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Accession number: 1969-008727 Title: A review of Red Sea heat flow Authors: Girdler, R. W. Monograph title: The structure and evolution of the Red Sea and the nature of the Red Sea, Gulf of Aden and Ethiopian rift junction Publication year: 1969 Pages: 10 Language: English Source note: The Royal Society, London Abstract type: Analytic level Category: Solid-earth geophysics (Includes tectonophysics, crust, mantle, core, application of seismicity, plate tectonics, paleomagnetism, heat flow, isostasy, sea-floor spreading, magnetic field, gravity field, Earth's orbit and rotation) Index terms: geophysical surveys - heat flow - Indian Ocean - measurement - Red Sea - regional - surveys Uncontrolled terms: high values may extend to margins Database: GeoRef Coordinates: Red Sea - 100000N 300000N 0430000E 0340000E GeoRef, Copyright 2008, American Geological Institute.

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Accession number: 1995-062577 Title: Red Sea heat flow through time Authors: Pigott, John D.; Tefferra, Girmachew; Forgotson, James M., Jr.; Gebretsadik, Eshetu; Al Ahdal, Ahmed Author affiliation: University of Oklahoma, OU Red Sea-Gulf of Aden Project, Norman, OK, United States

Other affiliation: Ethiopian Institute of Geological Surveys, Ethiopia; Sana'a University, Yemen Source title: AAPG Bulletin Volume: 79 Issue: 8 Monograph title: AAPG international conference and exhibition; abstracts Publication year: 1995 Pages: 1243 Language: English ISSN: 0149-1423 CODEN: AABUD2 Document type: Serial (JA), Conference document (CA) URL: Series http://www.aapg.org/datasystems/bullsrch.html Conference name: AAPG international conference and exhibition Conference date: 09/10/1995 Conference location: Nice, France Publisher: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Tulsa, OK, United States

Abstract type: Analytic level Category: Solid-earth geophysics (Includes tectonophysics, crust, mantle, core, application of seismicity, plate tectonics, paleomagnetism, heat flow, isostasy, sea-floor spreading, magnetic field, gravity field, Earth's orbit and rotation) - Economic geology, geology of energy sources (Includes petroleum (oil and gas), coal, and other energy sources) Index terms: boreholes - cooling - corrections - crust - evolution - extension tectonics - geophysical
methods - geophysical surveys - heat flow - Indian Ocean - kinetics - lithosphere - maturity models - petroleum - petroleum exploration - plate tectonics - Red Sea - reflection methods refraction methods - rifting - seismic methods - surveys - tectonics - temperature - thermal anomalies

DOI: 10.1306/7834D102-1721-11D7-8645000102C1865D Database: GeoRef Coordinates: Red Sea - 100000N 300000N 0430000E 0340000E GeoRef, Copyright 2008, American Geological Institute. 3. Accession number: 2000-064846 Title: Late Cenozoic paleo-heat flow of the Red Sea; regional implications for tectonics and hydrocarbon exploration Editors: Teferra, Girmachew Publication year: 1997 Pages: 118 Language: English Document type: Thesis or dissertation (DS) Degree: Master's University: University of Oklahoma Abstract: The thermal regime of the Red Sea was erroneously thought to be higher than the world average (1.49 HFU or 62.3 m W/m (super 2) ) by most scientific workers and the oil industry for a long time thus condemning the region's hydrocarbon prospectivity. Contrary to this belief, in this thesis work it will be shown that there exist numerous hypothermal fairways scattered throughout the basin within the thermally elevated regions that are prospective for the generation and accumulation of hydrocarbons. Some of the areas that the presented colorful maps depict as hypothermal hydrocarbon plays are proved to be economic and are being exploited by some of the major oil companies that operate in the region. Press and Siever (1986), stated that "Despite these clear manifestations of earth's internal heat, one cannot positively reconstruct earth's thermal history by working backwards in time from present day observations. To do so would be like writing the history of civilization on the basis of today's newspaper". This thesis work, will show that it is indeed possible to determine the heat flow of an oceanic to intermediate crust sedimentary basin at any particular paleo-time using geophysical inversion modeling approach from present day heat flow data (borehole and/or oceanographic heat flow measurements). A powerful, adequate first order description (constrained by plausible geological assumptions) of the thermal state of most sedimentary basins can be obtained by the integration of Fourier's law of the steadystate heat conduction relation and Parson's and Sclater's empirical relationship for heat flow decay for oceanic crusts. Employing this relationship, it was possible to reconstruct, first of their type, 25 Ma to present day heat flow maps (at 1 Ma increment) for the region which are further constrained by the reconstruction of Red Sea's plate kinematic maps that show an episodic and continuous separation of the African Plate and Arabian plate for the corresponding interval of time. The plate kinematic constructions' principle was proposed by Walsh and Scotese (1991), and states that this is how the Red Sea should have formed if it is to be integrated with the more than 150 independent tectonic elements scattered throughout the world. And since heat flow is a function of the lithospheric thickness, using the aerial differential approach it was possible to calculate the stretching factor (beta ) from the generated plate kinematic maps. A comparison of heat flow maps produced by the geophysical inversion approach, forward modeling and heat flow maps produced by other workers and their correspondence with the hot brine pools is also shown. And finally the observation, interpretations and the practical application of the heat flow maps with respect

to hydrocarbon exploration is stated. Abstract type: Monographic level Number of references: 86 Illustrations: illus. Category: Economic geology, geology of energy sources (Includes petroleum (oil and gas), coal, and other energy sources) - Solid-earth geophysics (Includes tectonophysics, crust, mantle, core, application of seismicity, plate tectonics, paleomagnetism, heat flow, isostasy, sea-floor spreading, magnetic field, gravity field, Earth's orbit and rotation) Index terms: African Plate - Arabian Plate - basins - boreholes - Cenozoic - crust - geophysical surveys heat flow - Indian Ocean - kinematics - models - Neogene - oceanic crust - petroleum petroleum exploration - plate tectonics - Red Sea - sedimentary basins - surveys - tectonics Tertiary - thermal conductivity - upper Cenozoic

Database: GeoRef Coordinates: Red Sea - 100000N 300000N 0430000E 0340000E GeoRef, Copyright 2008, American Geological Institute. 4. Accession number: 1966-011100 Title: Heat flow in the northwest indian ocean and red sea Authors: Sclater, J. G. Source title: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series A: Mathematical and Physical Sciences Volume: 259 Issue: 1099 Monograph title: A discussion concerning the floor of the northwest indian ocean Publication year: 1966 Pages: 271-278 Language: English ISSN: 0080-4614 CODEN: PTRMAD Document type: Serial (JA) Publisher: Royal Society of London, London, United Kingdom Abstract: Twenty-four measurements of the heat flow through the ocean floor were made in the Indian Ocean and three in the Red Sea. A critical analysis of the effects of fluctuations of bottomwater temperature on the geothermal gradient in the Red Sea shows that these fluctuations do not invalidate the measurements of heat flow. The seventeen heat flow measurements made between the African coast and the Seychelles show little variation. The comparison of these observations and the deep structure, as determined by a series of seismic lines, shows a constant heat flow across the continental margin. Abstract type: Analytic level Category: Solid-earth geophysics (Includes tectonophysics, crust, mantle, core, application of seismicity, plate tectonics, paleomagnetism, heat flow, isostasy, sea-floor spreading, magnetic field, gravity field, Earth's orbit and rotation) Index terms: geophysical methods - geophysical surveys - geothermal gradient - heat flow - Indian Ocean Uncontrolled terms: heat-flow and seismic data Database: GeoRef Coordinates: Red Sea - 100000N 300000N 0430000E 0340000E
marine geology - measurement - Red Sea - regional - seismic methods - structure - surveys

GeoRef, Copyright 2008, American Geological Institute. Reference includes data from Geophysical Abstracts, U. S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, United States 5. Accession number: 1986-056473 Title: Heat flow in the northwesternmost Red Sea Authors: Girdler, R. W.; Barakat, H.; Miller, P. M. Author affiliation: Univ. Newcastle upon Tyne, Sch. Phys., Newcastle, United Kingdom

Other affiliation: Esso Explor., Euro-Afr. Div., United States Source title: Geophysical Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society Volume: 85 Issue: 1 Monograph title: Abstracts, The Tenth UK geophysical assembly Publication year: 1986 Pages: 273 Language: English ISSN: 0016-8009 CODEN: GEOJAN Document type: Serial (JA), Conference document (CA) Conference name: The Tenth UK geophysical assembly Conference date: 04/07/1986 Conference location: Glasgow, United Kingdom Publisher: Blackwell [for the] Royal Astronomical Society, London, United Kingdom Abstract type: Analytic level Category: Solid-earth geophysics (Includes tectonophysics, crust, mantle, core, application of seismicity, plate tectonics, paleomagnetism, heat flow, isostasy, sea-floor spreading, magnetic field, gravity field, Earth's orbit and rotation) Index terms: exploration - heat flow - Indian Ocean - Red Sea - tectonophysics - thermal conductivity - wells Uncontrolled terms: northwestern Red Sea Database: GeoRef Coordinates: Red Sea - 100000N 300000N 0430000E 0340000E GeoRef, Copyright 2008, American Geological Institute. 6. Accession number: 1986-070547 Title: A heat flow profile across the Arabian Shield and Red Sea Authors: Gettings, Mark E. Author affiliation: U. S. Geol. Surv., United States

Source title: Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union Volume: 62 Issue: 17 Monograph title: AGU 1981 spring meeting Publication year: 1981 Pages: 407

Language: English ISSN: 0096-3941 CODEN: EOSTAJ Document type: Serial (JA), Conference document (CA) Conference name: American Geophysical Union; 1981 spring meeting Conference date: 05/25/1981 Conference location: Baltimore, MD, United States Publisher: American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, United States Abstract type: Analytic level Category: Solid-earth geophysics (Includes tectonophysics, crust, mantle, core, application of seismicity, plate tectonics, paleomagnetism, heat flow, isostasy, sea-floor spreading, magnetic field, gravity field, Earth's orbit and rotation) Index terms: Arabian Peninsula - Arabian Shield - Asia - crust - geophysical methods - geophysical surveys geothermal gradient - gravity methods - heat flow - heat sources - Indian Ocean - oceanic crust - Red Sea - Saudi Arabia - seismic methods - surveys - tectonophysics

Uncontrolled terms: Ad Darb Database: GeoRef Coordinates: Red Sea - 100000N 300000N 0430000E 0340000E Saudi Arabia - 170000N 323000N 0570000E 0344500E GeoRef, Copyright 2008, American Geological Institute. 7. Accession number: 1982-066203 Title: Studies of the heat flow in the rift zone of the Red Sea Authors: Verzhbitskiy, Ye. V.; Zolotarev, V. G. Author affiliation: Shirshov Inst. Oceanol., Moscow, USSR

Source title: Oceanology Volume: 20 Issue: 5 Publication year: 1980 Pages: 580-583 Language: English ISSN: 0001-4370 CODEN: ONLGAE Document type: Serial (JA) Publisher: American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, United States Abstract type: Analytic level Number of references: 8 Annotation: Translated from Okeanografya Akademiya Nauka SSSR, Vol. 20, No. 5, 1980 Illustrations: illus. incl. 1 table, sketch map Category: Solid-earth geophysics (Includes tectonophysics, crust, mantle, core, application of seismicity, plate tectonics, paleomagnetism, heat flow, isostasy, sea-floor spreading, magnetic field, gravity field, Earth's orbit and rotation) - Oceanography (Includes modern marine sedimentation) Index terms: brines - Great Rift Valley - heat flow - Indian Ocean - mineral deposits, genesis - plate tectonics Red Sea - regional patterns - rift zones - sea-floor spreading - sedimentation - tectonophysics -

thermal circulation - thermal regime

Database: GeoRef Coordinates: Red Sea - 100000N 300000N 0430000E 0340000E GeoRef, Copyright 2008, American Geological Institute. 8. Accession number: 1973-021833 Title: Heat Flow Measurements in the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden Authors: Haenel, R. Source title: Journal of Geophysics = Zeitschrift fuer Geophysik Volume: 38 Issue: 6 Publication year: 1972 Pages: 1035-1047 Language: English ISSN: 0340-062X CODEN: ZEGEA7 Document type: Serial (JA) Publisher: Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany Abstract type: Analytic level Illustrations: illus. (incl. sketch map) Category: Applied geophysics (Includes acoustical surveys, Earth-current surveys, electrical surveys, electromagnetic surveys, gravity surveys, infrared surveys, magnetic surveys, magnetotelluric surveys, seismic surveys, geodesy, heat flow, remote sensing, well-logging) Index terms: Arabian Sea - geophysical surveys - Gulf of Aden - heat flow - Indian Ocean - Red Sea regional - relation - sea-floor spreading - surveys

Uncontrolled terms: central - south Database: GeoRef Coordinates: Gulf of Aden - 103000N 150000N 0520000E 0430000E Red Sea - 100000N 300000N 0430000E 0340000E GeoRef, Copyright 2008, American Geological Institute. 9. Accession number: 590571 Title: Measurements of heat flow in the Red Sea between 19 degrees and 26 degrees Northern latitude (region of the Brine Deeps) Authors: Scheuch, J.1 Author affiliation:
1 Freie Univ. Berlin, West Germany

Source title: Zeitschrift fur Geophysik Abbreviated source title: Z. Geophys. (West Germany) Volume: 39 Issue: 5 Publication date: Oct. 1973 Pages: 859-62

Language: German ISSN: 0044-2801 CODEN: ZEGEA7 Document type: Journal article (JA) Country of publication: West Germany Material Identity Number: Z020-1973-006 Number of references: 5 Inspec controlled terms: heat transfer - oceanography Uncontrolled terms: 19 to 26 degrees northern latitude - Brine Deeps - heat flow - Red Sea Inspec classification A9210 Physics of the oceans codes: Treatment: Experimental (EXP) Discipline: Physics (A) Database: Inspec Copyright 1974, IEE 10. Accession number: 1977-014830 Title: Preliminary heat flow map of the Red Sea and an attempt to provide a geologicalgeophysical interpretation Authors: Scheuch, J. Editors: Pilger, A.; Roesler, A. Monograph title: Afar between continental and oceanic rifting; Vol. 2 Publication year: 1976 Pages: 171-174 Language: English Document type: Book (CA) Publisher: E. Schweiz. Verlagsbuchhandl. (Naegele u. Obermiller), Stuttgart, Federal Republic of Germany Abstract type: Analytic level Illustrations: sketch map Category: Solid-earth geophysics (Includes tectonophysics, crust, mantle, core, application of seismicity, plate tectonics, paleomagnetism, heat flow, isostasy, sea-floor spreading, magnetic field, gravity field, Earth's orbit and rotation) Index terms: age - geophysical surveys - heat flow - Indian Ocean - plate tectonics - Red Sea - regional regional patterns - rifting - sea-floor spreading - surveys - tectonophysics - zoning

Database: GeoRef Coordinates: Red Sea - 100000N 300000N 0430000E 0340000E GeoRef, Copyright 2008, American Geological Institute. 11. Accession number: 0443761 Title: A model for development of Red Sea. Authors: Cochran, J.R.1 Author affiliation:
1 Lamont-Doherty Geol Obs, Columbia Univ, Palisades, NY 10964, USA.

Source title: American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin Volume: 67 Issue: 1 Issue date: 1983 Publication year: 1983 Pages: 41-69 Language: English Abstract: Although motion between Arabia and Africa is presently occurring along the entire length of the Red Sea, the morphology and tectonics that result from this motion vary greatly along its length. S of 21oN, the main trough is bisected by a deep axial trough which has formed by sea-floor spreading during the past 4Ma and is associated with large amplitude magnetic anomalies and high heat flow. N of 25oN, an axial trough is not present and the floor of the main trough has an irregular faulted appearance. The magnetic field in the N is characterized by smooth low-amplitude anomalies with few isolated higher amplitude magnetic anomalies commonly associated with gravity anomalies and in many places probably due to intrusions. Between these regions, the axial trough is discontinuous with a series of deeps characterized by large-amplitude magnetic anomalies alternating with shallower intertrough zones which lack magnetic anomalies. It is argued that the different regions represent successive phases in the rifting of a continent and the development of a continental margin. An initial period of diffuse extension by rotational faulting and dike injection over an area perhaps 100km (60mi) wide is followed by concentration of extension at a single axis and the initiation of sea-floor spreading. -from Author Number of references: 106 Controlled terms: dike injection - faulting - heat flow - magnetic anomalies - rotational - sea floor spreading (Red
Sea)

Classification code: 72.10 STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY AND TECTONICS - 72.11 GEOPHYSICS - 72.12 SEISMOLOGY Database: GEOBASE Compilation and indexing terms, 2011 Elsevier Inc. 12. Accession number: 1997-063337 Title: Paleo-heatflow of the Red Sea-Gulf of Suez; delineating hypothermal hydrocarbon fairways through time and space Authors: Pigott, John D.; Teferra, Girmachew Author affiliation: University of Oklahoma, School of Geology and Geophysics, Norman, OK, United States

Source title: Annual Meeting Abstracts - American Association of Petroleum Geologists and Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Volume: 6 Monograph title: American Association of Petroleum Geologists 1997 annual convention Publication year: 1997 Pages: 93 Language: English ISSN: 0094-0038 CODEN: APGAB2 Document type: Serial (JA), Conference document (CA) Conference name: American Association of Petroleum Geologists 1997 annual convention Conference date: 04/06/1997 Conference location: Dallas, TX, United States

Publisher: American Association of Petroleum Geologists and Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists, Tulsa, OK, United States Abstract: The thermal state of the Red Sea is reconstructed for the past 25 Ma by solving a Dirichlet heat flow boundary value problem incorporating heatflow measurements compiled from oceanographic surveys and borehole temperatures and their harmonically averaged thermal conductivities. The crustal thermal budget can be represented as the sum of nonsteady state heat flow (cooling lithosphere) and radioactive heat generation (minor contribution) minus advective heat loss by heat refraction in salt and heat loss by fluid flow (both locally important but regionally negligible). Through geological (lithologic and tectonic) and geophysical (seismic stratigraphic) constraints, a series of 5 Ma incremented maps are generated. Observations of heat flow variations through time and space reveal that the Red Sea is neither uniformly elevated in heatflow with respect to average lithosphere nor does it contain a symmetric distribution of heat flow values about its rifting axes. Instead, there are areas of depressed heatflows with respect to the surrounding elevated regional trends. Such observations on a regional scale cannot be easily explained as a product simply of statistical sampling error. instead, these hypothermal zones may imply thickened normal conductivity lithosphere (perhaps of underlying pre-Miocene) and/or localized heat refraction through salt conduits. In either case, such zones indicate the existence of hypothermal fairways potentially conducive to liquid hydrocarbon maturation, expulsion and accumulation within a surrounding thermally elevated region otherwise predominated by gas prospectivity owing to thermal cracking. Abstract type: Analytic level Category: Economic geology, geology of energy sources (Includes petroleum (oil and gas), coal, and other energy sources) - Applied geophysics (Includes acoustical surveys, Earth-current surveys, electrical surveys, electromagnetic surveys, gravity surveys, infrared surveys, magnetic surveys, magnetotelluric surveys, seismic surveys, geodesy, heat flow, remote sensing, well-logging) Index terms: advection - boreholes - cooling - errors - Gulf of Suez - heat flow - Indian Ocean - lithosphere
- natural gas - petroleum - petroleum exploration - reconstruction - Red Sea - sampling seismic stratigraphy - statistical analysis - temperature

Database: GeoRef Coordinates: Gulf of Suez - 274000N 300000N 0341000E 0322000E GeoRef, Copyright 2008, American Geological Institute. Reference includes data supplied by American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Tulsa, OK, United States
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