switching off the welding current. Ministry of Labour. Prevention Crater pipe imperfection can be prevented by removing the stop or by welder technique. Switching off the welding current will result in the rapid solidification of a large weld pool. Cause This imperfection results from shrinkage on weld pool solidification. Govt.avoid a joint geometry which creates a cavity Crater pipe A crater pipe forms during the final solidified weld pool and is often associated with some gas porosity. Consequently. DGE & T .check the primer thickness is below the manufacturer's maximum Joint geometry .

air and surface oxide.add filler (TIG) to compensate for the weld pool shrinkage Porosity susceptibility of materials Gases likely to cause porosity in the commonly used range of materials are listed in the Table. of India. the entire weld should be removed. they can be detected using a penetrant or magnetic particle inspection technique.D N SHARMA – TRAINING OFFICER Training Programme for CoE Instructors FOREMEN TRAINING INSTITUTE. Nitrogen Nitrogen Hydrogen and Hydrogen Degrease + wire brush + degrease Chemical clean + wire brush + degrease + scrape Degrease + wire brush + degrease Degrease + wire brush + degrease Nitrogen Cleaning and Grind to remove scale coatings Detection and remedial action If the imperfections are surface breaking. Remedial action normally needs removal by localised gouging or grinding but if the porosity is widespread. DGE & T . it is principally a deoxidation product from the reaction between the flux. Ministry of Labour. However.These can occur when several runs are made along a V join when joining thick plate using flux cored or flux coated rods and the slag covering a run is not totally removed after every run before the following run. Radiography is normally more effective in detecting and characterising porosity imperfections. detection is by radiography or ultrasonic inspection. As slag is the residue of the flux coating in MMA welding. Oxygen Stainless steel Aluminium alloys Copper and alloys Nickel and alloys Hydrogen. Bangalore . detection of small pores is difficult especially in thick sections. For sub surface imperfections. Inclusions . Govt. The joint should be re-prepared and re-welded as specified in the agreed procedure. iv. The slag becomes trapped in the weld FOREMEN TRAINING INSTITUTE BANGALORE . Principal gases causing porosity and recommended cleaning methods Material C-Mn steel Gas Hydrogen.

DGE & T . welding position and access restrictions all have an influence on the risk of slag imperfections. Slag may also become entrapped in cavities in multi-pass welds through excessive undercut in the weld toe or the uneven surface profile of the preceding weld runs. the risk of slag imperfections is influenced by • • Type of flux coating Welder technique The type and configuration of the joint. The influence of welder technique on the risk of slag inclusions when welding with a basic MMA (E7018) electrode a) Poor (convex) weld bead profile resulted in pockets of slag being trapped between the weld runs FOREMEN TRAINING INSTITUTE BANGALORE . Bangalore when two adjacent weld beads are deposited with inadequate overlap and a void is formed. Ministry of Labour. As they both have an effect on the ease of slag removal. Govt. Fig. the entrapped slag is not melted out. When the next layer is deposited.D N SHARMA – TRAINING OFFICER Training Programme for CoE Instructors FOREMEN TRAINING INSTITUTE. of India.

large amounts of titanium oxide (rutile) with some silicates. For vertical welding. Fluxes with a lime content produce an adherent slag which is difficult to remove. containing for example iron oxide. A weld pool with low oxygen content will have a high surface tension producing a convex weld bead with poor parent metal wetting. a relatively viscous slag is preferred as it will produce a smooth weld bead profile. is less likely to be trapped and. and promotes wetting into the parent metal. is normally more easily removed.D N SHARMA – TRAINING OFFICER Training Programme for CoE Instructors FOREMEN TRAINING INSTITUTE. For welding in the flat and horizontal/vertical positions. the slag must be more fluid to flow out to the weld pool surface but have a higher surface tension to provide support to the weld pool and be fast freezing. The composition of the flux coating also plays an important role in the risk of slag inclusions through its effect on the weld bead shape and the ease with which the slag can be removed. produces a low surface tension weld pool with a more concave weld bead profile. Thus. The fluidity of the slag is determined by the calcium fluoride content. its surface tension and freezing rate can be equally important properties. an oxidising flux. High silicate flux produces a glass-like slag. of India. Govt. The oxygen level of the weld pool is high enough to give flat or slightly convex weld bead. As the slag affects the handling characteristics of the MMA electrode. The ease of slag removal for the principal flux types are: • Rutile or acid fluxes . on solidifying. Bangalore b) Smooth weld bead profile allows the slag to be readily removed between runs Type of flux coating One of the main functions of the flux coating in welding is to produce a slag which will flow freely over the surface of the weld pool to protect it from oxidation. Ministry of Labour. DGE & T . often self detaching. Fluoride-free coatings FOREMEN TRAINING INSTITUTE BANGALORE .

When using a weave. The slag is more fluid than that produced with the rutile coating. a slight dwell at the extreme edges of the weave will assist sidewall fusion and produce a flatter weld bead profile. FOREMEN TRAINING INSTITUTE BANGALORE . especially with basic electrodes. Cleaning tools must be identified for different materials eg steels or stainless steels. Thus. • Basic fluxes . This can be done between runs by grinding. Govt.the high proportion of calcium carbonate (limestone) and calcium fluoride (fluospar) in the flux reduces the oxygen content of the weld pool and therefore its surface tension. Bangalore designed for welding in the flat position produce smooth bead profiles and an easily removed slag. light chipping or wire brushing. of India.D N SHARMA – TRAINING OFFICER Training Programme for CoE Instructors FOREMEN TRAINING INSTITUTE. Consequently. Fast freezing also assists welding in the vertical and overhead positions but the slag coating is more difficult to remove. care must be taken to fuse out any remaining minor slag pockets and minimise undercut. Too high a current together with a high welding speed will also cause sidewall undercutting which makes slag removal difficult. DGE & T . the risk of slag inclusions is significantly greater with basic fluxes due to the inherent convex weld bead profile and the difficulty in removing the slag from the weld toes especially in multi-pass welds. and segregated. Ministry of Labour. Electrode manipulation should ensure adequate shape and degree of overlap of the weld beads to avoid forming pockets which can trap the slag. In multi-pass vertical welding. The more fluid fluoride slag designed for positional welding is less easily removed. the correct angle to the workpiece for good penetration and a smooth weld bead profile are all essential to prevent slag entrainment. It is crucial to remove all slag before depositing the next run. Welder technique Welding technique has an important role to play in preventing slag inclusions. the correct size of electrode for the joint preparation.

Long slag imperfections are not permitted in both butt and fillet welds for Quality Level B (stringent) and C (moderate). Where alloy steels or steels with a carbon content greater than about 0. Govt. Ministry of Labour. of India. Best practice The following techniques can be used to prevent slag inclusions: • Use welding techniques to produce smooth weld beads and adequate inter-run fusion to avoid forming pockets to trap the slag Use the correct current and travel speed to avoid undercutting the sidewall which will make the slag difficult to remove Remove slag between runs paying particular attention to removing any slag trapped in crevices Use grinding when welding difficult butt joints otherwise wire brushing or light chipping may be sufficient to remove the slag. The limits in steel are specified in BE EN ISO 5817: 2003 for the three quality levels. it may be necessary to grind the surface of the weld between layers to ensure complete slag removal.D N SHARMA – TRAINING OFFICER Training Programme for CoE Instructors FOREMEN TRAINING INSTITUTE. • • • Acceptance standards Slag and flux inclusions are linear defects but because they do not have sharp edges compared with cracks. Short slag related imperfections are permitted in all three quality levels with limits placed on their size relative to the butt weld thickness or nominal fillet weld throat thickness. DGE & T . v. In the case of welded stiff frames. Bangalore When welding with difficult electrodes. For Quality Level D. butt welds can have imperfections providing their size is less than half the nominal weld thickness. Cracking .This can occur due just to thermal shrinkage or due to a combination of strain accompanying phase change and thermal shrinkage.2% are being FOREMEN TRAINING INSTITUTE BANGALORE . they may be permitted by specific standards and codes. in narrow vee butt joints or when the slag is trapped through undercutting. a combination of poor design and inappropriate procedure may result in high residual stresses and cracking.

which are often caused by sulphur and phosphorus. They are called hot cracks because they occur immediately after welds are completed and sometimes while the welds are being made. self cooling may be rapid enough to cause some (brittle) martensite to form. are more likely to occur in higher carbon steels. DGE & T . but may occasionally appear as transverse cracking solidification cracks in the final crater may have a branching appearance as the cracks are 'open' they are visible to the naked eye • • • A crack may be defined as a local discontinuity produced by a fracture which can arise from the stresses generated on cooling or acting on the structure. Cracks not only reduce the strength of the weld through the reduction in the cross section thickness but also can readily propagate through stress concentration at the tip. of India. Bangalore welded.although the parent metal is almost always the source of the low melting point contaminants associated with the cracking they normally appear in straight lines along the centreline of the weld bead. such as those used in petrochemical plant and piping. Solidification Cracking : This is also called centerline or hot cracking. especially under impact loading or during service at low temperature. This can greatly increase the cost of welded joins. To prevent these problems a process of pre-heating in stages may be needed and after welding a slow controlled post cooling in stages will be required. It is the most serious type of imperfection found in a weld and should be removed. there may well be no alternative. Identification Visual appearance Solidification cracks are normally readily distinguished from other types of cracks due to the following characteristic factors: FOREMEN TRAINING INSTITUTE BANGALORE . Solidification cracks are normally distinguishable from other types of cracks by the following features: • they occur only in the weld metal .D N SHARMA – TRAINING OFFICER Training Programme for CoE Instructors FOREMEN TRAINING INSTITUTE. Govt. These defects. but for high strength steels. This will easily develop cracks. Ministry of Labour.

Factors which increase the risk include: • • insufficient weld bead size or shape welding under high restraint FOREMEN TRAINING INSTITUTE BANGALORE . Govt. Metallography The cracks form at the solidification boundaries and are characteristically inter dendritic. showing that they were formed while the weld metal was still hot. Causes The overriding cause of solidification cracking is that the weld bead in the final stage of solidification has insufficient strength to withstand the contraction stresses generated as the weld pool solidifies. Ministry of Labour. DGE & T . Bangalore • • they occur only in the weld metal they normally appear as straight lines along the centreline of the weld bead. they can be visible to the naked eye • • Solidification crack along the centre line of the weld On breaking open the weld. of India. the crack surface in steel and nickel alloys may have a blue oxidised appearance. but may occasionally appear as transverse cracking depending on the solidification structure solidification cracks in the final crater may have a branching appearance as the cracks are often 'open'. The morphology reflects the weld solidification structure and there may be evidence of segregation associated with the solidification boundary.D N SHARMA – TRAINING OFFICER Training Programme for CoE Instructors FOREMEN TRAINING INSTITUTE.

DGE & T . The main cause of solidification cracking is that the weld bead in the final stage of solidification has insufficient strength to withstand the contraction stresses generated as the weld pool solidifies. Ministry of Labour. weld beads with a small depth-to-width ratio.D N SHARMA – TRAINING OFFICER Training Programme for CoE Instructors FOREMEN TRAINING INSTITUTE. Joint design can have a significant influence on the level of residual stresses. A schematic diagram of a centreline crack is shown below: On breaking open the weld the crack surface may have a blue appearance. Factors which increase the risk include: • • • insufficient weld bead size or inappropriate shape welding under excessive restraint material properties . The cracks form at the solidification boundaries and are characteristically inter dendritic. showing the cracks formed while the metal was still hot. There may be evidence of segregation associated with the solidification boundary. Govt. will be more susceptible to solidification cracking. Bangalore • material properties such as a high impurity content or a relatively large amount of shrinkage on solidification.such as a high impurity content or a relatively large shrinkage on solidification FOREMEN TRAINING INSTITUTE BANGALORE . such as formed in bridging a large gap with a wide. Therefore. Large gaps between component parts will increase the strain on the solidifying weld metal. especially if the depth of penetration is small. of India. thin bead.

06%. DGE & T . such as is formed when bridging a large wide gap with a thin bead. the total sulphur and phosphorus content should be no greater than 0. particularly sulphur and phosphorus and is promoted by carbon. As a rule. Hence weld beads with a small depth to width ratio. In steels. especially if the depth of penetration is small. a combined level below 0. the main techniques for avoiding solidification cracking are: • • • • control the joint fit up to reduce the gaps clean off all contaminants before welding ensure that the welding sequence will not lead to a buildup of thermally induced stresses choose welding parameters to produce a weld bead with adequate depth to width ratio or with sufficient throat thickness (fillet weld) to ensure the bead has sufficient resistance to solidification stresses. cracking is less likely with low dilution processes such as MMA and MIG. Recommended minimum depth to width ratio is 0. Avoiding Solidification Cracking : Apart from choice of material and filler. for carbon manganese steels.5:1 • avoid producing too large a depth to width ratio which will encourage segregation and excessive transverse strains. weld beads with a depth to width ratio exceeds 2:1 will be prone to solidification cracking • avoid high welding speeds (at high current levels) which increase segregation and stress levels accross the weld bead at the run stop. To minimise the risk of cracking.D N SHARMA – TRAINING OFFICER Training Programme for CoE Instructors FOREMEN TRAINING INSTITUTE. However when welding a highly restrained joint using high strength steels. Parent metal composition becomes more important with autogenous welding techniques. As a general rule. whereas manganese and sulphur can help to reduce the risk. will be more susceptible to solidification cracking. ensure adequate filling of the crater to avoid an unfavourable concave shape FOREMEN TRAINING INSTITUTE BANGALORE • . Bangalore Joint design can have an influence on the level of residual stresses. of India.03% might be needed. cracking is associated with impurities. Weld metal composition is dominated by the filler and as this is usually cleaner than the metal being welded. Ministry of Labour. Govt. such as TIG with no filler. Large gaps between components will increase the strain on the solidifying weld metal. fillers with low carbon and impurity levels and a relatively high manganese content are preferred.

Govt. Bangalore Hydrogen induced cracking (HIC) .also referred to as hydrogen cracking or hydrogen assisted cracking. Cracks can also occur in the weld bead. c) Tensile stresses act on the weld d) The assembly has cooled to close to ambient . the characteristic features and principal causes of hydrogen cracks are described. most often immediately on welding or a short time after welding.less than 150oC • • • HIC in the HAZ is often at the weld toe. FOREMEN TRAINING INSTITUTE BANGALORE • . of India. Four requirements for HIC to occur are: • a) Hydrogen be present. the cracks are in the heat affected zone (HAZ) or in the weld metal itself. Identification Visual appearance Hydrogen cracks can be usually be distinguished due to the following characteristics: • In C-Mn steels. Hydrogen cracking may also be called cold cracking or delayed cracking. but may be non-branching. In this issue. normally transverse to the welding direction at an angle of 45° to the weld surface.. but may extend into the weld metal . b) A HAZ microstructure susceptible to hydrogen cracking. It is absorbed by the weld pool and diffuses int o the HAZ. Ministry of Labour.D N SHARMA – TRAINING OFFICER Training Programme for CoE Instructors FOREMEN TRAINING INSTITUTE. can occur in steels during manufacture. When HIC occurs as a result of welding. during fabrication or during service. this may come from moisture in any flux or from other sources. In fillet welds cracks are normally parallel to the weld run but in butt welds cracks can be transverse to the welding direction. They follow a jagged path. The principal distinguishing feature of this type of crack is that it occurs in ferritic steels. but can be under the weld bead or at the weld root. the crack will normally originate in the heat affected zone (HAZ). DGE & T .

The cracks can be intergranular.) On breaking open the weld (prior to any heat treatment). Transgranular cracking is more often found in C-Mn steel structures. perpendicular to the weld surface. A slight blue tinge may be seen from the effects of preheating or welding heat. Ministry of Labour. (Note that the type of cracks shown would not be expected to form in the same weldment. Bangalore • In low alloy steels. and essentially planar. even if they are surface breaking. indicating they were formed when the weld was at or near ambient temperature. Intergranular cracks are more likely to occur in the harder HAZ structures formed in low alloy and high carbon steels. the surface of the cracks will normally not be oxidised. transgranular or a mixture. cracks in the HAZ are usually associated with the weld root and parallel to the weld. Govt. the cracks can be transverse to the weld. In butt welds. of India. Metallography Cracks which originate in the HAZ are usually associated with the coarse grain region. the HAZ cracks are normally oriented parallel to the weld bead.D N SHARMA – TRAINING OFFICER Training Programme for CoE Instructors FOREMEN TRAINING INSTITUTE. DGE & T . FOREMEN TRAINING INSTITUTE BANGALORE . but are non-branching. Hydrogen cracks originating in the HAZ and weld metal. In fillet welds.

D N SHARMA – TRAINING OFFICER Training Programme for CoE Instructors FOREMEN TRAINING INSTITUTE. Govt. of India. the weld metal will have a lower carbon content than the parent metal and. most of the hydrogen cracks are to be found in the parent metal. because there is a greater risk of forming a brittle microstructure in the HAZ. as the weld metal structure is more susceptible than the HAZ. a lower carbon equivalent (CE). hardened part of the weldment. In low alloy steels. However. cracking may be found in the weld bead. DGE & T . Ministry of Labour. The main factors which influence the risk of cracking are: FOREMEN TRAINING INSTITUTE BANGALORE . hence. especially when welding thick section components. the risk of cracking is increased if the weld metal carbon content exceeds that of the parent steel. With the correct choice of electrodes. Bangalore Crack along the coarse grain structure in the HAZ Causes There are three factors which combine to cause cracking: • • • hydrogen generated by the welding process a hard brittle structure which is susceptible to cracking tensile stresses acting on the welded joint Cracking usually occurs at temperatures at or near normal ambient. In C-Mn steels. It is caused by the diffusion of hydrogen to the highly stressed. transverse weld metal cracks can occur.

moisture from the atmosphere or from the material where processing or service history has left the steel with a significant level of hydrogen.D N SHARMA – TRAINING OFFICER Training Programme for CoE Instructors FOREMEN TRAINING INSTITUTE. e. but the most vulnerable joints are 'T' and corner joints. FOREMEN TRAINING INSTITUTE BANGALORE . i.e. vii Lamellar tearing . DGE & T . These inclusions mean that the plate can not tolerate the contraction stresses in the short transverse direction. Lamellar tearing can occur in both fillet and butt welds. vi Undercutting . This is due to incorrect settings / procedure. of India.This is mainly a problem with low quality steels. It is important to note that there can be other significant sources of hydrogen. Hydrogen may also be derived from the surface of the material or the consumable. the coating of MMA electrodes. These problem can be overcome by using better quality steel. which is caused by non metallic inclusions. Govt.g. such as suphides and oxides that have been elongated during the rolling process. There is already a stress concentration at the toe of the weld and any undercut will reduce the strength of the join. Bangalore • • • • • weld metal hydrogen parent material composition parent material thickness stresses acting on the weld heat input Weld metal hydrogen content The principal source of hydrogen is moisture contained in the flux. where the fusion boundary is parallel to the rolling plane. the flux in cored wires and the flux used in submerged arc welding. The amount of hydrogen generated is influenced by the electrode type. It occurs in plate that has a low ductility in the through thickness direction.In this case the thickness of one (or both) of the sheets is reduced at the toe of the weld. Basic electrodes normally generate less hydrogen than rutile and cellulosic electrodes. 'buttering' the weld area with a ductile material and possibly by redesigning the joint. Ministry of Labour.

Identification Visual appearance The principal distinguishing feature of lamellar tearing is that it occurs in T-butt and fillet welds normally observed in the parent metal parallel to the weld fusion boundary and the plate surface. of India. Fracture face The surface of the fracture is fibrous and 'woody' with long parallel sections which are indicative of low parent metal ductility in the through-thickness direction. The characteristic features. Govt. Ministry of Labour. Fig. principal causes and best practice in minimising the risk of lamellar tearing are described. Bangalore Lamellar tearing can occur beneath the weld especially in rolled steel plate which has poor throughthickness ductility. Lamellar tearing in T butt weld FOREMEN TRAINING INSTITUTE BANGALORE . DGE & T . The cracks can appear at the toe or root of the weld but are always associated with points of high stress concentration.D N SHARMA – TRAINING OFFICER Training Programme for CoE Instructors FOREMEN TRAINING INSTITUTE.

Govt. Causes It is generally recognised that there are three conditions which must be satisfied for lamellar tearing to occur: 1. As a first stage of inspection of all completed welds. A magnifying glass and straight edge may be used as a part of this process. welding process. the risk of lamellar tearing will be greater if the stresses generated on welding act in the through-thickness direction. Undercutting can be detected with the naked eye and (provided there is access to the reverse side) excess penetration can often be visually detected.the fusion boundary will be roughly parallel to the plane of the inclusions 3. Bangalore Metallography As lamellar tearing is associated with a high concentration of elongated inclusions oriented parallel to the surface of the plate. machine settings.D N SHARMA – TRAINING OFFICER Training Programme for CoE Instructors FOREMEN TRAINING INSTITUTE. etc. consumables.the plate must have poor ductility in the through-thickness direction Thus.Detection OF Defects: Visual Inspection Prior to any welding. Material susceptibility . joint design. the materials should be visually inspected to see that they are clean. DGE & T . Ministry of Labour. preheating and buttering can all help reduce the risk of tearing. visual inspected under good lighting should be carried out. 3. aligned correctly. Weld orientation . of India. filler selection checked. Transverse strain . FOREMEN TRAINING INSTITUTE BANGALORE . tearing will be transgranular with a stepped appearance. The risk will also increase the higher the level of weld metal hydrogen Factors to be considered to reduce the risk of tearing The choice of material.the shrinkage strains on welding must act in the short direction of the plate ie through the plate thickness 2.

When the beam strikes a discontinuity some of it is reflected beck. but for safety critical joints . Govt. DGE & T . Magnetic Particle Inspection : This process can be used to detect surface and slightly sub-surface cracks in ferro-magnetic materials (it can not therefore be used with austenitic stainless steels).100% 'X' ray examination of welded joints will normally be carried out.Ray Inspection : Sub-surface cracks and inclusions can be detected 'X' ray examination.D N SHARMA – TRAINING OFFICER Training Programme for CoE Instructors FOREMEN TRAINING INSTITUTE. in the form of numerous gas bubbles causes a lot of low amplitude reflections from background Results from any ultrasonic inspection require skilled interpretation. however. Bangalore Liquid Penetrant Inspection :Serious cases of surface cracking can be detected by the naked eye but for most cases some type of aid is needed and the use of dye penetrant methods are quite efficient when used by a trained operator. of India. Ministry of Labour. This procedure is as follows: • • • • • Clean the surface of the weld and the weld vicinity Spray the surface with a liquid dye that has good penetrating properties Carefully wipe all the die off the surface Spray the surface with a white powder Any cracks will have trapped some die which will weep out and discolour the white coating and be clearly visible X . Porosity. The process involves placing a probe on each side of the area to be inspected and passing a high FOREMEN TRAINING INSTITUTE BANGALORE .eg in submarines and nuclear power plants . This is expensive. This reflected beam is received and amplified and processed which and are from difficult the time to delay. separate the location the of a flaw estimated. Ultrasonic Inspection : Surface and sub-surface defects can also be detected by ultrasonic inspection. noise. This involves directing a high frequency sound beam through the base metal and weld on a predictable path.

Ministry of Labour. Undercut . Govt. indicating the location of any discontinuities. the wet process is more sensitive as finer particles may be used which can detect very small defects.The protrusion of weld metal beyond the weld toe or weld root. creating magnetic poles or points of attraction.D N SHARMA – TRAINING OFFICER Training Programme for CoE Instructors FOREMEN TRAINING INSTITUTE. Welding Discontinuities Incomplete Fusion .A weld discontinuity in which fusion did not occur between weld metal and fusion faces or adjoining weld beads. DGE & T . of India. He above defects are again treated pictographically below. 4. A magnetic powder dusted onto the surface will cling to the leakage area more than elsewhere. they are diverted and leak through the surface. Bangalore current between them. Overlap .A groove melted into the base metal adjacent to the weld toe or weld root and left unfilled by weld metal. This process may be carried out wet or dry. FOREMEN TRAINING INSTITUTE BANGALORE . Repair : Any detected cracks must be ground out and the area re-welded to give the required profile and then the joint must be inspected again. Fluorescent powders can also be used to enhance sensitivity when used in conjunction with ultra violet illumination. This produces a magnetic flux at right angles to the flow of the current. When these lines of force meet a discontinuity. such as a longitudinal crack.

Govt.A condition in which the weld face or root surface extends below the adjacent surface of the base metal. Ministry of Labour. FOREMEN TRAINING INSTITUTE BANGALORE . Incomplete Joint Penetration A joint root condition in a groove weld in which weld metal does not extend through the joint thickness Partial joint penetration groove welds are commonly specified in lowly loaded structures. A fix for an incomplete penetration joint would be to back gouge and weld from the other side. would be cause for rejection. Bangalore Underfill . as depicted above. of India.D N SHARMA – TRAINING OFFICER Training Programme for CoE Instructors FOREMEN TRAINING INSTITUTE. Partial penetration joint on the left without discontinuities is an acceptable condition where appropriate. However. incomplete joint penetration when a full penetration joint is required. Another acceptable partial penetration joint is shown below. Appropriate engineering decisions need to be applied to determine what type of joint should be specified for a given application. Above are several different representations of weld Cracking Below is a representation of a convex fillet weld without discontinuities. Engineering should be contacted to determine whether partial penetration or full penetration joints are appropriate for a particular situation. DGE & T .

2 Effect of electrode size on root fusion a) a) Large diameter electrode b) Small diameter electrode b) FOREMEN TRAINING INSTITUTE BANGALORE . of India. 1 Causes of incomplete root fusion a) c) b) d) a) Excessively thick root face b) Too small a root gap c) Misplaced welds d) Power input too low e) Arc (heat) input too low e) Fig. Bangalore Fig.D N SHARMA – TRAINING OFFICER Training Programme for CoE Instructors FOREMEN TRAINING INSTITUTE. Govt. Ministry of Labour. DGE & T .

DGE & T . exerting stresses on the surrounding weld metal and HAZ. of India. Govt. the weld metal and the heat affected zone (HAZ) are at temperatures substantially above that of the unaffected base metal. The temperature distribution in the weldment is therefore nonuniform. d DISTORTION Welding involves highly localized heating of the metal being joined together. c Fig. FOREMEN TRAINING INSTITUTE BANGALORE . Upon cooling. Bangalore Recommended joint configurations to reduce the risk of lamellar tearing Fig.D N SHARMA – TRAINING OFFICER Training Programme for CoE Instructors FOREMEN TRAINING INSTITUTE. b Fig. Ministry of Labour. the weld pool solidifies and shrinks. Normally. a Fig.

D N SHARMA – TRAINING OFFICER Training Programme for CoE Instructors FOREMEN TRAINING INSTITUTE. Some of the factors affecting the distortion are listed below: • • • • • Amount of restraint Welding procedure Parent metal properties Weld joint design Part fit up FOREMEN TRAINING INSTITUTE BANGALORE . Govt. welding locally heats a component and the adjacent cold metal restrains the heated material. This causes distortion of weldments. Plastic deformation results in lasting change in the component dimensions and distorts the structure. localized plastic deformation of the metal occurs. Bangalore If the stresses produced from thermal expansion and contraction exceed the yield strength of the parent metal. DGE & T . Several types of distortion are listed below: • • • • • • Longitudinal shrinkage Transverse shrinkage Angular distortion Bowing Buckling Twisting Factors affecting distortion If a component were uniformly heated and cooled distortion would be minimized. of India. However. Ministry of Labour. This generates stresses greater than yield stress causing permanent distortion of the component.

Parent metal properties. Govt. welding. This does not prevent the welder from trying to minimize distortion. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the metal affects the degree of thermal expansion and contraction and the associated stresses that result from the welding process. The welder has little control on the heat input specified in a welding procedure. distortion is easier to minimize in butt joints. Welding procedure impacts the amount of distortion primarily due to the amount of the heat input produced. of India. Part fit up should be consistent to fabricate foreseeable and uniform shrinkage. DGE & T . This restraint does result in higher residual stresses in the components. Both butt and fillet joints may experience distortion. However. which have an effect on distortion. Components welded without any external restraint are free to move or distort in response to stresses from welding. Bangalore Restraint can be used to minimize distortion. are coefficient of thermal expansion and specific heat of the material. Weld joints should be adequately and consistently tacked to minimize movement between the parts being joined by FOREMEN TRAINING INSTITUTE BANGALORE . This in turn determines the amount of distortion in a component. It is not unusual for many shops to clamp or restrain components to be welded in some manner to prevent movement and distortion. the welder should not needlessly increase the total weld metal volume added to a weldment. While the welder needs to provide adequate weld metal.D N SHARMA – TRAINING OFFICER Training Programme for CoE Instructors FOREMEN TRAINING INSTITUTE. Weld joint design will effect the amount of distortion in a weldment. Ministry of Labour.

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