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iratfy ;ksxihB gfj}kj

nSfud thou eas mi;ksxh Lonskh&fonskh lkeku dh lwph


fonskh

oLrq

Lonskh

vf/kdrj VwFkisLV gfM~M;ksa ds pwjs ls curk gSaA


dksyxsV] fgUnqLrku yhoj Dykstvi] isIlksMsUV] ,se] flckdk]
flckdk] ,Doksk] ,eos fXyLVj] T;ksjh esulZ QksjgUl]
Xyhe vksjych] DokUVe] Vwtsy
ykxr % 60 #@fd0] dher % 200&315 #@fd0
equkQk % 2500%

VwFkisLV
eatu

loZJs"B & nUrdkafr] nUr eatu iratfy vk;qoZsn fy- Ukhe]


ccwy dh M.Mh] uhe 320 rjg ds dhVk.kq ekjrk gSA
eatu& fodks ctznUrh] Mkcj] oS|ukFk] a>k] fgrdj] dey
LokuUn ljlksa dk rsy $ ued $ gYnhA
'kkdkgkjh VwFk isLV & fodks otznUrh] vej LokuUn pksbZlA
vU; VwFkisLV & uhe] ,adj] feLokd] ccwy] izksfel] lgkjkA

dksyxsV] Dykstvi] isIlksMsUV] ,Doksk] flckdk] fctMe

VwFkcz'k

loZJ"s B &,D;qisz kj ds vuqlkj vaxy


q h ls nkr lkQ djus ls vkarksa
dh ekfyk gksrh gS o dCt nwj gksrk gSA dher % 0
izksfel] vt;] vtUrk] eksusV] jks;y] Dykfld] MkW0 LVkWdA

lHkh lkcquksa esa lksMk gksrk gS] tks Ropk ds fy;s gkfudkjd gSA
fgUnqLrku yhoj yDl] fyfjy] ykbZQckW;] yslkalh] eksrh] ekxkZ]s
Msfue] dses] Mkso] jsoykWu] fi;lZ] jsDlksuk] czht] geke]
vksd]s t; iks.M~l] MsVksy] fDy;jfly] ikeksfyo] DokaVe] ,eos]
tkWulu csch
fder % 100&150 #0@fdyks

ugkus dk
lkcqu

loZJ"s B&dk;kdafr] dk;kdafr ,ykssohjk iratfy vk;qosZn fy-]


nw/k$cslu] eqyrkuh feV~Vh$ngh] vjhBk$vkoyk$fkdkdkbZA vuqjk
LokuUn] esMhfeDl] uhe] fujek] fuek] ikdZ vosU;w jse.M] fizfe;e
tds tsLehu] eSljw lsna y] Lokfrd uhe] fkdkdkbZ] dqVhj]
vQxku] lgkjk] pafdk] fgekuh fXyljhu] xksnjst flaFkksy] Qs;jXyk]
Xyksjh] ekjoy] fothy] fkdkdkbZ] xaxk] foizk]s larjq ] gcZy] csch] dkfeZuks
cschA

dksyxsV ikeksfyo gSyks] ghuk] ikeksfyo fgUnqLrku yhoj yDl]


fDyfud] luflYd] jsoykWu] ysDes izkDs Vj ,oa xsca y
fDy;jfly] isUVhu] esMhds;j iks.M~l] vksYM Likbl] ekfpZl]
'kkoj Vw 'kkoj] vsxfsZ ud] gsM ,aM 'kksYMj] tkWulu csch
fder % 300&500 #0@yhVj

'kSEiw

loZJs"B &'kSEiw iratfy vk;qosZn fy-] eqyrkuh feV~Vh&ngh]


vjhBk&vkoyk&fkdkdkbZA fder % 0
fizfe;e] foizk]s ikdZ vosU;w] Lokfrd] v;wj gcZy] dskfu[kkj] gs;j ,.M ds;j]
ukbfly] vfuZdk] osyosV] Mkcj okfVdk] ctkt] lsokJe] ukbZy] yso.s Mj]
xksnjstA

fgUnqLrku yhoj lQZ] fju] luykbV] Oghy] vksds] foe


,fj;y] psd] gsUdks] fjfoy] ,eos] DokUVe] 555A
uh diM+ksa ds fy, & oqyokk] bZth
uhy & jkWfcu Cyw] Vhukiky] LdkbZykdZ
VkW;ysV fDyuj & gkfiZd] dhoh] ykbZtksyA

diM+s o crZu /kksus VkVk 'kq)] fuek] eksnh] ds;j] lgkjk] LokfLrd] foey] fgiksyhu]
z kk]
dk lkcqu] ikmMj Qsuk] llk] Vh lhfjt] MkW0 MsV] ?kM+h] okkosy] fpjkx] pUnzid
DyksFk ds;jA xglaxzg] dqlqe] fDyUtj] Vhe 2000] xksnjstA
o uhy
uh diM+ksa ds fy, &tsfVy] VksikkVA
uhy &mtkyk] jkuhiky] fujek] pedks] fMiA
VkW;ysV fDyuj &lsuh sk] vksMksfid] fDyUtjA
loZJs"B& xeZ ikuh o nw/kA dher % 0

vksYs MLikbl] ikeksfyo] ikW.M~l] ftysV] bjkfLed] Msfue ;kMZy]s


CywLVUVA
dher % 400&1400 #0@fdyks

lsfoxa
he]

loZJs"B & xje ikuh o nw/kA dher % 0


ikdZ vosU;q] fizfe;e] fo tksu] bekeh] lgkjk vQxku] cylkjk]
xksnjst] fufo;kA

ftysV 7 vks Dyksd] bjkfLed foYeSu] foYVstA

CySM

Vksikt] xsyUs V] lqijesDl] ystj] ,lDok;j] flYoj fizUl] fizfe;eA

fgUnqLrku yhoj Qs;j ,oa yoyh] ysDes] fyfjy] Msfue] jsoyksu] he] ikmMj o
izksDVj ,oa xsEcy vk;y ,ao vksys] fDyj;fly] fDy;jVksu
lkSUn;Z
pkfeZl] iks.M~l] vksYM Likbl] ,uSap] ;kMZys] Cywlhy]
izlk/ku dh
MsVky] ukbfly] pkyhZ] bEihjh;y ysnj] 'kkoj Vw kkoj]
lkezxh
tkWulu cschA
VkVk ikoj] ,EcslM
s j jSx
a yj] ukbZd] M~;d
w ] ,MhMkl] U;wiksV]Z
I;wek] ,sjks] osu gqluS ] ,syulksyh] yh gsujh fgyA
jkMks] lhVhtu] jkWySDl] Lohldks] lhdks
ikjdj] fudylu] jksVksesd] fLol,;j] ,Mtsy]
jkbMj] ferlqfckh] ys;j] ;wfucky] ik;ysV] jksyxksYMA

jsfMesM
oL=
?kM+h
isu] isfUly

dk;kdafr ,syksosjk] dk;kdafr uhe] dkafrysi] ,syksosjk dslj]


tsy&vkstyl ,oa rstl iratfy vk;qoZsn fy- ikdZ vosU;w]
fizfe;e] fodks] cksjksIyl] cksjksyhu] cksjksfly v;wj bekeh] fgekuh
xksYM] ukbZy] yso.s Mj] fVIl ,.M Vks] cylkjk] gs;j ,.M ds;j]
eksjhl] D;wVhdqjk] vQxku] fufo;k] gsoUl] xkMZu] flaFkksy Xyksjh]
,Dlisy ckykssa ds fy, osyosV cschA
loZJ"s B &[kknh 100% dkWVu vkjkenk;d] LokLF;izn gSA
dsfEczt] ikdZ vosU;w] vksDtsEcxZ] ckWEcs MkbZxa ]ihVj baXyS.M] jQ ,aM VQ] fVxj ftalA
VkbVu] ,p,eVh] esfDlek] izsfLVt] vtUrk] jkpht] jhdksA
dSey] fdaXlu] kkiZ] jsuksYM] lsyks] foYlu] VwMs uVjkt] ,sEcslM
s j]
fyad] MsYVk] MkDVj] eksUVsDl] LVhd] laxhrk] yDlj] vIljkA

fonskh
dSLVksy] xYQ] 'kSy] VkVk&fczfVk
fQfyIl] FkkWelu] lhesUl] thbZ] lSelax lSU;ks

oLrq
Y;wcvkW;y

Lonskh
bafM;u vkW;y lokZsa] Hkkjr] fgUnqLrku] vkbZchihA

fctyh ds lkeku ,adj] foizks] ctkt] eSlwj] lhek] lw;kZ ,p,eVhA

vkbZlhvkbZ] ctZj] jkWchysd] czksYd] uSjksyd

isUV~l

,fk;u isUV~l] lqjyd] ,iksykbV] LikdZ] jaxokjs] DokyhVh] 'kkyhekjA

twrs & ckVk ikoj] ,EcslMj] ukFkZLVkj] DokMkDohu ch,elh]


djksuk I;wek] ,Eik;j ,sMhMkl] ukbZd] fjcksd] QhfuDl VQ]
oqMysUM] ykcsyA ikWfyk & psjh] Cykle] dhohA

tqrs
ikWfy'k

tqrs &fycVhZ] y[kkuh] LdkbZ vkDlQksMZ] Hkkjr ysnj] ,sDku]


fjysDlks] isjkxku] okbZfdaxA
ikWfyk &fycVhZ 'kw 'kkbZu] fcYyh] dkuksZckA

xqMbZ;j] Muyi lh,V] Qk;j LVksu] fcztLVksuA

Vk;j

,e vkj ,Q] tsds] fokUr] eksnh] izhfe;j] viksykA

isIlh ygj] 7 vi] fefjaMk] Lykbl dksdk dksyk dksd]


QsUVk] LizkbZV] FkElvi] xksYMikV] fyEdk Vhe] flVk
k] esdMksoy] cqd cksaM fdlku fyIVj Vh Vki
ykxr % 2-5 #0@yhVj dher % 33 #&64#@yhVj]
equkQk % U;wUre 1000%&2500%

dksYM
fMaDl

foo LokLF; laxBu us vf/kdrj dksYM fMDa l dks /khek tgj ?kksf"kr fd;k
gSA 1 ?kaVs esa 4 yhVj dksYM fMDa l ihus ls eR;q fufpr gSA
loZJs"B xqykc 'kcZr] cknke 'kcZr iratfy vk;qoZsn fy- nw/k
yLlh] NkN] twl] uhacw ikuh] dsjh] ukfj;y ikuh] 'ksd]
BaMkbZ] tythjkA dher % 2#0@&30 #0@yhVj
:gvQtk] jluk] qVh] lq/k] xksnjst taibZu] ,uthZ] lksl;ksA

Hkkjr nqfu;k esa pk; o dkWQh dk nwljk cM+k mRiknd gSA fonskh
dEiuh;k flQZ iSfdax djrh gSA
fyIVu VkbZxj] xzhu yscy] ;syks yscy] ph;lZ czd
q ckW.M jsM
yscy] rktegy xksMs fQfyIl] iksylu] xqMfjd] lujkbZtA
dkWQh & usLys] usLdSQs] fjpcwA

pk;
o
dkWQh

Pkk; o dkWQh LokLF; ds fy, gkfudkjd gSA


loZJ"s B &fnO; is;]vkaoyk twl] ,yksfojk twl] iratfy vk;qonZ s fy-
pk; &VkVk] cz iq=] vle] fxjukj] dkykk?kksM+k] yky?kksM+k]
Mcy] Mk;e.M] ck|] cdjh] /kulsjh] uojRu] e/kqJh] lkslk;Vh]
ykyfdyk feyhA
dkWQh &bf.M;u dSQs] ,e-vkj-A

usLys ysDVkstu] lsjsyd] usLVe] ,y-ih-,Q-] feYd esM] usLizs]


,ojhMs] xkYVdks XysDlks QSjsDl] vfud
dher % 150&250 #0@fdyks

f'k'kq vkgkj
o
nw/k ikoMj

loZJ"s B &ek dk nw/k] 'kgn] nkyksa dk ikuh] mcys pkoy] Qyksa dk jlA
dher %1&30 #0@yhVj
vewy] b.Mkuk] lkxj] riu] feYd ds;jA

MkWDVj ds vuqlkj 'kjhj dks fdlh VkWfud dh t:jr ugha gSA


cwLV] iksylu] cksuZohVk] gksfyZDl] dksEIyku] LiVZ] izksfVusDlA
dher %160 #0@fdyks

VkWfud

loZJs"B &nw/k] Qy] lfCt;k] vkoyk] lykn] vadqfjr xsgw puk]


ewax] ewaxQyhA cknke ikd] P;ouizk'k] ve`r jlk;u] iratfy
vk;qoZsn fy- flQZ vadfq jr djus ls iz k s f Vu o foVkfeu 30 ls
60% rd c<+ tkrs gSa
vU; vk;qosZfnd VkWfud] U;wVkewy] ekYVksokA

vf/kdrj vkblheksa esa tkuojksa dh vkrksa dh ijr gksrh gSA


okYl] Dokf yVh] MksyIl] dSMcjh]] ckLohu] jksfcUl] ;kdkMwMYlA

vkblhe

loZJs"B &?kj dh cuh vkblhe] dqYQh] veqyA


okMhyky] dksdqy] feYd QqM] isLrksuth] fnukkW gsoeksj] t;A

ued

nskh ued essa Hkh vk;ksM+hu gksrk gSA


dher % 1 #0@fdyks la/s ko ued iratfy vk;qonsZ fy- VkVk]
lw;kZ] rktk] rkjkA

vkyw fpIl

lHkh vkyw fpIl LokLF; ds fy, gkfudkjd gsAa loZJ"s B &?kj esa
cus fpIl chdkth] ,ouA dher % 35#0@fdyks

usLys esaxh] czqd ckW.M fdlku czkmu ,.M ikylu] osdihYM]


jsDl dher % 90 #0@fdyks

VkekVj lkWl]
qV tSal

loZJ"s B & qV tSe] ,iy tSe] feDl tSe iratfy vk;qonsZ fy- ?kj
eas cuk lkWlA dher % 20 #0@fdyks
b.Mkuk] fiz;k] fVYywjke Vkl eukst] fly] fuykUl] jluk duZyA

usLys eSxh

VekVj lkWl ,oa


qV tSe

loZJ"s B & qV tSe] ,iy tSe] feDl tSe iratfy vk;qonsZ fy- ?kj
eas cuk lkWlA dher % 20 #0@fdyks
b.Mkuk] fiz;k] fVYywjke Vkl eukst] fly] fuykUl] jluk duZyA

fcLdqV
pkWdysV

loZJs"B &xqM+$eqxaQyh] dktw T;knk LokLFkizn gSA iratfy


vk;qosZn fy0 vkaaoyk dsSUMh] csy dSUMh] fcfLdV] dSMhA
fczVkfu;k] ikjys] csdesUl] hfedk] 'kkxzhyk] bUMkuk] vewy] jkoyxkaoA

fgUnqLrku yhoj vUuiw.kkZ czqdckW.M fdlku fiYlcjh]


dher % 6-5#0&10#0@fdyks
vady] isIlh jQYl] gkLVsl] QueapA
dher % 90 #0@fdyks

vf/kdrj pkSdysV esa vklsZfud uked tgj gksrk gSA


dSMcjh cksuZfoVk] 5 LVkj fyIVu] gkfyZDl] U;wVhu] foDl]
isjks] yksV~l] bDys;lZA

fonskh

oLrq

Lonskh

Vh-oh-] ft]
vksfuMk] ch-ih-,y-] foM;ksdksu] vdkbZ] Vh&lhjht] lyksjk osLVj]
Lkksuh] fQfyIl] gqM
a bZ] lulqb]Z vkbok] lkiZ] ,yth] nso]w lSU;ks]
oh-lh-Mh-] Vsi] kmu] VsDlyk] xksnjstA
uskuy isuklksfud] dSuoqM] FkkWelu] lSelax] fgrkph] rkskhck]
dksfudk] ik;ksfu;j] dsfYousVj] fOgyZiy
w ] dsuLVkj] bysDVky
s Dl] okf'kaxe'khu ,oa
bysDVkfud xqM~l Lqfer] ctkt] xksih] T;ksfr] "kk] t;iku] bukYlk] vksjVseA
vkbZ-,Q-ch- oksYVlA
flaxj] esfjV] jSyhfeDl] dSuLVkj] czkmu] uskuy] fQfyIl]
egkjkt]th- bZ-A
th- bZ- jSyhlA
,D;wfQuk] fduyh] cSyh] R;ksj ykbZQ] bZfo;u] lSu&iSysxzheksa]
iSfj;j
uksfd;kA
MkyMk czk.M] vkbZ-Vh-lh- rsy] fgUnqLrku fyoj o vkbZ-Vh-lhczk.M ds lHkh rsyksa dk cfg"dkj djsaA

feDpj

ia[ks
ikuh

vksfj;aV] "kk] [ksrku] iksyj] ,adj] ctkt] flUuh] Vh&lhjht]


vkjVse] keVuA
vksfj;aV] "kk] [ksrku] iksyj] ,adj] ctkt] flUuh] Vh&lhjht]
vkjVse] keVuA
loZJs"B& ?kj dk mcyk lkQ ikuh] ;Sl] xaxk] fgeky;k] dSp]
jsy&uhj] fclyjhA

eksckbZy VsyhQksu vtUrk] vksjisV] "kk&yDllA


[kk| rsy

loZJs"B& dPph ?kkuh dk rsy] iratfy vk;q0 fy0 ljlksa dk


rsy] lks;kfcu o ok;q rsy tyok;q ds vuqdwy ugha gSA

Msy] vkbZ-ch-,e- lksuh] ,p-ih- fyukoks] dkEiSd] rksf'kck] Fkkelu] ysiVkWi DEI;wVj ,p-lh-,y-] foizksA
lSelax] ftfuFkA
dkokldh] gks.Mk] gq.MbZ] lUVk]s QksMZ jkW;y bZu QhYM] elZfMt]
Vks;Vk] djksyk] LdksMk] fu'kkuA

nksifg;k okgu~

fgUnqLrku yhoj] ik;fu;j] gsDLV] QkbZtj] fltsUVk] eksulsUVks] dkjfxyA


bu lHkh dEifu;ksa ds chtksa ,oa dhVuk'kdksa dk cfg"dkj djsaA

cht ,oa
dhVuk'kd

ctkt] fgVks] Vh-oh-,l- VkVk VSd


] rwQku] Lojkt&ektnk] vEcSlMj]
bUMl] vtUrkA
LFkkuh; Lrj ds chtksa dk mi;ksxA

uksV % jkrksa&jkr dksbZ Hkh Lons'kh oLrq fons'kh gks ldrh gS vkSj dksbZ Hkh Lons'kh oLrq fons'kh gks ldrh gSA Hkkjr ds cktkj esa
oS'ohdj.k dh izf;k ds ckn cgqr lkjs czk.M oLrq,a Lons'kh ls fons'kh gks tkrh gSaA d`I;k vki vius Lrj ls v[kckjksa
,oa if=dkvksa ds ek/;e ls bl lUnHkZ esa rktk tkudkjh djrs gSaA
uksV%& vki tgk Hkh jgrs gSA mlds vkl&ikl lSdM+ksa Lons'kh oLrq,a curh gSa d`I;k vki buds ckjs esa tkudkjh djsa vkSj mu
Lons'kh oLrqvksa dk vf/kd ls vf/kd mi;ksx ,oa izpkj djsaA