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Objectives Study non-ideal op amp behavior. Demonstrate circuit analysis techniques for non-ideal op amps. At the end of this class you should be able to: * Analyze op amp circuits assuming finite gain, non-ideal input and output resistance * Understand the effects of common mode gain and input resistance * Ideal op amp has following assumptions: Infinite common-mode rejection, power supply rejection, open-loop gain, bandwidth, output voltage range, output current capability Zero output resistance, input-bias currents and offset current, input-offset voltage. *Various error terms arise in practical operational amplifiers due to non-ideal behavior. The non-idealities can be classified as follows: I. Small signal errors: 1. Finite gain, input and output resistances 2. Common mode gain and input resistance II. Frequency Limitation 1. Finite bandwidth III. Large signal limitations: 1. Slew rate 2. Output voltage and currents limits IV. DC imperfections 1. Offset voltage 2. Biasing and offset currents 3. PSSR * In this class we will concentrate on the small signal non-idealities. Whereas, other limitations will be discussed in the following lectures. To simplify non-ideal analysis, each imperfection can be considered separately. * Finite Open-loop Gain Practical op amps have finite gains with typical values in the range of 80 to 100dB. Finite gain results in error between the ideal and actual gain.

it can be shown that: − R2 (3) Anon −ideal = 1 R1 + ( R1 + R2 ) A You can see that as A → ∞. 1: Circuit for analyzing non-inverting amplifier with finite op amp gain v1 v1 − vo + = 0 (1) R1 R2 Note that for finite A. write KCL equation at v1 as follows: is + vid vs vo Avid R2 i v1 R1 Feedback network Fig. Then. Anon −ideal → Aideal = 1 + . v − ≠ v + But vo = A(v+ − v − ) = A(v s − v1 ) Solving for v1: v v1 = − o + v s (2) A Substituting (2) in (1) and solving for vo yielding: vo 1 + R2 / R1 = Anon −ideal = 1 vs 1 + (1 + R2 / R1 ) A R2 R1 Following this procedure for analyzing the inverting amplifier. Solution: Replace the op amp with its simple model as shown in Fig.Example 1: Investigate the effect of finite op amp gain on the non-inverting amplifier performance. 1.

The non-ideal gain can be calculated from equation (3) A − Anon −ideal 2. it is evidence that as the gain of the op amp increases.1% v-9.80V/V -99.2% 1. practical op amp particularly those based on BJT have finite input resistance (in the range of view mega ohms). 2. The percentage error is defended by Ε = ideal × 100 Aideal 3. Calculate its input resistance if the op amp has finite input resistance Rid.1mV It can be seen that as A increases. Replace the op amp with its model with finite Rid as shown in Fig. However. This finite differential input resistance will introduce errors in both the closed loop gain and the input resistance of amplifiers. and v. the non-ideal gain and v. respectively.1mV -1. Solution: 1.0mV -0. the input resistance is infinity forcing i-=i+=0.Example 2: Consider an inverting amplifier with R1= 1kΩ.approach their ideal values of –100V/V and 0V. the error is decreased. . Calculate the non-ideal gain. A = 10 4 and A = 105 . Since vo = A(v + − v− ) ⇒ v − = − vo as v+=0 A Using these results.0% 0. R2=100kΩ and vs=+0. * Finite Differential Input Resistance: For an ideal op amp. error.for different op amp gains of: A = 10 3 . the following table can be developed: A 10 3 10 4 10 5 Anon-ideal -90. Example 3: Consider the inverting amplifier.90V/V Ε 9.1 V. Also.00V/V -99. Solution: 1.

2. Replace the op amp with its model with finite Rid as shown in Fig. 2. 3. Solution: 1.R2 is R1 v vid + v+ Rid vo Avid vs Fig. By definition: v x i x R1 + v − v = = R1 + − (4) ix ix ix v − vo v v v + Av− = − + − But i x = i− + i2 = − + − Rid R2 Rid R2 ix 1 1 1+ A = = + v − R Rid R2 This means v R2 (5) R = − = Rid ix 1+ A Substituting equation (5) in (4) yields: R2 R Rin = R1 + Rid ≈ R1 + 2 1+ A 1+ A Rin = For large A. 2: Inverting amplifier model with finite Rid. Rin= R1 Example 4: Consider the non-inverting amplifier. By definition: . Calculate its input resistance if the op amp has finite input resistance Rid.

Rin = ix = vx − v 1 R id v =i R ≅i R 1 1 1 2 1 Assuming i -<<i2 implies i1 = i2 Fig. However. This output resistance will introduce errors in both the closed loop gain and the output resistance of amplifiers. 3. The non-inverting Amplifier with finite Rid. practical op amps have small output resistance Ro (about view tens of ohms). the output resistance is zero. . R 1 v = βv v ≅ o 1 R +R o 1 2 = β ( Av ) = Aβ (v x − v ) 1 id Aβ v = v 1 1+ Aβ x Aβ vx − v vx 1+ Aβ x = ∴i x = (1+ Aβ )R R id id R = R (1+ Aβ ) in id * Nonzero Output Resistance For an ideal op amp.vx ix Test voltage source vx is applied to input and current ix is calculated.

4. Output terminal is driven by test source vx and current ix is calculated to determine output resistance (all independent sources are turned off). Calculate its input resistance if the op amp has nonzero output resistance Ro. The non-inverting Amplifier with finite Ro. Solution: 1. Fig. 4. By definition: v Rout = x ix i x = io + i io = 2 id v x .Example 5: Consider the non-inverting amplifier. Replace the op amp with its model with Ro as shown in Fig. 2.Av Ro vx i = 2 R +R 1 2 .

Rout=0 * Note that the equivalent circuit when calculating the output resistance with vs=0 is the same for both inverting and non-inverting amplifiers as shown in Fig. vid= -v1 and R 1 v = βv v = x 1 R +R x 1 2 i 1+ Aβ 1 1 ∴ = x = + vx Ro R +R R out 1 2 ∴Rout = Ro ⎛ ⎞ ⎜R + R ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ 1+ Aβ ⎝ 1 2 ⎠ Since. 5: Circuits for calculating output resistances of inverting and non-inverting amplifiers .Also. Ro/(1+Ab)<<(R1+R2). R Rout ≅ o 1+ Aβ If A is infinite. Fig. 5.

6: Common mode gain model v +v ⎞ ⎟ vo = A(v − v ) + Acm 1 2 ⎟ 1 2 ⎟ 2 ⎟ ⎠ = A(v ) + Acm(v ) ic id ⎛ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ where: A(or Adm)= differential-mode gain Acm = common-mode gain vid = differential-mode input voltage vic = common-mode input voltage The two inputs can be also expressed as: v v = v + id 1 ic 2 v v = v − id 2 ic 2 Ideal amplifier has Acm = 0. ⎛ A v ⎞ ⎛ v ⎞ ⎟ ⎜ vo = A⎜ v + cm ic ⎟ = A⎜ v + ic ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ id A ⎟ ⎜ id CMRR ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ CMRR = A Acm .Acm v1 v2 + vo Fig. A. In general. called common-mode input voltage.Finite Common-Mode Rejection Ratio (CMRR) A real amplifier responds to signal common to both inputs. but for a real amplifier.

Ric >> Rid. for a purely differential-mode input signal. . total resistance presented to source is Ric or common-mode input resistance. Common-mode Input Resistance: Fig. Whereas. 7: Model for common mode input resistance *When a pure common-mode signal vic is applied to amplifier input (vid =0). both A and CMRR are normally >>1. input resistance is Rid. GE ≅ 1 1 − A CMRR First term is due to finite amplifier gain.Example 6: Find voltage follower gain error due to CMRR v = vs − vo id ⎛ (v + v ) ⎞ vo = A⎜ (vs − vo )+ s o ⎟ ⎜ 2CMRR ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎞ 1 ⎟ ⎟ vo ⎜ ⎟ Av = = ⎝ 2CMRR ⎠ ⎞ 1 vs 1+ A⎛1− ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 2CMRR ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ A⎜1+ ⎜ ⎛ Ideal gain for voltage follower is unity. Hence the gain error is given by: A 1− 2 CMRR GE = 1 − A v = ⎛ ⎞ 1 ⎟ 1 + A ⎜1 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ 2 CMRR ⎝ ⎠ Since. Normally. second term shows that CMRR may introduce an even larger error.

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