Oil Politics and US Imperialism The U.S.

game plan, since the oil shock of 1973, has been to control the oil market by keeping the focus on the West Asian region. Jimmy Carter, in 1980, as President of the United States ,declared the Persian Gulf an exclusive zone of American influence and created a Rapid Deployment Force, which later became the U.S. Central Command, or CENTCOM. Oil imperialism rests on our continued dependence on oil, which not only threatens the future of humanity through prolonged and bloody conflict, but through another even more insidious threat--climate change and ecological collapse.Oil is not only an indicator of the international economy¶s direction, it also sets the stage for political alliances, military posturing and lives and deaths of millions as countries rush to secure energy supplies in the ruthless, zero-sum game of nations. Being the largest energy consumer, in addition to boasting the world¶s biggest military, the US naturally takes the lead in deciding the future, be it through negotiations, sanctions, or outright war. Critics of oil imperialism theories suggest that because the United States is the third largest oil producer, and that it has historically been the leading oil producer in the world, the United States would be unlikely to predicate its foreign policy on the acquisition of oil with such an undue focus. They point out that, relative to its consumption rate, oil is not an expensive commodity in the market The U.S. invasion of Iraq to loot its oil and politically restructure the Middle East, is part of a policy of militaristic imperialism that the American and British ruling circles have been engaged in for several centuries. The Oil policy of the United States is determined by federal, state and local public entities in the United States, which address issues of Oil production, distribution, and consumption. Oil policy may include legislation, international treaties, subsidies and incentives to investment, guidelines for Oil conservation, taxation and other public policy techniques. Oil is the world¶s most important traded commodity and its significance will only increase as developing nations, from China to Brazil, demand more energy. The move to higher prices will have a profound impact on the global economy, acting as a tax in consuming countries, depressing growth worldwide and pushing inflation higher. Oil politics have been an increasingly important aspect of diplomacy since the rise of the petroleum industry in the Middle East in the early 20th century. Every president since Richard Nixon has asserted that we are running out of oil. Meaning: We are sitting ducks for those who brandish the oil weapon. To keep the evildoers at bay, the government must adopt policies that ensure our energy independence. Both George W. Bush and his challenger John Kerry worship at this altar. In the century-and-a-half since Edwin L. Drake drilled the first oil well, the history of the oil industry has been a story of vast swings between periods of overproduction, when low prices and profits led oil producers to devise ways to restrict output and raise prices, and periods when oil supplies appeared to be on the brink of exhaustion, stimulating a global search for new supplies. This cycle may now be approaching an end. It appears that world oil supplies may truly be reaching their natural limits. In the years to come, the search for new sources of oil will be transformed into a quest for entirely new sources of energy. The following are some factors that affect the prices of oil: 1. These prices are affected by supply and demand because, at present, oil trades in a global commodity market where increased demand or reduced supply in one place instantly translates into price shifts everywhere. 2. Even if there were significant sources of high quality oil remaining, it is getting increasingly difficult and expensive to drill. These factors, along with aging infrastructure for oil exploration and a retiring workforce are also contributing to high oil prices. 3. Again, oil traders are fearful that the supply will not remain stable forever. Up until the 1910s, the United States produced between 60 and 70 percent of the world's oil supply. As fear grew that American oil reserves were dangerously depleted, the search for oil turned worldwide. Oil was discovered in Mexico at the beginning of the twentieth century, in Iran in 1908, in Venezuela during World War

Iran. However.S. Foreign oil was so cheap that coal-burning utilities made the expensive shift to oil and natural gas. along with production from new fields in Mexico. a combination of cheap fuel and a burgeoning consumer culture led to an orgy of consumption. The ongoing attempts to destabilise Iran are motivated primarily by the desire to control that country's hydrocarbon assets. Congress retaliated in 1920 by adopting the Mineral Leasing Act. With only six percent of the world's population. domestic oil producers demanded restrictions on production in order to raise prices. the Soviet Union. Increasingly. Public officials again began to worry that the United States was running out of oil. the Organization of Petroleum Producing States. to negotiate for higher oil prices. policy makers and the oil industry focused their attention on the Middle East. Six billion of the seven billion barrels of petroleum used by the allies during the war came from the United States. During World War II.The important reason why the U. particularly the Persian Gulf. import restrictions. After the Supreme Court declared the NRA unconstitutional. Under the National Recovery Administration. Texas and Oklahoma passed state laws and stationed militia units at oil fields to prevent drillers from exceeding production quotas. Iraq has the third largest known reserves of oil after Saudi Arabia and Iran. These discoveries. the federal government imposed a tariff on foreign oil. Despite these measures. Britain had gained control over Iran's oil fields and the United States discovered oil reserves in Kuwait and Saudi Arabia. After the war ended. and in Iraq in 1927. The dispute was ultimately resolved during the 1920s when American oil companies were finally allowed to drill in the British Middle East and the Dutch East Indies. During the 1950s. In Afghanistan. As early as the 1930s.I. Oklahoma. combined to drastically depress oil prices. The Shia-dominated Iraqi government is no quisling of the U. By 1919. which denied access to American oil reserves to any foreign country that restricted American access to its reserves. and Arab oil producers banded together in 1960 to form OPEC. a bitter struggle for control of world oil reserves erupted.S. In a final bid to solve the problem of overproduction. Britain controlled 50 percent of the world's proven oil reserves. and price regulations. After World War I. and Venezuela. It seemed imperative that the United States secure access to foreign oil reserves. and French excluded American companies from purchasing oil fields in territories under their control. with crude oil selling for 10 cents a barrel. with the discovery of enormous new oil fields in Texas.. By 1931. Gradually. it strives to maintain equidistance from Washington and Teheran. American dependence on Middle Eastern oil increased. and British mandates in the Middle East. Arab nations used the oil weapon collectively to pressure the U. Many of the new oil discoveries occurred in areas dominated by Britain and the Netherlands: in the Dutch East Indies. things have not gone according to the American blueprint for Iraq. into forcing Israel to agree to a ceasefire. the American dream was to build a gas pipeline that would carry Central Asian gas to lucrative markets in India and beyond. it would be able to control OPEC's ability to manipulate energy prices. The assumption was that once the U. established control over the Iraqi oil sector. Middle Eastern oil production surged upward. the oil surpluses of the 1930s quickly disappeared. Venezuela.S. went into Iraq was to gain control of its oil. The vast Iraqi oil reserves still remain untapped. the federal government imposed production restraints. World oil prices were so low that Iran. which they believed would become the center of postwar oil production. The British. a producers' cartel. The fear that American oil reserves were nearly exhausted ended abruptly in 1924. the federal government stepped in. prices continued to fall.S. Dutch. and California. the United States accounted for one-third of global oil consumption. Oil production under Saddam Hussein was higher than what it is now and attacks on pipelines by the resistance forces continue to happen sporadically. The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)-engineered coup against the democratically elected government of Mohammed Mossadegh in 1953 took place after the nationalisation of the .

and Pakistan to deliver petroleum to the Asian market. State Department accessed by WikiLeaks show that Washington was highly critical of the Libyan government's ³resource nationalism´. Russia. The Libyan rebel leadership seems to have assured Washington that a post-Qaddafi Libya will be a safe place for the big oil companies to rake in profits. diesel. But human rights attorney Abdel-Hafidh Ghoga said from Benghazi that an interim government was being formed for all of liberated eastern Libya. or any other nation. they will begin construction of a pipeline through Turkmenistan. India. whereas the Benghazi rebels may reap a windfall. and other products refined and sold in the United States. Russia. With Qaddafi¶s own foreign funds increasingly frozen. India. Most U. the oil politics could prove decisive. Russia's membership in the SCO is an attempt to maintain its traditional hegemony in Central Asia.S. The new council will form a paramilitary to take further territory away from Qaddafi¶s forces. corporations and consumers. fighting battles overseas and establishing bases all over the world.) American leaders have consistently said that the flow of oil from the Gulf is a strategic concern for the United States. and it is possible that the Benghazi leadership could export by tanker truck despite the closing of the Italian pipeline.7 million barrels a day)."] After the conquest of this area is complete and the permanent military posts are set up.S. .S. two resources concentrated in the Persian Gulf. Documents of the U. The CIA-backed coup attempt against Hugo Chavez in 2002 was also aimed at reversing Venezuelan state control over hydrocarbon assets. Afghanistan and Libya at present. isolating. Ghoga said. Afghanistan and Iraq will now become the base of operations in destabilizing. realizing its weaker position vis-a-vis the United States. the American military has been transformed into a ³global oil-protection´ service for the benefit of U.Western oil companies.S. The oil companies were against nationalisation after the revolution that toppled the Shah in 1979. America has a massive commercial interest in oil and natural gas. but it seems clear that some oil workers are pumping the oil themselves as expatriate companies flee. which is engaged in wars in Iraq.Former Justice Minister Mustafa AbdelJalil had announced from Benghazi that he would head an interim government. has been making noises as if it fully agreed with the U. Washington's numerous attempts at toppling or assassinating the Libyan leader Muammar Qaddafi were closely linked to the desire to take control of Libya's oil. Takijistan and Uzbekistan. and disputed Abdel Jalil¶s claim of leadership. Reports about the situation at the oil fields are chaotic and contradictory. is itself one of the biggest consumers of oil. Army. But Russia has joined the Shangahi Cooperation Organization (SCO) which includes China. Afghanistan. Pakistan and Iran have ³observer status´ in the SCO and hope to become full-fledged members in the near future. [Note that Iran stands between Iraq and Afghanistan and you can understand why Bush II included Iran in the "Axis of Evil.S. The underlying rationale of the SCO is the control of its members' enormous reserves of oil and gas. incursions in Afghanistan. oil now comes from outside U. China. (The U. Kyrgyzstan. China is using the SCO to try to align Russia economically and politically towards China and northeast Asia.S. While the oil majors control relatively little of the oil produced in the Middle East.The question of what comes after Qaddafi became more complicated as rival claims to forming a provisional liberated government emerged. and the Benghazi leadership is making plans to pump the oil and receive the proceeds. The U. they control virtually all of the gasoline. If the standoff with Qaddafi goes on very long. produces less oil domestically than any time since Truman was reelected. According to Professor Michael Klare. Kazakhstan. Klare writes that Pentagon's annual consumption of oil for its Afghanistan operation is more than the annual petroleum usage of Bangladesh. an American expert on global oil politics. and 3/4s of the country¶s oil facilities idled (it ordinarily exports 1.S. borders. a country with a population of more than 150 million. his cash on hand to pay mercenaries and bribe clients will rapidly decline. and establishing control over the South Asian regimes and the Middle-East. Despite the misgivings of Russia. The West was quick to impose economic sanctions on the country. Some 80% Libya¶s developed petroleum fields are in rebel-held territory.

I put forward my perception. y y y y y y y y y y y Where the mind is without fear and the head is held high. I hope by that time India will develop an advanced and relevant education system taking care of the needs of all the aspects of the society. oil imperialism costs us mightily. whatever else happens. development. I hope India will make great progress. and implementation programs to improve the scalability of alternative sources of energy. That's costly. And there will be no more rise of population.. clearly signaling India¶s arrival on the µbig¶ stage in a µbig¶ way. liquid natural gas) there will be a major U. My Vision of a Prosperous India The following poem by the great Indian poet Rabindranath Tagore adumbrates my vision of a prosperous INDIA . Elephants and Beggars´. ³The Cradle of the IT industry´ & ³The World¶s Outsourcing Hub´.This means that.S. Agriculture will make a rapid advance. if nothing else. you can point to any number of costs -. military presence in the Middle East. Still I am hopeful. providing incentives to buy smaller and more fuel efficient vehicles. India has a long history and as it is understood presently. you can point to climate change. presence in Saudi Arabia. views and opinions under different topics In economic field. You can point to the hundreds of billions (perhaps trillions) for the war. other projects geared towards improving mass transit and carpooling programs across the country. In a bid to provide my vision for and of India in the 21st century.S. it has covered a span of five thousand years since the period of its first known civilization. in the future. As understanding of the historical traditions is very important in order to form a concrete futuristic vision of nation like India. Where the knowledge is free Where the world has not been broken up into fragments By narrow domestic walls Where the words come out from the depth of truth Where the tireless striving stretches its arms towards the perfection Where the clear stream of reason has not lost its way Into the dreary desert sand of dead habit Where the mind is led forward by Thee Into ever-widening thought and action Into that heaven of freedom.and the alternatives would be cheaper. and promoting a campaign to increase awareness about conservation. I am sure India by that time will be able to take care of the health needs of all its citizen and Right to Education will achieve its target. The most important part of the human resource development is meaningful education for all. . As an alternative. Certainly the industrial development will have a balanced look providing work for everyone and at the same time bringing prosperity and sustained development for our natural resources. as it cost Empires back in the day. with the advent of time has undergone a stark metamorphosis & is now being referred to using flattering epithets such as ³The Silicon Valley of the East´. generating enough surplus and providing food for everyone. Remember bin Laden's repeated statements about the intolerable U. and leads inevitably to wars. so long as Americans consume gasoline (and perhaps. ³The Land of a Million Gods´ etc. by that time democracy will be strengthened in India and it will give rise to true statesmen who will further take ahead my vision of India and each aspect of the Directive Principles of our Constitution will be fulfilled.Whether we acknowledge it or not. let my country India: once upon a time mockingly and on occasions disrespectfully referred to as ³The Land of the Snake charmers. Often our political leaders lack 'political will' and work in a petty and partisan manner. my Father. the following recommendations would be helpful: Appropriate solutions include largescale research.

transparent and corruption-free Government of India. although India has made rapid advances. I feel that. became their only way out of poverty. Every individual as an electorate will have the right to dismiss the representative from the state assembly. Our country will also hopefully achieve friendly ties with Pakistan. We do have several proven instances of internal disturbances. motivated armed force. Unless a nation is able to defend its borders and integrity. I. in such issues the majority of the opinion of aggrieved individuals will have the valid decree to decide the above dismissal. even if the said Individual does not contest the elections. local governing bodies and parliaments at the half way mark of the term of office.g. I have a vision that in coming times. India is now a military superpower. South-East Asia. region. . yet our borders are surrounded by hostile war-hawks. everyone should have proper shelter with basic amenities and education for all. educating people is better than building thousands of charity homes or temples. from working towards the development of the country. whereas food production is increasing in arithmetic progression. the sky is the limit« Mahakavi Bharati felt that everyone should be educated. This was clearly understood. if found and proved guilty of malpractice. also. Russia and Israel requesting India to aid them design complex defense systems etc. We. Consequently. we still have a lot to achieve as a nation. Individuals will have the right to exercise the vote through the mail. Peace thus. e-mail etc. people of such high caliber«´ Yes. Our development in this field will also take care of our real needs and will reach to the common people. such high moral values. The top-secret information will be de-classified after pre-determined period unless and otherwise expressly re-classified. when he said that. courtesy the sterling work carried out by an able. Electorate will have the right of information from Government. In some of the areas like software technology. language or ethnicity for their political gain. with countries such as the USA. except for top secret information. S. Do what you can. we still have to be dependent on the developed nations for several technologies. Latin American countries and also in co-operation with China and geo-economic matters. Sports will be made popular at every stage in India. International relations are not only important for making friends but also significant for trade. as individuals. This diverts them. After all. be it Kashmir or the North-East we have dangers all around. Lord Macaulay once remarked while addressing the British Parliament in 1835. Such wealth I have seen in this country.Her military prowess becomes unmatched. It will also help in protecting our environment and sustaining our resource base. a person should have at least two meals a day. Whereas. India will look forward to developing greater economic ties with Russia. thus. Working towards the development of our country is greater than reaching heaven.Individuals will have the right to nominate a person of extraordinary abilities in the legislature. should take initiatives for bringing development in our country. legislatures. Our developed industrial and scientific base will also be able to check brain-drain. everyone must have proper clothes to cover themselves. India's policy has always been one of brotherhood and co-existence. all other developments are of no use. telephone and other media e. terrorism has almost been obliterated as these nations have finally seen sense. Terrorism and insurgency perpetrated by both internal and external elements has reduced to a great deal. By that time no politician or political part will be allowed to exploit caste. with what you have and where you are. security and communication.Elections till be peaceful and every citizen will exercise his/her franchise fearlessly. India will emerge as one of the world leaders in science and technology. it's vice-versa in India. Citizens of developed countries are free from agonies related to basic amenities in daily life. However. I am hopeful that our country will make a great advance in sports winning a number of Olympic medals and international laurels. genetic engineering and space. In India. It's just a cup of tea for them. sincerely hope that my vision for a prosperous India in the year 2020 turns into reality. population is increasing in geometric progression. boasting of a highly skilled. Africa. that is what India was ! Although we have come a long way since then. ³I have travelled across the length and breadth of India and I have not seen one person who is a beggar. Glory of a nation is not complete unless it does well in sports too.

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