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Non-linear spatial Timoshenko beam element with

curvature interpolation

Mauro Schulz

1

and Filip C. Filippou

2,,

1

Department of Civil Engineering, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ 24220-000, Brazil

2

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-1710, U.S.A.

SUMMARY

The paper presents a spatial Timoshenko beam element with a total Lagrangian formulation. The element

is based on curvature interpolation that is independent of the rigid-body motion of the beam element and

simplies the formulation. The section response is derived from plane section kinematics. A two-node beam

element with constant curvature is relatively simple to formulate and exhibits excellent numerical conver-

gence. The formulation is extended to N-node elements with polynomial curvature interpolation. Models with

moderate discretization yield results of sucient accuracy with a small number of iterations at each load step.

Generalized second-order stress resultants are identied and the section response takes into account non-linear

material behaviour. GreenLagrange strains are expressed in terms of section curvature and shear distortion,

whose rst and second variations are functions of node displacements and rotations. A symmetric tangent

stiness matrix is derived by consistent linearization and an iterative acceleration method is used to improve

numerical convergence for hyperelastic materials. The comparison of analytical results with numerical sim-

ulations in the literature demonstrates the consistency, accuracy and superior numerical performance of the

proposed element. Copyright ? 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

KEY WORDS: non-linear geometric analysis; Timoshenko beam element; nite rotations; quaternions

INTRODUCTION

The study of the non-linear geometric response started occupying researchers centuries ago. As

recorded in Reference [1], Jacob Bernoulli (16541705) and Euler (17071783) did not limit their

studies to small deections. Linear approximation became common in the beginning of the 19th

century when Navier (17851836) consolidated the small displacement beam theory.

Although linear analysis proved simple, accurate and adequate for many applications, the realistic

simulation of three-dimensional non-linear structures under ultimate limit states is of considerable

interest. Recent aerospace, oshore and long span construction applications challenge researchers

Correspondence to: Filip C. Filippou, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California,

Berkeley, CA 94720-1710, U.S.A.

E-mail: lippou@ce.berkeley

Contract}grant sponsor; CNPq (Brazilian National Research Council)

Received 9 July 1999

Copyright

?

2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Revised 2 May 2000

762 M. SCHULZ AND F. C. FILIPPOU

to develop non-linear analysis to the same degree of simplicity of computation and reliability of

results as established by linear analysis methods.

Geometric non-linear analysis has been pursued with three basic kinematic formulations: total

Lagrangian, updated Lagrangian and co-rotational. In the total Lagrangian formulation the initial

conguration is selected as reference frame. In the updated Lagrangian formulation the cong-

uration at last convergence serves the same purpose. The co-rotational formulation is usually

associated with a unique frame that rotates simultaneously with the element and permits the use of

linear kinematic relations, while the non-linear geometric behaviour is accounted for by the frame

rotation.

Although the rst non-linear geometric stiness matrices for beams appeared in the early six-

ties in References [24], signicant progress was achieved after the incremental form for updated

Lagrangian and total Lagrangian formulations was developed in Reference [5]. Since the incre-

mental Lagrangian formulation proved computationally very eective, it became very popular and

was later applied to many other structural problems, such as thin-walled beam elements Refer-

ence [6].

The Timoshenko beam theory was extended to include nite displacements and plane rotations

in Reference [7]. The KirchhoLove spatial beam formulation was extended to include the nite

shear distortion and extension of the rod in Reference [8]. The importance of spatial nite rota-

tions in structural engineering applications was pointed out in Reference [9] along with elegant

derivations of rotation matrices and compound rotations in a rotation vector, and in Cayley and

quaternion representations.

A three-dimensional nite-beam element with general treatment of large rotations was devel-

oped in References [10, 11]. Quaternion parameters were used to avoid singularity problems and

minimize storage requirements. These studies adopted a total Lagrangian formulation with a small

number of load increments that was based on displacement and rotation vector interpolation. The

geometric stiness matrix is non-symmetric, except at the converged equilibrium conguration

under conservative loading. The study in Reference [12] arrived at a symmetric stiness matrix

with a dierent rotation discretization, while the study in Reference [13], truncated the rotation

representation to reach the same goal.

Large rotations were rst treated with a co-rotational formulation in Reference [14]. The con-

sistent tangent stiness matrix was non-symmetric and the impressive rate of convergence was

slightly reduced when the matrix was articially symmetrized.

The studies in References [15, 16] implemented a non-linear Timoshenko beam element with

a variant of the total Lagrangian formulation called core-congruential that is limited to linear

hyperelastic and isotropic materials. A symmetric geometric stiness matrix was arrived at by

suitable parametrization of nite rotations. Since the linear interpolation of the node rotations

cannot represent a constant curvature state, a two-node interpolation formula was derived from the

solution of the constant curvature dierential equation in quaternion terms.

The last approximation is equivalent to the elegant two-node spherical interpolation in Ref-

erence [17] called SLERP. The extension of this smooth orientation interpolation to N rotation

frames was studied in Reference [18], using an interesting physical analogy. When driving in

circles in a hilly region, the driver is bounced up and down in the seat (normal direction) and

pushed against the car doors (tangential direction). Minimizing tangential acceleration is desirable

to make the trip as comfortable as possible. Assuming that normal acceleration is inevitable, the

quaternion curve that minimizes the total tangential acceleration was derived numerically with an

augmented Lagrangian multiplier method.

Copyright ? 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engng 2001; 50:761785

NON-LINEAR SPATIAL TIMOSHENKO BEAM ELEMENT 763

The spatial Timoshenko beam element in this paper is based on the total Lagrangian formula-

tion. The section response is based on the common assumption of plane sections in Timoshenko

beam theory. The nite element formulation is based on a simple and straightforward constant cur-

vature interpolation scheme that is independent of the rigid-body motion of the beam element and

simplies the element formulation. The rotation matrix of the cross-section is established as the

product of the rotation matrix at the origin of the beam with a curvature dependent rotation matrix.

The beam deformation and its variations are obtained in closed form. This simplies the numer-

ical implementation signicantly, thus, avoiding numerical problems. The interpolation scheme is

extended to an N-node beam element by polynomial interpolation of the beam curvatures.

The GreenLagrange strains are expressed in terms of section curvature and shear distortion.

Three additional generalized stress resultants are identied: two second-order bending moments

and one covariant bending moment. The second-order generalized stress resultants are negligible

in slender rods, but are important for thicker elements. The section response includes fully non-

linear material behaviour, including exureshear interaction. The rst and second variation of

the section curvature and shear distortion is expressed in terms of the node displacements and

rotations. The consistent linearization of the governing equations leads to a symmetric stiness

matrix without further simplifying assumptions. A convergence acceleration scheme is used for

improving the performance and robustness of the numerical implementation. The validity of the

proposed element is established by comparison with numerical simulations in the literature.

FINITE ROTATIONS

The orientation at a node can be dened by an orthogonal vector triad as a 3 3 rotation matrix.

The information in the rotation matrix can be reduced to three parameters with the aid of Euler

angles, which are the rotations about the 3-axis, subsequent 1-axis and subsequent 3-axis. Since this

denition depends on the reference axes selection, other representations are often preferable. In the

rotation vector representation the rotation is dened by a pseudo-vector whose components and

modulus establish the rotation basis and value. Because the rotation vector representation can result

in singular relations, an Euler parameter or quaternion representation involving four variables is

sometimes more convenient. A discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of these and other

representations is presented in Reference [19].

Only basic aspects of nite rotations are presented herein. The studies in References [2022],

as well as the classic study in Reference [9], can serve as references. A succinct introduction is

presented in Reference [14].

The orthogonal rotation matrix R rotates vector v

0

to v

1

=Rv

0

. For compound rotations, dened

by

v

1

=R

1

v

0

, v

2

=R

2

v

1

, v

2

=R

21

v

0

(1)

the following expression applies:

R

21

=R

2

R

1

(2)

The rotation vector X and its modulus are expressed by

X

T

=[X

1

X

2

X

3

], X =Xe, X

2

=X

T

X (3)

Copyright ? 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engng 2001; 50:761785

764 M. SCHULZ AND F. C. FILIPPOU

and the associated skew-symmetric matrix S(X) is

S(X) =

_

_

0 X

3

X

3

X

3

0 X

1

X

2

X

1

0

_

_ (4)

The following expression is applicable to innitesimal rotations

R=I + S(X) (5)

For nite rotations, the rotation matrix R can be considered the superposition of n innitesimal

rotations i, each one dened by

R

i

= lim

n

_

I +

1

n

S(X)

_

(6)

With the compound rotation formula in (2) and (6), yields

R= lim

n

_

I +

1

n

S(X)

_

n

(7)

Using the binomial formula and taking the limit of the resulting expression the study in

Reference [9] showed that (7) is equivalent to

R(X) =I + S(X) +

1

2!

S(X)

2

+

1

3!

S(X)

3

+ +

1

n!

S(X)

n

= exp[S(X)] (8)

The transpose of the rotation matrix can be obtained through the inverse transformation

R(X)

T

=I S(X) +

1

2!

S(X)

2

1

3!

S(X)

3

+ +

(1)

n

n!

S(X)

n

= exp[S(X)] (9)

The following useful algebraic relations apply:

S(X

1

)X

2

= X

1

X

2

(10a)

S(X

1

)S(X

2

) = X

2

X

T

1

X

T

1

X

2

I (10b)

S(X

1

)X

2

= S(X

2

)X

1

(10c)

X

T

1

S(X

2

) = X

T

2

S(X

1

) (10d)

S(X)X = X

T

S(X) =0 (10e)

R(X)X = R(X)

T

X =X (10f)

S(X)

n+2

= (X

T

X)S(X)

n

(for n1) (10g)

S(S(X

1

)X

2

) = S(X

1

)S(X

2

) S(X

2

)S(X

1

) =X

2

X

T

1

X

1

X

T

2

(10h)

Using (10g), (8) can be rearranged in terms of S(X) and S(X)

2

to yield Rodrigues formula

R=I +

sin 0

0

S(X) +

1 cos 0

0

2

S(X)

2

(11)

Copyright ? 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engng 2001; 50:761785

NON-LINEAR SPATIAL TIMOSHENKO BEAM ELEMENT 765

A large rotation X physically means a rotation over a unit vector e =X}0 of magnitude equal to

the modulus 0 =

X

T

X. After applying this transformation to vector v, as shown in Figure 1, the

resulting vector v is equal to

v =v + (sin 0)e v + (1 cos 0) e e v (12)

With (10a) the rotation matrix satisfying the relation v =Rv is

R=I + (sin 0)S(e) + (1 cos 0)S(e)

2

(13)

which is equivalent to (11) after making use of (3).

Two rotations about the same axis are commutative and expressed by

R((a + b)X) =R(aX)R(bX) =R(bX)R(aX) (14)

The following expression is derived by observing that the columns of the rotation matrix are

orthogonal unit vectors:

S[R(X

1

)X

2

] =R(X

1

)S(X

2

)R(X

1

)

T

(15)

Substituting (15) in (18) yields

R[R(X

1

)X

2

] =R(X

1

)R(X

2

)R(X

1

)

T

(16)

A unary complex number c =c

0

+ c

1

i with c

2

0

+ c

2

1

=1 is represented in polar form by e

i0

and expresses orientation in the plane. Multiplication of unary complex numbers c

2

c

1

=e

i(0

2

+0

1

)

is

equivalent to the resultant orientation of compound rotations about the origin. Unary quaternions are

four-dimensional vectors resembling unary complex numbers and dened with the aid of imaginary

quantities i, j and k:

q =q

0

+ q

1

i + q

2

j + q

3

k

q

2

0

+ q

2

1

+ q

2

2

+ q

2

3

=1

i

2

=j

2

=k

2

= 1

ij = ji =k, jk = kj =i, ki = ik =j

(17)

Quaternions can also be represented by a three-dimensional vector and a scalar

q =

_

q

0

q

_

, q =(q

1

q

2

q

3

)

T

(18)

A rotation vector X is represented in quaternion form by

q

0

= cos (0}02), q =

sin (0}2)

0

X (19)

The quaternion multiplication q

21

=q

2

q

1

, based on the rules in (17), or the equivalent expression

q

21

=q

0, 2

q

0,1

q

T

2

q

1

+ q

0, 2

q

1

+ q

0, 1

q

2

+ q

2

q

1

(20)

yields the quaternion associated with the compound rotation matrix R

21

in (2). Quaternions q

1

and

q

2

are associated with rotation matrices R

1

and R

2

, respectively.

Copyright ? 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engng 2001; 50:761785

766 M. SCHULZ AND F. C. FILIPPOU

Figure 1. Beam element and reference axes. Figure 2. Large rotation representation.

The following expression denes a 4 4-quaternion matrix representation Q:

Q=

_

q

0

q

T

q q

0

I S(q)

_

, Q

T

Q=

_

1 0

0 I

_

(21)

Isomorphism between quaternion q and matrix representation Q is discussed in Reference [23].

Equation (20) is expressed in Q notation by the matrix multiplication

Q

21

=Q

2

Q

1

(22)

The correspondence between (2) and (22) is very useful. The quaternion matrix can also be

represented by

Q= cos

0

2

_

1 0

0 I

_

+ sin

0

2

_

0 e

T

e S(e)

_

(23)

Using quaternion parameters the rotation matrix is expressed by

R=

_

_

q

2

0

+ q

2

1

q

2

2

q

2

3

2q

1

q

2

2q

0

q

3

2q

1

q

3

+ 2q

0

q

2

2q

1

q

2

+ 2q

0

q

3

q

2

0

q

2

1

+ q

2

2

q

2

3

2q

2

q

3

2q

0

q

1

2q

1

q

3

2q

0

q

2

2q

2

q

3

+ 2q

0

q

1

q

2

0

q

2

1

q

2

2

+ q

2

3

_

_ (24)

GENERAL BEAM ELEMENT KINEMATICS

The generator of the prismatic beam element in Figure 2 is considered parallel to the reference

1-axis. According to the hypothesis that plane sections remain plane, displacement u, which

is dened as the dierence between current position x and original position X of a point, is

Copyright ? 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engng 2001; 50:761785

NON-LINEAR SPATIAL TIMOSHENKO BEAM ELEMENT 767

determined by

u =x X=V + (R(X) I)X

S

(25)

where V is the displacement of the origin of the reference axes in the section, R is the rotation

matrix associated with rotation vector X of the section and X

S

is the position vector of a point in

the cross-section reference system. In expanded form these vectors are

u =[u

1

u

2

u

3

]

T

, x =[x

1

x

2

x

3

]

T

, X=[X

1

X

2

X

3

]

T

V =[

1

2

3

]

T

, X

S

=[0 X

2

X

3

]

T

(26)

For innitesimal rotations (25) reduces to u =V + S(X)X

S

, or

u

1

=

1

0

3

X

2

+ 0

2

X

3

, u

2

=

2

0

1

X

3

, u

3

=

3

+ 0

1

X

2

(27)

which are the well-known linear geometry relations. They are sucient for the determination of the

corresponding innitesimal strains. For the present problem it is convenient to use the curvature

vector Z and distortion vector M of the section as generalized strain measures.

In the following a prime denotes dierentiation with respect to X

1

([ ]

=c[ ]

}cX

1

). The orthog-

onal condition of the rotation matrix implies

R

T

R=I, R

T

R

+ R

T

R=0 (28)

Equation (28) shows that matrix R

T

R

S(Z) =R

T

R

(29)

Distortion vector M is dened by

M=R

T

(30)

where

V

=i

1

+ V

and i

1

is the rst column of the identity matrix I.

GREENLAGRANGE STRAINS

The displacement gradient H, the deformation gradient F, and the GreenLagrange strain tensor U

are dened in Reference [24]

H = Grad(u) =

_

_

cu

1

cX

1

cu

1

cX

2

cu

1

cX

3

cu

2

cX

1

cu

2

cX

2

cu

2

cX

3

cu

3

cX

1

cu

3

cX

2

cu

3

cX

3

_

_

=[h

1

h

2

h

3

]

F = I + H (31)

U =

1

2

[F

T

F I]

Copyright ? 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engng 2001; 50:761785

768 M. SCHULZ AND F. C. FILIPPOU

Equations (10c), (25), (29) and (30) yield the rst column of the displacement gradient h

1

h

1

=V

+ R

X

S

=V

+ RS(Z)X

S

=V

RS(X

S

)Z (32)

Denoting the columns of the rotation matrix by r

1

, r

2

and r

3

, the following expression is obtained:

RS(X

S

) =[r

3

X

2

+ r

2

X

3

r

1

X

3

r

1

X

2

] (33)

Columns h

2

and h

3

are, respectively, equal to

h

2

=(R I)i

2

=r

2

i

2

h

3

=(R I)i

3

=r

3

i

3

(34)

Substituting (32) and (34) in (31), the columns f

1

, f

2

and f

3

of the deformation gradient are

expressed by

f

1

= i

1

+ V

RS(X

S

)Z

f

2

= r

2

(35)

f

3

= r

3

It is easy to verify with (31) that strains c

22

, c

33

, c

23

and c

32

are equal to zero. The remaining

strains c

11

, c

12

and c

13

are given by

c

12

= c

21

=1

1

2

[f

T

2

f

1

]

c

13

= c

31

=

1

2

[f

T

3

f

1

] (36)

c

11

=

1

2

[f

T

1

f

1

1]

With (33), (35), (36) and the fact that the columns of the rotation matrix are orthogonal unit

vectors the following expressions result:

c

11

=

1

([

1

1

[

3

)X

2

+ ([

1

1

[

2

)X

3

+

1

2

[

2

1

+

2

2

+

2

3

+ (

2

1

+

2

3

)X

2

2

+ (

2

1

+

2

2

)X

2

3

2

2

3

X

2

X

3

]

c

12

= c

21

=

1

2

[[

2

X

3

1

] (37)

c

13

= c

31

=

1

2

[[

3

+ X

2

1

]

These relations dene the GreenLagrange strains in terms of curvature vector Z and distortion

vector M under the plane section hypothesis, that usually underlies the Timoshenko beam theory.

GENERALIZED STRAINS AND STRESSES

The generalized strain vector U and the stress resultant vector A, both acting on cross-section A

0

in

the initial conguration, are dened from (37). For the following derivations U and A are divided

Copyright ? 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engng 2001; 50:761785

NON-LINEAR SPATIAL TIMOSHENKO BEAM ELEMENT 769

into normal and shear components U

n

, A

n

, U

s

and A

s

, respectively. The vectors of generalized normal

and shear strain are

U

n

= [

+

1

2

(

2

1

+

2

2

+

2

3

) [

1

1

[

3

[

1

1

[

2

1

2

(

2

1

+

2

3

)

1

2

(

2

1

+

2

2

)

2

3

]

T

(38)

U

s

= [[

2

[

3

1

]

T

The normal GreenLagrange strain c

11

at an arbitrary point in the cross-section is obtained from

c

11

=p

T

U

n

(39)

where p is dened for the arbitrary point in the section by

p =[1 X

2

X

3

X

2

2

X

2

3

X

2

X

3

]

T

(40)

The vector of normal stress resultants A

n

is

A

n

=

_

A

0

po

11

dX

2

dX

3

(41)

where o

11

is the second PiolaKircho normal stress. Three stress resultants can be identied

in addition to normal force N

1

and bending moments M

2

and M

3

: the second-order bending

moments M

22

and M

33

and the covariant bending moment M

23

. These second-order stress resultants

correspond to the integrals of X

2

2

o

11

, X

2

3

o

11

and X

2

X

3

o

11

over the cross-section in the initial

conguration, respectively. According to these denitions A

n

is

A

n

=[N

1

M

2

M

3

M

22

M

33

M

23

]

T

(42)

The vector of shear stress resultants is arranged as follows:

A

s

=

_

A

0

[o

12

o

13

X

3

o

12

+ X

2

o

13

]

T

dX

2

dX

3

(43)

where o

12

and o

13

are the second PiolaKircho shear stresses. It is easy to recognize the shear

forces J

2

and J

3

and the torsional moment 1

1

in (43), so that

A

s

=[J

2

J

3

1

1

]

T

(44)

PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL DISPLACEMENTS

In the total Lagrangian formulation all variables are dened in the initial conguration. As presented

in Reference [25], the principle of virtual displacements can be expressed in terms of the Green

Lagrange strain tensor and its conjugate, the second PiolaKircho stress tensor. Noting that strains

c

22

, c

33

, c

23

and c

32

are zero, the virtual work expression reduces to

_

J

0

[oc

11

o

11

+ 2oc

12

o

12

+ 2oc

13

oc

13

] dJ

0

=

_

J

0

u

T

f

b

dJ

0

+ oU

T

f (45)

where o

11

, o

12

and o

13

are the second PiolaKircho normal and shear stresses, f

b

is the body force

vector and f is the nodal force vector. All force vectors are dened in the initial conguration

Copyright ? 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engng 2001; 50:761785

770 M. SCHULZ AND F. C. FILIPPOU

and the integrals extend over the initial volume J

0

. U and u are the node displacement and

body displacement vectors, respectively. With (37), (39), (41) and (43), the principle of virtual

displacements (45) reduces to

_

J

0

[oU

T

n

A

n

+ oU

T

s

A

s

] dJ

0

=

_

J

0

ou

T

f

b

dJ

0

+ oU

T

f (46)

SECTION CONSTITUTIVE RELATION

A general incremental constitutive relation for the cross-section is dened by

dA =E dU (47)

where E is the tangent constitutive matrix. The proposed formulation can account for general

non-linear material behaviour including shearexure interaction. If the shearexure interaction

is neglected, the constitutive relation in (47) reduces to uncoupled constitutive relations for the

normal and shear components, designated by subscripts n and s, respectively

dA

n

=E

n

dU

n

, dA

s

=E

s

dU

s

(48)

The constitutive relation in the normal direction for a point in the cross-section is given by

dA

11

=E dU

11

(49)

where E is the tangent modulus of elasticity. From (39), (41), (47) and (49) the constitutive

matrix E

n

becomes

E

n

=

_

A

0

pp

T

E dX

2

dX

3

(50)

Since the tangent modulus of the material varies with the response history, E

n

is a full 6 6 matrix.

The constitutive matrix E

s

for the shear components is a full 3 3 matrix, unless the shear centre

coincides with the reference point for linear elastic material response. Ways of determining the

constitutive matrix E

s

are given in References [26, 27]. For hyperelastic materials, Equation (47)

reduces to

A =A(U) (51)

VARIATION OF GENERALIZED STRAINS

This section establishes the rst and second variations of curvature vector Z and shear distortion

vector M, which are used in the denition of GreenLagrange strains. These variations are expressed

in terms of displacement and rotation variables V and X, whose linearization forms the basis of the

iterative numerical solution of the governing equations.

The variation of the rotation matrix oR(X) is expressed by

R(X) + oR(X) =R(oX) R(X)

Copyright ? 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engng 2001; 50:761785

NON-LINEAR SPATIAL TIMOSHENKO BEAM ELEMENT 771

where, as emphasized in Reference [28], the rotation increment oX is non-associative with the

rotation X and, therefore, laws governing variations do not directly apply. Thus, oX is hereafter

called a non-additive variation. Equation (52) yields

oR(X) =S(oX) R(X), oR(X)

T

=R(X)

T

S(oX) (53)

The following relation between the curvature variation oZ and the derivative of the non-additive

rotation variation oX

variation of (29) with reference to (10)

oZ =R

T

oX

(54)

From Equation (30), the rst variation of the distortion vector oM is

oM=R

T

[oV

+ S(

) oX] (55)

The second variations o

2

Z and o

2

M are equal to

o

2

Z =R

T

S(oX) oX

o

2

M=2 R

T

[S(oX) oV

] R

T

S(oX) S(

) oX (56)

Component i of the corresponding vectors is

o

2

i

=oX

T

S(r

i

) oX

o

2

[

i

=2 oX

T

S(r

i

) oV

+ oX

T

S(r

i

) S(

) oX (57)

where r

i

is the ith column vector of rotation matrix R.

INTERPOLATION FUNCTIONS

Finite element implementation requires the interpolation of the rst and second variations of cur-

vature vector Z and distortion vector M in terms of the variation of nodal displacements oU.

Interpolation functions N for the vector variations oZ and oM, and interpolation functions M for

components o

2

i

and o

2

[

i

are dened by

oZ = N

T

Z

oU, oM=N

T

M

oU

o

2

i

= oU

T

M

i

oU, o

2

[

i

=oU

T

M

[

i

oU

(58)

With (54), (55) and (57) these interpolation functions are expressed in terms of the interpolation

functions for the displacements, rotations and rotation dierentials

N

T

Z

= R

T

N

T

X

, N

T

M

=R

T

[N

T

V

+ S(

)N

T

X

]

M

i

= N

X

S(r

i

)N

T

X

, M

[

i

=2N

X

S(r

i

)N

T

V

+ N

X

S(r

i

)S(

V

)N

T

X

(59)

The interpolation functions for the displacements, rotations and rotation dierentials

oV

=N

T

V

oU, oX =N

T

X

oU, oX

=N

T

X

oU (60)

are presented in the following sections.

Copyright ? 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engng 2001; 50:761785

772 M. SCHULZ AND F. C. FILIPPOU

Considering that o

2

i

and o

2

[

i

are scalars (58) yields

o

2

i

=oU

T

M

S

i

oU, o

2

[

i

=oU

T

M

S

[

i

oU (61)

where symmetric matrices M

S

i

and M

S

[

i

are

M

S

i

=(M

i

+ M

T

i

)}2, M

S

[

i

=(M

[

i

+ M

T

[

i

)}2 (62)

Expressions (61) and (62) lead to a symmetric stiness matrix.

DISPLACEMENT INTERPOLATION

The interpolation of the displacements V of the origin of the cross-section and the corresponding

variations are dened by

V =N

T

V

U, oV =N

T

V

oU, oV

=N

T

V

oU (63)

Polynomial interpolation functions N

V

are used in the element implementation.

CURVATURE-BASED TWO-NODE ROTATION INTERPOLATION

As shown in (16), a rotation by X does not correspond to a linear transformation with the associ-

ated rotation matrix R(X). An element rotation does not correspond to a linear transformation with

the node rotation vectors X. Therefore, a polynomial interpolation of rotations X is not observer in-

variant. Even in a co-rotational frame two-node elements with a constant rotation derivative X

will

exhibit variable curvature Z. The following example illustrates this point: the linear interpolation

of the node rotation vectors X

1

=[0 }4 0] and X

2

=[0 0 }4] yields X

c

=[X

1

+X

2

]}2 at the beam

centre. After rotating the beam by R(X

c

), the new node rotation vectors are [0.15 0.38 0.36]

and [0.15 0.36 0.38]. The new mean is not equal to the null vector!

According to Reference [24], one of the main axioms of mechanics is the requirement that

material response be independent of the observer. In Newtonian mechanics, two identical structures

rotated in space must yield the same internal forces in local co-ordinates. If rotation interpolation

is dependent on rigid-body motion, structural analyses of identical structures will yield dierent

curvatures and results.

Constant curvature elements were used in Reference [15] by solving the constant curvature

dierential equation in quaternion terms. In the present paper a two-node beam element with con-

stant curvature is obtained in straightforward manner by simple interpolation of the rotation matrix.

Non-additive variations of the rotation vector oX are determined in close form. The numerical im-

plementation is simplied signicantly by bypassing the extraction of quaternion parameters from

the rotation matrix, as proposed in Reference [11] on the basis of the algorithm in Reference [29].

In the following equations when a subscript to a co-ordinate variable X is omitted, it refers

to the beam axis co-ordinate X

1

. For a two-node large rotation Timoshenko beam element with

constant curvature the following interpolation function is dened:

R

X

=R

0

R(XZ

0

), Q

X

=Q

0

Q(XZ

0

) (64)

Copyright ? 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engng 2001; 50:761785

NON-LINEAR SPATIAL TIMOSHENKO BEAM ELEMENT 773

where Z

0

is a constant vector. R

0

and Q

0

are the rotation and quaternion matrices at the origin

X

0

dened for convenience at the integration point in the middle of the beam. Applying (14) and

the derivative denition to R(XZ

0

) yields

R

(XZ

0

) =S(Z

0

)R(XZ

0

) =R(XZ

0

)S(Z

0

) (65)

Upon substitution of (64) and (65) in (29) it is veried that the curvature is constant along

the element and equal to Z

0

. The following expressions are derived by substitution of the rotation

values at the beam end nodes A and B in (64)

R(L

0

Z

0

) =R

T

A

R

B

, Q(L

0

Z

0

) =Q

T

A

Q

B

(66)

Expanding (66) according to (21) and dening c=

0

L

0

}2, where

0

is the modulus of Z

0

yields

cos c = q

0A

q

0B

+ q

A

q

B

Z

0

=

2c

L

0

sin c

[q

0A

q

B

+ q

0B

q

A

+ S(q

A

)q

B

]

(67)

Substituting (64) for X

A

=L

0

}2 and X

B

=L

0

}2 and applying (23) establishes the quaternion in-

terpolation at the integration point X

0

Q

0

=

1

2 cos(c}2)

(Q

A

+ Q

B

), q

0

=

1

2 cos(c}2)

(q

A

+ q

B

) (68)

It can be veried with (23) that interpolation (64) is equivalent to the spherical interpolation

by Reference [17] called SLERP and given by

q

X

=q

A

sin((1 (X}L))c)

sin(c)

+ q

B

sin((X}L)c)

sin(c)

(69)

The interpolation in terms of the rotation matrix in (64) is very convenient in establishing the

non-additive rotation variation oX

0

at the integration point. The integrals G, G

1

and G

2

are dened

by

G

1

=

_

0

L}2

R(XZ

0

) dX, G

2

=

_

L}2

0

R(XZ

0

) dX, G=G

1

+ G

2

(70)

Observing that the curvature is constant along the element, (54) and (70) yield

oX

2

oX

1

=R

0

GoZ

0

, oZ

0

=G

1

R

T

0

(oX

2

oX

1

) (71)

The integration of the rotation matrix R(XZ

0

) can be expressed according to (8) by

_

b

a

R(XZ

0

) dX =

_

XI +

X

2

2!

S(Z

0

) + X

3

S(Z

0

)

2

3!

+ X

4

S(Z

0

)

3

4!

+

_

b

a

(72)

Copyright ? 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engng 2001; 50:761785

774 M. SCHULZ AND F. C. FILIPPOU

The following expressions are derived by applying (10g) to (70) and (72), contracting the corre-

sponding Taylor series and symbolically inverting the resultant matrix G:

G

2

= G

T

1

=

L

2

_

I +

1 cos c

c

S(Z

0

)

0

+

c sin c

c

_

S(Z

0

)

0

_

2

_

(73)

G

1

=

1

L

_

I +

_

1

c

sin c

_

_

S(Z

0

)

0

_

2

_

(74)

Equations (54), (71) and (74) yield the derivative of the non-additive rotation variation oX

0

at

the integration point

oX

0

=R

0

oZ

0

=R

0

G

1

R

T

0

(oX

2

oX

1

) (75)

The non-additive rotation variation is derived after integration of (54) and substitution of (64),

(70) and (71)

oX

0

=R

0

G

2

G

1

R

T

0

oX

1

+ R

0

G

1

G

1

R

T

0

oX

2

(76)

where the following relation from (73) and (74) holds:

G

2

G

1

=[G

1

G

1

]

T

=

L

2

_

I +

1 cos c

sin c

S(Z

0

)

0

_

(77)

The interpolation functions N

X

and N

X

can be readily obtained from (74)(77).

CURVATURE BASED N-NODE ROTATION INTERPOLATION

A natural extension of the constant curvature interpolation is the curvature approximation by a

polynomial

Z =Z

0

+ XZ

1

+ X

2

Z

2

+ (78)

An important advantage of this approach is that the non-additive variation oX and its derivative

oX

oX

= RoZ =R(oZ

0

+ XoZ

1

+ X

2

oZ

2

+ ) (79)

oX = oX

0

+

_

X

X

0

RoZ dX =oX

0

+

_

X

X

0

RdX oZ

0

+

_

X

X

0

RX dX oZ

1

+

_

X

X

0

RX

2

dX oZ

2

+ (80)

Copyright ? 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engng 2001; 50:761785

NON-LINEAR SPATIAL TIMOSHENKO BEAM ELEMENT 775

The rotation interpolation that satises a polynomial curvature equation is accomplished numer-

ically. Equation (80) yields

T

_

_

oZ

0

oZ

1

oZ

2

.

.

.

_

_

=

_

_

oX

1

oX

0

oX

2

oX

0

oX

3

oX

0

.

.

.

_

_

, 1

i)

=

_

X

i

X

0

RX

)

dX (81)

where X

0

, X

1

, X

2

, X

3

, . . . are the rotation values at element nodes 0, 1, 2, 3. The beam is divided

in integration segments; starting from the node rotation value X

0

at X

0

and a rst approximation

of the curvature constants Z

0

, Z

1

, Z

2

, . . . , the rotation at point i is determined from the rotation

at point i 1 according to

R

(i)

=R

(i1)

R[(Z

0

+

XZ

1

+

X

2

Z

2

+ )(X

(i)

X

(i1)

)]

Q

(i)

=Q

(i1)

Q[(Z

0

+

XZ

1

+

X

2

Z

2

+ )(X

(i)

X

(i1)

)]

(82)

where

X =(X

(i)

+ X

(i1)

)}2. Equation (82) represents a constant curvature approximation for

the segment between points i and i 1. The matrix terms 1

i)

can be readily determined nu-

merically and (81) establishes the incremental curvature terms for residuals of rotation compo-

nents X in a standard NewtonRaphson iteration scheme. A constant curvature approximation

with (67) for the extreme element nodes is a convenient rst approximation for the curvature

distribution. A moderate number of segments yields accuracy, computational eciency and fast

convergence.

After establishing the rotation interpolation it is necessary to derive the non-additive rotation

variation along the element in terms of the values at the nodes. Equation (81) yields

oZ

e

=G

e

oX

e

(83)

where oX

e

=[oX

0

oX

1

oX

2

oX

3

]

T

and oZ

e

=[oZ

0

oZ

1

oZ

2

]

T

. G

e

is dened by

G

e

=

_

(T

1

)

)

T

1

_

(84)

The rst column of G

e

is the opposite of the column sum of T

1

while the remaining columns

of G

e

are equal to the corresponding columns of T

1

matrix. Equations (79), (80) and (83) yield

oX

= R[I IX IX

2

. . .]G

e

oX

e

(85)

oX =

___

X

X

0

RdX

_

X

X

0

RX dX

_

X

X

0

RX

2

dX . . .

_

G

e

+ (I 0 0 . . .)

_

oX

e

(86)

which suce to establish interpolation functions N

X

and N

X

for the non-additive rotation

variation.

Copyright ? 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engng 2001; 50:761785

776 M. SCHULZ AND F. C. FILIPPOU

EQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS

The rst variation of the generalized strain vector U is

oU

n

=

_

_

o

1

+ o

1

+ o

2

+ o

3

o

3

[

1

+ o[

1

3

o[

3

1

o

1

[

3

o

2

[

1

+ o[

1

2

o[

2

1

o

1

[

2

o

1

1

+ o

3

3

o

1

1

+ o

2

2

o

2

3

+ o

3

2

_

_

, oU

s

=

_

_

o[

2

o[

3

o

1

_

_ (87)

With the interpolation functions the variation of U is expressed by

oU =b oU (88)

where b is an interpolation matrix whose normal and shear components are given by

b

n

=

_

_

N

T

1

+ N

T

1

+ N

T

2

+ N

T

3

N

T

3

[

1

+ N

T

[

1

3

N

T

[

3

1

N

T

1

[

3

N

T

2

[

1

+ N

T

[

1

2

N

T

[

2

1

N

T

1

[

2

N

T

1

+ N

T

3

N

T

1

+ N

T

2

N

T

3

+ N

T

2

_

_

, b

s

=

_

_

N

[

2

N

[

3

N

1

_

_ (89)

The principle of virtual displacements can now be reduced to the following equilibrium equation

f

r

=

_

J

0

N

u

f

b

dJ

0

+ f (90)

where N

u

are the displacement interpolation functions. The resisting forces f

r

are determined from

f

r

=

_

L

0

[b

T

A] dX (91)

INCREMENTAL EQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS

Neglecting the second variation of nodal displacements U in the context of the incremental nu-

merical process, the variation of both sides of Equation (46) yields

_

J

0

[oU

T

n

oA

n

+ oU

T

s

oA

s

] dJ

0

+

_

J

0

[o

2

U

T

n

A

n

+ o

2

U

T

s

A

s

] dJ

0

=

_

J

0

ou

T

of

b

dJ

0

+ oU

T

of (92)

The second variation of the generalized strain vector U is accomplished with (87). The adopted

interpolation functions yield the following incremental equilibrium equation:

KoU=

_

J

0

N

u

of

b

dJ

0

+ of (93)

Copyright ? 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engng 2001; 50:761785

NON-LINEAR SPATIAL TIMOSHENKO BEAM ELEMENT 777

where stiness matrix K is

K=

_

L

0

b

T

Eb dX +

_

L

0

B

k

o

k

dX (94)

The rst component of the tangent stiness matrix corresponds to non-linear material behaviour,

although matrix b is not exactly the same as the one usually used for small displacements, since it

includes non-linear terms. The second component corresponds to non-linear geometric behaviour.

The interpolation matrices B are given by

B

1

= N

1

N

T

1

+ N

2

N

T

2

+ N

3

N

T

3

B

2

= N

3

N

T

[

1

+ N

[

1

N

T

3

N

[

3

N

T

1

N

1

N

T

[

3

+ M

S

3

[

1

+ M

S

[

1

3

M

S

[

3

1

M

S

1

[

3

B

3

= N

2

N

T

[

1

+ N

[

1

N

T

2

N

[

2

N

T

1

N

1

N

T

[

2

+ M

S

2

[

1

+ M

S

[

1

2

M

S

[

2

1

M

S

1

[

2

B

4

= N

1

N

T

1

+ N

3

N

T

3

+ M

S

1

+ M

S

3

B

5

= N

1

N

T

1

+ N

2

N

T

2

+ M

S

1

+ M

S

2

B

6

= N

2

N

T

3

+ N

3

N

T

2

+ M

S

3

+ M

S

2

B

7

= M

S

[

2

B

8

= M

S

[

3

B

9

= M

S

1

(95)

By inspecting Equations (94) and (95) and it can be veried that no approximations were

required to arrive at a consistent and symmetric stiness matrix.

IMPLEMENTATION

A reduced integration scheme is used for the evaluation of the element integrals in order to avoid

shear locking and improve element convergence. Noting that quaternion q is equivalent to q the

quaternion representation in (67) should be adjusted for a positive cos c, which corresponds to

the closest constant curvature interpolation. The solution for c in the interval (0, }2) limits the

maximum angle between node orientations in a single element to , when using the closed-form

expressions in two-node elements. This is a suciently large range for the majority of practical

cases and the limitation can be overcome by a ner discretization. N-node interpolation allows for

larger rotations between nodes.

From (47) and (88) the increment of the stress resultants in the context of an incremental

non-linear analysis is

dA =Eb dU (96)

Large load increments with equilibrium check are possible for hyperelastic materials. It is observed

during intermediate iterations of a NewtonRaphson solution procedure that the stresses for unbal-

anced congurations of a displacement-based formulation can induce non-linear geometric terms

that are undesirably distant from the equilibrium solution. With (96) the expected stress vector

Copyright ? 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engng 2001; 50:761785

778 M. SCHULZ AND F. C. FILIPPOU

A

i

at iteration i is dened by

A

i

=A

i1

+ E

i1

b

i1

(U

i

U

i1

) (97)

where A

i1

, E

i1

, b

i1

are the actual stress-resultant vector, the constitutive matrix and the

interpolation matrix at the previous iteration i 1. A

i

tends to the actual stress-resultant vec-

tor A

i

as displacements U

i

converge to the equilibrium solution. Substituting o

k

by the expected

stress-resultant component o

i

k

in (94) proves an excellent choice for the rapid convergence and

robustness of the numerical solution.

The following brief summary indicates the sequence of operations and the associated equations

for the state determination of a two-node beam element.

1. Displacement derivative V

, curvature Z

0

and quaternion q

0

with (63), (67) and (68);

2. Rotation matrix R and shear distortion M at the integration point with (24) and (30);

3. Generalized strains U and constitutive matrix E with (38) and (30);

4. Stress resultants A with (51) for hyperelastic materials or (96) otherwise;

5. Interpolation functions N

V

, N

X

, N

X

, N

Z

, N

M

, M

S

i

and M

S

[

i

with (59), (62), (63), (75) and (76);

6. Interpolation matrices b and B with (89) and (95), and

7. Resisting forces f

r

and stiness matrix K with (91) and (94).

For an N-node element with curvature interpolation it is necessary to replace step 1 by the

numerical interpolation procedure.

The incremental rotations from the solution of the global incremental equilibrium equations are

non-additive, because beam elements are formulated with non-additive rotation variations. The

rotation history is described by incremental rotations and the nal orientation is stored with the

aid of the quaternion representation. After transforming the incremental rotation to the quaternion

representation with (19), the rotation update is performed through the compound quaternion formula

in (20).

EXAMPLES

The validity of the proposed beam element is accomplished by comparison with well-known nu-

merical simulations in the literature. The examples also illustrate the performance, robustness and

convergence characteristics of the formulation. The error is controlled by limiting the ratio of the

Euclidean norm of the residual and applied forces.

The elliptic integrals of the closed-form solutions for thin bars were evaluated numerically in

Reference [30], as also presented in References [31, 32]. The tabulated deections of a cantilever

beam that is subjected to an end force are selected for comparison purposes. The example in

Figure 3 has a 0.001 square cross-section of unit EI modulus reproducing approximately the

thin bar hypothesis. It is analysed with six constant curvature two-node elements and two cubic

curvature four-node elements. Although both models have the same number of nodes and exhibit

equally accurate response, the cubic curvature elements reproduce more precisely the tabulated

results in Reference [30]. The nal equilibrium conguration is reached in only two loading steps,

with six and seven iterations, respectively.

In Reference [11] the pure bending of a straight rod of unit length, bending stiness EI =2 was

simulated numerically with ve elements, achieving convergence in only two iterations.

Copyright ? 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engng 2001; 50:761785

NON-LINEAR SPATIAL TIMOSHENKO BEAM ELEMENT 779

Figure 3. Cantilever beam subject to end force.

Figure 4. Cantilever beam subject to end moment.

The thin bar solution of the problem is a circular curve with radius equal to EI}M. The proposed

element yields the exact analytical solution in a single iteration, if the problem is focused on

the rotational degrees of freedom, and shear distortions are assumed equal to zero. Although this

simplication is valid for the constant curvature problem, the determination of nodal displacements

is of considerable interest, yet more demanding.

The problem is studied with ve two-node elements and ve four-node elements, as shown in

Figure 4. A slender 0.001 square cross-section is adopted in the analytical solution of the thin bar,

which is shown with a dashed line. The numerical error is limited to 1.0 10

9

. The bending

moment M =8 is applied in 16 equal loading steps, with an average of six iterations per step,

Copyright ? 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engng 2001; 50:761785

780 M. SCHULZ AND F. C. FILIPPOU

Figure 5. Deections varying second order stiness terms.

making the bar wind twice around itself. Although two- and four-node elements yield the expected

theoretical rotations, the nal node locations are signicantly dierent. Under zero nodal forces and

practically invariable bar length polygonal solutions with two-node elements cannot be inscribed

in the expected theoretical circles. Four-node elements reproduce precisely the analytical solution.

The very small discrepancy between cubic interpolation and actual arc solution is mostly localized

at the internal nodes of the beam.

The same beam deections are compared in Figure 5 with the deections of a beam with the

same bending stiness EI =2, but thicker cross-section (b =h =0.25). The second-order bending

moments are not negligible in this case. The elastica deviates from the thin bar solution showing

that, in fact, the thicker beam is more exible.

The previous numerical results can be analytically veried according to the formulation hypothe-

ses. The analytical solution of a thick elastic beam, with rectangular cross-section and constant

curvature in plane can be obtained by setting distortions [

2

and [

3

, displacement

3

and curvatures

1

and

2

equal to zero. From Equations (30) and (37), the strains c

12

and c

13

are also equal to

zero and c

11

=

1

2

[[

2

1

1] [

1

3

X

2

+

1

2

2

3

X

2

2

. The principle of virtual displacements, as presented

in (45), yields [

1

=

_

1 (h

3

}2)

2

and M}E =(bh

3

}12)

3

(bh

5

}40)

3

3

. The analytical results

correspond precisely to the proposed numerical formulation. The relation between the curvature

3

and the applied bending moment M shows a maximum value M

MAX

at 1}K

3

=

_

9}10 h and

M =0 at 1}K

3

=

_

3}10 h. The standard NewtonRaphson procedure converges to 95 per cent of

M

MAX

in three equal load steps and 17 (5 + 5 + 7) iterations.

Figure 6 shows a three-node linear curvature interpolation. The rotation vectors are equal to

(}4 0 0), (0 }4 0) and (0 0 }4), respectively. The distance between nodes is divided in 10,

100 and 1000 integration intervals. The error of the iterative process is controlled by the ratio

between the Euclidean norm of the residual and constrained rotation vectors. Although a ner

discretization improves the tangent matrix approximation and the convergence of the numerical

solution, the numerical interpolation method proves to be adequate for all integration intervals. In

the comparison of the curvature components, 100 integration intervals yield very precise results for

the severe rotation constraints of the example. The combination of simple integration operations

with a moderate number of intervals and iterations results in an acceptable computational eort.

The classical tri-dimensional numerical simulation from Reference [5] is presented in Figure 7.

It is a 45

bend with radius of 100 located in the horizontal plane and subjected to a vertical end

Copyright ? 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engng 2001; 50:761785

NON-LINEAR SPATIAL TIMOSHENKO BEAM ELEMENT 781

Figure 6. Three-node linear curvature interpolation.

Figure 7. Spatial beam subject to end force.

load. The material is assumed to be elastic with modulus of elasticity equal to 10

7

and Poisson

ratio v zero. The cross-section is a unit square. This numerical simulation was used by various

authors and the tabulated results for the tip co-ordinates under P =600 show close agreement in

Figure 7. The dierences arise from the exibility of the bar and the use of dierent constitutive

relations and simplications. In Reference [5] the bend was idealized with eight straight, updated

Copyright ? 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engng 2001; 50:761785

782 M. SCHULZ AND F. C. FILIPPOU

Lagrangian beam elements of equal length reaching the solution after 60 equal load steps of an

incremental process without matrix inversions. In Reference [11] a total Lagrangian formulation

with nite rotations and equilibrium check with three load steps (P =300, 450, 600) was used.

Convergence was achieved after 27 (13 + 8 + 6) iterations. In Reference [12] the equilibrium

conguration under P =600 was reached in six load increments with an average of 78 iterations

per increment. The full load was also applied in six load increments in Reference [16]. In Reference

[14] a co-rotational nite rotation formulation was used in three loading steps (P =300, 450, 600)

with an error limit of 10

3

. The consistent non-symmetric and the articially symmetrized stiness

matrix of the beam required 16 (8 + 5 + 3) and 17 (9 + 5 + 3) iterations, respectively.

The analysis of the problem with the proposed beam element also models the bend with eight

straight 2-node elements of equal length. Four-node elements are also used for illustrating the

enhanced curvature interpolation. The nal equilibrium conguration is initially reached, for both

discretizations, in three loading steps (P =150, 300, 600), with 30 (8 + 9 + 13) iterations. The

convergence procedure signicantly reduces the number of iterations. After introducing the nu-

merical acceleration procedure, convergence with errors under 1 10

10

is achieved in only two

load steps (P =300, 600) and 11 (6 +5) iterations. The quadratic convergence of the algorithm is

shown in the logarithmic chart of Figure 7. Another two load increments (P =3000, 18000) with

only seven iterations each are used to display the robustness of the formulation.

CONCLUSIONS

A spatial Timoshenko beam element that is based on the total Lagrangian formulation is pre-

sented. Simplifying assumptions are limited to the plane section hypothesis and the nite element

interpolation of nite displacements and rotations. A curvature-based interpolation is proposed that

is superior to rotation vector component interpolation, because it is rigid-motion independent thus

simplifying the formulation. The constant curvature formulation for a 2-node beam element is sim-

ple and computationally very ecient, so that it can be readily deployed in engineering practice.

The curvature interpolation for an N-node beam element interpolation is performed numerically.

Even so, a moderate discretization results in accurate integration with slight computational eort.

Second-order stress resultants are identied and the constitutive matrix for the cross-section can

account for fully non-linear material behaviour, including exureshear interaction. The Green

Lagrange strains are expressed in terms of section curvature and shear distortion vectors, whose

rst and second variations are functions of node displacements and rotations. The consistent lin-

earization of the governing equilibrium equations leads to a symmetric tangent stiness matrix.

A numerical acceleration procedure is used to improve convergence for hyperelastic materials,

for which non-linear analysis can be conducted with large load increments followed by equilibrium

check.

The comparison of the results of the proposed model with classical numerical simulations in

the literature demonstrates accuracy, eciency and robustness of the formulation. The consistent

formulation is able to predict important theoretical eects, as is shown in the paper for the bending

of a thick elastic beam with constant curvature in plane.

Future extensions of the model can incorporate the torsional warping eects of the cross-section.

Although a plane section hypothesis usually underlies the Timoshenko beam theory, it fails to

capture certain non-linear eects, such as torsional stiening for initial stresses [33]. The analysis

of buckling and post-buckling behaviour is also a motivation for further investigations.

Copyright ? 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engng 2001; 50:761785

NON-LINEAR SPATIAL TIMOSHENKO BEAM ELEMENT 783

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors appreciate the valuable suggestions by Professor Francisco Armero at the University of California,

Berkeley. The rst author acknowledges the nancial support of CNPq (Brazilian National Research Council)

for a two-year post-doctoral stay at the Department of Civil Engineering of the University of California,

Berkeley.

APPENDIX A: NOTATION

The following symbols are used in this paper:

( )

A

0

initial cross-section

b, B interpolation matrices

b base of the cross-section

c unitary complex number

c unitary complex number component

E tangent constitutive matrix

E tangent modulus of elasticity

EI bending stiness

e unitary vector (e = X}0)

e natural base of logarithms

F deformation gradient

f

i

i-column of deformation gradient matrix F

f nodal forces

f

r

nodal resisting forces

f

b

body force vector

G, G

1

, G

2

, G

e

auxiliary matrices for integration

H displacement gradient

h

i

i-column of displacement gradient H

h height of the cross-section

I 3 3-identity matrix

i

i

i-column of identity matrix I

i, j, k imaginary quantities

i, j, k generic indices

K stiness matrix

L

0

original element length

M, N interpolation matrices

M

S

symmetric interpolation matrix (M

S

= (M + M

T

)}2)

M

2

, M

3

, N

1

bending moments and normal force

M

22

, M

33

, M

23

second-order and covariant bending moments

n normal component subscript

p position vector

q unitary four-dimensional quaternion

q quaternion component

q quaternion three-dimensional vector

Q 4 4-quaternion matrix representation

Copyright ? 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engng 2001; 50:761785

784 M. SCHULZ AND F. C. FILIPPOU

R 3 3-orthogonal rotation matrix

r

i

i-column of rotation matrix R

S() skew-symmetric matrix

s shear component subscript

T auxiliary matrix for integration

U nodal displacement vector

u displacement vector of a point

J

0

initial volume

J

2

, J

3

, 1

1

shear forces and torsional moment

v three-dimensional vector

X original position of a point

X

S

original position of a point in the cross-section reference system

X

1

, X

2

, X

3

original position vector components

X beam axis co-ordinate

X

0

origin of beam axis co-ordinate

x current position of a point

U GreenLagrange strain tensor

M shear distortion vector

v Poissons ratio

Z curvature vector

curvature modulus

X rotation vector

0 rotational vector modulus

A generalized second PiolaKircho stress vector

A

i

expected stress vector at iteration i

c constant (c =

0

L

0

}2); and

V displacement of the origin of the cross-section

REFERENCES

1. Timoshenko SP. History of Strength of Materials. McGraw-Hill: New York, 1953.

2. Jennings A. International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 1963; 5:99113.

3. Connor JJ, Logcher RD, Chan SC. Journal of Structural Division, ASCE 1968; 94.

4. Mallet RH, Marcal PV. Journal of the Structural Division, ASCE 1968; 94:20812105.

5. Bathe KJ, Bolourchi S. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1979; 14:961986.

6. Conci A. Journal of Engineering Mechanics, ASCE 1992; 118:18591875.

7. Reissner E. Zeitschrift f ur Angewandte Mathematik und Physik 1972; 23:795804.

8. Antman SS. Quaterly of Applied Mathematics 1974; 32:221240.

9. Argyris J. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering 1982; 32:85155.

10. Simo JC. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering 1985; 49:5570.

11. Simo JC, Vu-Quoc L. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering 1986; 58:79116.

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14. Criseld MA. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering 1990; 81:131150.

15. Crivelli LA. Aerospace Engineering Sciences. University of Colorado: Boulder, 1991; 197.

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22. Elias ZM. Theory and Methods of Structural Analysis. Wiley: New York, 1986.

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24. Gurtin ME. An Introduction to Continuum Mechanics. Academic Press: San Diego, 1981.

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