43

J
| | · : : a | · | c a a : t | c :
1lis sccrion ocscrilcs rlc Acousrics Mooulc lackgrouno rlcory ano plysics
inrcrfaccs, wlcrc rlc souno prcssurc, p, is rlc lasic ocpcnocnr variallc:
 1lc ¡rcssurc Acousrics ¡nrcrfacc
 1lc 1ransicnr ¡rcssurc Acousrics ¡nrcrfacc
 1lc Bounoary Mooc Acousrics ¡nrcrfacc
Also incluoco is rlc unocrlying rlcory for rlcsc inrcrfaccs:
 ¡rcssurc Acousrics 1lcory
 1lcory for rlc ¡rcssurc Acousrics ¡nrcrfacc
 1lcory for rlc 1ransicnr ¡rcssurc Acousrics ¡nrcrfacc
 1lcory for rlc Bounoary Mooc Acousrics ¡nrcrfacc
44 [ C H A P T L P 3 : P P L S S U P L A C O U S T | C S
l |· || · : : a| · |c aa: t | c : | at · | | +c ·
1lc Fressure kcoustics inrcrfacc ( ) las rlc cquarions, lounoary conoirions, ano
sourccs for moocling acousrics, solving for rlc souno prcssurc.
Ior morc informarion alour rlc lackgrouno rlcory, scc 1lcory for rlc ¡rcssurc
Acousrics ¡nrcrfacc.
1lcsc ocfaulr noocs arc aooco wlcn using rlis inrcrfacc÷ Fressure kcoustics Hode|,
5ound hard 8oundary (Wa||), ano Initia| ¥a|ues.
I h 1 £ k f k C £ I 0 £ h 1 I f I £ k
1lc uniquc plysics inrcrfacc iocnrificr usco ro rcacl rlc ficlos ano variallcs in
cxprcssions, for cxamplc. 1lc ocfaulr Identifier (for rlc firsr inrcrfacc in rlc moocl) is
acpr. You can coir rlis ro lc any valio uniquc srring.
0 0H k I h 5
Sclccr rlc oomains wlcrc you wanr ro ocfinc a souno prcssurc ficlo ano rlc associarco
acousrics cquarion. 1lc ocfaulr scrring incluocs all oomains in rlc moocl.
5 0 u h 0 F k £ 5 5 u k £ L £ ¥ £ L 5 £ 1 1 I h 6 5
1lc zcro lcvcl on rlc oB scalc varics wirl rlc rypc of fluio. 1lar valuc is a rcfcrcncc
prcssurc rlar corrcsponos ro 0 oB. 1lis variallc occurs in calcularions of rlc souno
prcssurc lcvcl lasco on rlc roor mcan squarc (rms) prcssurc,
an cxprcssion valio for rlc casc of larmonically rimc-varying acousric prcssurc, p.
Irom rlc keference pressure for the sound pressure |eve| lisr, rlrcc rcfcrcncc prcssurcs
arc availallc for rlc souno prcssurc lcvcl ocpcnoing on rlc fluio. Sclccr:
 use reference pressure for air ro usc a rcfcrcncc prcssurc of 0.02 m¡a (20·10
6
¡a).
 use reference pressure for water ro usc a rcfcrcncc prcssurc of 1 ¡a (1·10
6
¡a).
 user defined reference pressure ro cnrcr a rcfcrcncc prcssurc p
roI
(S¡ unir: ¡a) in rlc
F
roI, SPL
coir ficlo. 1lc ocfaulr valuc is rlc samc as for air, 0.02 m¡a.
p
1
2
--- pconj p 
T H L P P L S S U P L A C O U S T | C S | N T L P F A C L [ 45
0£ F £ h 0£ h 1 ¥k k I k 8L £ 5
1lis inrcrfacc ocfincs onc ocpcnocnr variallc (ficlo), rlc Fressure p. ¡f rcquirco, coir
rlc namc, lur ocpcnocnr variallcs musr lc uniquc wirlin a moocl.
k 0¥k h C £ 0 5 £ 1 1 I h 6 5 k h 0 0I 5 C k£ 1 I I k 1 I 0 h
!ormally rlcsc scrrings oo nor ncco ro lc clangco. Scc Slow Morc Oprions:
Aovancco Scrrings ano Discrcrizarion in rlc COJSO1 Ju!t:¡h,s:cs 1sc:`s Gu:uc (or
scc Wlcrc Do ¡ Acccss rlc Documcnrarion ano Moocl ¡ilrary?). ¡n aooirion, rlc
Fressure kcoustics inrcrfacc las rlc following scrrings:
C|rcumferent|o| Wove Num5er (Ax|s,mmetr|c Mode|s 0n|,j
1lc circumfcrcnrial wavc numlcr n is an inrcgcr-valuco numlcr usco in axisymmcrry
ano is ly ocfaulr 0. You can clangc rlc valuc in rlc Circumferentia| wave number ficlo.
0ut-of-p|one Wove Num5er (2u ond 1u Ax|s,mmetr| c Mode|sj
1lc our-of-planc wavc numlcr h
:
is usco in 2D ano 1D axisymmcrry ano is ly ocfaulr
0. You can clangc rlc valuc in rlc 0ut-of-p|ane wave number ficlo.
1:cssu:c .cvust:cs Jvuc!
1lc Fressure kcoustics Hode| fcarurc aoos rlc cquarions for rimc-larmonic ano
cigcnfrcqucncy acousrics moocling. ¡n rlc 5ettings winoow you ocfinc rlc propcrrics
for rlc acousrics moocl ano moocl inpurs incluoing rcmpcrarurc.
00 Hk I h5
Sclccr rlc oomains wlcrc you wanr ro compurc rlc acousric prcssurc ficlo ano rlc
cquarion rlar ocfincs ir. 1lc ocfaulr scrring incluocs all oomains in rlc moocl.
F k £ 5 5 u k £ k C 0 u 5 1 I C 5 H0 0 £ L
Sclccr a f|uid mode|÷Linear e|astic, Linear e|astic with attenuation, 0e|any-8aze|y,
¥iscous, or Idea| 6as.
 Linear e|astic ro spccify a lincarly clasric fluio using cirlcr rlc ocnsiry ano spcco of
souno or rlc impcoancc ano wavc numlcr.
 Linear e|astic with attenuation ro spccify a lincarly clasric fluio wirl arrcnuarion using
rlc ocnsiry ano spcco of souno ano ro accounr for oamping of acousric wavcs using
an arrcnuarion cocfficicnr .
 0e|any-8az|ey ro spccify an clasric fluio using rlc Dclany-Bazlcy moocl, wlicl
rcprcscnrs a porous mcoium:
46 [ C H A P T L P 3 : P P L S S U P L A C O U S T | C S
 ¥iscous ro spccify an clasric fluio using a viscous moocl.
|0-1)
|0-2)
|0-3)
wlcrc is rlc oynamic viscosiry ano
B
is rlc lulk viscosiry (Rcf. +, cq. ó.1.2, ó.2.3,
ó.2.+). 1lis cloicc is mosr appropriarc for siruarions wlcrc rlc oamping rakcs placc
in frcc spacc ano is nor rclarco ro inrcracrion lcrwccn rlc fluio ano a solio skclcron.
 Idea| gas ro moocl rlc fluio as an iocal gas.
Basco on rlc f|uid mode| sclccrco, conrinuc ocfining as follows.
uef|n|ng o L|neor L|ost|c l|u|d Mode|
 Irom rlc 5pecify lisr, sclccr:
 0ensity and speed of sound ro spccify rlosc propcrrics as complcx-valuco oara.
 Impedance and wave number ro spccify rlosc propcrrics as complcx-valuco oara.
 ¡f 0ensity and speed of sound is sclccrco, rlc ocfaulr valucs for rlc 5peed of sound c
(S¡ unir: m/s) ano rlc 0ensity (S¡ unir: kg/m
3
) comc from rlc marcrial.
Orlcrwisc, sclccr orlcr oprions from rlc lisrs.
 Irom rlc 5peed of sound lisr, sclccr user defined ro cnrcr a oiffcrcnr valuc.
 Irom rlc 0ensity lisr, sclccr user defined ro cnrcr a oiffcrcnr valuc.
 ¡f Impedance and wave number is sclccrco, ly ocfaulr rlc Characteristic acoustic
impedance Z (S¡ unir: ¡a·s/m) is rlc valuc from rlc fluio marcrial.
 Sclccr user defined ro cnrcr a oiffcrcnr valuc.
 ¡nrcr a Wave number h.
h
c
c
---- 1 C
1
0
j
P
j
--------
C
2

iC
3
0
j
P
j
--------
C 
4
  
Z
c 0
c 1 C
5
0
j
P
j
--------
C
6

iC
7
0
j
P
j
--------
C 
8
  
c
1
i b
c
2
---------- 
1 

c
c
c 1
i b
c
2
---------- 
1
2
---

b
4
3
---
B
 
T H L P P L S S U P L A C O U S T | C S | N T L P F A C L [ 47
uef|n|ng o L|neor L|ost|c w|th Attenuot|on l|u|d Mode|
1lc ocfaulr valucs for rlc 5peed of sound c (S¡ unir: m/s) ano rlc 0ensity (S¡ unir:
kg/m
3
) comc from rlc marcrial. Orlcrwisc, sclccr orlcr oprions from rlc lisrs.
 Irom rlc 5peed of sound lisr, sclccr user defined ro cnrcr a oiffcrcnr valuc.
 Irom rlc 0ensity lisr, sclccr user defined ro cnrcr a oiffcrcnr valuc.
 Irom rlc kttenuation type lisr, sclccr:
 kttenuation coefficient hp/m ro ocfinc an arrcnuarion cocfficicnr in !p/m (ncpcrs
pcr mcrcr):
 kttenuation coefficient d8/m ro ocfinc an arrcnuarion cocfficicnr in oB/m (occilcl
pcr mcrcr):
 Sclccr kttenuation coefficient d8/ ro ocfinc an arrcnuarion cocfficicnr in oB/
(occilcl pcr wavclcngrl):
h
c
---- i  
c
h
---- 
c
c
2
c
c
2
--------- 
h
c
---- i 10
20
------ In  
c
c
h
---- 
c
c
2
c
c
2
--------- 
h
c
---- 1 i 10
20 2
------------------ In  
c
c
h
---- 
c

48 [ C H A P T L P 3 : P P L S S U P L A C O U S T | C S
 ¡nrcr a valuc for rlc arrcnuarion cocfficicnr
uef|n|ng o ue|on,-8oz|e, l|u|d Mode|
1lc ocfaulr valucs for rlc 5peed of sound c (S¡ unir: m/s) ano rlc 0ensity (S¡ unir:
kg/m
3
) arc from materia|. Orlcrwisc, sclccr orlcr oprions from rlc lisrs.
 Irom rlc 5peed of sound lisr, sclccr user defined ro cnrcr a oiffcrcnr valuc.
 Irom rlc 0ensity lisr, sclccr user defined ro cnrcr a oiffcrcnr valuc.
 ¡nrcr a f|ow resistivity (S¡ unir: ¡a·s/m
2
) in rlc P
j
ficlo.
Ilow rcsisriviry is casy ro mcasurc ano is inocpcnocnr of frcqucncy.
 Sclccr rlc 0e|any-8az|ey constants from rlc lisr÷0efau|t or user defined. ¡f user
defined is sclccrco, cnrcr valucs in rlc C1 ro C8 ficlos. Orlcr aurlors lavc rcfinco rlc
Dclany-Bazlcy moocl for parricular marcrials ly clanging rlc C
i
cocfficicnrs.
uef|n|ng o \|scous l|u|d Mode|
1lc ocfaulr valucs for rlc 5peed of sound c (S¡ unir: m/s) ano rlc 0ensity (S¡ unir:
kg/m
3
) arc from materia|. Orlcrwisc, sclccr orlcr oprions from rlc lisrs.
 Irom rlc 5peed of sound lisr, sclccr user defined ro cnrcr a oiffcrcnr valuc.
 Irom rlc 0ensity lisr, sclccr user defined ro cnrcr a oiffcrcnr valuc.
 ¡nrcr a 0ynamic viscosity (S¡ unir: ¡a·s)
 ¡nrcr a 8u|k viscosity
B
(S¡ unir: ¡a·s).
uef|n|ng on ldeo| Cos l|u|d Mode|
Spccify rlc fluio propcrrics ly sclccring a gas consranr rypc ano sclccring lcrwccn
cnrcring rlc lcar capaciry ar consranr prcssurc or rlc rarion of spccific lcars.
 Irom rlc 6as constant type lisr, sclccr 5pecific gas constant ro spccify rlc spccific gas
consranr P
s
(S¡ unir: ]/(kg·K), or Hean mo|ar mass ro spccify rlc mcan molar mass
M
n
(S¡ unir: kg/mol). ¡f Hean mo|ar mass is sclccrco, rlc molar gas consranr
(univcrsal gas consranr) P 8.314 ]/(mol·K), is usco as rlc luilr-in plysical
consranr.
 1lc P
s
or M
n
lisr ly ocfaulr uscs rlc propcrry valuc from materia|. Sclccr user
defined ro ocfinc anorlcr valuc.
 Irom rlc 5pecify Cp or lisr, sclccr heat capacity at constant pressure C
p
(S¡ unir: ]/
(kg·K)), or katio of specific heats . Ior common oiaromic gascs sucl as air, 1.4
is rlc sranoaro valuc.
 1lc C
p
or lisr ly ocfaulr uscs rlc propcrry valuc from materia|. Sclccr user defined
ro ocfinc anorlcr valuc for cirlcr of rlcsc marcrial propcrrics.
T H L P P L S S U P L A C O U S T | C S | N T L P F A C L [ 49
H0 0£ L I h F u 1 ( I 0£ k L 6 k 5 0 h L ¥ )
¡f Idea| gas is sclccrco as rlc f|uid mode|, cnrcr a 1emperature T (wlicl can lc a consranr
rcmpcrarurc or a rcmpcrarurc ficlo from a ¡car 1ransfcr inrcrfacc) ano an kbso|ute
pressure p:
 Sclccr user defined ro cnrcr a valuc or an cxprcssion for rlc alsolurc prcssurc (S¡
unir: ¡a) in rlc coir ficlo rlar appcars. 1lis inpur is always availallc.
 ¡n aooirion, sclccr a prcssurc ocfinco ly a fluio-flow inrcrfacc prcscnr in rlc moocl
(if any). Ior cxamplc, you can rlcn sclccr Fressure (spf/fp1) ro usc rlc prcssurc
ocfinco ly rlc f|uid Froperties fcarurc fp1 in a 5ing|e-Fhase f|ow inrcrfacc spf.
Sclccring a prcssurc variallc also acrivarcs a clcck lox for ocfining rlc rcfcrcncc
prcssurc, wlcrc 1 ¡a1n¡ las lccn auromarically incluoco. 1lis allows you ro usc a
sysrcm-lasco (gaugc) prcssurc, wlilc auromarically incluoing rlc rcfcrcncc prcssurc
in rlc alsolurc prcssurc.
1c:[cct!, Jutchcu 1u,c:s
!sc Ferfect|y Hatched Layers ro scr up pcrfccrly alsorling oomains as an alrcrnarivc ro
low-rcflccring lounoary conoirions. ¡r imposcs a complcx-valuco cooroinarc
rransformarion ro rlc sclccrco oomain rlar cffccrivcly makcs ir alsorling ar a
mainrainco wavc impcoancc rlus climinaring rcflccrions ar rlc inrcrfacc.
1lc Fressure kcoustics Hode| usco in rlc ¡M¡ oomain is founo as a sulnooc ro rlc
Ferfect|y Hatched Layers nooc. ¡f rcquirco, riglr-click rlc Ferfect|y Hatched Layers nooc
ro aoo anorlcr ¡rcssurc Acousrics Moocl.
00 Hk I h5
Sclccr rlc oomains wlcrc you wanr ro usc pcrfccrly marclco laycrs.
6 £ 0 H£ 1 k I C 5 £ 1 1 I h 6 5
Sclccr rlc 1ype of pcrfccrly marclco laycr scaling ro usc÷ Cartesian, Cy|indrica|,
5pherica|, or 6enera| (rlc oprions ocpcno on rlc sparial oimcnsion).
 Ior Carrcsian ano Ccncral rypcs of ¡M¡s, no aooirional uscr cnrrics arc ncccssary
 Ior Cylinorical ¡M¡s, you cnrcr rlc componcnrs for rlc ccnrcr cooroinarc 
0
ano
rlc ccnrcr axis oirccrion 
axIs
.
 Ior Splcrical ¡M¡s, you cnrcr rlc componcnrs for rlc ccnrcr cooroinarc 
0
.
50 [ C H A P T L P 3 : P P L S S U P L A C O U S T | C S
F k k k H£ 1 £ k 5
¡oir rlc ocfaulr paramcrcrs ro affccr rlc cooroinarc rransformarion. 1lc ocfaulr FHL
sca|ing factor is 1. ¡nrcr anorlcr valuc if rlc oomain rlickncss is oiffcrcnr from onc
wavclcngrl. ¡oir rlc FHL order ocfaulr (1) if rcquirco.
Jvnv¡v!c Svu:cc
!sc rlc Honopo|e 5ource fcarurc ro raoiarc a uniform souno ficlo in all oirccrions.
0 0H k I h 5
Sclccr rlc oomains wlcrc you wanr ro ocfinc rlc monopolc sourcc.
H0 h 0 F 0 L £ 5 0 u k C £
¡nrcr a Honopo|e source, Q (S¡ unir: 1/s
2
). 1lc ocfaulr is 0.
1:¡v!c Svu:cc
!sc rlc 0ipo|e 5ource fcarurc ro raoiarc a souno ficlo rlar is rypically srrongcr in rwo
opposirc oirccrions.
0 0H k I h 5
Sclccr rlc oomains wlcrc you wanr ro ocfinc rlc oipolc sourcc.
0 I F 0 L £ 5 0 u k C £
¡nrcr valucs in rlc 0ipo|e source ficlos. 1lcsc conrain rlc inoivioual componcnrs of rlc
oipolc sourcc vccror q (S¡ unir: !/m
3
), onc for cacl spacc oimcnsion. 1lc ocfaulr is 0.
1uckµ:vunu 1:cssu:c 1:c!u
Aoo a 8ackground Fressure fie|d, p
b
, ro moocl an inciocnr prcssurc wavc or ro sruoy
rlc scarrcrco prcssurc ficlo, wlicl is ocfinco as rlc oiffcrcncc lcrwccn rlc roral
acousric prcssurc ano rlc lackgrouno prcssurc ficlo. 1lc lackgrouno prcssurc ficlo
can lc a funcrion of spacc ano÷for rlc 1ransient Fressure kcoustics inrcrfacc using a
1imc Dcpcnocnr sruoy÷a funcrion of rimc.
Ior a Ircqucncy Domain sruoy rypc, rlc frcqucncy of rlc lackgrouno prcssurc ficlo is
rlc samc as for rlc ocpcnocnr variallc, p.
0 0H k I h 5
Sclccr rlc oomains wlcrc you wanr ro ocfinc rlc lackgrouno prcssurc ficlo.
T H L P P L S S U P L A C O U S T | C S | N T L P F A C L [ 51
8 k C k 6 k 0 u h 0 F k£ 5 5 u k £ f I £ L 0
Irom rlc 8ackground pressure fie|d type lisr, sclccr F|ane wave ro ocfinc a lackgrouno
prcssurc ficlo of planc wavc rypc. ¡nrcr valucs in rlc Fressure amp|itude, p
o ,
ano Wave
direction, Jir, ficlos.
Sclccr user defined ro cnrcr rlc cxprcssion for p
b
(S¡ unir: ¡a) in rlc 8ackground
pressure fie|d. 1lc ocfaulr is 0.
1n:t:u! Vu!ucs
1lc Initia| ¥a|ues fcarurc aoos inirial valucs for rlc souno Fressure p ano rlc Fressure
time derivative Jp J/ rlar can scrvc as an inirial gucss for a nonlincar solvcr. ¡f you ncco
ro spccify morc rlan onc inirial valuc, riglr-click Fressure kcoustics ro aoo morc Initia|
¥a|ues noocs.
00 Hk I h5
Sclccr rlc oomains wlcrc you wanr ro ocfinc an inirial valuc.
I h I 1 I k L ¥k L u £ 5
¡nrcr a valuc or cxprcssion for rlc inirial valucs.
 Fressure p (S¡ unir: ¡a). 1lc ocfaulr is 0.
 Fressure time derivative, Jp J/ (S¡ unir: ¡a/s). 1lc ocfaulr is 0.
1:cssu:c .cvust:cs 1vunuu:, Cvnu:t:vns
1lc following lounoary conoirions arc availallc:
 Souno ¡aro Bounoary (Wall)
 !ormal Accclcrarion
 Souno Sofr Bounoary
 ¡rcssurc
 ¡mpcoancc
 ¡lanc Wavc Raoiarion
 Splcrical Wavc Raoiarion
 ¡criooic Conoirion
 Cylinorical Wavc Raoiarion
 Marclco Bounoary
52 [ C H A P T L P 3 : P P L S S U P L A C O U S T | C S
 Iar Iiclo Calcularion
 ¡nrcrior Souno ¡aro Bounoary (Wall)
 ¡nrcrior !ormal Accclcrarion
 ¡nrcrior ¡mpcoancc
 ¡nrcrior ¡crforarco ¡larc
Ior axisymmcrric moocls, COMSO¡ Mulriplysics rakcs rlc axial symmcrry
lounoarics (ar r = 0) inro accounr ano auromarically aoos an kxia| 5ymmetry nooc ro
rlc moocl rlar is valio on rlc axial symmcrry lounoarics only.
Conrinuiry in prcssurc is rlc ocfaulr conoirion on inrcrior lounoarics.
On pairs rlc following conoirions arc availallc:
 Conrinuiry (¡air Icarurc)
 Souno Sofr Bounoary (¡air Icarurc)
 ¡rcssurc (¡air Icarurc)
Svunu 1u:u 1vunuu:, ¸1u!!)
1lc 5ound hard 8oundary (Wa||) crcarcs a lounoary conoirion for a svunu hu:u
hvunuu:, or wall, wlicl is a lounoary ar wlicl rlc normal componcnr of rlc
accclcrarion is zcro:
Ior zcro oipolc clargc ano consranr fluio ocnsiry, rlis mcans rlar rlc normal ocrivarivc
of rlc prcssurc is zcro ar rlc lounoary:
Souno-laro lounoarics arc availallc for all sruoy rypcs.
8 0 u h 0 k k I £ 5
Sclccr rlc lounoarics rlar you wanr ro ocfinc as souno laro lounoarics (wall).
 
1
0
------  p   0 
n
p
0 
T H L P P L S S U P L A C O U S T | C S | N T L P F A C L [ 53
1v:nu! .ccc!c:ut:vn
1lc horma| kcce|eration aoos an inwaro normal accclcrarion a
n
:
Alrcrnarivcly, spccify rlc accclcrarion a of rlc lounoary. 1lc parr in rlc normal
oirccrion is usco ro ocfinc rlc lounoary conoirion:
1lis fcarurc rcprcscnrs an cxrcrnal sourcc rcrm. ¡r can also lc usco ro couplc an
acousrics moocl wirl a srrucrural analysis.
8 0 u h 0 k k I £ 5
Sclccr rlc lounoarics wlcrc you wanr ro spccify a normal accclcrarion lounoary
conoirion.
h 0 k Hk L k C C £ L £ k k 1 I 0 h
Irom rlc 1ype lisr, sclccr Inward kcce|eration ro cnrcr rlc valuc of rlc inwaro normal
accclcrarion a
n
(S¡ unir: m/s
2
). !sc a posirivc valuc for inwaro accclcrarion or a
ncgarivc valuc for ourwaro accclcrarion. Sclccr kcce|eration ro cnrcr valucs for rlc
componcnrs of rlc accclcrarion a
0
.
Svunu Sv[t 1vunuu:,
1lc 5ound 5oft 8oundary crcarcs a lounoary conoirion for a svunu sv[t hvunuu:,,
wlcrc rlc acousric prcssurc vanislcs:
1lis lounoary conoirion is an appropriarc approximarion for a liquio-gas inrcrfacc ano
in somc cascs for cxrcrnal wavcguioc porrs.
8 0 u h 0 k k I £ 5
Sclccr rlc lounoarics rlar you wanr ro ocfinc as souno sofr lounoarics.
 
1
0
------  p   a
n


1
0
----- -  p    
0

p 0 
54 [ C H A P T L P 3 : P P L S S U P L A C O U S T | C S
C 0 h 5 1 k k I h 1 5 £ 1 1 I h 6 5
1o oisplay rlis sccrion, sclccr 5how Hore 0ptions from rlc ¥iew mcnu in rlc Hode|
8ui|der. Sclccr a Constraint type÷8idirectiona|, symmetric, or unidirectiona|. ¡f rcquirco,
sclccr rlc use weak constraints clcck lox.
1:cssu:c
1lc Fressure nooc crcarcs a lounoary conoirion rlar acrs as a prcssurc sourcc ar rlc
lounoary, wlicl mcans you spccify a consranr acousric prcssurc p
0
ro lc mainrainco
ar rlc lounoary:
¡n rlc frcqucncy oomain, p
0
is rlc ampliruoc of a larmonic prcssurc sourcc.
8 0 u h 0 k k I £ 5
Sclccr rlc lounoarics wlcrc you wanr ro spccify a ¡rcssurc lounoary conoirion.
F k £ 5 5 u k £
¡nrcr rlc valuc of rlc Fressure p
0
(S¡ unir: ¡a) ar rlc lounoary.
C 0 h 5 1 k k I h 1 5 £ 1 1 I h 6 5
1o oisplay rlis sccrion, sclccr 5how Hore 0ptions from rlc ¥iew mcnu in rlc Hode|
8ui|der. Sclccr a Constraint type÷8idirectiona|, symmetric, or unidirectiona|. ¡f rcquirco,
sclccr rlc use weak constraints clcck lox.
1n¡cuuncc
1lc Impedance fcarurc aoos an impcoancc lounoary conoirion, wlicl is a
gcncralizarion of rlc souno-laro ano souno-sofr lounoary conoirions:
¡crc Z is rlc acousric inpur impcoancc of rlc cxrcrnal oomain. Irom a plysical poinr
of vicw, rlc acousric inpur impcoancc is rlc rario lcrwccn prcssurc ano normal parriclc
vclociry.
1lc Impedance lounoary conoirion is a gooo approximarion for a locally rcacring
surfacc÷a surfacc for wlicl rlc normal vclociry ar any poinr ocpcnos only on rlc
prcssurc ar rlar cxacr poinr.
p p
0


1
0
----- -  p  
i p
Z
----------  0 
T H L P P L S S U P L A C O U S T | C S | N T L P F A C L [ 55
!orc rlar in rlc rwo opposirc limirs Z ano Z 0, rlis lounoary conoirion is
iocnrical ro rlc 5ound hard lounoary conoirion ano rlc 5ound 5oft lounoary
conoirion, rcspccrivcly.
8 0 u h 0 k k I £ 5
Sclccr rlc lounoarics wlcrc you wanr ro spccify an ¡mpcoancc lounoary conoirion.
I HF £ 0k h C £
¡nrcr rlc valuc of rlc inpur impedance Z
i
(S¡ unir: ¡a·s/m). 1lc ocfaulr valuc is
1.2|kg/m
3
|·3+3|m/s|.
1!unc, S¡hc::cu!, unu C,!:nu::cu! 1uu:ut:vn 1vunuu:, Cvnu:t:vns
Spccify a F|ane, 5pherica|, or Cy|indrica| kadiation lounoary conoirion ro allow an
ourgoing wavc ro lcavc rlc moocling oomain wirl minimal rcflccrions. 1lc conoirion
can lc aoaprco ro rlc gcomcrry of rlc moocling oomain. 1lc F|ane wavc rypc is
suirallc for lorl far-ficlo lounoarics ano porrs. Bccausc many wavcguioc srrucrurcs
arc only inrcrcsring in rlc planc-wavc rcgion, ir is parricularly rclcvanr for porrs.
kadiation lounoary conoirions arc availallc for all rypcs of sruoics. Ior rlc Ircqucncy
oomain sruoy, Civoli ano !cra`s rcformularion of rlc ¡igoon conoirions (Rcf. 1) for
planc wavcs las lccn implcmcnrco ro rlc sccono orocr. Ior Cy|indrica| ano 5pherica|
wavcs COMSO¡ uscs rlc corrcsponoing 2no-orocr cxprcssions from Bayliss,
Cunzlurgcr, ano 1urkcl (Rcf. 2). 1lc 1ransicnr, Mooc analysis, ano ¡igcnfrcqucncy
sruoics implcmcnr rlc samc cxpansions ro rlc firsr orocr.
1lc firsr orocr raoiarion lounoary conoirions in rlc frcqucncy oomain rcao
wlcrc h is rlc wavc numlcr (a prcocfinco variallc; scc 1allc ó-21 in rlc COJSO1
Ju!t:¡h,s:cs 1c[c:cncc Gu:uc ¡lysics ¡nrcrfacc Variallcs sccrion; or scc Wlcrc Do ¡
Acccss rlc Documcnrarion ano Moocl ¡ilrary?) ano | r ) is a funcrion wlosc form
ocpcnos on rlc wavc rypc:
 ¡lanc wavc: ( r ) 0 (scc ¡lanc Wavc Raoiarion)
 Cylinorical wavc: ( r ) 1 (2 r) (scc Cylinorical Wavc Raoiarion)
 Splcrical wavc: ( r ) 1 r (scc Splcrical Wavc Raoiarion)

1
0
------ p   ih r 
p
0
------  ih r 
p
I
0
------ 
p
I
0
---------  
56 [ C H A P T L P 3 : P P L S S U P L A C O U S T | C S
¡n rlc larrcr rwo cascs, r is rlc slorrcsr oisrancc from rlc poinr  (x, y, :) on rlc
lounoary ro rlc sourcc. 1lc riglr-lano sioc of rlc cquarion rcprcscnrs an oprional
incoming prcssurc ficlo p
I
(scc ¡nciocnr ¡rcssurc Iiclo).
1lc sccono orocr raoiarion lounoary conoirions in rlc frcqucncy oomain arc ocfinco
lclow. ¡n rlcsc cquarions,
T
ar a givcn poinr on rlc lounoary ocnorcs rlc ¡aplacc
opcraror in rlc rangcnr planc ar rlar parricular poinr.
 F|ane wave:
¡n rlc norarion of Civoli ano !cra (Rcf. 1), rlc alovc cxprcssions corrcspono ro rlc
paramcrcr cloiccs C
0
C
1
C
2
/h. Ior normally inciocnr wavcs rlis givcs a
vanisling rcflccrion cocfficicnr.
 Cy|indrica| wave:
1lis lounoary conoirion is lasco on a scrics cxpansion of rlc ourgoing wavc in
cylinorical cooroinarcs (Rcf. 2), ano ir assumcs rlc ficlo is inocpcnocnr of rlc axial
cooroinarc. You spccify rlc axis of rlis cooroinarc sysrcm ly giving an oricnrarion
|n
x
, n
y
, n
:
) ano a poinr |x
0
, y
0
, :
0
) on rlc axis. ¡n axisymmcrric gcomcrrics rlc
symmcrry axis is rlc narural ano only cloicc.
 5pherica| wave:
!sc rlis oprion ro allow a raoiarco or scarrcrco wavc÷cmanaring from an oljccr
ccnrcrco ar rlc poinr |x
0
, y
0
, :
0
) rlar you spccify÷ro lcavc rlc moocling oomain
wirlour rcflccrions. 1lc lounoary conoirion is lasco on an cxpansion in splcrical
cooroinarcs from Bayliss, Cunzlurgcr, ano 1urkcl (Rcf. 2), implcmcnrco ro rlc
sccono orocr.
7rons|ent Ano|,s| s
1lc rransicnr raoiarion lounoary conoirion is rlc 1sr-orocr cxprcssion

1
0
------ p   i
h
0
------p
i
2h
0
-------------
T
p  
i
2h
0
-------------
T
p
i
i
h
0
------p
i

1
0
----- - p
i
  

1
0
------ p   ih
1
2r
------
1
8r 1 ihr 
----------------------------- -  
p
i
p 
0
------------------- 
1
0
------ p
i
r
T
p
i
r
T
p 
2 1 ihr 
0
-----------------------------------------   

1
0
------ p   ih
1
r
--- 
p
0
----- -
r
T
p
2
0
ihr 1 
---------------------------------  
r
T
p
I
2
0
ihr 1 
---------------------------------  ih
1
r
--- 
p
I
0
------ 
1
0
----- - p
I
  
T H L P P L S S U P L A C O U S T | C S | N T L P F A C L [ 57
wlcrc | r ) is rlc samc wavc-rypc ocpcnocnr funcrion as for rlc cigcnfrcqucncy casc
ano p
I
rlc oprional inciocnr prcssurc ficlo.
1!unc 1u·c 1uu:ut:vn
1lc F|ane Wave kadiation fcarurc aoos a raoiarion lounoary conoirion for a planc wavc.
¡f rcquirco, riglr-click rlc main nooc ro aoo an ¡nciocnr ¡rcssurc Iiclo.
8 0 u h 0 k k I £ 5
Sclccr rlc lounoarics wlcrc you wanr ro usc a planc wavc raoiarion conoirion.
S¡hc::cu! 1u·c 1uu:ut:vn
1lc 5pherica| Wave kadiation fcarurc aoos a raoiarion lounoary conoirion for a
splcrical wavc. ¡f rcquirco, riglr-click rlc main nooc ro aoo an ¡nciocnr ¡rcssurc Iiclo.
8 0 u h 0 k k I £ 5
Sclccr rlc lounoarics wlcrc you wanr ro usc a splcrical wavc raoiarion conoirion.
5 F h £ k I C k L Wk¥£ k k 0I k 1 I 0 h
Dcfinc rlc 5ource |ocation r
0
.
C,!:nu::cu! 1u·c 1uu:ut:vn
1lc Cy|indrica| Wave kadiation fcarurc aoos a raoiarion lounoary conoirion for a
cylinorical wavc. ¡f rcquirco, riglr-click rlc main nooc ro aoo an ¡nciocnr ¡rcssurc
Iiclo.
8 0 u h 0 k k I £ 5
Sclccr rlc lounoarics wlcrc you wanr ro usc a cylinorical wavc raoiarion conoirion.
C ¥ L I h 0k I C k L Wk¥£ k k 0 I k 1 I 0 h
Dcfinc rlc 5ource |ocation r
0
, ano rlc 5ource axis oirccrion r
axIs
.

1
0
------ p  
1
0
----- -
1
c
---
/
p
r p  
1
0
----- -
1
c
---
/
p
I
r p
I
 p
I
  
58 [ C H A P T L P 3 : P P L S S U P L A C O U S T | C S
1nc:ucnt 1:cssu:c 1:c!u
1lc Incident Fressure fie|d fcarurc is a sulfcarurc ro all non-rcflccring lounoary
conoirions. Aoo an inciocnr prcssurc ficlo ly riglr-clicking rlc lounoary conoirion
ano sclccring Incident Fressure fie|d.
8 0 u h 0 k k I £ 5
Sclccr rlc lounoarics wlcrc you wanr ro incluoc an inciocnr prcssurc ficlo in rlc
lounoary conoirion. By ocfaulr, rlis fcarurc inlcrirs rlc sclccrion from irs parcnr nooc,
ano you can only usc a sclccrion rlar is a sulscr of rlc parcnr nooc`s sclccrion.
I h C I 0£ h 1 F k£ 5 5 u k £ f I £ L 0
Irom rlc Incident pressure fie|d type lisr, sclccr F|ane wave ro ocfinc a lackgrouno
prcssurc ficlo of planc wavc rypc. ¡nrcr a Fressure amp|itude p
0
(S¡ unir: ¡a) ano Wave
direction Jir (S¡ unir: m).
Sclccr user defined ro cnrcr rlc cxprcssion for p
I
(S¡ unir: ¡a) as a funcrion of spacc ano
in rlc Incident pressure fie|d p
I
. 1lc ocfaulr is 0.
1c::vu:c Cvnu:t:vn
1lc Feriodic Condition fcarurc aoos a pcriooic lounoary conoirion. Riglr-click rlc
main nooc ro aoo a 0estination 5e|ection (scc Dcsrinarion Sclccrion in rlc COJSO1
Ju!t:¡h,s:cs 1sc:`s Gu:uc; or scc Wlcrc Do ¡ Acccss rlc Documcnrarion ano Moocl
¡ilrary?).
8 0 u h 0 k k I £ 5
Sclccr rlc lounoarics wlcrc you wanr ro apply a pcriooic conoirion.
F£ k I 0 0I C C 0 h 0I 1 I 0 h
Sclccr a 1ype of periodicity÷Continuity or kntiperiodicity.
Jutchcu 1vunuu:,
1lc Hatched 8oundary fcarurc aoos a marclco lounoary conoirion. ¡ikc rlc raoiarion
lounoary conoirions, ir lclongs ro rlc class of nonrcflccring lounoary conoirions
(!RBCs). ¡f rcquirco, riglr-click rlc main nooc ro aoo an Incident Fressure fie|d (scc
¡nciocnr ¡rcssurc Iiclo)
T H L P P L S S U P L A C O U S T | C S | N T L P F A C L [ 59
¡ropcrly scr up, rlc marclco lounoary conoirion allows onc mooc wirl wavc numlcr
h
1
(scr h
2
=h
1
), or rwo moocs wirl wavc numlcrs h
1
ano h
2,
ro lcavc rlc moocling
oomain wirl minimal rcflccrions. 1lc cquarion is givcn ly
¡crc
T
, for a givcn poinr on rlc lounoary, rcfcrs ro rlc ¡aplacc opcraror in rlc
rangcnrial planc ar rlar poinr, wlilc p
0
is rlc ampliruoc of an oprional incoming planc
wavc wirl wavc vccror . ¡n aooirion ro p
0
you spccify rlc propagarion oirccrion, 
k
,
wlcrcas rlc wavc numlcr is ocfinco ly h /c.
1lc marclco lounoary conoirion is parricularly uscful for moocling acousric wavcs in
oucrs ano wavcguiocs ar frcqucncics lclow rlc curoff frcqucncy for rlc sccono cxcirco
rransvcrsc mooc. ¡n sucl siruarions scr h
1
/c ano h
2

1
/c, wlcrc
1
2 j
1
, ano
j
1
is rlc curoff frcqucncy for rlc firsr cxcirco mooc. Wlcn h
1
h
2
/c, rlc marclco
lounoary conoirion rcouccs ro rlc planc-wavc oprion of rlc rimc-larmonic raoiarion
lounoary conoirion.
8 0 u h 0 k k I £ 5
Sclccr rlc lounoarics wlcrc you wanr ro usc a marclco lounoary conoirion.
Hk 1 C h £ 0 8 0 u h 0k k ¥
Irom rlc Hatch lisr, sclccr 0ne mode or 1wo modes, rlcn cnrcr onc or rwo Wave
numbers (h
1
ano h
2
).
1u: 1:c!u Cu!cu!ut:vn
!sc rlc far fie|d Ca|cu|ation ro apply rlc sourcc lounoarics for rlc ncar-ro-far ficlo
rransformarion. ¡r also allows you ro spccify a namc for rlc acousric far ficlo variallc.
8 0 u h 0 k k I £ 5
Sclccr rlc lounoarics wlcrc you wanr ro spccify rlc sourcc apcrrurc for rlc far ficlo.

1
0
------ p  
i
c
--- -
2
h
1
h
2
 p
T
p
c
---------- 
0
h
1
h
2

------------------------------------------------------------ 
i
c
--- -
2
h
1
h
2
 p
I
T
p
I
c
------------ - 
0
h
1
h
2

---------------------------------------------------------------- 
1
0
----- - p
i
 
60 [ C H A P T L P 3 : P P L S S U P L A C O U S T | C S
f k k f I £ L 0 C k L C u L k 1 I 0 h
¡nrcr a far fie|d variab|e name for rlc far acousric prcssurc ficlo (rlc ocfaulr is pfar).
Sclccr a 1ype of integra|÷Integra| approximation for r (rlc ocfaulr) ro compurc rlc
valuc in rlc far-ficlo limir (scc 1lc Iar-Iiclo ¡imir) or fu|| integra| ro compurc rlc full
¡clmlolrz-Kirclloff inrcgral (scc 1lc ¡clmlolrz-Kirclloff ¡nrcgral
Rcprcscnrarion). Scc ¡valuaring rlc Acousric Iiclo in rlc Iar-Iiclo Rcgion for a
lackgrouno of rlc far-ficlo cvaluarion.
¡f rcquirco, usc symmcrry plancs in your moocl wlcn calcularing rlc far-ficlo variallc.
1lc symmcrry plancs lavc ro coincioc wirl onc of rlc Carrcsian cooroinarc plancs. Ior
cacl of rlcsc plancs, sclccr rlc rypc of symmcrry clcck loxcs÷5ymmetry in the x=0
p|ane, 5ymmetry in the y=0 p|ane, or 5ymmetry in the z=0 p|ane. 1lis sclccrion sloulo
marcl rlc lounoary conoirion usco for rlc symmcrry lounoary. Wirl rlcsc scrrings,
you can incluoc rlc parrs of rlc gcomcrry rlar arc nor in rlc moocl for symmcrry
rcasons in rlc far-ficlo analysis.
1ntc::v: Svunu 1u:u 1vunuu:, ¸1u!!)
1lis fcarurc crcarcs a lounoary conoirion for rlc Interior 5ound hard 8oundary (Wa||).
1lis lounoary conoirion is only availallc on inrcrior lounoarics. A svunu-hu:u
hvunuu:, is a lounoary ar wlicl rlc normal componcnr of rlc accclcrarion is zcro:

Ior zcro oipolc clargc ano consranr fluio ocnsiry, rlis mcans rlar rlc normal ocrivarivc
of rlc prcssurc is zcro ar rlc lounoary.
8 0 u h 0 k k I £ 5
Sclccr rlc inrcrior lounoarics you wanr ro ocfinc as souno laro lounoarics (wall).
1ntc::v: 1v:nu! .ccc!c:ut:vn
1lc Interior horma| kcce|eration fcarurc aoos rlc normal parr of an accclcrarion a
0
:
Alrcrnarivcly, spccify rlc inwaro accclcrarion a
n
. 1lc normal of rlc lounoary is
inrcrprcrco as poinring ourwaros.

1
0
------ p  
1
0  
1
0
------ p  
2
0 
 
1
0
------  p  
1
 
0
  
1
0
------  p  
2
 
0

T H L P P L S S U P L A C O U S T | C S | N T L P F A C L [ 61
8 0 u h 0 k k I £ 5
Sclccr rlc inrcrior lounoarics wlcrc you wanr ro spccify an inrcrior normal
accclcrarion conoirion.
I h 1 £ k I 0k h 0 k Hk L k C C £ L £ k k 1 I 0 h
Irom rlc 1ype lisr, sclccr kcce|eration ano cnrcr valucs for rlc componcnrs of rlc
accclcrarion (S¡ unir: m/s
2
) in rlc a
0
ficlo. Sclccr Inward kcce|eration ro cnrcr rlc valuc
of rlc inwaro normal accclcrarion in rlca
n
ficlo. !sc a posirivc valuc for inwaro
accclcrarion or a ncgarivc valuc for ourwaro accclcrarion. 1lc normal of rlc lounoary
poinrs ourwaros.
1ntc::v: 1n¡cuuncc
1lc Interior Impedance fcarurc aoos an impcoancc lounoary conoirion, wlicl is a
gcncralizarion of rlc souno-laro ano souno-sofr lounoary conoirions ano availallc on
inrcrior lounoarics. 1lc following cquarions arc valio in rlc frcqucncy oomain:
Ior a rimc-ocpcnocnr sruoy (rimc oomain), rlc ¡nrcrior ¡mpcoancc lounoary
conoirion uscs rlc following cquarions:
¡crc Z is rlc impcoancc, wlicl from a plysical poinr is rlc rario lcrwccn prcssurc ano
normal parriclc vclociry.
!orc rlar in rlc rwo opposirc limirs Z ano Z 0, rlis lounoary conoirion is
iocnrical ro rlc 5ound hard lounoary conoirion ano rlc 5ound 5oft lounoary
conoirion, rcspccrivcly.
8 0 u h 0 k k I £ 5
Sclccr rlc inrcrior lounoarics wlcrc you wanr ro spccify an inrcrior impcoancc
lounoary conoirion.
 
1
0
------  p  
1
a
n
  
1
0
----- -  p  
2
a
n


1
0
------  p  
1
i p
1
p
2

Z
------------------------------  
1
0
----- -  p  
2
i p
2
p
1

Z
------------------------------ 

1
0
----- -  p  
1
1
Z
--- -
/
p
1
p
2
  
1
0
----- -  p  
2
1
Z
--- -
/
p
2
p
1
 
62 [ C H A P T L P 3 : P P L S S U P L A C O U S T | C S
I h 1 £ k I 0 k I HF £ 0 k h C £
¡nrcr rlc valuc of rlc Impedance Z
I
(S¡ unir: ¡a·s/m). 1lc ocfaulr is 0.
1ntc::v: 1c:[v:utcu 1!utc
1lc Interior Ferforated F|ate fcarurc proviocs rlc possililiry of spccifying rlc
claracrcrisric propcrrics for a pcrforarco plarc. COMSO¡ rlcn calcularcs rlc
impcoancc using rlc following cxprcssion (Rcf. 3):
8 0 u h 0 k k I £ 5
Sclccr rlc inrcrior lounoarics wlcrc you wanr ro spccify an ¡nrcrior ¡crforarco ¡larc
lounoary conoirion.
I h 1 £ k I 0 k F£ k f 0 k k 1 £ 0 F L k 1 £
1lc cquarion alovc incluocs rlc propcrrics lisrco for rlc pcrforarco plarc. Spccify rlc
propcrrics of rlc pcrforarco plarc:
 ¡nrcr rlc 0ynamic viscosity (S¡ unir: ¡a·s). 1lc ocfaulr is 1.Sc-5 ¡a·s.
 ¡nrcr rlc krea porosity (rlar is, rlc lolcs` fracrion of rlc lounoary surfacc arca÷
a oimcnsionlcss numlcr lcrwccn 0 ano 1). 1lc ocfaulr is 0.1; rlar is, 10º of rlc
plarc`s arca consisrs of lolcs.
 ¡nrcr rlc F|ate thickness /
p
(S¡ unir: m). 1lc ocfaulr is 0.
 ¡nrcr rlc ho|e diameter J
h
(S¡ unir: m). 1lc ocfaulr is 1 mm (10
3
m).
 ¡nrcr rlc £nd correction
h
ro rlc rcacrancc (S¡ unir: m). 1lc ocfaulr is 0.25J
h
(a
quarrcr of rlc lolc oiamcrcr).
 ¡nrcr rlc f|ow resistance
I
a conrrilurion ro rlc rcsisrivc parr of rlc impcoancc
rlar you can usc, for cxamplc, ro incluoc rlc cffccrs of a mcan flow. 1lc ocfaulr is 0.
.·:u! S,nnct:,
1lc kxia| symmetry nooc is a ocfaulr nooc aooco for all 1D ano 2D axisymmcrric
moocls. 1lc lounoary conoirion is acrivc on all lounoarics on rlc symmcrry axis.
Z
0
c
s
----------- -
1
---
8 h
0
c
---------- 1
/
p
J
h
------ 
I
 i
h
--- /
p h
  
T H L P P L S S U P L A C O U S T | C S | N T L P F A C L [ 63
8 0 u h 0 k k I £ 5
1lc lounoarics sccrion slows on wlicl lounoarics rlc fcarurc is acrivc. All lounoarics
on rlc symmcrry axis arc auromarically sclccrco.
Cvnt:nu:t, ¸1u:: 1cutu:c)
Conrinuiry is availallc as an oprion ar inrcrfaccs lcrwccn parrs in an asscmlly. Also scc
Dcfining an ¡ocnriry ¡air in rlc COJSO1 Ju!t:¡h,s:cs 1sc:`s Gu:uc or Wlcrc Do ¡
Acccss rlc Documcnrarion ano Moocl ¡ilrary?.
1lis conoirion givcs conrinuiry in rlc normal accclcrarion ovcr rlc pair (sulscriprs 1
ano 2 in rlc cquarion rcfcrs ro rlc rwo siocs in rlc pair):
8 0 u h 0 k k I £ 5
1lis lisr cannor lc coirco. ¡r slows rlc lounoarics in rlc sclccrco pairs.
Fk I k 5 £ L £ C 1 I 0 h
Sclccr rlc lounoary pairs wlcrc you wanr ro ocfinc conrinuiry. Iirsr rlc pairs lavc ro
lc ocfinco.
C 0h 5 1 k k I h 1 5 £ 1 1 I h 6 5
1o oisplay rlis sccrion, sclccr 5how Hore 0ptions from rlc ¥iew mcnu in rlc Hode|
8ui|der. Sclccr a Constraint type÷8idirectiona|, symmetric, or unidirectiona|. ¡f rcquirco,
sclccr rlc use weak constraints clcck lox.
Svunu Sv[t 1vunuu:, ¸1u:: 1cutu:c)
1lc 5ound 5oft 8oundary is availallc as an oprion ar inrcrfaccs lcrwccn parrs in an
asscmlly. Also scc Dcfining an ¡ocnriry ¡air in rlc COJSO1 Ju!t:¡h,s:cs 1sc:`s
Gu:uc. ¡r crcarcs a lounoary conoirion for a svunu sv[t hvunuu:,, wlcrc rlc acousric
prcssurc vanislcs:
8 0 u h 0 k k I £ 5
1lis lisr cannor lc coirco. ¡r slows rlc lounoarics in rlc sclccrco pairs.

1
0
------ p  
1
1
0
------ p  
2
 0 
p 0 
64 [ C H A P T L P 3 : P P L S S U P L A C O U S T | C S
F k I k 5 £ L £ C 1 I 0 h
Sclccr rlc lounoary pairs rlar you wanr ro ocfinc as souno sofr lounoarics. Iirsr rlc
pairs lavc ro lc ocfinco.
C 0 h 5 1 k k I h 1 5 £ 1 1 I h 6 5
1o oisplay rlis sccrion, sclccr 5how Hore 0ptions from rlc ¥iew mcnu in rlc Hode|
8ui|der. Sclccr a Constraint type÷8idirectiona|, symmetric, or unidirectiona|. ¡f rcquirco,
sclccr rlc use weak constraints clcck lox.
1:cssu:c ¸1u:: 1cutu:c)
1lc Fressure pair fcarurc is availallc as an oprion ar inrcrfaccs lcrwccn parrs in an
asscmlly. Also scc Dcfining an ¡ocnriry ¡air in rlc COJSO1 Ju!t:¡h,s:cs 1sc:`s
Gu:uc or Wlcrc Do ¡ Acccss rlc Documcnrarion ano Moocl ¡ilrary?. ¡r crcarcs a
lounoary conoirion rlar acrs as a prcssurc sourcc ar rlc lounoary, wlicl mcans you
spccify a consranr acousric prcssurc p
0
ro lc mainrainco ar rlc lounoary:
¡n rlc frcqucncy oomain, p
0
is rlc ampliruoc of a larmonic prcssurc sourcc.
8 0 u h 0 k k I £ 5
1lis lisr cannor lc coirco. ¡r slows rlc lounoarics in rlc sclccrco pairs.
F k I k 5 £ L £ C 1 I 0 h
Sclccr rlc lounoary pairs wlcrc you wanr ro spccify a prcssurc lounoary conoirion.
Iirsr rlc pairs lavc ro lc ocfinco.
F k £ 5 5 u k £
¡nrcr rlc valuc of rlc Fressure p
0
(S¡ unir: ¡a) ar rlc lounoary.
C 0 h 5 1 k k I h 1 5 £ 1 1 I h 6 5
1o oisplay rlis sccrion, sclccr 5how Hore 0ptions from rlc ¥iew mcnu in rlc Hode|
8ui|der. Sclccr a Constraint type÷8idirectiona|, symmetric, or unidirectiona|. ¡f rcquirco,
sclccr rlc use weak constraints clcck lox.
p p
0

T H L P P L S S U P L A C O U S T | C S | N T L P F A C L [ 65
1:cssu:c .cvust:cs 1vunuu:, Svu:ccs
Riglr-click rlc Fressure kcoustics nooc ro aoo rlcsc lounoary sourccs in 2D
axisymmcrry:
 Ilow ¡inc Sourcc on Axis
 ¡nrcnsiry ¡inc Sourcc on Axis
 ¡owcr ¡inc Sourcc on Axis
1!v¬ 1:nc Svu:cc vn .·:s
!sc rlc f|ow Line 5ource on kxis fcarurc ro aoo a linc sourcc along rlc symmcrry axis
in 2D axisymmcrry. 1lc f|ow Line 5ource on kxis fcarurc is rlc only onc wlcrc you can
spccify nor only rlc sourcc`s ampliruoc lur also irs complcx plasc. 1lis can lc uscful
if you lavc rwo or morc sourccs rlar arc murually our of plasc. 1lc following rcrm is
aooco ro rlc riglr-lano sioc of rlc cquarion for rlc acousric prcssurc:
wlcrc 8 is rlc sourcc ampliruoc.
8 0 u h 0 k k I £ 5
Sclccr rlc lounoarics on rlc symmcrry axis wlcrc you wanr ro ocfinc rlc flow linc
sourcc.
f L 0W L I h £ 5 0 u k C £ 0 h k X I 5
¡nrcr an krea f|ow out from source, 8 (S¡ unir: m
2
/s) for rlc valuc for rlc
sourcc-srrcngrl ampliruoc.
¡n rlc kesu|ts ano plorring fcarurcs, you can spccify an imaginary sourcc-srrcngrl ro
prooucc a nonzcro rcsulr wlcn you visualizc rlc rcsulring prcssurc ficlo using rlc
ocfaulr valuc (u) in rlc 5o|ution at ang|e (phase).
1ntcns:t, 1:nc Svu:cc vn .·:s
!sc rlc Intensity Line 5ource on kxis fcarurc ro aoo a linc sourcc locarco along rlc
symmcrry axis in 2D axisymmcrry. !sing rlis fcarurc you can scr a ocsirco inrcnsiry, |,
ar a spccifico oisrancc, dIsf, from rlc sourcc. ¡n a lomogcncous mcoium you gcr rlc
spccifico inrcnsiry, lur wirl orlcr oljccrs ano lounoarics prcscnr rlc acrual inrcnsiry
i 8
2
 
0

66 [ C H A P T L P 3 : P P L S S U P L A C O U S T | C S
is oiffcrcnr. 1lc rcrm rlar rlis fcarurc aoos ro rlc riglr-lano sioc of rlc cquarion is
givcn ly
1lc inrcnsiry | las rlc ocfaulr S¡ unir W/m
2
.
8 0 u h 0 k k I £ 5
Sclccr rlc lounoarics on rlc symmcrry axis wlcrc you wanr ro ocfinc rlc inrcnsiry linc
sourcc.
I h 1 £ h 5 I 1 ¥ L I h £ 5 0u k C £ 0 h k XI 5
¡nrcr rlc Intensity | (S¡ unir: W/m
2
) of rlc sourcc ano rlc 0istance from source center
J
src
(S¡ unir: m).
1v¬c: 1:nc Svu:cc vn .·:s
!sc rlc Fower Line 5ource on kxis fcarurc ro aoo a linc sourcc along rlc symmcrry axis
in 2D axisymmcrry. ¡n rlis casc, you spccify rlc sourcc`s srrcngrl ly sraring rlc roral
powcr ir woulo raoiarc inro a lomogcncous mcoium. 1lc fcarurc aoos rlc following
rcrm ro rlc riglr-lano sioc of rlc cquarion:
wlcrc F now ocnorcs rlc raoiarco powcr pcr unir lcngrl mcasurco in W/m.
8 0 u h 0 k k I £ 5
Sclccr rlc lounoarics on rlc symmcrry axis wlcrc you wanr ro ocfinc rlc powcr linc
sourcc.
F0W£ k L I h £ 5 0 u k C £ 0 h k XI 5
¡nrcr rlc Fower per unit |ength F (S¡ unir: W/m) raoiaring from rlc linc sourcc.
1:cssu:c .cvust:cs 1uµc Svu:ccs
Riglr-click rlc Fressure kcoustics nooc ro aoo rlcsc cogc sourccs in 3D:
 Ilow ¡ogc Sourcc
1
0
----- - p    4
j | dIsf
0
---------------------
2
 
0
 
2
F
0
--------
2
 
0

T H L P P L S S U P L A C O U S T | C S | N T L P F A C L [ 67
 ¡nrcnsiry ¡ogc Sourcc
 ¡owcr ¡ogc Sourcc
1!v¬ 1uµc Svu:cc
!sc rlc f|ow £dge 5ource fcarurc ro aoo an cogc sourcc locarco ar  
0
in 3D. 1lc
f|ow £dge 5ource fcarurc is rlc only onc wlcrc you can spccify nor only rlc sourcc`s
ampliruoc lur also irs complcx plasc. 1lis can lc uscful if you lavc rwo or morc
sourccs rlar arc murually our of plasc. 1lc flow cogc sourcc aoos rlc following rcrm
ro rlc riglr-lano sioc of rlc cquarion for rlc acousric prcssurc:
A flow cogc sourcc wirl rlc srrcngrl 8 rcprcscnrs an arca flow our from rlc sourcc
(rlc sourcc is a vcry rlin cylinocr wirl a surfacc rlar pulsarcs).
£ 06 £ 5
Sclccr rlc cogcs wlcrc you wanr ro ocfinc rlc flow cogc sourcc.
f L 0W £ 06 £ 5 0 u k C £
Spccify krea f|ow rate out from source, 8. ¡nrcr rlc valuc for rlc sourcc-srrcngrl
ampliruoc (S¡ unir: m
2
/s) in rlc ficlo.
¡n rlc rcsulrs ano plorring fcarurcs, you can spccify an imaginary sourcc-srrcngrl ro
prooucc a nonzcro rcsulr wlcn you visualizc rlc rcsulring prcssurc ficlo using rlc
ocfaulr valuc (u) in rlc 5o|ution at ang|e (phase) ficlo.
1ntcns:t, 1uµc Svu:cc
!sc rlc Intensity £dge 5ource fcarurc ro aoo an cogc sourcc locarco ar  
0
in 3D.
You can scr a ocsirco inrcnsiry, |, ar a spccifico oisrancc, dIsf, from rlc sourcc. ¡n a
lomogcncous mcoium you gcr rlc spccifico inrcnsiry, lur wirl orlcr oljccrs ano
lounoarics prcscnr rlc acrual inrcnsiry is oiffcrcnr. 1lis fcarurc aoos rlc following
rcrm ro rlc riglr-lano sioc of rlc cquarion for rlc acousric prcssurc;
¡n lorl cascs | las rlc ocfaulr S¡ unir W/m
2
.
i 8
2
 
0

1
0
------ p    4
j | dIsf
0
---------------------
2
 
0
 
68 [ C H A P T L P 3 : P P L S S U P L A C O U S T | C S
£ 0 6 £ 5
Sclccr rlc cogcs wlcrc you wanr ro ocfinc rlc inrcnsiry cogc sourcc.
I h 1 £ h 5 I 1 ¥ £ 0 6 £ 5 0 u k C £
¡nrcr an Intensity | (S¡ unir: W/m
2
) of rlc sourcc ano rlc 0istance from source center
J
src
(S¡ unir: m).
1v¬c: 1uµc Svu:cc
!sc rlc Fower £dge 5ource fcarurc ro aoo an cogc sourcc locarco ar  
0
in 3D.
Spccify rlc sourcc`s srrcngrl ly sraring rlc roral powcr ir woulo raoiarc inro a
lomogcncous mcoium. 1lc fcarurc aoos rlc following rcrm ro rlc riglr-lano sioc of
rlc cquarion:
wlcrc F now ocnorcs rlc raoiarco powcr pcr unir lcngrl mcasurco in W/m.
£ 0 6 £ 5
Sclccr rlc cogcs wlcrc you wanr ro ocfinc rlc powcr cogc sourcc.
F0W£ k £ 06 £ 5 0 u k C £
Spccify rlc powcr raoiaring from rlc cogc sourcc. ¡nrcr rlc valuc for rlc Fower per
unit |ength (S¡ unir: W/m).
1:cssu:c .cvust:cs 1v:nt Svu:ccs
Riglr-click rlc Fressure kcoustics nooc ro aoo rlcsc poinr sourccs in 2D or 3D:
 Ilow ¡oinr Sourcc
 ¡nrcnsiry ¡oinr Sourcc
 ¡owcr ¡oinr Sourcc
¡n 2D axisymmcrry:
 Ilow Circular Sourcc
 ¡nrcnsiry Circular Sourcc
 ¡owcr Circular Sourcc
2
F
0
--------
2
 
0

T H L P P L S S U P L A C O U S T | C S | N T L P F A C L [ 69
1!v¬ 1v:nt Svu:cc
!sc rlc f|ow Foint 5ource fcarurc ro aoo a poinr sourcc in 2D or 3D locarco ar  
0
.
1lc f|ow Foint 5ource fcarurc is rlc only onc wlcrc you can spccify nor only rlc
sourcc`s ampliruoc lur also irs complcx plasc. 1lis is uscful if rlcrc arc rwo or morc
sourccs rlar arc murually our of plasc. Ior 3D ano 2D axisymmcrric poinrs, rlc flow
poinr sourcc aoos rlc following rcrm ro rlc riglr-lano sioc of rlc cquarion for rlc
acousric prcssurc:
wlcrc 8 is rlc sourcc ampliruoc.
Ior a poinr in 2D rlc corrcsponoing rcrm is
F0 I h 1 5
Sclccr rlc poinrs wlcrc you wanr ro ocfinc rlc flow poinr sourcc.
f L 0W F0 I h 1 5 0u k C £
¡n 3D ano 2D axisymmcrry, cnrcr a ¥o|ume f|ow rate out from source, 8 (S¡ unir: m
3
/
s). ¡n 2D, cnrcr an krea f|ow rate out from source, 8 (S¡ unir: m
2
/s).
¡n rlc kesu|ts ano plorring fcarurcs, you can spccify an imaginary sourcc-srrcngrl ro
prooucc a nonzcro rcsulr wlcn you visualizc rlc rcsulring prcssurc ficlo using rlc
ocfaulr valuc (u) in rlc 5o|ution at ang|e (phase) coir ficlo.
1ntcns:t, 1v:nt Svu:cc
!sc rlc Intensity Foint 5ource fcarurc ro aoo a poinr sourcc in 2D or 3D locarco ar
 
0
. Scr a ocsirco inrcnsiry, |, ar a spccifico oisrancc, dIsf, from rlc sourcc. ¡n a
lomogcncous mcoium you gcr rlc spccifico inrcnsiry, lur wirl orlcr oljccrs ano
lounoarics prcscnr rlc acrual inrcnsiry is oiffcrcnr. 1lc rcrm rlar rlis fcarurc aoos ro
rlc riglr-lano sioc of rlc cquarion for rlc acousric prcssurc oiffcrs ocpcnoing on rlc
spacc oimcnsion. Ior 3D ano 2D axisymmcrric poinrs, rlc following rcrm ocfincs rlc
sourcc:
i 8
3
 
0

i 8
2
 
0

4 dIsf
|c
0
----- -
3
 
0

70 [ C H A P T L P 3 : P P L S S U P L A C O U S T | C S
Ior a poinr in 2D rlc corrcsponoing rcrms is
F0 I h 1 5
Sclccr rlc poinrs wlcrc you wanr ro ocfinc rlc inrcnsiry poinr sourcc.
I h 1 £ h 5 I 1 ¥ F0 I h 1 5 0 u k C £
¡nrcr an Intensity | (S¡ unir: W/m
2
) or rlc 0istance from source center J
src
(S¡ unir:
m).
1v¬c: 1v:nt Svu:cc
!sc rlc Fower Foint 5ource fcarurc ro aoo a poinr sourcc in 2D or 3D locarco ar  
0
.
Spccify rlc sourcc`s srrcngrl ly sraring rlc roral powcr ir woulo raoiarc inro a
lomogcncous mcoium. 1lc cxprcssion for rlc sourcc oiffcrs sliglrly lcrwccn 2D
poinrs ano 3D poinrs. Ior a poinr in 3D, rlc fcarurc aoos rlc following rcrm:
¡crc F is rlc raoiarco powcr wirl rlc ocfaulr S¡ unir W. Ior a poinr in 2D, rlc fcarurc
uscs rlc following rcrm:
wlcrc F now ocnorcs rlc raoiarco powcr pcr unir lcngrl mcasurco in W/m.
F0 I h 1 5
Sclccr rlc poinrs wlcrc you wanr ro ocfinc rlc powcr poinr sourcc.
F0W£ k F0 I h 1 5 0u k C £
Spccify rlc powcr raoiaring from rlc poinr sourcc. ¡n 3D ano 2D axisymmcrry cnrcr
rlc valuc for rlc Fower, p (S¡ unir: W). ¡n 2D, cnrcr rlc valuc for rlc Fower per unit
|ength p (S¡ unir: W/m).
1
0
----- - p    4
j | dIsf
0
---------------------
2
 
0
 
2
Fc
0
----------
3
 
0

2
F
0
--------
2
 
0

T H L P P L S S U P L A C O U S T | C S | N T L P F A C L [ 71
1!v¬ C::cu!u: Svu:cc
!sc rlc f|ow Circu|ar 5ource fcarurc ro aoo a circular sourcc in 2D axisymmcrry locarco
ar  
0
. 1lc f|ow Circu|ar 5ource fcarurc is rlc only onc wlcrc you can spccify nor
only rlc sourcc`s ampliruoc lur also irs complcx plasc. 1lis can lc uscful if you lavc
rwo or morc sourccs rlar arc murually our of plasc. 1lc flow circular sourcc aoos rlc
following rcrm ro rlc riglr-lano sioc of rlc cquarion for rlc acousric prcssurc:
wlcrc 8 is rlc sourcc ampliruoc.
F0 I h 1 5
Sclccr rlc poinrs wlcrc you wanr rlc flow circular sourccs ro inrcrsccr rlc (r, :)-planc.
f L 0W C I k C u L k k 5 0u kC £
¡nrcr an krea f|ow rate out from source, 8 (S¡ unir: m
2
/s).
¡n rlc kesu|ts ano plorring fcarurcs, you can spccify an imaginary sourcc-srrcngrl ro
prooucc a nonzcro rcsulr wlcn you visualizc rlc rcsulring prcssurc ficlo using rlc
ocfaulr valuc (u) in rlc 5o|ution at ang|e (phase) coir ficlo.
1ntcns:t, C::cu!u: Svu:cc
!sc rlc Intensity Circu|ar 5ource fcarurc ro aoo a circular sourcc in 2D axisymmcrry
locarco ar  
0
. Scr a ocsirco inrcnsiry, |, ar a spccifico oisrancc, dIsf, from rlc sourcc.
¡n a lomogcncous mcoium far from rlc symmcrry axis you gcr rlc spccifico inrcnsiry,
lur wirl orlcr oljccrs ano lounoarics prcscnr rlc acrual inrcnsiry is oiffcrcnr. 1lc
following rcrm is aooco ro rlc riglr-lano sioc of rlc cquarion
F0 I h 1 5
Sclccr rlc poinrs wlcrc you wanr rlc inrcnsiry circular sourccs ro inrcrsccr rlc
(r, :)-planc.
I h 1 £ h 5 I 1 ¥ C I k C u L k k 5 0 u k C £
¡nrcr an Intensity | (S¡ unir: W/m
2
) or rlc 0istance from source center J
src
(S¡ unir:
m).
i 8
2
 
0

1
0
------ p    4
j | dIsf
0
---------------------
2
 
0
 
72 [ C H A P T L P 3 : P P L S S U P L A C O U S T | C S
1v¬c: C::cu!u: Svu:cc
!sc rlc Fower Circu|ar 5ource fcarurc ro aoo a circular sourcc in 2D axisymmcrry
locarco ar  
0
. ¡n rlis casc, you spccify rlc sourcc`s srrcngrl ly sraring rlc powcr
pcr unir lcngrl ir woulo raoiarc inro a lomogcncous mcoium. 1lis fcarurc aoos rlc
following rcrm ro rlc riglr-lano sioc of rlc cquarion:
wlcrc F ocnorcs rlc raoiarco powcr pcr unir lcngrl mcasurco in W/m.
F0 I h 1 5
Sclccr rlc poinrs wlcrc you wanr rlc powcr circular sourccs ro inrcrsccr rlc
(r, :)-planc.
F0W£ k C I k C u L k k 5 0 u k C £
Spccify rlc powcr raoiaring from rlc poinr sourcc. ¡nrcr rlc valuc for rlc Fower per
unit |ength p (S¡ unir: W/m).
2
F
0
--------
2
 
0

                     
       


  


 


      --    

            

  

               

 

  
               

   


 


 


  
 

 


            



  

    --.   -                                                      .    ------        ------     ------           ------             --------            --------     -.

     --   -------         --.               --.     ----------------      --       .    ----     --   -------           --.

                                                                             .

                                          .

                                                .

                                                          .

                             ----                                .

    ----         ----                             .

                            .                          ----     --------.

    --------                                 .      ----.                           ----       ----.

   ----------------------------------------                      ----      .----.----.  -----------      -----------        ----.   -. ----------------------------.   -.                                    .-----------------.  ----.  -------------------------------.              ----                ----.    ----. -------------------------------             .  ----.            ----      ----.

   ----.-. ----.-                                                                   .       .  ----     .

                                                        .

      --.                                             .       ---------   ----------------------------------------------------------      ----      --.  ----.        -----------    --------------------------------------------------------------.

                      ----       ----              ----         ----                           .

   ----        ----                      ----        ----------------------------    ----         ----------------------------      ----     --.          ----     --.                     .

---------         -.                                                     .    ----.        ----------. -. .

          ----    ----                             .

                                                 .

                                                          .

   ----       -------------------                     ------                                  .

                                             ----       -------------------          .

             ------                                               .

                                                       ----         .

   ----       -------------------                    --------         ------                                .

                                           ----       -------------------                .

        ------                                .