AP PSYCH CH. 2 REVIEW SHEET: ANSWER THE QUESTIONS BELOW! I.

Neural Communication
A. Neuron = Nerve Cell = Most fundamental part of the nervous system

1. What are the parts of a nerve cell or neuron? 2. What is the function of each part of the nerve cell?
B. How Neurons Communicate

1. How do neurons communicate ? (Electrically ? Chemically ? Both ?) 2. Resting axon has negative charge inside (-70 mV), positive charge outside =_____________POTENTIAL and is _____________ (polarized or depolarized?) 3. The neuron s membrane is selectively permeable , which means ? 4. At rest, which ions are NOT allowed to stay in? (They re pumped out) 5. Which signals say action is needed; for example, that a message should be passed on? Which signals say NO action should be taken; for ex, a message should not be passed on? 6. If the go messages MINUS the no messages remains strong enough, we say the THRESHOLD (or minimal level of needed stimulation) has been reached and an electrical charge can occur 7. What is an ELECTRIC CHARGE or IMPULSE that travels down the AXON of a nerve cell? **8. This electric charge is only possible once positive ____________ ions are allowed to flood into a neuron and change the charge; the inside of the neuron is temporarily positively charged and the outside is negatively charged Is this POLARIZATION or DEPOLARIZATION?
After an electric impulse has traveled down an axon, positive _________ ions are temporarily pushed back out refractory period of REPOLARIZATION, which is followed by _________________ Sample test questions: In a resting state, the axon is polarized or depolarized? Does it have mostly positively or negatively charged ions inside? Outside? Sample test question: Resting potential is to action potential as is to ? Polarization to Depolarization? C. How Neurotransmitters Influence Us 1. Acetylcholine: L M&M = Memory, Muscle action (and learning) Too little = _________________ THIS NEUROTRANSMITTER IS FOUND BETWEEN ________________ & ______________________ (Look in your textbook!) What happens if Ach reuptake is blocked? ___________________________ What happens when your synapses are FLOODED with Ach? ______________________________ 2. What are endorphins? What happens when a person takes heroin or other opiates? 3. Dopamine is involved with __________________________________________________________ Too much is associated with _______________________; too little with ____________________ 4. Serotonin is involved with __________________________________________________________ Too little is associated with ________________________ 5. GABA is involved with _____________________________________________________________ 6. Norepinephrine: Undersupply can depress mood 7. AGONIST DRUGS excite (send excitatory messages) & _______________ neurotransmitters 8. ANTAGONIST DRUGS inhibit & may __________neurotransmitters by ___________ receptor sites

II. Nervous System
A. Central Nervous System = ? B. Peripheral Nervous System = ?

adrenal glands. What is the difference between a LESION and a LOBOTOMY? . Which brain parts are included in this system? 2. FOREBRAIN Limbic system = Emotional responses 1. Endocrine System A. artist or writer B. musician. What are 4 functions of the HYPOTHALAMUS? 4. Studying the brain 1. Which gland regulates metabolism? Which releases insulin? Which releases epinephrine? IV. NERVE CELLS within the Central Nervous System ______________neurons: Nerve cells that carry incoming information from sense receptors to the central nervous system ______________ neurons : Nerve cells that carry outgoing information from the central nervous system to the muscles and glands _______________: Nerve cells ONLY found in the central nervous system (CNS) that can communicate WITHIN the CNS between incoming sensory info and outgoing motor info *BRAIN (Forebrain. Hypothalamus. Taste. testes C. What is the function of the cerebral cortex? Cerebrum =2/3 of brain Cerebrum *Know lobes in cerebrum & their duties: ____________ Judgment & personality ____________ Temperature.C. What are the KEY functions of the CEREBELLUM? 6. Pain. What is the KEY function of the THALAMUS? 5. What are the functions of each of these parts? 3. ovaries. dancer. pituitary gland. What are association areas? 7. Pressure ___________ Hearing & memory ___________ Vision III. parathyroids. thyroid gland. What are the functions of each of these parts? B. Our BRAIN can take in LOTS of different info at once & make calculations based on this info Ex: Catching and throwing a ball involves lots of calculations re: distance NEURAL NETWORKS are clusters of neurons that work together Neural connections are strengthened with repetition (practice) explains why certain actions become easy for a professional athlete. What are the chemical messengers of this system? D. midbrain & hindbrain) A. More on the Brain A. What is the most primitive part of the brain? ___________________ 1. What are the 3 key parts of this most primitive brain part? 2. What is the master gland ? What are 2 of its functions? B. pancreas.

What is shown on an EEG? 3. split-brain patients develop speech centers in the RIGHT hemisphere= plasticity 4. What is shown on a PET scan? HOW? 4. What is shown on an MRI? HOW? 5. What happens when these fibers are cut? LEFT SIDE OF BODY & LEFT VISUAL FIELD OF BOTH EYES=controlled by ____________ hemisphere RIGHT SIDE OF BODY & RIGHT VISUAL FIELD OF BOTH EYES=controlled by _________ hemisphere Note: language recognition & speech (____________ s area) = LEFT hemisphere for MOST people Split-brain patients who see the word SPOON in their LEFT visual field can reach for a spoon with their ______________ hand and (CAN? CANNOT?) SAY spoon because info from the LEFT visual field is controlled by the ______________hemisphere and MOST people s speech center is in the ___________ hemisphere Over time. What IS plasticity? KNOW GAZZANIGA S RESEARCH FINDINGS AND THEIR SIGNIFICANCE! . Messages travel from one hemisphere to another because of _____________________________ 2. In patients with VERY __________________________. SPLIT-BRAIN PATIENTS 1.2. connective fibers may be cut 3. What is shown on an fMRI? HOW? C.

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