# Chem 121

Titration of Vinegar Titration of Vinegar with Sodium Hydroxide

M. Dunn

Objective: Find the concentration of acetic acid (HC2H3O2) in a sample of vinegar by titration with a solution of Sodium Hydroxide of known concentration.

Background Titration is a method used to calculate the concentration of a solution. A reaction is performed in which a solution of known concentration is added to a solution of unknown concentration. The volume of both solutions must be carefully measured. We have learned that the moles of solute in a solution can be calculated if the concentration (M) and volume (L) of the solution are known.

Molarity (M) 

moles of solute (n) Liter of solution (V)
Moles = M X V

(Equation 1) (Equation 2)

In this experiment, a sodium hydroxide solution of known molarity is contained in a buret, and the acetic acid solution (aka Vinegar) of unknown concentration is contained in an erlenmeyer flask. See Figure 1. The sodium hydroxide reacts with the acetic acid according to the following equation: NaOH + HC2H3O2  NaC2H3O2 + H2O (Equation 3)

Notice that the stoichiometry from equation 3 indicates that the NaOH reacts with HC2H3O2 in a one to one ratio. An indicator is used to tell when the titration is completed. Indicators are organiz compounds that change color at a specific solution pH. The end point of the titration is a point slightly past the equivalence point- where moles of base added equals the moles of added acid (equation 4) Moles of NaOH = Moles of HC2H3O2 (Equation 4)

Chem 121

Titration of Vinegar

M. Dunn

We can combine Equations 2 and Equations 4 to establish the relationship between the concentrations of the two solutions. (MNaOH)(VNaOH= (MHC2H3O2 )(VHC2H3O2) (Equation 5) Equation 5 gives us the means to calculated the concentration (M) of the acetic acid solution. Pre-Lab Question: View the Carolina Video on titration. Take notes on proper titration set up and technique. (http://www.youtube.com/watch?NR=1&feature=endscreen&v=sFpFCPTDv2w) Procedure: 1. Obtain approximately 50 mL of vinegar sample in a clean, dry 150-mL beaker. The beaker must be dry or you will dilute the vinegar! 2. Carefully pipet 10.00 mL of the vinegar solution into a 250 mL Erlenmeyer flask. Your instructor will demonstrate proper pipet technique. 3. Add approximately 40 mL of deionized water to your Erlenmeyer flask. 4. Add 2 or 3 drops of phenolphthalein indicator to the solution. DON’T FORGET THE INDICATOR! More isn’t better. Two or three drops is perfect! 5. From the pump station obtain sodium hydroxide solution. Prepare your buret for the solution by rinsing. Your instructor will demonstrate how to use the pump and how to properly prepare a buret for titration. 6. After you’ve prepared your buret, fill the buret with approximately 40 mL of sodium hydroxide (two pumps of the dispenser). Remember to close the stopcock first! You do NOT need to fill the buret to the very top. Make sure there is no air bubble in the tip. 7. Return your buret to the buret stand. Record your initial buret reading to the nearest 0.01 mL. Use a “reading card” to help read the meniscus. A “reading card” is simply a dark object held behind the meniscus. You should take the reading eye-level to the meniscus. 8. Have your instructor approve your setup before beginning your first titration. 9. Titrate your first sample. The first sample can be done quickly and the end-point overshot. This first titration is to establish approximately the volume necessary to reach the end-point. 10. Record the final buret reading to the nearest 0.01 mL. Use a Discard the titrated solution and prepare another sample for titration by repeating steps 2-4. 11. Repeat the titration AT LEAST three more times. Each partner MUST perform a titration. Make sure you have enough NaOH in the buret to complete the next titration. Quickly add sodium hydroxide with 1 or 2 mL of what was required from your first titration. Then slow way down as you approach the end point. Extra credit will be awarded to the team with the “best” end point. “Best” end point is defined as the palest, yet persistent, pink color. 12. When all titrations are done, drain the solution from the buret into the waste beaker and discard. Clean the pipet and buret using standard procedures.

Chem 121 Data Tables

Titration of Vinegar

M. Dunn

Molarity of NaOH _________________M NaOH Weight % of acetic acid in vinegar (listed on label) _________________ % acetic acid Molarity of acetic acid in vinegar as reported by the manufacturer. Your instructor will provide this number. ___________________M HC2H3O2 1st (estimate) trial Final buret reading Initial buret reading Volume of titrant used 2nd trial 3rd trial 4th trial 5th Trial (if necessary)

Calculations: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Calculate the average volume of standard NaOH required to titrate 10.00 mL of the vinegar solution. Do NOT use the 1st trial (estimate) as part of your average). Calculate the average number of moles of NaOH used in the titrations. Calculate or determine (give reasoning) the number of moles of acetic acid in the 10.00 mL sample of vinegar. Calculate the molarity of the acetic acid in the vinegar solution. Calculate the % error. Compare your results in # 4 with the molarity of acetic vinegar as provided by the manufactor. (EXTRA CREDIT) Calculate the weight % of acetic acid in the vinegar. How does this compare with the % listed on the label? Calculate your % error. (For this calculation assume that the density of vinegar is 1.03 g/mL).

Result and Conclusions:

1. Restate the purpose. 2. Give the results and explain them. This should include volumes added, percentages calculated and percent errors. 3. Discuss your error anaylsis. This should include what the error would cause to happen to the calculated results.
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