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CENTRO DE QUALIFICAO PROFISSIONAL

PROFESSORA: LIA

2012 1

1. LEITURA: HABILIDADE DE ESTRATGIAS

O que um bom leitor? Uma resposta acertada seria: aquele que obtm a mxima compreenso com o mnimo de malentendidos Outro critrio para a mensurao de boa leitura pode tambm verificar se o leitor capaz de expressar o contedo do texto lido em forma de resumo, por exemplo.

2. DICAS PARA UMA LEITURA EFICIENTE

2.1 Inferncia: Consiste na habilidade de fazer suposies e adivinhaes que podem ser rejeitadas ou confirmadas. Para tanto, o contexto fornece informao importante na tentativa de entender uma palavra desconhecida, observando a sentena em que a palavra aparece ou as sentenas anteriores e posteriores. A inferncia tambm til quando h a necessidade da percepo das idias que no esto explicitadas no texto, ou seja, naquelas ocasies em que h a necessidade de se ler nas entrelinhas. Nesse caso, necessrio ter em mente as idias presentes no texto o que implica em dizer que a leitura de palavra por palavra no significa necessariamente entender o texto. H recursos que podem ser utilizados para promover a inferncia. Dentre eles, podemos mencionar:

a) Conhecimento prvio: acione o conhecimento prvio acerca do assunto, pois a compreenso do texto vai depender em grande parte do conhecimento que o leitor j possui e que se encontra armazenado em sua memria, ou seja, no conhecimento prvio. Este conhecimento resulta da aprendizagem acumulada ao longo do tempo e pode ser acessado para auxiliar na interpretao de informao de textos. Assim, o conhecimento prvio transforma-se em um recurso fundamental no processo de compreenso, pois possibilita a formulao de hipteses e inferncias partindo da leitura do texto. Para ativ-lo o leitor deve prestar ateno em ttulos, subttulos e figuras, por exemplo, e tom-los como ponto de partida.

b) Contexto no-verbal: Observar a informao no-verbal, ou seja, toda a informao veiculada por meio de tipografia, disposio grfica, grficos, figuras, tabelas e mapas, por exemplo. Esses elementos tm fora comunicativa por no serem escolhidos aleatoriamente, o que lhes garante participao direta ou indireta no entendimento da mensagem. c) Conhecimento sobre a organizao textual: Os gneros textuais adquirem formato caracterstico pela fora comunicativa que adquirem no entorno social. Assim, a distribuio da mensagem em um espao adquire contornos de forma padro. Por isso, o senso comum consegue antecipar (e validar) a estrutura tpica de uma receita de bolo ou uma parte de um manual.

2.2 Nveis de compreenso

Nossos objetivos tm grande influncia sobre como realizamos a leitura. A maneira como corremos os olhos pela lista telefnica em busca de um nmero bem diferente do modo cuidadoso que adotamos para a leitura de uma procurao. Pela mesma razo, h graus diferentes de compreenso de um texto. O nvel de compreenso pode variar de acordo com nossas necessidades e objetivos e com as dificuldades que o texto apresenta. Assim, temos:

a) Compreenso geral: quando apenas observamos um texto rapidamente para obter uma idia geral, focalizando de modo especial os ttulos e subttulos, tabelas, figuras, nfases tipogrficas, cognatos (palavras semelhantes ao portugus) etc. Para identificarmos o tema, podemos utilizar a tcnica do SKIMMING uma leitura rpida, sem interrupes, feita apenas para obter a idia geral, como na leitura de um jornal para decidir sobre o possvel interesse em determinada matria . No skimming observarmos o texto rapidamente apenas para detectar o assunto geral, sem nos preocuparmos com os detalhes. Para tanto, necessrio prestar ateno ao layout do texto, ttulo, subttulo (se houver), cognatos, primeiras e/ou ltimas linhas de cada pargrafo, bem como informao no-verbal (figuras, grficos e tabelas). b) Compreenso das idias principais: quando buscamos no s identificar a idia geral, mas tambm compreender os argumentos ou idias principais, mas sem nos determos a detalhes. Uma tcnica empregada para obter as idias principais o SCANNING uma leitura rpida na qual nos concentramos na busca de uma informao especfica. o caso, por exemplo, da consulta a uma enciclopdia, catlogo ou lista telefnica.

c) Compreenso detalhada: quando buscamos no s identificar a idia geral e compreender os argumentos ou idias principais, mas tambm conhecer os detalhes do texto. Por exemplo, ao selecionarmos uma matria de interesse no jornal, prestamos ateno aos detalhes e estabelecemos comparaes com o que j sabemos a respeito do assunto.

Para lembrar: SKIMMING - uma leitura rpida, sem interrupes, feita apenas para obter a idia
geral do texto, o assunto tratado.

SCANNING - uma leitura rpida na qual nos concentramos na busca de uma


informao especfica.

2.3 Exercises

Text 1: Loading a Document


Up to 20 pages can be placed in the feeder at one time. The pages will automatically feed into the machine starting from the bottom page. If you need to send or copy more than 20 pages, place the additional pages gently and carefully in the feeder just before the last page is scanned. Do not try to force them in, as this may cause doublefeeding or jamming. If your document consists of several large or thick pages which must be loaded one at a time, insert each page into the feeder as the previous page is being scanned. Insert gently to prevent doublefeeding.

1 Adjust the document guides on the right side of the feeder to the width of your document.

2 Insert the document face down in the document feeder. The top edge of the document should enter the feeder first. The feeder READY TO SEND will appear in the display. You can now either make resolution and/jor contrast settings as described in the following section, or dial the other party as described in the section, "Dialing and transmission". Important If you need to remove the document from the feeder before transmission or copying, first open the operation pane/ by putting the front edge up (grasp it at the "PANEL RELEASE" mark) and then remove the document. If you try to pull the document out without opening the operation panel, you may damage the feeder mechanism.
Source: FACSIMILE OPERATION MANUAL/ SHARP

1. Utilizando a estratgia skimming, observe o texto e responda: a) Que tipo de texto este? b) Qual o seu objetivo? c) Quem estaria interessado em ler um texto deste tipo? 2. Utilizando a estratgia scanning, procure no texto as seguintes informaes: a) b) c) d) Como voc deve proceder se precisar enviar mais de 20 pginas? Qual deve ser o primeiro passo para carregar o aparelho? Qual o segundo passo? O que poder acontecer se voc tentar remover o documento sem abrir o painel de operao?

3. ORGANIZAO DE PARGRAFOS: FRASE TPICO

O pargrafo construdo de forma coerente traz idias correlatas e formado por pelo menos duas sentenas. A primeira frase do pargrafo a FRASE TPICO porque contm a idia a ser desenvolvida nas demais sentenas. A organizao de um esquema que mostra quais tpicos auxiliares desenvolvem a idia principal e o modo como eles estruturam o pargrafo, ajuda a compreender a dinmica da construo do pargrafo. A visualizao tambm pretende ilustrar o modo como nosso crebro aplica mecanismos de entendimento textual medida que procura explicitar como a teia das idias adquire significado no texto a ser lido. Alm do mais, organiza as idias em principais e secundrias, elemento ainda mais importante para o leitor em LEM (Lngua Estrangeira Moderna). Leia os pargrafos abaixo para a elaborao de um esquema em relao frase tpico e s idias correlatas (secundrias).

SAMPLE PARAGRAPH 1: All computers, whether large or small, have the same basic capabilities. They have circuit for performing arithmetic operations. They all have a way of communicating with the persons using them. They also have circuits for making decisions.

SAMPLE PARAGRAPH 2 It is the incredible speed of the computers, along with their memory capacity which makes them so useful and valuable. Computers can solve problems in a fraction of time it takes man. For this reason, businesses use them to keep their accounts, and airline, railway, and bus companies use them to control tickets. As for memory, modern computers can store information with high accuracy and reliability. A computer can put data into its memory and retrieve it again in a few millionths of a second. It also has a storage capacity for as many as a million items.

4. SISTEMA GRAMATICAL

O sistema gramatical de uma lngua dotado de uma coerncia e previsibilidade que faz dele um aliado no entendimento de mensagens. As regularidades do sistema revelam aspectos de sua organizao e podem ser usados beneficamente de modo a tambm esclarecer aspectos sobre eventuais (e previsveis tambm) irregularidades. Assim, a maneira como a organizao gramatical aparece nos verbos, classes gramaticais e conjunes, por exemplo, fornece informao norteada para o leitor em geral, principalmente para aquele de LEM. As sees a seguir focalizam as regularidades (e excees) do sistema lingstico no mbito de formao de palavras, sistema verbal e operadores de discurso (conjunes), apresentando-os como pontos de referncia para o processo de leitura em LEM.

4.1 Cognatos Cognatos so palavras estrangeiras semelhantes ao Portugus que podem facilitar nossa leitura em LEM. Identific-los facilita o entendimento textual porque de 20% a 30% das palavras, bem como prefixos e sufixos, em textos em Ingls so cognatos em Portugus. Isso porque so palavras de origem grega e latina. De fcil reconhecimento, eles podem ser: iguais como cultural, social; muito parecidas como science, integration, circuits e parecidas como created, groups.

A credibilidade dos cognatos originou um artigo publicado por Mario Giubicelli, jornalista brasileiro, aps uma experincia de mais de 30 anos com a lngua inglesa nos Estados Unidos. O jornalista, tambm funcionrio da casa Branca, aponta cinco regras bsicas e infalveis para a formao de aproximadamente 400 regras a que se refere Giubicelli so: palavras em Ingls. As

Regra 1: Para todas as palavras em Portugus que terminem em DADE ( como a palavra cidade retire o DADE e coloque TY e assim cidade passou a ser city. Vejamos agora um pouco das cento e tantas palavras que seguem o mesmo princpio: CIDADE=city VELOCIDADE = velocity SIMPLICIDADE= simplicity NATURALIDADE= naturality CAPACIDADE= capacity Regra 2: Para todas as palavras que terminem em O ( como a palavra NAO) tire o O e coloque em seu lugar TION e assim: NAO = nation SIMPLICAO= simplification OBSERVAO= observation NATURALIZAO=naturalization SENSAO= sensation Regra 3: Para todos os advrbios terminados em MENTE ( como a palavra NATURALMENTE), tire o MENTE e coloque -LLY .Observe: NATURALMENTE= naturally GENETICAMENTE= genetically ORALMENTE= orally

Regra 4: Para as palavras terminadas em NCIA, tire NCIA e em seu lugar coloque ENCE. Observe: ESSNCIA= essence REVERNCIA= reverence COMPETNCIA = competence FREQNCIA = frequence ELOQNCIA = eloquence Regra 5: As palavras cognatas terminadas em AL na maioria so idnticas, assim: NATURAL (Port.) = natural (Ingl.) LOGICAL POTENTIAL GENERAL

Tal critrio de antecipao de significados e sua relativa transparncia funcionam porque a relao que se estabelece com o acrscimo de sufixo se baseia no fato das palavras serem cognatas.

Falsos cognatos: so palavras em Ingls que parecem ter um significado semelhante ao do Portugus a julgar pela forma escrita, mas que na realidade significam algo diferente. Cuidado com os falsos cognatos, a semelhana est na aparncia apenas. Aqui esto alguns exemplos 1. exquisite = extico em portugus ao invs de esquisito como parece (esquisito=odd ou strange em Ingls); 2. library = biblioteca (livraria = bookstore, bookshop); 3. realize = perceber (realizar = to accomplish, to do);

Ateno!!!
Palavras que podem ou no funcionar Como cognatas Application = Aplicativo ou aplicao Currently = No momento ou correntemente Depend = Confiar ou depender Industry= indstria, ramo de produo
Ateno : Dependable = Confivel

4.1.1 Exercises 1. Usando seu conhecimento prvio ou o dicionrio traduza as palavras abaixo e conclua se elas so COGNATOS (C) ou FALSO-COGNATOS (FC):

1. attend: 2. large: 3. push: 4. collar: 5. really: 6. actually: 7. date: 8. data: 9. commodity: 10. industry: 11. notice: 12. intend: 13. presently:

14. eventually: 15. prevent: 16. pretend: 17. avocado: 18. estate: 19. state: 20. fabric: 21. support: 22. magazine: 23. figure: 24. resume: 25. summary: 26. sensible:

2. Ser que o mesmo pode ser dito sobre estas palavras inglesas?

1. Actual 2. Actually 3. Advertisement 4. Appointment 5. Available 6. College 7. Core 8. Data 9. Engrossed 10. Eventually 11. Intend 12. Large 13. Parents 14. Particular 15. Pretend 16. Resume 17. Silicon 18. Sympathetic 19. Time 20. Sort (v.)

3. Relacione os falsos cognatos do exerccio 2 acima aos seus significados em portugus.:

a)retomar, reiniciar_______ b)pais________ c)dados_________ d) pretender, planejar_______ e) disponvel_______ f) especfico, determinado_______ g) anncio, publicidade_______ h) grande_______ i) realmente, de fato, de verdade_______ j) finalmente, por fim_______ k) centro, miolo_______ l) tempo_______ m) silcio_______ n) fingir_______ o) faculdade_______ p) solidrio, compreensivo_______ q) compromisso, hora marcada, encontro_______ r) real, verdadeiro_______ s) organizar_______ t) absorto, envolvido_________

4. Cada texto descreve um dos seguintes dispositivos: trackerball, joystick, Iightpen, scanner. Identifique o dispositivo que cada texto descreve. Escreva suas respostas no espao no texto. A mesma palavra ocupa todas as lacunas do texto no qual faz sentido.

a) A _________ is another input device you can connect to a computer system. The ___________ is able to move in eight directions. ____________s are mostly used in computer games to control the way picture on the screen moves. Sometimes two_____________s are connected to a computer so two people can play the game at the same time. b) A _____________ works in exactly the same way as a mouse, except that the ball is on top. The user rolls the ball around with her hand to operate it. If you use a ___________, you dont need any extra space on your desk to move it around (like you do with a mouse).

______________s are often used on small portable computers and on some video game machines. c) A ____________________ can be used to draw pictures directly on to a computer screen or to read the pattern on a barcode. A ___________________ that can read barcodes detects the difference between the light reflected from a black barcode line and its lighter background. d) Using a ________________, you can input printed drawings, photographs, or text directly into a computer. A _________________ works like a photocopier a light is shone on the material and the _________________ detects the reflected light. You can use a _____________ with optical character recognition (OCR) software to input the scanned text into a word processing package.

4. Problem solving. Escreva qual dos dispositivos mais indicado para:

1 controlling fast-moving objects into a game 2 reading the price of things in a shop 3 making copies of a page of text and graphics 4 storing sounds on a computer 5 producing pictures of people and places for storing in a computer 6 controlling a computer using speech 7 typing text into a computer.

4.2 Nomes prprios e nmeros

So diretamente relacionados informao especfica do texto. Referem-se a pessoas, pases, estados, cidades, empresas, organizaes, ruas, avenidas, estradas, rios, lagos, ciclones. Os nmeros, por sua vez, podem se referir a: quantidades, porcentagens, anos; idades; horrios, etc.

4.3 Palavra-chave

Com

uma

funo

estrutural

na

construo

da

mensagem

textual,

reconhecimento das palavras-chave auxilia o entendimento do texto e, portanto o processo de leitura eficiente porque elas tm uma relao direta com o assunto tratado. Elas so de fcil identificao pois so repetidas seja morfologicamente ou semanticamente ao longo do texto. Alm disso, so em grande maioria substantivos classe de palavra que concentra significado importante.

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4.4 Sistema Verbal

Sistema verbal, VERB SYSTEM. Aliado clareza do objetivo da leitura, o reconhecimento da cpsula verbal (parte na qual o verbo est) uma estratgia facilitadora de compreenso textual. A identificao do verbo implica tambm em perceber as demais partes constituintes da sentena de modo a fornecer dicas significativas quanto funo das palavras na frase e a necessidade (ou no) de sua busca no dicionrio. (Vide folha trabalhada em sala)

4.5 Famlia de Palavras

Famlias de Palavras so grupos de palavras que tm a mesma raiz, o que tambm significa dizer que elas se relacionam no que diz respeito ao seu campo de significado. A formao de famlias resultado do acrscimo de afixos (termo que inclui prefixo e sufixos) s palavras fazendo com que se relacionem ainda que pertenam a classes gramaticais diferentes como ilustrado no quadro abaixo:

Noun (substantivo) success use/usefulness danger

verb succeed use endanger

adjective

adverb

sucessful successfully useful /useless usefully/uselessly dangerous dangerously

4.5.1 Afixos
a) PREFIXOS: So elementos adicionados antes da raiz e que alteram a carga semntica sem alterar a classe gramatical da palavra. Alguns afixos comuns na formao de palavras e respectivos significados so:

negative and positive unnonin- ir- ilDisreMis-

tamanho / intensidade semiminimicrounderover-

1. PREFIXES lugar intersupertransexextraperi-

tempo e ordem preanteforepost-

nmero monobihexoctmulti-

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b) SUFIXOS: So elementos que so acrescentados depois ( direita) da raiz e afetam diretamente a classe gramatical da palavra. Os mais comuns so: 2. SUFFIXES verbos adjetivos -ise -ize -able -ible -ate -ous -fy -ed -en -ical -ify -ish -ical -ive -al -ar -ful -less -ive -ing -ish -ic

substantivos -ance, -ence -or -er -ist -yst -ness -ee -let -al -ian -tion -ution -ion -sion -ing -ment -ity -ism -dom -ics -ship

advrbios -ly -ally -wise -ward(s)

4.6 Grupos Nominais Um grupo nominal um grupo de palavras formado por um substantivo e seus modificadores que podem ser artigos, numerais, quantificadores, pronomes e/ou adjetivos, por exemplo. O substantivo o ncleo semntico, ou seja, a palavra-ncleo ou chave (headword =H) e os demais elementos so modificadores (modifier = M). Um dos desafios em seu reconhecimento que a grafia da palavra a mesma, mas a ordem em que ela colocada pode trazer significados diferentes. Observe:

1) ... the master control program 1 2 3 4 (H)

2) ... the master program control 1 2 3 4 (H)

Em 1 a palavra program que recebe os modificadores ao passo que em b a palavra control que recebe os modificadores. Essa diferena significativa, pois o assunto diferente apesar da palavra estar escrita de forma idntica. No entanto, em Ingls, a

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ORDEM significativa. Ela tem significado. Conforme exemplos, a ltima (da esquerda para a direita) palavra da cadeia a palavra principal, ou seja, ela diz o que a coisa , enquanto que as precedentes apenas descrevem o item. Para se entender o significado destes grupos nominais em ingls, preciso ler a fila de palavras de trs para frente. Na leitura teramos:

1) ... the master control program 4 3 2 1 (H)

2) ... the master program control 4 3 2 1 (H)

Os grupos nominais formam assim unidades de significado que podem se combinar em sentenas. Para permitir a construo de seqncias lineares h elementos que funcionam como elos de ligao: preposies. Observe a frase a seguir:

A three-dimensional TV picture the empty room.

appears

over a huge wooden box

in

A palavra dentro do crculo caracteriza a cpsula verbal ( appears) que ao identificada pode ser separada e classificada de acordo com as frmulas no quadro de formas verbais estudado anteriormente. Conforme o referido quadro : sentena=

S+V(s)+C= Presente simples). Essa diviso reduz a sentena a trs segmentos principais, a saber: S +V+ C. Com o propsito de leitura e entendimento, o que resta pode ser subdividido ainda em grupos nominais tendo as preposies como elementos

separadores de unidades de sentido. Cada subdiviso por sua vez formada de uma palavra-ncleo (N) e modificadores (M) e o elemento de ligao (preposio) entre elas chamado de LINKER (L) pela funo de ligao sinttica e semntica que exerce. Observe a mesma frase aps a subdiviso e identificao de termos (o smbolo indica a separao entre os termos).

A three-dimensional TV picture

appears over a huge wooden box

in the empty room.

m m

H L

O conhecimento da cpsula verbal e do grupo nominal fornece uma melhor noo de como as palavras se organizam em sintagmas para veicular mensagens. O

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reconhecimento das partes constituintes da cpsula verbal e do grupo nominal, respectivamente, tambm d condio de analisarmos a hierarquia entre os elementos quando se trata do entendimento textual. Tendo claro o objetivo de leitura, a viso dessa hierarquia decisiva como critrio para a busca de palavras no dicionrio. O uso do dicionrio o tpico da seo seguinte:

4.6.1 Exercises
1. Reconhea os ncleos (H) e modificadores (M) dos seguintes grupos nominais: a) a new disk drive: b) a network manager: c) a computer keyboard: d) a silicon chip: e) a control unit: f) an iron surface:

g) a general-purpose programming language: h) a musical instrument digital interface:

2. Qual o nome em ingls para: a) a device that reads magnetic card: b) a chip made of silicon: c) a port on a computer that provides a link to a printer: d) a person who programs applications for computers: e) an applications program that is used for editing texts: f) a device that prints using a jet of ink:

g) a computer device that scans images: h) a keyboard key that has a special function: i) j) a special kind of language in which programs are written: a work of art created with the aid of a computer:

3. Leia as frases e as divida conforme exemplo acima, ou seja, em: cpsula verbal e grupos nominais. Classifique a forma verbal conforme tabela.

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a) Fictional detectives might solve crimes from their armchairs, but real worlds policemen spend most of their time out of the office, on the streets. b) In essence each microprocessor has access to its own memory for holding the results of intermediate calculations, and it can send and obtain values from other microprocessors from hidden tiny places in the jungle. c) Were going to see a big fast change in the market: away from the huge efficient platforms and towards open-hearted applications.

4.7 Palavras de Ligao - Coeso e coerncia textual

A seo anterior menciona elementos que ligam grupos nominais: preposies. H tambm elementos de ligao entre as frases e sentenas que modulam as idias dando-lhes sentido. A mensagem de um texto se constri medida que as idias se ligam uma s outras. Prevendo essa dinmica, o escritor supe que o leitor l as frases em seqncia de modo que ele ligue uma sentena quela anterior e, do mesmo modo, a informao de um pargrafo ao anterior, o que resulta em uma rede de significados. A relao das palavras e idias do texto nas frases ou entre elas, entre sentenas e pargrafos se realiza de duas formas importantes: a coeso textual e a coerncia textual.

A coeso textual se realiza atravs de palavras usadas no lugar de outras ou mesmo para substituir uma idia como um todo. Assim, para no haver repetio h a retomada de idias e elementos j mencionados no texto atravs do uso de pronomes. Estes pronomes podem substituir substantivos, locues substantivas e at mesmo toda uma idia. No entanto, o elo coesivo entre a

palavra e seu referente deve ser o mais claro possvel sob risco de causar confuso e conseqente mal-entendidos quanto ao entendimento da mensagem do texto. H o risco destas palavras serem negligenciadas pelo leitor por serem pequenas. As palavras com referentes (ou antecedentes) podem ser numerais, pronomes demonstrativos, oblquos, por exemplo.

A coerncia textual, por sua vez, inclui o uso de conjunes como operadores discursivos para o tipo de relao que existe entre as sentenas e idias em nvel de sentenas e de pargrafos. A escolha das conjunes (mas,

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porm, por exemplo) estabelece a natureza da ligao entre as idias. Observe as frases:

a. We went to school but the teacher didn't come. (but cria uma relao de oposio entre as idias das frases) b. The teacher came and we had a nice class. (and contextualiza a soma de idias) c. The teacher came, so we were happy. ( so indica uma conseqncia)

Desse modo, as idias se entrelaam semanticamente atravs desses elos (and, but) que do mesmo modo que as marcam , se unem no processo de construo textual e vo consequentemente influenciar no desenvolvimento do texto. Estes elos so chamados de operadores (ou marcadores) discursivos. Tais operadores tm funes consagradas na lngua e portanto podem ser listados e dotados de previsibilidade funcional. A funo dos mais freqentes segue na tabela abaixo.

operadores because; therefore; thus; as and; both...and although however but nevertheless so thus therefore If; in case unless for instance; for example; such as, like; so that

funo razo, causa

adio

contraste; oposio concluso

condio

exemplificao propsito

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Text 2: What is a computer?


1 Nowadays, in most modern societies, almost everybody has an idea about what a computer is. We depend on computers in every aspect of our lives whether we know how to use one or not. But does everyone really know how a computer works inside? A computer is an electronic machine which processes data and provides the results of 5 the processing as information. There are three basic steps in the computing process. The first one is input, which consists of feeding data into the computers memory. Then comes the processing: the program is run and the computer processes the data by performing a set of instructions. The third and final step is the output furnished by the computer, which allows the user to see the results either in printed from or on the screen. 10 The world of computers has created a specific language of its own. English words such as software and hardware are used worldwide and have been borrowed by many different languages. Software is information in the form of data and programs, and hardware refers to the electronic and mechanical parts that make up a computer system. Despite the constant presence of computers in most modern societies, it is a great 15 mistake to believe that everybody in the world is computer-literate, i.e., is familiar with computers and knows how to use them properly. In some contemporary societies, many people still have no idea about the existence of computers, and even in the socalled developed countries, there are lots of people who do not know or do not care about what a computer is.
Utilizando estratgias de leitura informaes. procure no texto What Is a Computer? as seguintes

Nos espaos em branco, escreva os nmeros das linhas em que elas se encontram: 1. ________O computador processa dados e fornece os resultados em forma de informao. 2. ________ um erro acreditar que todo mundo hoje em dia saiba usar o computador. 3. ________O processo de computao envolve trs etapas bsicas. 4. ________O mundo da computao criou uma linguagem prpria. 5 ________ Hoje em dia quase todo mundo tem uma id6ia do que seja um computador. 6. ________Algumas dessas palavras vem sendo usadas pelo mundo afora, pois foram todas de emprstimo da lngua inglesa por vrias outras lnguas. 7. ________ Algumas sociedades contemporneas desconhecem o computador. 8. ________ A etapa final permite ao usurio ver os resultados do processamento. 9. ________Mesmo nos pases ditos desenvolvidos, existem pessoas que no sabem o que um computador e no se importam em saber.

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Text : INTRODUCTION TO BASIC 1. Today almost every business concern provides its key personnel with access to a

computer. The computer may be small or large and it may be used exclusively by the business, or computer time may be purchased from a service organization; in any case, a computer is accessible. More and more, this access is being provided via conveniently located terminal devices. 6. In many cases, these terminals are an integral part of a computer system facilitating

two-way communications between the accountant, manager, or other key personnel and the computer. In addition, the system can communicate urgent messages to management, such as informing management of the occurrence of any unusual or unexpected circumstances the instant they are detected. 11. An appropriate programming language for use by the business person in solving small and isolated problems is the language BASIC. BASIC (Beginner's AII-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) is an easily learned and easily used computer language. It was originally developed for use on-line with a timesharing computer, that is, a computer system in which a user can communicate a program to the computer via a console or terminal similar in appearance to a typewriter, with results being returned almost instantaneously. This form of BASIC is generally referred to as 16. interactive BASIC. We call batch BASIC when the user prepares his program and data and submit them to the computer centre to be processed when the user prepares his program and data and submit them to the computer centre to be processed when computer time becomes available.

1. Find in the text the meaning of BASIC:

__________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________


2. Look up in the glossary the explanation for. on-line - ____________________________________________________________ _ timesharing - _ _______________________________________________________ _ 3. Number the correct sequence of these ideas as they appear in the text: a) Interactive Basic and Batch Basic. paragraph __________________ Iine(s) ______________ _ b) 'Why knowledge of a programming language is necessary. paragraph ___ _______________ line(s) _______________ _ _

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c) A definition of Basic. paragraph __________________ line(s) _______________ _ d) The use c1f the computer in modern business. paragraph __________________ line(s) _______________ _ e) Communications and the computer system. paragraph __________________ line(s) _______________ _ 4. Match letters and numbers:

a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h)

concern (Linha1) key personnel (1) purchased (3) two-way (7) a working knowledge (11) thus (13) delay (13) available.(24)

1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9)

demora, atraso disponvel negcio conhecimentos prticos consulta e resposta adquirido gerncia interesse conseqentemente

5. Say if these statements are true or false. Correct the false statements: a) The administrative staff in all business organizations have access to a computer. b)The computer is used only by the business. c)The accountant or business manager must first communicate any problem to a programmer. d)The knowledge of a modern programming language makes communications more efficient in an organization. e)In a timesharing computer, the user has to wait a few minutes before getting the results. OS USOS DO ING Palavras cuja formao composta por ING podem apresentar diferentes classes gramaticais: LEARNING = Pode significar aprendendo; aprender ou aprendizagem, dependendo de como apresentada na sentena. (gerndio) They are learning how to get more information. = (aps o verbo to be) Eles esto aprendendo como conseguir mais informaes. (verbo/infin.) This is a way of learning about management. = (aps preposies) Esta uma maneira de aprender sobre gerenciamento. (Adjetivo) This is part of the learning process. = (parte de um grupo nominal) Isto parte do processo de aprendizagem. (Substantivo) Learning is essencial to life. Aprendizagem essencial vida.

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EXERCCIOS Classifique em cada frase as palavras formadas por ING como: (substantivo, gerndio, adjetivo ou verbo infinitivo) a. They are learning Computer Science. __________________________. b. Teleprocessing is the use of a telecommunication system by a computer. __________________________. c. The calculating machine was invented many years ago. __________________________. d. The recording surface of a disk has concentric circles called tracks. __________________________. e. He works 10 hours without stopping. __________________________. f. The printer is printing documents. __________________________. g. I prefer typing to writing.

__________________________.
MARCADORES DE SUBSTANTIVOS Substantivo a palavra que designa pessoa, lugar, objeto, evento, substncia. possvel localiza-la no texto prestando ateno em certas palavras que acompanham substantivo. Emprega-se antes de substantivo: Artigos: a, an = um, uma the = o, a, os, as

Pronomes Possessivos adjetivos MY Your His Her Its Our Meu, minha, meus, minhas seu, sua, seus, suas dele (para pessoa) dela (para pessoa) dele, dela (para coisas ou animais nosso, nossa, nossos, nossas

Their deles, delas Emprega-se geralmente antes de substantivos:

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Numerais Cardinais: One, two, three, etc. Pronomes Demonstrativos: This este, esta, isto These That Those estes, estas esse, essa, isso, aquele, aquela, aquilo esses, essas, aqueles, aquelas

QUANTIDADES Many muitos, muitas (a) few much (a) little some any every poucos, poucas muito, muita pouco, pouca algum, alguns, alguma, algumas qualquer, quaisquer todo, toda, todos, todas, cada

a lot of

muito (a), muitos (as)

REFERNCIA CONTEXTUAL
A referncia contextual tambm representa um recurso auxiliar na compreenso das idias de um texto. As chamadas palavras de referncia substituem palavras que esto no texto (ou fora dele) e podem classificar-se da seguinte maneira: pronomes (pessoais, possessivos, demonstrativos, relativos e indefinidos); numerais ordinais; palavras que indicam ordem e exemplificao. Quando queremos nos referir a alguma coisa (ou idia) que j foi mencionada, ou ainda vai ser mencionada numa determinada sentena, geralmente utilizamos recursos lingsticos para no tornar a sentena repetitiva. Exemplos: The magazine which is on the desk is old. A revista que est sobre a mesa velha. Paul and Sue are good friends. They always help us. Paul and Sue so bons amigos. Eles sempre nos ajudam. John works in my office. We like him very much. John trabalha em meu escritrio. Ns gostamos muito dele. Pode-se observar que podemos nos referir a uma idia anterior ou posterior utilizando diferentes PRONOMES; John works in my office. We like him very much. John trabalha em meu escritrio. Ns gostamos muito dele.

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Pode-se observar que podemos nos referir a uma idia anterior ou posterior utilizando diferentes PRONOMES Object Pronouns Me You Him Her It Us You Them Possessive Adjectives My Mine Your Yours His His Her Hers Its Its Our Ours Your Yours Their Theirs Object Possessive

Subject Pronouns I You He She It We You They Subject I know Ann. You know Ann. He knows Ann. She knows Ann. We know Ann. They know Ann. Possessive Adjectives Its my money. Its your money. Its his money. Its her money. Its our money. Its their money. Exerccios

Ann knows me. Ann knows you. Ann knows him. Ann knows her. Ann knows us. Ann knows them. Possessive Pronouns Its mine. Its yours. Its his. Its hers. Its ours. Its theirs.

A) Finish the sentences with mine/yours/ours/theirs/hers/his: 1. Its your money. Its _______________ 5. Its their house. Its _______________ 2. Its my bag. Its ________________. 6. Theyre your books. Theyre ________. 3. Its our car. Its ________________. 7. Theyre my glasses. Theyre ________. 4. Theyre her shoes. Theyre ____________. 8. Its his coat. Its ______________. B) Classifique os pronomes grifados e indique as respectivas palavras a que eles se referem: 1. Most people are happy in their jobs. _________________________________________________________________________. 2) Mr. Baker lives in London. His son lives in Australia. _________________________________________________________________________. 3) Where are the tickets? I cant find them. _________________________________________________________________________. 4) We are going out. You can come with us. _________________________________________________________________________. 5) Margaret likes music. She plays the piano. _________________________________________________________________________. 6) Ann is going out with her friends tonight. _________________________________________________________________________. 7) I like tennis. It is my favorite sport. _________________________________________________________________________.

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8) I am talking to you. Please, listen to me. _________________________________________________________________________. PRONOMES RELATIVOS (Who / Which / That)

Who is for people (not things)

A Programmer is a person who writes programs. The man who phoned will call you later again. I know everybody who work in my company. Which is for things (not people)

This is the printer which you asked me. I dont have the CD-Rom which you need. Is this the new computer which you bought? That is for things or people:

I know everybody that work in my company. (You can use that for people, but who is more usual) This is the printer that you asked me. Portanto, temos:

(Para pessoas) Who He is the system analyst who/that prepares instructions. That (pessoa) (Para coisas) Which This is the manual which/that you need. That (coisa) EXERCCIOS 1. Complete com who ou which: a. I met a woman who can speak six languages. b. Whats the name of the man ________ lives next door? c. Whats the name of the river ________ flows through the town?

d. Where is the picture ________ was hanging on the wall? e. Do you know anybody _______ wants to buy a car? f. You always ask questions _______ are difficult to answer.

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g. I have a friend _________ is very good at repairing cars. h. I think everybody ________ went to the party enjoyed it a lot. 2. Volte ao texto Virtual Reality e retire 1 pronome relativo do 1 pargrafo, 1 pronome relativo do 2 pargrafo e 3 pronomes do 3 pargrafo, e indique as respectivas palavras a que eles se referem: 1 pargrafo: pronome: _____________ refere-se a: _______________ 2 pargrafo: pronome: _____________ refere-se a: _______________ 3 pargrafo: pronome _________ _________ _________ refere-se a _____________ _____________ _____________ THE POSSESSIVE CASE OF NOUNS Quando o substantivo/possuidor designa um ser vivo (pessoa ou animal, as expresses possessivas (caso possessivo ou genitivo) so formadas do seguinte modo: a) Acrescentando-se s ao substantivo/possuidor, quando ele estiver no singular. The body of the man. The mans body. (O corpo do homem) b) Acrescentando-se s tambm no caso em que o substantivo/possuidor estiver no plural mas no terminar em s. The family of the children. The childrens family. (A famlia das crianas) c) Acrescentando-se apenas um apstrofo ao substantivo/ possuidor, quando ele estiver no plural terminado em s. The school of the girls. The girls school. (A escola das garotas) Quando o substantivo/ possuidor designa um ser inanimado, no se usa a expresso com s mas sim a que feita com de (of) como em portugus: The door of the car, the trees of the garden, etc. No entanto, a expresso com s pode ser usada (assim com o of) quando o substantivo/ possuidor tiver um sentido nobre, caso principalmente dos nomes geogrficos, como a Terra, o Sol, o mar, nomes de pases, cidades, etc. f.e. The population of the world = The world population Complete as frases com a forma possessiva dos substantivos entre parnteses, conforme o modelo: Exemplo: Richard is the boss of John. Richard is Johns boss.

Geralmente usamos -s para pessoas: - Marys computer O computador da Mary.

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Marys personal computer O PC da Mary. Johns laser printer A impressora do John. The managers equipment O equipamento do gerente.

Friends or Friends :

A casa do meu amigo = My friends house. A casa dos meus amigos = My friends house. Portanto, temos: My mothers car My fathers car My car parents

Usamos of para coisas, lugares, etc.

The high technology of Brazil. Tecnologia de ponta do Brasil. Whats the name of this village? Qual o nome desta vila? Madrid is the Capital of Spain. Madrid a Capital da Espanha. The memory of the computer. (not the computers memory) Drill Faa a correo da sentena quando necessrio: 1. I stayed at the house of my sister. - my sister house 2. What is the name of this village? - Ok__________ 3. Do you like the color of this coat? - _____________________ 4. Do you know the phone number of Bill? - ________________________ 5. The job of my brother is very interesting. - _______________________ 6. Write your name at the top of the page. - _________________________ 7. When is the birthday of your mother? - _________________________ 8. The house of my parents isnt very big. - ________________________ 9. The walls of this house are very thin. - __________________________ 10. The manager of the hotel is on holiday. - _______________________ 11.The laptop of my sister. ______________________________________. 12. The computer of my secretary. ______________________________________. 13. The printer of my boss. ______________________________________. Whats an Algorithm? An algorithm is a sequence of instructions that tells how to solve a particular problem. Once the problem has been identified, the next step is to select the best method for solving it. If the problem is a familiar one, standardized algorithms may be available from program libraries. But if standard algorithms are not available or suitable, a new algorithm must be written and then added to the program library. An algorithm must be specified exactly, so there can be no doubt about what to do next, and it must have a finite number of steps. A computer program is an algorithm that is written in a language that a computer can understand, but the same algorithm could be written in several different languages. Observe a sentena: Once the problem has been identified, the next step is to select the best method for solving it.

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1)

A classificao da palavra solving : a) b) c) d) substantivo (soluo) gerndio (resolvendo) particpio (resolvido) verbo/infinitivo (resolver)

2)

O pronome it (ltima palavra) refere-se a: a) b) c) d) problem identified select method

GRAMMAR FOCUS
Para ler e entender um texto escrito necessrio que voc seja capaz de reconhecer os tempos verbais ingleses, que so muito mais simples que os portugueses. Iremos relembrar alguns tempos verbais: Preste ateno nas seguintes frases: The hardware consists of several units. The computer performs billions of operations and.... What does the computer do with the results?

SIMPLE PRESENT

Expresses mais comuns no simple present: every day, every week, every month, every year, advrbios de frequncia como: usually, generally, sometimes, hardly, ever, etc, so frequentemente usados neste tempo. As trs frases acima esto no presente simples, que conjugado diferentemente da nossa lngua materna que o portugus, que ao contrrio da lngua inglesa os verbos so conjugados em formas a saber: afirmativa, interrogativa e negativa. Forma afirmativa leva s nas 3as. Pessoas do singular he , she , it. (AS OUTRAS PESSOAS SO IGUAIS NADA ACRECENTA) Exemplo: The computer performs billions of operations...... (The computer est no lugar do pronome pessoal It)

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Excees: a) -Verbos terminados por s, sh, ch, x, z, o, levam es nas 3as. Pessoas do singular he, she, it. Exemplo: She guesses my name. He brushes his teeth every meal. He touches me with love. She fixes all of her electronic radios. It buzzes in my ear all the time. He goes with me. Verbos terminados por Y precedido de consoantes, troca o y por ies. Exemplo: to fly - He flies over Manaus every day. To cry She cries every night. Porm, se o verbo terminar por y e for precedido de vogal, apenas acrescentamos o s. Exemplo: to pay -He pays all my bill every month. Interrogativa e Negativa: Usamos do para todas as pessoas, exceto para He She it , que usamos Does. Exemplo. Do you go to shopping? No, I dont. or No,I dont go. (ou do not) Does he fly over Manaus? No he doesnt. No, he doesnt fly over Manaus. What does the computer accept as input? Note: It is important to notice that when does or doesnt is used, the principal verb loses its variation in the third singular person. SIMPLE PAST

O simple past usado para expressar eventos e situaes que ocorreram no passado e que no tem nenhuma relevncia para o momento presente. H dois tipos de passado na lngua inglesa, dos verbos regulares e dos verbos irregulares. Estes tempos verbais so a base da conjugao de alguns tempos verbais em ingls, pois a partir deles, todos os outros tempos verbais podem ser formados. Por isso, dominar os verbos regulares e Irregulares essencial para o desenvolvimento da habilidade de leitura.

Regular verbs So aqueles que formam o SIMPLE PAST e o PAST PARTICIPLE acrescentando o sufixo ed. Ex.: to work worked worked

Se o verbo j terminar em e, acrescenta-se somente o d. Ex.: to dance danced danced Se ele terminar em consoante precedida por uma vogal e uma consoante, dobra-se a consoante final e acrescenta-se ed. Ex.: to clip clipped clipped se ele terminar em y precedido de consoante, troca-se o y por i e acrescenta-se ed. Ex.: to study studied studied

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LIST OF IRREGULAR VERBS

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EXERCISES
01. Complete com o tempo verbal adequado as frases abaixo: a) Francis ________________ home yesterday.(to leave) b) I ________________ to Guaruj last week. (to go) c) She ________________ that house a year ago.(to buy) d) Mark ________________ to you last month.(to write) 02. The Brazilian football team _______________ to Venezuela last week. a) flew b) fly c) flown d) flying e) have flown 03. I wish tomorrow ________________ Easter. a) has been b) is c) were d) be e) wil be 04. I ____________ what he ____________ but I could not understand it. a) hear / said b) heard / says c) hear / say d) heard / said e) hearing /saying 05. Now I realize that I acted as if I ________________ a child. a) was b) be c) were d) is e) am 06. The little boy ______ the picture of a garden at school last Monday. a) draw b) draws c) drawn d) drew e) drawing 07. My mother is not very patient. I wish she _____________ our problems. a) understood b) understands c) will understand d) can understand e) may understand

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08. Yesterday, while he _______ down the street, he _______ an old friend of his. a) has walked / met b) walked / had met c) was walking / met d) walked / was meeting e) walks / met 09. I wish I _______ more money: I would buy a new flat. a) earn b) earned c) earns d) to earn e) am earning 10. The British Ambassador to Paris _______ his first public speech. a) makes b) make c) is making d) made e) to make

OUTPUTTING DATA

The output of a computer is the information that the computer generates as a result of its calculations. Computer output may be tinted on paper, displayed on a terminal or stored on magnetic disks. One-way of generating good quality printed output is to use a converted electric typewriter. Sometimes systems using this will allow the keyboard to be used to enter information as well. The well-known types of printers are: line printer, daisywheel printer, dot-matrix printer, electrostatic printer, laser printer and others. A computer terminal is an input-output device whereby a user is able to communicate directly with a computer. 'A terminal must have a keyboard, so that the user can type in instructions and input data, and a means of displaying output, such as a CRT (television) screen. Today, personal computers are often used as terminals on larger computers. In the 1960s, punched cards were the dominant way of feeding programs into computers. As interactive terminals became more readily available, punched cards became less popular. A punched card was a card on which holes were punched according to a particular pattern that could be read by a computer. The holes were usually punched on the cards by a keypunch machine, which had a keyboard like a typewriter. The computer read the cards when they were passed through a card reader, which sent the signals to the computer, where they were translated into machine instructions. 1. Answer these questions according to the text. a. How did a computer read the cards? b. How is it possible to generate good quality printed output?

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c. Why must a terminal have a keyboard? d. What is the output of a computer? e. Are punched cards still popular nowadays? When were they? 2. The output may be: a. ___________________ on a terminal or _______________ on disks. 3. Write yes or not a. ( b. ( c. ( d. ( e. ( ) Through a terminal, the user can communicate directly with a computer ) Keyboards may be used to input information as well. )Compute output may be only displayed on a terminal. ) There were machines to punch holes on cards. ) We cant use a personal computer as a terminal.

4. Say which words in the text the following words in bold type refer to a. Its calculations b. Using this c. On which holes d. They were passed e. Which had a keyboard f. They were translated

5. Find in the text the cognates words and repeated words.

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LINKING WORDS
Agora focalizaremos os elementos utilizados dentro do texto para ligar ideias, criando, assim, uma linguagem fluente dentro de um texto gil. As palavras que aparecem dentro de um texto, organizando a sua estrutura, ligando as ideias e estabelecendo aquela adequao interna qual nos referimos na unidade anterior so chamadas de linking words (conectivos) ou (semantic markers). Esses elementos de ligao funcionam, do mesmo modo que as placas de sinalizao nas estradas: vo mostrando como as ideais esto se organizando dentro do texto, as marchas e contramarchas, os acidentes de percurso, etc. Aprender a identificar e usar as linking words parte importante do processo de compreenso das ideais contidas em um texto escrito. Leia os textos e complete com as linking words sugeridas abaixo: If but moreover as if besides although then or and that is why

a) _____________ the U.s. is entering into a new era, as you suggest, _______ perhaps the rest of the world can also look forward to a better future. b) The solution to the trade deficit with Japan is not to pressure the Japanese to work less an play more_________ spend less. c) This is a practical, convenient arrangement, particularly ____________ you

reside outside of Switzerland. d) His love affair with the camera may have developed gradually __________ in a flash. a) Most illegal immigrants live along the margins of society, working cheaply, anonymously and without complaint so as to avoid detection by authorities _________ they have become part of the texture of American life, they have remained anxious fugitives. b) Advertisers must believe in the integrity of circulation information. _______ c) we subject our circulation records to independent verification by the Audit.

Plural dos Substantivos - Plural of Nouns


REGRA GERAL:
semelhana do Portugus, a maioria dos substantivos tem seu plural formado a partir do acrscimo de "s" ao seu singular: book - books (livros) cat - cats (gatos) computer - computers (computadores) cup - cups (xcaras) garden - gardens (jardins) sweatshirt - sweatshirts (bluses de moletom) table - tables (mesas) week - weeks (semanas) A seguir, apresentamos uma relao de casos especiais de formao do plural em Ingls:

1. Substantivos que terminam em ch, s, ss, sh, x, z e a maioria dos substantivos que terminam em o:
acrescenta-se es no final. Exemplos: one dress - a rack of dresses (uma estante de roupas) one buzz - many buzzes of many bees (muitos zunidos de muitas abelhas) 1.1. -ch: church - churches (igrejas) match - matches (fsforos) watch - watches (relgios)

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Excees: Substantivos que terminam em ch com som de /K/: acrescenta-se apenas s conch - conchs (conchas) monarch - monarchs (monarcas) patriarch - patriarchs (patriarcas) stomach - stomachs (estmagos) 1.2. -s: bus - buses (nibus) 1.3. -ss: class - classes (aulas) glass - glasses (copos) kiss - kisses (beijos) 1.4. -sh: brush -brushes (escovas) crash - crashes (colises) flash - flashes (lampejos) wish - wishes (desejos) 1.5. -x: box - boxes (caixas) fox - foxes (raposas) 1.6. -z: topaz - topazes (topzios) Exceo: A maioria dos substantivos terminados em somente um z, no entanto, tem plural em -zzes. Exemplo: quiz - quizzes 1.7. -o: echo - echoes (ecos) superhero - superheroes (super-heris) potato - potatoes (batatas) tomato - tomatoes (tomates) Excees: Nas formas reduzidas e nos vocbulos de origem estrangeira terminados em o, porm, acresecenta-se apenas s: avocado - avocados (abacates) cello - cellos (violoncelos) commando - commandos (comandos) dynamo - dynamos (dnamos) Eskimo - Eskimos (Esquims) ghetto - ghettos (guetos) kilo - kilos (quilos) libretto - librettos (libretos) logo - logos (logotipos) magneto - magnetos (magnetos) photo - photos (fotos) piano - pianos portfolio - portfolios radio - radios (rdios) solo - solos (solos) soprano - sopranos (sopranos) studio - studios (estdios) tango - tangos (tangos) video - videos (vdeos) virtuoso - virtuosos (virtuosos) - As palavras a seguir podem ter o plural em -s ou -es; -es mais comum: buffalo tornado buffalo(e)s (bfalo) tornado(e)s

2. Substantivos que terminam em vogal + y: acrescenta-se somente -s no final. Exemplos:


boy - boys (meninos) day - days (dias) donkey - donkeys (burros)

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essay - essays (ensaios) guy - guys (caras, sujeitos, rapazes) key - keys (chaves) monkey - monkeys (macacos) play - plays (peas) toy - toys (brinquedos)

3. Substantivos que terminam em consoante + y: retira-se o y e acrescenta-se -ies. Observe:


Family - families

4. Substantivos que terminam em -oo: acrescenta-se somente -s no final. Exemplos:


cuckoo - cuckoos (cucos) bamboo - bamboos (bambus) zoo - zoos (jardins zoolgicos)

5. Plural irregular com troca de vogais: alguns substantivos no seguem a regra geral e tm uma
forma prpria de plural, que chamamos de plural irregular. As formas irregulares do plural apresentam diversas formaes. A mais comum delas a troca de vogais. Veja os exemplos: man - men (homens) woman - women (mulheres) gentleman - gentlemen (cavalheiros) child - children (crianas)* ox - oxen (bois) person - people (pessoas) tooth - teeth (dentes) foot - feet (ps) goose - geese (gansos) mouse - mice (camundongos) louse - lice (piolhos) die - dice (dados) * Children e child, alm de crianas/criana, significam filhos/filho, de ambos os sexos e de qualquer idade. Exs.: How many children do you have? (Quantos filhos vocs tem?)

6. Plural Irregular terminado em -ves: em treze dos substantivos que terminam em -f ou -fe trocam-se
essas letras por -ves: calf - calves (bezerros) elf - elves (elfos, duendes) half - halves (metades) leaf - leaves (folhas) life - lives (vidas) knife - knives (facas) loaf - loaves (pes de forma) self - selves (egos) sheaf - sheaves (feixes) shelf - shelves (prateleiras) thief - thieves (ladres) wife - wives (esposas) wolf - wolves (lobos) - Alguns substantivos terminados em -f ou -fe podem seguir a regra geral (acrscimo de -s ao final da forma singular) ou trocar o -f/-fe por -ves: scarf - scarfs/scarves (cachecis) dwarf - dwarfs/dwarves (anes) hoof - hoofs/hooves (cascos) wharf - wharfs/wharves (cais) staff - staffs/staves (equipes, quadros de funcionrios, departamentos) Observao: as formas scarves, hooves e wharves so mais utilizadas. - Os demais substantivos terminados em -f ou -fe seguem a regra geral de acrscimo do -s:

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belief - beliefs (crenas) brief - briefs (sumrios, resumos) cliff - cliffs (penhascos) chief - chiefs (chefes) cuff - cuffs (punhos de camisa) grief - griefs (dores, sofrimentos) handkerchief - handkerchiefs (lenos) roof - roofs (telhados) gulf - gulfs (golfos) safe - safes (cofres) proof - proofs (provas) cuff - cuffs (punhos de manga, bainhas) reef - reefs (recifes)

7. Substantivos que tm a mesma forma tanto no singular quanto no plural:


7.1. aircraft - aeronave(s) deer - veado(s) elk - alce(s) Fish peixe (s) grouse - galinha(s) silvestre(s) salmon - salmo(es) sheep - carneiro(s) shrimp - camaro(es) trout - truta(s) *admite tambm o plural fishes (raro). 7.2. Alguns substantivos terminados em -s tambm tm a mesma forma tanto para o singular quanto para o plural. Nesses casos, o verbo correspondente tambm vai para para o plural. These stairs are too steep. (Essas escadas so muito ngremes.) Good clothes usually are expensive. (Roupas boas geralmente so caras.) alms - esmola(s), donativo(s), caridade(s) barracks - quartel(is) clothes - roupa(s) credentials - credencial(is) crossroads* - cruzamento(s) (de ruas, de estradas) , encruzilhada(s), ponto(s) crucial(is) headquarters* - quartel(is)-general(is), centro(s) de operaes works - fbrica(s) means - meios(s) oats - aveia(s) outskirts - margem(ns) da cidade, cercanias riches - bens, riquezas(s) Swiss - suio(s) series - srie(s) species - espcie(s) stairs - escada(s) surrondings - arredor(es) thanks - agradecimento(s) * Crossroads e headquarters tambm podem ter a forma no singular sem o "s": crossroad e headquarter. 7.3. As Parelhas: as "parelhas" (tambm chamadas pluralia tantrum) so substantivos que designam coisas quem tm duas partes iguais, "um par de" (exemplos: culos). Essas palavras s existem no plural, no possuem forma singular. Seus equivalentes em Portugus apresentam-se no singular: These jeans were expensive. - E no "This jeans was..." (Este jeans foi caro.) - Note que a palavra jeans em portugus fica no singular. I'm looking for some violet jeans. - E no "...a violet jeans" (Eu procuro um jeans violeta) Where are my glasses? - E no "Where is my glasses?" (Onde esto meus culos?) - Neste caso em portugus "culos" tambm tem sua forma no plural.

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- Para expressar o singular dessas palavras, pode-se usar "a pair of": Have you got a pair of nail-scissors? (Vocs tem uma tesoura de unha?) binoculars - binculo(s) belongins - pertences drawers - ceroulas glasses / eyeglasses / spectacles - culos headphones - fone(s) de ouvido jeans - jeans knickers - calcinha(s) outskirts - margem(s) da cidade scales - balana(s) scissors - tesoura(s) shorts - shorts slack / pants / trousers - cala(s) pliers - alicate(s) pyjamas / pajamas - pijama(s) tights - meia(s)-cala(s) underpants - cuecas 7.4. Substantivos Incontveis: s existem na forma singular; e, ainda que o sentido seja plural, o verbo com o qual concordam tambm fica sempre no singular. Veja alguns exemplos que podem causar equvocos: There isn't any work. - E no "There aren't any works". (No h trabalho algum) The news is good: I've just graduated! - E no "The news are good." (As notcias so boas: eu me formei recentemente!) advice - conselho(s) air - ar(es) clothing - roupa(s) coffee - caf(s) equipment - equipamento(s) evidence - evidncia(s), prova(s) furniture - moblia(s) homework - tema(s) de casa housework - trabalho(s) domsticos information - informao(es) jewerly - jias knowledge - conhecimento(s) luggage/baggage - bagagem(ns) milk - leite(s) money - dinheiro music - msica(s) news - notcia(s) progress - progresso(s) snow - neve water - gua weather - tempo meteoreolgico work - trabalho(s) 7.5. "Falsos Plurais": A maioria dos nomes de cincias e outros substantivos terminados em -ics so singulares, isto , no apresentam formas distintas quando no plural. O verbo correspondente fica no singular: Politics is a complicated business which most people detest. (Poltica um negcio complicado o qual a maioria das pessoas detesta.) Acoustics (Acstica) Athletics (Atletismo) Electronics (Eletrnica) Genetics (Gentica) Linguistics (Lingustica) Mathematics (Matemtica) Physics (Fsica) Politics (Poltica) Statistics (Estatstica)

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- No entanto, quando essas palavras so usadas com outros sentidos, o verbo poder ir para o plural: What are your politics? (Quais so suas polticas?) The unemployment statistics are disturbing (As estatsticas de desemprego so perturbadoras.)

8. Substantivos sem forma no singular: esses substantivos s existem no plural. Referem-se a um


grupo de pessoas, um coletivo; logo, o verbo com o qual concordam tambm vai ficar sempre no plural. cattle - gado(s) police - polcia(s) people* - pessoa(s), gente Cattle (gado), por exemplo, o substantivo no plural para designar o grupo de bulls (touros), cows (vacas) e calves (bezzeros). Ele no possui forma singular, e no pode ser usado para contar animais individualmente (no se pode dizer, por exemplo, three cattle). Many cattle are suffering from a disease called BSE (Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy), commonly known as Mad-Cow Disease (MCD). [Muitos bovinos sofrem de uma doena chamada BSE (encefalopatia espongiforme bovina), comumente conhecida como doena da vaca louca.] The police are looking for the robbers. - E no "The police is looking..." (A polcia est procurando os assaltantes.) The police were working on the case. - E no "The police was working..." (A polcia estava trabalhando no caso.)

* Ateno para a palavra people, que pode significar tanto povo, no sentido demogrfico, como tambm pode significar gente, pessoas: O plural de people no sentido de povo formado pelo acrscimo de -s: The brazilian people enjoys carnival. (O povo brasileiro curte carnaval.) - Como a palavra people aqui est no singular, o verbo correspondente no presente vai concordar como ela, sendo acrescentado de -s. Some african peoples have strange customs and beliefs for us. (Alguns povos africanos tm costumes e crenas estranhos para ns.) - Porm, aqui, o verbo est fazendo a concordncia com o plural peoples. - J people no sentido de pessoas, gente considerado um substantivo no plural (embora nunca com -s). Portanto, o verbo vai ficar sempre no plural: Who are those people waiting outside? (Quem so aquelas pessoas esperando l fora?) Certain people think they are so important! (Certas pessoas se acham to importantes!)

9. Substantivos de origem grega ou latina: (muito presentes principalmente na linguagem cientfica no


Ingls) mantm seus plurais originais: G = palavras gregas L = palavras latinas alga - algae (L) (algas) alumnus - alumni (L) (ex-alunos, alunos graduados) analysis - analyses (L) (anlises) appendix - appendices (L) (apndices) axis - axes (L) (eixos) bacillus - bacilli (L) (bacilos) bacterium - bacteria (L) (bactrias) basis - bases (G) (bases) cactus - cacti (L) ou cactuses (menos comum) (cactos) corpus - corpora (L) (corpora) crisis - crises (G) (crises) criterion - criteria (G) (critrios) datum - data (L) (dados) diagnosis - diagnoses (G) (diagnsticos) encyclopedia - encyclopedae (L) (enciclopdias)

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erratum - errata (L) (erratas) formula - formulae (L) ou formulas (frmulas) fungus - fungi (L) ou funguses (fungos) hippopotamus - hippopotami (G) ou hippopotamuses (hipoptamos) hypothesis - hipotheses (G) (hipteses) index - indices (L) ou indexes (ndices) matrix - matrices (L) (matrizes) medium - media* (L) (meios de comunicao) nucleus - nuclei (L) (ncleos) oasis - oases (G) (osis) phenomenon - phenomena (G) (fenmenos) radius - (L) radii (raios) stimulus - stimuli (L) (estmulos) stratum - strata (L) (estratos) vertebra - vertebrae (L) (vrtebras) Note, ento, que podemos tirar uma regrinha geral dessas pluralizaes: palavras terminadas em us -> troca para i ou ora palavras terminadas em is -> troca para es palavras terminadas em ix -> troca para ces palavras terminadas em um -> troca para a palavras terminadas em on -> troca para a palavras terminadas em a-> troca para ae palavras terminadas em ex -> troca para ices - H, porm, uma tendncia em pluralizar palavras de origem estrangeira tambm como o plural do ingls, como os casos vistos acima de formulas, funguses, indexes, hippopotamuses e cactuses: dogma - dogmas (dogmas) bureau - bureaus (escritrios comerciais, agncias) stadium - stadiums (estdios) terminus - terminuses (trminos) memorandum - memorandums (memorandos)

10. Plural dos Substantivos compostos:


10.1. Em substantivos compostos com preposio ou advrbio pluralizamos o seu componente principal (geralmente a primeira palavra): brother-in-law - brothers-in-law (cunhados) errand-boy - errand-boys (mensageiros) godfather - godfathers (padrinhos) maidservant - maidservants (criadas) mother-in-law - mothers-in-law (sogras) passer-by - passers-by (transeuntes) runner-up - runners-up (vice-campees) stepdaughter - stepdaughters (enteadas) 10.2. Em substantivos compostos que incluem as palavras man e woman, as duas palavras devem ir para o plural: woman doctor - women doctors (mdicas) manservant - menservants (criados) Excees: A palavra "police", como vimos no item 8, possui a mesma forma para o singular e para o plural, logo o que mudar ser apenas: policeman - policemen (os policiais) / policewoman policewomen (as policiais) Observao: Plural de nacionalidades: Englishman - Englishmen (homens ingleses) Frenchman - Frenchmen (homens franceses) Mas: Brazilian - Brazilians (brasileiros/brasileiras) German - Germans (alemes/alems) Roman - Romans (romanos/ romanas)

11. Plural em indicaes de quantidade atravs de nmeros, medidas, dinheiro:


11.1. Medidas e dinheiro seguem a regra geral do plural - acrescenta-se somente -s: ten kilometres (dez quilmetros)

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six litres (seis litros) two pounds/ dollars (duas libras/dlares) O verbo fica no singular quando se refere a uma soma, uma quantidade ou uma distncia: Thousand dollars is a lot of money. - E no "1000 dollars are..." (Mil dlares muito dinheiro.) Three kilometres isn't far. - E no "Three kilometres aren't far" (Trs quilmetros no uma longa distncia.) Seventy years is a long time. - E no "Seventy years are..." (Setenta anos muito tempo.) 11.2. Substantivo com nmero + hfen: quando um substantivo com nmero + hfen encontrar-se antes de outro substantivo, formando uma expresso com funo adjetiva que modifica esse substantivo, o plural fica sem o -s, j que no ingls os adjetivos so invariveis. an 18-hour day (uma jornada de 18 horas) a five-star hotel (um hotel cinco estrelas) 11.3. Numerais dozen, hundred, thousand e million: permanecem sem o -s aps outro numeral. 6 million people - E no "6 millions..." 200,000 - two hundred Thousand

EXERCISES
Assinale a alternativa que contm o plural correto dos seguintes substantivos: monkey - appendix story - shrimp - tomato proof a) monkeys - appendixes - stories - shrimps - tomatos - prooves b) monkies - appendices - storys - shrimp - tomatoes - proofes c) monkeys - appendixies - stories - shrimps - tomatoes - proofs d) monkeys - appendices - stories - shrimp - tomatoes - proofs e) monkies - appendixes - storys - shrimps - tomatos - prooves There are my _____ toys. a) children b) children's c) child's d) of children e) B e C so corretas. O possessivo, usado como em "Woody Allen's Sweet and Lowdown", est corretp em todas as alternativas abaixo, exceto em: a) There was a two hours's delay at the airport in London. b) Maggie and Millie's eyebrows are so thin that you can hardly see them. c) Anthony Burgess's A Clockwork Orange is a milestone in modern literature. d) In our last holiday we had to cope with our young realatives' weird ideas. e) Elizabeth I's interest on sea voyages brought development to England. (ITA) A alternativa que corretamente preenche as lacunas I, II e III de 1) No news ..I.. good news; 2) The Brazilian people ..II.. very friendly; 3) Your cattle ..III.. there; : a) I - is / II - are / III - are b) I - are / II - is / III - is c) I - are / II - is / III - are d) I - are / II - are / III - are e) I - is / II - is / III - is Assinale a alternativa em que todos os substantivos existem somente na forma plural (sem forma no singular): a) knives - pencils - jeans - glasses b) police - knives - jeans - pyjamas c) jeans - holidays - vacation - clocks d) pyjamas - police - jeans - people e) pencils - glasses - clothes - children

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QUESTES DE VESTIBULAR
(F.G.V-SP) ''I'm bound to be rich." (John D. Rockefeller) De acordo com a frase: a) Eu estou preso a minha riqueza. b) Triste sina ser rico. e) No diria que sou rico. d) Estou fadado a ser rico. e) Rico no anda de bonde. (F.G.V-SP) "I like work: it fascinates me. I can sit and look at it for hours. I love to keep it by me: the idea of getting rid of it nearly breaks my heart." (Jerome K. Jerome) De acordo com o texto: a) Minha amada me fascina. b) As horas que passo ao lado de minha amada so fascinantes - so horas de pouco silencio e muita incompreenso. c) Minha amada me d muito trabalho. d) Tal o fascnio de minha amada que passo horas embevecido olhando-a. e) A ideia de separar-me do trabalho quase despedaa meu corao.

(F.G.V.-SP) "On the Solomon Islands, beginning with his marriage a man must neither see nor speak with his mother-in-law. He should act as if he did not know her and run away as he can in order to hide himself." (5. Freud) De acordo com o texto: a) On the Solomon Islands a man cannot marry his mother-in- law and thereby become the step-father of his wife. b) Should you happen to meet your mother-in-law bite her before she bites you. c) Mothers-in-law are usually put to death on the Solomon Islands. d) On the Solomon Islands a man should not speak with his mother-in-law. e) The natives of the Solomon Islands are very wise in the way they treat their mothers-in-law. TEXT Environment is the whole complex of climatic, edaphic, and biotic conditions. It has influence on an organism or an ecological community and ultimately determines its form and survival. Ecology studies the biosphere. It encompasses the study of the ecosystem where all plants (flora), animals (fauna) and people live together in a natural area (habitat). It alsodeals with the interrelationship among species. Adapted from Webster's Third New international Dictionary, G. Et C. Merriam Springfield, Massachusetts. 1971 page 960 . whole - entire; total edaphic - related to particular soil conditions ultimately - finally to encompass - to include; to comprehend to deal with - to treat; to handle O meio ambiente: a) estuda o relevo, o clima, o solo e as condies biolgicas. b) influenciado pela ecologia . c) determina a influncia dos organismos e suas condies de Vida na ecologia. d) abrange complexos climticos que determinam formas de sobrevivncia ecolgica. e) O conjunto de fatores climticos, biolgicos e geogrficos.

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O ecossistema: a) faz parte da flora e da fauna b) Est compreendido na ecologia. c) um habitat natural. d) uma rea da biosfera em que a ecologia atua. e) faz a interligao das espcies atravs da biodiversidade.

Pollution There are countless causes and kinds of pollution. Some pollutants undergo chemical change in the air. Sulfur dioxide (SO2 ) is oxidized (SO3 ) and then hydrolyzed (H20) to fall as dilute sulfuric acid (H2So4), forming the acid rain. The excessive presence of gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2 ) in the earth's atmosphere traps solar radiation that lets the sunlight pass through but absorbs heat radiated back from the earth, raising the balance temperature on the surface of the planet. This is called greenhouse effect. Adapted from Earth and Man, Rand McNally and Company, Ny. 1978, page 135 countless - innumerable kind - type; sort to undergo - to experience; to be subjected balance - equilibrium to trap - to retain; to catch to raise - to increase The acid contained in the acid rain is: a) S03 b) S02 c) CO2 d) H 2S04 e) H202SO3 The greenhouse effect... a) retains heat from the sunlight and carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. b) radiates Co2 on the earth's atmosphere. c) provokes the elevation of the temperature on the earth's surface. d) is a process in which solar radiation is trapped on the planet's temperature. e) absorbs gases such as Co2 from the atmosphere of the earth.
TEXT

Agoraphobia is an irrational fear of open places. It is much more common in women. When the victim goes out into the open there is a terrifying of panic, racing heart, sweating and trembling. In variants of agoraphobia the sufferer may fear only a particular type of open space - for example, a park or even a supermarket with a high roof Agoraphobics often have other phobias too, such as fear of cats, insects, or of talking to other people. As vitimas da agorafobia no apresentam o seguinte sintoma: a) pnico b) dor c) suor d) tremor e) palpitaes Todas as alternativas abaixo identificam medos tpicos de agorafobia relatados no texto, exceto medo de: a) altura b) insetos c) gatos d) recintos com telhado alto e) conversar com outras pessoas

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I - As pessoas agorafbicas geralmente possuem outras fobias. II - Qualquer tipo de lugar aberto causa agorafobia. III- Taquicardia e um dos sintomas da agorafobia. Com relao s afirmaes acima, podemos dizer que: a) todas esto erradas b) somente a III est certa c) todas esto certas d) somente a I esta certa e) a I e a III esto certas. "Why don't we go to the cinema this evening?" asked Tom eagerly. His sister Ruth was sitting working at the table. "Not tonight", she replied. "I must finish copying these notes". She looked up from her work and saw the expression of disappointment on Tom's face. "Oh, all right!" she said. "I suppose the work can wait". De acordo com o texto: a) Tom estava jantando enquanto sua irm estava estudando. b) Tom falou para sua irm acabar seu trabalho c) Tomdecidiu largar seu trabalho para ir ao cinema d) Ruth pediu para seu irmo esper-la terminar seu trabalho antes de ir ao cinema. e) Ruth estava irritada porque Tom estava atrasado para o cinema. TEXT (Unijul-RS) Muscles? In 7 Days Dynamic Tension starts giving results you can feel and your friends will notice. Big, useful muscles. Gain weight, if needed. Lose "potbelly". Send name and address for information. Charles Atlas, P.O. Box 10159. NYC. NY. O texto acima provavelmente uma propaganda de: a) Um remdio para curar calvcie b) Um produto para emagrecer. c) Um produto para aliviar tenses. d) Um aparelho para musculao e) Uma oferta de sete dias de um spa. TOMORROW'S WORLD (Adapted by Amadeu Marques) Man will have conquered the moon before the baby born yesterday celebrates his second birthday. When he is his teens, the first men will be exploring or perhaps will have explored Mars. By the year 2001 man will have reached Mercury and even the moons of Jupiter. Astronauts on permanent platforms will be orbiting planets for observation purposes. What is perhaps more important is the results that the investigation of the solar system will bring to the common man. Communications satellites are the key. Twenty years from now, scientists will have launched the ultimate satellite. It will have ten million voice channels: today's satellites have only 1,200 voice circuits. A network of satellites will be traveling around the globe. Everybody will be using them to talk to somebody else. When yesterday's baby is an ambitious young executive in his twenties, scientists will have built the ultimate satellite. This will mean that he won't have to leave home to go to the office: the office will be the telephone at his elbow. One attachment to his telephone will allow him to call up a computer anywhere in the world and give instructions to it. Thanks to another attachment, linking TV to the telephone, he will have face-to-face contact with the people he calls. That will be the end of all distance barriers to sound and vision alike. If he wants to live at the seaside or in the country, he can do so. He will be working less and enjoying himself more. There will be less pollution and fewer traffic problems. It may even mean the end of our overcrowded cities, with people rushing in and out like ants morning and night. Is this fantasy? I do not know; but I suspect that truths of the future will be strange still. These sentences contain important words from "Tomorrow's World': Choose the words that correctly complete each sentence. The Rio-Niteri Bridge _______ those two cities. a) in his teens b) launches c) suspects d) reduces e) links

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His _______ goal in life is to become a scientist. a) daily b) ultimate c) crowded d) overcrowded e) stranger They do not ______ dogs in a church. a) predict b) reach c)conquer d) rush e) allow The joint between the two parts of the arm is called the ______ a) foot b)elbow c) voice d) birth e) mirror He was born twenty-three years ago. He is now a) in his teens b)his twenties b) long ago d) alike If I say the telephone is at my elbow I mean it is a) in and out b) near c) around d) greatly He was reading about the ___________ of Alexander the Great. a) conquests b) purposes c) predictions d) interviews Two weeks_________I'll be celebrating my birthday. a) from now b) less c) fewer d) still e) soon after A _____ of satellites will be in space in the twenty-first century. a) seaside b) network c) development d) attachment If I say they work like ________ I mean they work very hard. a) moons b) keys c) fonts d) offices e) results Refer to the text and mark the alternative that makes each statement true. In 1968 Arthur Clarke predicted a) that the moon would have been conquered by 1970 b) that man would conquer the moon before the birth of his son. c) the conquest of the moon by a two-year-old baby. d) that man would conquer the moon of celebrate a baby's birthday. e) that the conquest of the moon would take two years.

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Arthur Clarke believes that a) Mercury and Jupiter will be reached before Mars. b) Mars will have been explored before the end of this century. c) astronauts will travel from Mercury to the Moon and then to Jupiter. d) we will have to observe the astronauts on their permanent platforms. e) space investigation will have little effect on our lives on Earth. In his interview with the Daily Mirror in 1968 Arthur Clarke said that the ultimate satellite would be launched into Space a) twenty years from now. b) in the year 2001. c) before 1990. d) soon after the conquest of the moon. e) before the conquest of the moon. The ultimate communications satellite a) will have 1,200 voice channels. b) is the key to the investigation of the solar system. c) will be built by the common man. d) will be launched in the twenty-first century. e) will greatly reduce the barriers of distance. In the future a) nobody will leave home to go to the office. b) there will be a computer in every house, c) television-telephone services will be no fantasy. d) individuals will be totally controlled by a computer network. e) telephones will always be at your elbow As a result of the development in communications a) everybody will want to live at the side. b) people will have nothing to do. c) ants will rush in and out of our overcrowded cities. d) our lives can be greatly changed. e) people will spend less of their time watching.

SUNPOWER The fact that the energy of the sun can be converted into heat is obvious when you see how a magnifying glass can set fire to a sheet of paper. More than 2000 years ago, Archimedes, the great Mathematician and inventor, exploited that principle in such a spectacular way that many people refuse to believe that story. It was during the Second Punic War* and Syracuse was still being attacked by Roman ships. Archimedes, whose engines of war played such an important part in the defense of Syracuse, then thought of something else: he lined up** a thousand soldiers and used their shields of highly polished bronze to reflect the rays of the sun on to the sails of the attacking ships, one after the other. The shields were so polished and the sun's rays were so strong that the sails - and the ships - suddenly began to burn, and Syracuse was no longer in danger, at least temporarily. In modern times, sunpower is not used as a weapon any longer, but it is still used for peaceful purposes. In the United States and elsewhere there are now a number of devices that focus and concentrate the sun's rays to produce heat. Such devices produce temperatures hig enough to cook food or heat water in areas where there is not enough fuel. {Adapted from "Sunpower! C. P. Gilmore, in Saturday Review) * The Punic Wars: the wars between Rome and Cartage. ** To line up: to be in a line; to put into a line.

These sentences contain important words from "Sunpower! Choose the words that correctly complete each sentence.

A __________ is a defensive weapon. a) ship b) sail c) war d) shield e) heat

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Coffee still____________an important part of the economy of Brazil. a) plays b) refuses c) reflects d) converts e) believes Oil is an important kind of _____________ . a) reason b) sunpower c) food d) ray e) fuel

He used a match to ________ the paper. a) set fire to b) book c) heat d) line up e) focus A sheet of paper _______ easily. a) saves b) burns c) exploits d) began e) thought

Those Indians do not want war. They are ________ . a) cloudy b) attacking c) strong d) polished e) peaceful

CANADIAN STYLE OF LIFE I was sitting at a busy New York caf a few months ago,when young woman approached my table. "Excuse me," she said. "I hate to be so bold, but could I possibly ask you what you're eating - if you don't mind my asking."In a flash, I knew - she was a Canadian! - and I told her so. "Gee", she said. "How did you guess?" Because who but a Canadian could have asked such a convoluted question? A Parisian would simply have a eyed my meal in admion - or disdain. An American would have said: ''Any good? Or maybe even scooped a bite off my plate. But only a Canadian could create such a timid, tortuous sentence - or so dense you could never take offense, so sweet you could fall asleep. We are a nation of diplomats - the worlds most polite people - trained from a tender age to apologize before we speak. Bump into an American and he will usually say something straightforward like: ''I'm sorry." Then you will say: "No, no, I'm sorry!" and he will say: "No, I'm sorry!" - apologizing till you're both exhausted. As Canadians we will talk forever, even if we are too polite to say what we mean ... Compromise and convolution are the essence of being Canadian: one of the few things we do as well as anyone on Earth. We study. We delay. We dilute. We distract. We do anything to avoid doing something. Compromise is the key to our nation. A fragile coalition of communities clinging to each other for protection. Somehow it works. When our cautions English and French forefathers decided not to join the American Revolution two centuries ago, it seemed like a crazy dream. But 20o years later, they would be amazed at the results. French Canadians are still here, in a sea of English. And English Canada has prospered: a subdued, civilized corner of North America with smaller portions, safer streets and better form of selfdefence then American guns. Medicare. Our country's existence suggests the American Revolution was an utter waste of time: a couple of centuries of committee meetings and constitutional conferences could have cleared things up without firing a shot. If George Washington had fought a little less, and talked more, maybe the U.S. could have avoided its revolution altogether ether - and slowly, cautiously and quietly built a kinder and gentler America. Like Canada. {Abridged from Canada? A nation if necessary but no necessarily a nation. by Josh Freed, in The Gazette, Montreal, July 18 1992 - A2)

According to the text, Americans could have a) asked about the food and even tasted it. b) taken the food away and asked for more c) taken the plate and eaten the food. d) bitten everything on the plate. e) asked the same for themselves.

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According to paragraph 4, after having listened to a Canadian speaking, One can feel a) understanding and bored. b) sweet and distracted. c) timid and exhausted. d) offended and tired. e) dense and sleepy. The author's primary purpose in the fifth paragraph is to: a) say that all Canadians are professional diplomats. b) show Canadians as sad people who are always sorry. c) Compare Canadians to diplomats for their good manners. d) reveal that people who are not diplomats never apologize. e) claim that Canadians never speak but to say they're sorry. In "Bump into an American ... ", the word bump is used to refer to a) a collision. b) a convolution. c) a meeting. d) a strike. e) an attack. The AN is used before the word "American" . It must also be used before a) Hindu b) waiter c) Yankee d) universe e) independence The word tender in "trained from a tender age" could be replaced by a) soft b) young c) mature d) unstable e) inexperienced Read the dialogue: "Are you American?," the hostess asked the diplomat. "No, I'm Canadian," he answered. If you report the passage above, you will have: a) The hostess asked his guest if he was American, and he would answer that he was Canadian. b) The hostess has asked the diplomat whether he was American, and he answered that he wasn't. c) The hostess was asked by the diplomat whether she was American, and she had answered that she was Canadian. d) The hostess asks the diplomat if he is American, and he answered that he was born in Canada. e) The hostess asked her guest if he was American, and he answered that he was Canadian. If a person wants to apologize, he/she will say "I'm sorry." If a person wants to open his/her way through a crowd politely, he/she will say: a) Let me go b) Excuse me e) Never mind b) You're welcome d) I beg your pardon According to lines ______ the attitude of the Canadian people towards life is
a) particularly weak b) somewhat dishonest c) extremely negative d) seldom apologetic e) relatively successful

Read the statements below carefully: I - American people are not as courteous as Canadian people. II- Being a Canadian implies making concession; in most situations. III - Canadians have the habit of telling twisted and detailed stories. IV - People from Canada talk a lot but do not always reveal their true feelings. V - Canadians are very distracted and tend to be straighforward. The statements that can be found in the text are:

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a) I and V only b) II and IV only c) I, III and IV only d) I, IV and V only e) II and III only "But 200 years later, they would be amazed at the results." (lines _____ ) It means that they would a) be rather confused and astonished to see the outcome. b) be pretty proud and surprised with the consequences. c) be fairly taken aback by the output. d) not be really puzzled by the surprising effects. e) not be quite astounded and shocked by the results. TEXT

A popular board game in the Orient is called go. The objective is to place your pieces so that your opponent is defeated before he even realizes that he's been surrounded and captured. Reflect on that analogy when you recall how foreign companies, especially in Asia, have competed against U.S. industry. We Americans are competing more like poker players, reacting shorten as we play the game one hand at a time. Our foreign competitors are planning their moves far in advance, or, like good go player, sneaking up_quietly and Jaking over our markets. But the increase in the debt over the past five years is a most serious problem. It is both the most visible symptom and the principal cause of a trend in the U.S. economy that could pose a grave threat to growth and living standards. Put most simply, the U.S. has been spending more than it produces for most of the Eighties. It has done so by pilling on debt of every kind - consumer debt, business debt, foreign debt, but mostly government debt.

De acordo com o texto: a) crianas adorveis que chegam ao berrio de um hospital custam cada uma US$ 50.000. b) colocando da maneira mais simples, os Estados Unidos tem gasto muito mais do que tem produzido acima de oitenta bilhes. c) realmente e, porem, no porque estamos sobrecarregando as geraesfuturas com um peso impossvel. d) O aumento da divida por mais de cinco anos representa um problema muito srio e) a divida governamental e maior do que a divida dos consumidores, a dvida das empresas e a dvida externa. O texto enfatiza que o montante da dvida a) no motivo para preocupao b) o sintoma mais visvel da economia dos E.U.A no e causa para alarme c) uma grande ameaa ao crescimento d) um fardo pesado para as geraes futuras Saddling future generations means a) improving future generations b) helping future generations c) destroying future generations d) rearing future generations e) burdening future generations No texto, "hand-wringling" significa: a) torcer as mos c) oferecer as mos e) segurar com as mos b) apertar as mos d) estalar as mos No texto, pilling significa: a) financiar b) pagar c) amontoar d) adiar e) negociar

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As questes que seguem referem-se ao texto abaixo: TEXT Economists will argue for years over what caused the crash of 1987. But it's already clear that the October 19 cataclysm marks the failure of the most pervasive belief in economics today: na unquestioning faith in the wisdom of free markets. That belief had few adherents in the heyday of President John F. Kennedy's new economics. Some 25 years ago the popular view was that government ant other regulatory institutions were needed to stabilize the economy. Presidents looked to economists to finetune the economy's performance and to wage a "war on poverty", its biggest problem. But after Vietnam the economy sank into the stagflation mire, and poverty proved stubbornly intractable to government largesse. A band of laissez-faire economists, many tied to the University of Chicago, converted a lot of economists and policymakers to their view that interventionist government policies, instead of being a balance-wheel, are themselves the source of economic instability. De acordo com o texto: a) o cataclisma de 19 de outubro foi causado pela f indubitvel na sabedoria dos mercados livres. b) As polticas intervencionistas dos governos, segundo alguns economistas, so a prpria fonte de instabilidade econmica. c) o Presidente John F. Kennedy foi o grande defensor do fortalecimento da economia baseada em mercados livres. d) Ha 25 anos, a opinio publica era contraria a interveno do governo na regulamentao da economia. e) o problema da pobreza no pode ser solucionado porque os gastos governamentais so imensos. No texto, "the economy sank into the stagflation mire" significa: a) a economia afundou por causa da estagflao b) a economia rompeu o cerco da estagflao c) a economia afundou no lodaal da estagflao d) a estagflao destruiu a economia e) a economia adoeceu por causa da estagflao No texto "Presidents looked to economists for finetune the economy's performance" significa: a) Os Presidentes querem que os economistas melhores a desempenho da economia. b) o desempenho da economia melhora quando os Presidentes escolhem bons economistas c) Os economistas melhoram o desempenho da economia quando os Presidentes esto atentos d) Os Presidentes recorriam aos economistas para afinar o desempenho da economia e) Os Presidentes pediam aos economistas que controlassem o desempenho da economia. De acordo com o texto, government largesse a) can win the war on poverty b) will pull the economy out of the stagflation mire c) was responsible for the Vietnam war d) is more stubborn than the war on poverty e) cannot be called on to win the war on poverty

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