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Cake is a form of food,typically a sweet,baked dessert.Cakes normally contain a combination of flour,sugar,eggs and butter or oil,wth some varieties also requiring liquid(typically milk or water) and leavening agent(such as yeast or baking powder).Flavorful ingredients like fruit purees,nuts or extract are often added,and numerous substitutions for the primary ingredients are possible.Cakes are often filled with fruits preserves or dessert sauces(like pastry cream),iced with buttercream or other icings,and decorated with marzipan,piped borders or candied fruits. Cake is often the dessert of choice for meals at ceremonial occasions,particularly wedding,anniversaries and birthdays.There are countless cake recipes;some are bread-like,some rich and elaborate and many are centuries old.Cake making is no longer acomplicated procedure;while at one time considerable labour went into cake making(particularly the whisking of egg foams),baking equipments and directions have been simplified that even the most amateur cook may bake a cake.

Cakes are broadly divided into several catogeries based primarily ingredients and cooking technique: Yeast cakes are the oldest and are very similar to yeast breads.Such cakes are very traditional in form,and include such pastries as babka and stollen. Cheese cakes,despite their name arent really cakes at all.Cheese cakes are in fact custard pies,with a filling made mostly of some form of

cheese(often cream cheese,mascarpone,ricotta or the like),and have very little to no flour added,although a flour-based crust may be used.Cheese cakes are also very old,with evidenceof honey-sweetened cakes dating back to ancient Greece. Sponge cakes are thought to be the first of the non-yeast-based cakes and rely primarily on trapped air in a protein matrix(generally of beaten eggs) to provide leavening,sometimes with a bit of baking powder or other chemical leaven added as insurance. Butter cakes,including the pound cake and devils food cake,rely on the combinations of butter,eggs,and sometimes baking powder to provide both lift and a moist texture.

Beyond these classifications,cakes can be classified based on their appropriate accompaniment(such as coffee cake) and contents(e.g. fruit cake or flour less chocolate cake).

Special-purpose cake
Cakes may be classified according to the occasion for which they are intended.For example,wedding cakes,birthday cakes,and Passover plava (a type of Jewish spong cake sometimes made with matzo meal)are all identified primarily according to the celebration they are intended to accompany.

Cake Decorating
A finished cake is often enhanced by covering it with icing,or frosting,and topping such as sprinkles,which are

also known as jimmies in certain parts of United States and hundreds and thousands in the United Kingdom.Frosting is usually made from powdered(icing)sugar,sometimes a fat of some sort,milk or cream,and often flavourings such as vanilla extract and cocoa powder.Some decorators use rolled fondant icing.Commercial bakeries tend to use lard for the fat,and often whip the lard to introduce air bubbles.This makes the icing light and spreadable.Home bakers either use lard,butter,margarine or some combination thereof.Sprinkles are small firm pieces of sugar and oils that are colored with food colouring.In the late 20th century,new cake decorating products became available to the public.This include several specialized sprinkles and even methods to pictures and transfer the image onto a cake. Special tools are needed for more complex cake decorating, such as piping bags or syringes, and various piping tips. To use a piping bag or syringe, a piping tip is attached to the bag or syringe using a coupler. The bag or syringe is partially filled with icing which is sometimes colored. Using different piping tips and various techniques, a cake decorator can make many different designs. Basic decorating tips include open star, closed star, basketweave, round, drop flower, leaf, multi, petal, and specialty tips. Royal icing, marzipan (or a less sweet version, known as almond paste), fondant icing (also known as sugarpaste) and buttercream are used as covering icings and to create decorations. Floral sugarcraft or wired sugar flowers are an important part of cake decoration. Cakes for special occasions, such as wedding cakes, are traditionally rich fruit cakes or occasionally Madeira cakes (also known as whisked or fatless sponge), that are covered with marzipan and either iced using royal icing or sugarpaste. They are finished with piped borders (made with royal icing) and adorned with a piped message, wired sugar flowers, handformed fondant flowers, marzipan fruit, piped flowers, or crystallized fruits or flowers such as grapes or violetsr.


QUESTION Cakes come in a variety of forms and flavours and are among favourite desserts served during special occasions such as birthday parties, Hari Raya, weddings and etc. Cakes are treasured not only because of their wonderful taste but also in the art of cake baking and cake decorating. Find out how mathematics is used in cake baking and cake decorating and write about your findings. ANSWER Math is in every kitchen,on every recipe card,and at each holiday gathering.the mathematics of cooking often goes unnoticed,but in reality,there is a large quantity of math skills involved in cooking baking.

The making of multi-storey cakes mainly involves progression. For example when we make a cake with many layers,we must fix the difference of diameter of the two layers. So we can say that it used arithmethic progression. When the diameter of the first layer of the cake is 8 inch and the diameter of the second layer of the cake is 6 inch,then the diameter of the third layer of the cake must be 4 inch. In this case, we use arithmetic progression where the difference between of the diameter is constant that is 2.

Geometry To determine suitable dimensions for the cake, to assist in designing and decorating cakes that comes in many attractive shapes and designs, to estimate volume of cake to be produced.

Calculus (differentiation) To determine minimum or maximum amount of ingredients for cake-baking, to estimate min. or max. amount of cream needed for decorating, to estimate min. or max. size of cake produced.

Progressions To determine total weight/volume of multi-storey cakes with proportional dimensions, to estimate total ingredients needed for cake-baking, to estimate total amount of cream for decoration.



Best Bakery shop received an order from your school to bake a 5 kg of round cake as shown in Diagram 1 for the Teachers Day celebration. (Diagram 11)


If a kilogram of cake has a volume of 3800cm3, and the height of the cake is to be 7.0cm, calculate the diameter of the baking tray to be used to fit the 5 kg cake ordered by your school.

[Use = 3.142] Answer Volume of 5kg cake = Base area of cake x Height of cake

3800 x 5 = (3.142)(d2) x 7 = (3.142)(d2)


2714.286=(3.142)(d2)2 863.872 = (d2)


= 29.392

d = 58.784 cm

2) The cake will be baked in an oven with inner dimensions of 80.0 cm in length, 60.0 cmin width and 45.0 cm in height. a) If the volume of cake remains the same, explore by using different values of heights,h cm, and the corresponding values of diameters of the baking tray to be used,d cm. Tabulate your answers. Answer: First, form the formula for d in terms of h by using the above formula for volume of cake, V = 19000, that is:

V=r2h 19000 = (3.142)(d/2)h = d4



= d

d = 155.53h

Height,h(cm) 2.0 4.0

Diameter,d(cm) 109.98 77.77

6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 14.0 16.0 18.0 20.0 22.0 24.0 26.0 28.0 30.0 32.0 34.0 36.0 38.0 40.0
42.0 44.0 46.0 48.0

63.49 54.99 49.18 44.90 41.58 38.88 36.66 34.78 33.16 33.75 30.50 29.39 28.40 27.49 26.67 25.92 25.23 24.59
24.00 23.45 22.93 22.45



QUESTION (b) Based on the values in your table, (i) state the range of heights that is NOT suitable for the cakes and explain your answers. ANSWER h < 7cm is NOT suitable, because the resulting diameter produced is too large to fit into the oven. Furthermore, the cake would be too short and too wide, making it less attractive. h>36 cm is NOT suitable,because the resulting diameter produced is too small and the cake would be too tall so,the cake would be not suitable for the oven.Instead,we can use oven which is more small in width to bake a cake with the heights. h>44 cm is NOT suitable,because the height is too big to fit into the oven because.Futhermore, the cake would be too small in diameter which is less attractive.

QUESTION (ii) suggest the dimensions that you think most suitable for the cake. Give reasons for your answer. ANSWER

h = 10cm, d = 49.18cm, because it can fit into the oven, and the size is suitable for easy handling.Futhermore,the height and the diameter is just nice to use the oven.Not only that,the height and the diameter makes the cake to be more attractive.

QUESTION (c) (i) Form an equation to represent the linear relation between h and d. Hence, plot a suitable graph based on the equation that you have formed. [You may draw your graph with the aid of computer software.] ANSWER

19000/(3.142)h = d4

= d

19000 = (3.142)( d2)h d = 155.53h d = 155.53h-12

log d = log 155.53h-12 log d = -12 log h + log 155.53



0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0

2.19 1.94 1.69 1.44 1.19 0.94 0.69 0.44 0.19


(ii) (a) If Best Bakery received an order to bake a cake where the height of the cake is 10.5 cm, use your graph to determine the diameter of the round cake pan required. Answer:

h = 10.5cm log h=log 10.5 cm log h=1.021 cm When log h=1.021,log d=1.680 so,d=47.86 cm
QUESTION (b) If Best Bakery used a 42 cm diameter round cake tray, use your graph to estimate the height of the cake obtained.

Answer: d = 42cm log d=log 42 log d=1.623 cm When log d=1.623,log h=1.140 so.h=13.80 cm

3) Best Bakery has been requested to decorate the cake with fresh cream. The thickness of the cream is normally set to a uniform layer of about 1cm. (a) Estimate the amount of fresh cream required to decorate the cake using the dimensions that you have suggested in 2(b)(ii). ANSWER h = 8cm, d = 54.99cm Amount of fresh cream = VOLUME of fresh cream needed (area x height) Amount of fresh cream = Vol. of cream at the top surface + Vol. of cream at the side surface Vol. of cream at the top surface = Area of top surface x Height of cream

=r2h = (3.142)(54.992) x 1 = 2375 cm

Vol. of cream at the side surface = Area of side surface x Height of cream = (Circumference of cake x Height of cake) x Height of cream

= 2rh1 = 2(3.142)(54.99/2)(8) x 1 = 1382.23 cm

Therefore, amount of fresh cream


=3757.23 cm3


(b) Suggest three other shapes for cake, that will have the same height and volume as those suggested in 2(b)(ii). Estimate the amount of fresh cream to be used on each of the cakes. ANSWER 1-RECTANGLE-SHAPED BASE(CUBOID)

19000 = base area x height base area = 1900010 length x width = 1 900 By trial and improvement,1900 = 50 x 38 (length = 50, width = 38, height = 10) Therefore, volume of cream = 2(Area of left/right side surface)(Height of cream) + 2(Area of front/back side surface)(Height of cream) + Vol. of top surface = 2(10 x 50)(1) + 2(10 x 38)(1) + 1900 =1000+760+1900 =3660cm3


19000 = base area x height base area = 1900


x length x width = 1900

length x width = 3800 By trial and improvement, 3800 = 76 x 50 (length = 76, width = 50) Slant length of triangle = (76 + 25)= 80.00 Therefore, amount of cream = Area of rectangular front side surface(Height of cream) + 2(Area of slant rectangular left/right side surface)(Height of cream) + Vol. of top surface = (50 x 10)(1) + 2(80.00 x 10)(1) + 1900 =500+1600+1900 =4000cm3


19000 = base area x height base area = 1900 = area of 6 similar isosceles triangles in a hexagon therefore: 1900 = 6(length x width) 316.67 = length x width By trial and improvement, 316.67 = 20 x 15.83 (length = 20, width = 15.83) Therefore, amount of cream = 6(area of one rectangular side surface)(height of cream) + vol. of top surface = 6(10 x 15.83) + 1900 =2849.8 cm3

QUESTION (c) Based on the values that you have found which shape requires the least amount of fresh cream to be used? ANSWER

Hexagon-shaped cake, since it requires only 2849.8 cm of cream to be used.


QUESTION Find the dimension of a 5 kg round cake that requires the minimum amount of fresh cream to decorate. Use at least two different methods including Calculus. State whether you would choose to bake a cake of such dimensions. Give reasons for your answers. Answer

Method 1: Differentiation Use two equations for this method: the formula for volume of cake (as in Q2/a), and the formula for amount (volume) of cream to be used for the round cake (as in Q3/a).

19000 = (3.142)rh (1) V = (3.142)r + 2(3.142)rh (2) From (1): h = 19000(3.142)r (3) Sub. (3) into (2): V = (3.142 + 2(3.142)r(19000(3.142)r) V = (3.142)r + (38000r) V = (3.142)r + 38000r-1 (dVdr) = 2(3.142)r (38000r) 0 = 2(3.142)r (38000r) -->> minimum value, therefore dVdr = 0

= 2(3.142)r = r


6047.104 = r r = 18.22 Sub. r = 18.22 into (3): h = 19000(3.142)(18.22) h = 18.22 therefore, h = 18.22cm, d = 2r = 2(18.22) = 36.44cm

Method 2: Quadratic Functions Use the two same equations as in Method 1, but only the formula for amount of cream is the main equation used as the quadratic function. Let f(r) = volume of cream, r = radius of round cake:

19000 = (3.142)rh (1) f(r) = (3.142)r + 2(3.142)hr (2) From (2): f(r) = (3.142)(r + 2hr) -->> factorize (3.142) = (3.142)[ (r + 2h2) (2h2) ] -->> completing square, with a = (3.142), b = 2h and c = 0

= (3.142)[ (r + h) h ] = (3.142)(r + h) (3.142)h (a = (3.142) (positive indicates min. value), min. value = f(r) = (3.142)h, corresponding value of x = r = --h) Sub. r = --h into (1): 19000 = (3.142)(--h)h h = 6047.104 h = 18.22

Sub. h = 18.22 into (1): 19000 = (3.142)r(18.22) r = 331.894 r = 18.22 therefore, h = 18.22 cm, d = 2r = 2(18.22) = 36.44 cm

I would choose not to bake a cake with such dimensions because its dimensions are not suitable (the height is too high) and therefore less attractive. Furthermore, such cakes are difficult to handle easily.

QUESTION FURTHER EXPLORATION Best Bakery received an order to bake a multi-storey cake for Merdeka Day celebration, as shown in Diagram 2. The height of each cake is 6.0 cm and the radius of the largest cake is 31.0 cm. The radius of the second cake is 10% less than the radius of the first cake, the radius of the third cake is10% less than the radius of the second cake and so on. (a) Find the volume of the first, the second, the third and the fourth cakes. By comparing all these values, determine whether the volumes of the cakes form a number pattern? Explain and elaborate on the number patterns. Answer height, h of each cake = 6cm radius of largest cake = 31cm radius of 2nd cake = 10% smaller than 1st cake radius of 3rd cake = 10% smaller than 2nd cake

31, 27.9, 25.11, 22.599 a = 31, r = 910 V = (3.142)rh

Radius of 1st cake = 31, volume of 1st cake = (3.142)(31)(6) = 18116.772 Radius of 2nd cake = 27.9, vol. of 2nd cake = 14674.585 Radius of 3rd cake = 25.11, vol. of 3rd cake = 11886.414 Radius of 4th cake = 22.599, vol. of 4th cake = 9627.995 18116.772, 14674.585, 11886.414, 9627.995, a = 18116.772, ratio, r = T2/T1 = T3 /T2 = = 0.81

QUESTION (b) If the total mass of all the cakes should not exceed 15 kg, calculate the maximum number of cakes that the bakery needs to bake. Verify your answer using other methods. Answer

Sn = (a(1 - rn)) (1 - r) Sn = 57000, a = 18116.772 and r = 0.81 57000 = (18116.772(1 (0.81)n))(1 - 0.81) 1 0.81n = 0.59779 0.40221 = 0.81n log0.81 0.40221 = n n=

log 0.40221 log 0.81

n = 4.322 therefore, n 4 REFLECTION

In the making of this project, I have spent countless hours doing this project.I realized that this subject is a compulsory to me. Without it, I cant fulfill my big dreams and wishes. In the process of conducting this project,I have learnt that perseverance pays off,especially when you obtain a just reward for all your hard work.For me,succeeding in completing this project work has been reward enough.I have also learnt that mathematics is used everywhere in daily life,from the most simple things like baking and decorating cake to designing and building monuments.Besides that,I have learnt many moral values that we practice.This project me had taught me to be more confident when doing something especially the homework given by teacher.I also learned to be more disciplined student who is punctual and independent. During the period of completing the project work, I had discovered that additional mathematics have multi-uses especially in pastry industry. The inventions of different mathematics theorem are to solve daily problems and even make our works more efficient. Furthermore, this project also encourages knowledge transfer as students practice what they had learnt and found out the information they dont know. I also had experienced team work, patience and creative thinking while conducting the project. Personally, Calculus used to be a very confusing and difficult topic for me. But after applying it in this project, I have built a deeper understanding toward Differentiation and Integration.

The poem below is what I feel about Additional Mathematics :-

ADD MATH, A well known taught subject. Perhaps theres a concept, That I wouldnt able to accept. Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication and Division, Miraculously transform to Differentiation, Then followed by Integration. Yet, I never fail to figure out the solution, But it always ends up with correction! To my surprise, Cake baking requires geometry to apply, In determine its shape and size. If I have been wise, And listen to Calculuss advice, Baking will never fail once or twice... Add Math used to be my pain, But if I do practice again and again, Works will never be in vain...






THE EN D !! !


08 09



First of all, I would like to thank God because I have managed to complete this project work successfully without any problems. I am also very thankful to my add maths teacher, Cik Suzana bt Ayob for being helpful and as guidance to me throughout my project work.I am also thankful to all my friends and others who where helpful directly and indirectly in my effort to complete the project work.My parents should also be thanked because they provided moral support and encouragement throughout the time. Thank you Joseph Carl Robnett Licklider the person which invented the internet, without the help of internet I will not be able to finish this project. Id also like to express my thanks to all my fellow friends especially the 5

Cemerlang students. They are my classmates who involved in this project as we work together as a secondary family. We do practice teamwork.

Thank you.

In conclusion, cake baking required a lot of mathematical knowledge including geometry, calculus, ratios and progressions in order to produce a cake in a systematic way. Those skills are important especially for pastry industry so that the cake produced can be unified with the same quality. Without it, the outlook of the cakes will be less attractive. So, I should be thankful of the people who contribute in the idea of geometry, calculus, ratios and progressions. Those mathematical theories make daily problems easier to be solved. From this project I have learned the importance of perseverance as time will be invested to ensure the completion and excellence of this project. Similarly, I have learned the virtue of working together as I have help and receive help from my fellow peers in the production of this project as sharing knowledge is vital achieving a single goal. Also, I have learned to be thankful

and appreciative. This is because I have been able to apply my mathematical knowledge in daily life and appreciate the beauty of mathematics.

This project will serve as a training stage for me to prepare myself for the demands for my future undertakings in the university and work life. I will apply mathematics in everyday situations and situations and appreciate the importance and beauty of mathematics. I aim to improve my problem solving skills, thinking skills, reasoning and mathematical communication skills. This project shall stimulate a learning environment which enhances effective learning, inquiry-based and teamwork. This project will develop my mathematical knowledge such that it increases my interest and confidence.

One very important aspect of cake baking is the amount of ingredients required. This is because a cake should be of reasonable pricing, at the same time, beauty is also a priority. In cake baking, ingredients must not be wasted unnecessarily. Therefore, Calculus can be applied in cake baking. Particularly, the second derivative is greatly used. This is because the second derivative allows bakeries to calculate the maximum or minimum amount of ingredients needed to increase profit and efficiency. This allows positive growth in business. At the same time, the bakeries can avoid under-order, or over-order the ingredients. Cake decorating is an art. Many bakeries strive to produce cakes of beauty and of substance. In art, geometry is given importance. Geometry allows cakes of many interesting shapes and sizes to be created. Geometry also defines the ideal dimensions of a cake to be baked in ovens. Geometry will determine the popularity of the cake besides the price. We calculate the surface area and

volume of the cake to determine the price per kilogram and also the area available for decorating and writing words. In the baking of more complex cakes, such as multi-storey cakes or multilayered cakes, progressions are applied. Progressions allow us to calculate the size or volume of a subsequent layer. Also, it allows us the estimate the quantity of ingredients needed. Usually, geometric progressions are used. Lastly, ratios are used in cake baking. More often than not bakers need to estimate the amount of ingredients used or substitute the ingredient with another if that ingredient is not available. For example, we often use cookbooks guiding us to use 3 parts of water for 1 part of flour. This is ratio of water to flour 3:1, allows us to bake a cake of different sizes. Although we may bake a smaller or larger cake, the flour and water used still obeys the proportion set. We are then allowed to creatively bake cakes.