This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
depression thet threatened democracy in both nations. In his inaugural address, president Roosevelt told the America people “We have nothing to fear but fear itself”. In Germany, Chancellor Hitler used 'Fear Itself' to justify the burning of the “Reichstag: and to make himself dictator. Within weeks he legislated all civil rights out of existence and issued edicts to establish his police state. Dissenter were taken to Dachau and Oranienburg concentration camps. The Barbaric scapegoating of German Jews had begun. Jews whose families had lived in Germany for over a thousand years were assaulted in the streets, forced from civil service and schools and had their businesses boycotted. Before 1933 ended, by renouncement of the Versailles treaty, started secret rearmament, quit the league of nations and signed a concordat with the Vatican. As America strengthened it's democracy, Hitler intensified his terrorist tactics. Nazi students stormed university libraries and bookstores, casting into bonfires books authored by defenders of Democracy and believers of free ideas. A century earlier, the German poet, Heinrich Heine prophesied: “Where one burns books, one will, in the end, burn people”. It only took eight years. 1934 The Night Of Long Knives In violation of the treaty of Versailles, Germany initiated an ambitious military rearmament program to restore it's military strength; covert air reconnaissance missions commenced. Germany began to secure it's national borders. On January 26, Germany and Poland signed a non-aggression agreement. The SS became a dominant force in Germany after Ernst Rohm, commander of the storm troopers (SA) and other prominent members of the SA leadership, who threatened Hitler's authority, were murdered on Hitler's orders on June 30. the “Night of the Long Knives”. All concentration camps came under SS jurisdiction. On July 25, Austrian Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss was assassinated by Austrian Nazis in a failed attempt to gain control of that country. With the death of German President Paul Von Hindenburg, on August 2, Hitler moved quickly to establish a dictatorship. Offices of President and Chancellor were combined. Hitler became supreme commander of German military forces. The military no longer bore allegiance to the state; the German soldier in his oath swore “I will render unconditional obedience to Adolph Hitler the Fuhrer”. New laws discriminating against Jews and other minorities were enacted; unofficial boycotting and random attacks against Jews continued. 1935 Legalization of Nazi Racism
German Mandatory military service resumed on March 16. Jesse Owens. 1936 False Peace of Berlin Olympics Offices of the Reich leader of the SS and the chief of the German police were combined on June 26 under Henrich Himmler. tramps. the Gestapo orderedthe Jehovah's witnesses. Throughout Germany signs proclaimed “Jews not wanted here” or “Bathing prohibited to Dogs and Jews”. had been “drifting” toward a new conflict. their supporters and other “anti-socials”. On-going boycotting and harrassment of Jews led to the “Voluntary” transfer of many businesses to non-Jewish Germans. International demands to have Olympic games moved from Berlin out of fear that the games would be exploited for Nazis failed. providing legal basis for Jewish disenfranchisement. To prepare Germany militarily and economically for inevitable war. The world. Under Reich Citizenship Law. German police came under SS control. Nazi youth mobs rampaged on the Kurfurstendamm. Hitler believed. The games opened in August. in mid-July destroying stores and assaulting those presumed to be Jewish. despite the German military occupation of Rhineland. “Whose essence and aim. In breach of the Versailles treaty. Strategic alliances were cemented with Spain and General Franco's independent forces in Summer. German Jews no longer had any political rights. Jews were barred from the armed forces.The Saar Region. granted to France by the Versailles Treaty. not because of their religion. Only “Aryan” Germans and those of “related blood”” were acorded citizenship. Berlin's main commercial district. those with criminal records. beggars. an African American track star. vagrants. went on to win 4 Gold Medals. and those who were “not . Pope Pius XI Issued “Mit Brennender Sorge” (“With Burning Concern”) An Encyclical read from Catholic pulpits throughout Germany attacking racism. For the first time. including gypsies. the Nuremberg laws were enacted. excluded German Jewish citizens from public facilities and even for a time from public transportation. The employment of German women under age 45. During the games. In Mid-May. The law for protection of German Blood and honor prohibited marriages or sexual relations between Germans and Jews. On September 15. and raising of the German flag by Jews. Jews were persecuted because of their “race”. 1937 On March 21. the Nazis removed offensive signs and allowed Jews to compete. however. are solely the removal of those strata of mankind which have until present provided the leadership and their replacement by international Jewry”. with Italy on October 25 and with Japan on November 25. Hitler provided Hermann Goring to oversee his four year plan. a process known as “Aryanization” . Virulent attacks in the press raised new concerns for Jews. was returned to Germany on January 13. Local officials exceeding their authority.
Imprisonment of these groups followed the incarceration of political prisoners and homosexuals. Approximately 18. if left unchecked. Austria and Western Czechoslovakia would provide some space. 500 Jews were included detainees became forced labor for projects vital to the SS and Nazi leadership. incurably ill.000 German Jewish males were sent to concentration camps. Property registration was required. In retaliation for his family's expulsion. Britain and France declared war on Germany on September 3. and others were barred from working in the German economy. President Franklin Roosevelt On October 5. Homes and Synagogues were burned. Only through force would Germany gain adequate living space (“Lebensraum”) essential to safeguard it's racial and national supremacy. affecting mental patients. A policy of isolation and Neutrality alone will no longer be sufficient to guarantee the security of the United States. Jewish passports were stamped with a “J”. Hitler unveiled hid political and military strategy for war to his top military leadership. The SS ordered nationwide detention of able-bodied male “anti-socials” and criminals into concentration camps. At least 30. and released upon condition of emigration. In June. they might attack the “Western Hemisphere” in the future. The Evian conference sponsored by 32 nations failed to solve problems of Jewish refugees seeking asylum. Physical attacks began against the Jews. Jewish physicians were restricted to treating only Jewish patients. 1938 Krystallnacht/ Austria Annex Opposition to Hitler in the German foreign officers and the military were removed during January and February thus allowing the implementation of his policies. Identification cards were issued. Tens ODF thousands of Jewish civil servants. In response to the emergence of the Berlin Rome “Axis”. official status of Jewish organizations was rescinded. the annexation of Austria in March and of the Sudetenland in October. . “Israel” to all males. third secretary of the German Embassy in Paris.000 stateless Jews were expelled from Germany to Poland on October 2738. to concentration camps. “Aryanization” increased substantially. “Russia and her Vassal border states” would provide the rest. A secret agreement was reached on August 23 between Germany and Soviets. Poland invaded by Germany on September 1 and by thwe Soviet Army on September17. Anti. professionals. 1939 The Nazi Conquers Europa Bohemia and Moravia were declared a German Protectorate on March 15. On November 5. warning that. Businesses. condemned “Unnamed Aggressors”.prepared to fit into the national community”. A Bohemianasia decree was signed on September 1. and social misfits. to partition Poland was implemented on September 28. Herschel Grynszpan shot Ernst Vom Rath. Vom Rath's death was used to justify “Krystallnacht” riots in Germany and Austria on November 9-10.Semetic activity increased . The name “Sarah” was mandatorily added to all Jewish female names.
000 refugee children. A second solution involved departing the Jews of Europe to the African Equatorial island of Madagascar. Italy entered the war on German side in June. political. educational. Ship was returned to Germany where most refugees dies in camps. . The British Government severely restricted Jewish Immigration to Palestine. cultural. Gypsies. The United States refused entry to 20. A plan to establish a Jewish reservation was abandoned after international protests and intervention from Hans Frank. the German army invaded the Soviet Union and mass extermination of Jews began. The decision to annihilate rather than exile the Jews had been made. Denmark capitulated in April. and Jews. Able-bodies persons were used for slave labor until they too were killed. approximately 10. Jewish councils (“Judenraete”) established in every district to enforce Nazi rule. Until the “Final Aim” could be implemented. In larger areas. Jew in small towns were killed almost immediately. the elderly and the weak were chosen first. Jews maintained religious. The inability of Germany to defeat Great Britain and gain control of the seas and Hitler's decision to attack Rusia doomed this alternative. Jews were isolated in ghettos. Norway and France in June. Jews seeking asylum had limited options. widespread starvation and mass deaths.Hitler's order to expel Jews and Gypsies from newly incorporated territories was revealed on September 21. ultimately precipitating epidemics (notably Typhus).D's. 1940 Blitzkrieg in West/ Terror in East The German conquest of Europe continued. and social welfare institutions. They were cut off from the free world. Ghettos suffered from over-crowding. priests.S. Approximately 95. Amid the misery. Belgium and Holland in May. Governor of the General Government.000 Jews were deported to Nisko by March. Thousands of Jews were sent to Nisko area near Lublin to establish a Jewish reservation. Territorial solutions were considered to solve the “Jewish Problem”. and political leaders were killed to prevent them from reuniting the country against the Nazis. Louis with more than 900 refugees aboard to land in Miami. Lodz ghetto was sealed on April 30 and the Warsaw ghetto gates closed in mid-November. Polish-Jewish property was seized. lack of food and proper sanitation. St. and the Coast Guard prevented the S. 1941 Barbarossa and Pearl Harbor On June 22. Between 1939-1940. synagogues burned and mass shootings carried out.000 Poles including teachers. Policy toward Jewish immigration changed after abandonment of the Madagascar plan. Jews were no longer allowed to emigrate. Jews were to be concentrated in large towns with railroad junctions. The Rome-BerlinTokyo agreement was signed on September 27. Three of these unit commanders held PH. Jews forced to wear a distinctive Jewish star. Four mobile killing units (Einsatzgruppen) were assigned to execute Communist officials.
Partisan units organized in forests. Kremenets. Despite mass murder being viewed as inconceivable to most Jews. Einsatzgruppen techniques which by late 1942 had been used to liquidate approximately1. Absence of identity papers. Estonia. the Allies proclaimed that those responsible for annihilation of the Jewish people would be punished. Jews were murdered shortly after arrival. the handicapped and women unable to work were also killed upon arrival. 300. . Sobibor. According to an official German report. Victims fell into mass graves. the United States declared war on Japan. Latvia. the fear of massive reprisals. The next day. reluctance to abandon families. the “Final Solution”. Armed resistance took place in Lachwa. France. some even before they were dead. Auxiliary police comprised of local collaborators from Lithuania. Assembly line extermination factories equipped with gas chambers were developed. Jews were worked to death or died of starvation. disease. underground organizations. clergy. British and America prohibited food shipments to Jews and other. at Babi Yar. the isolation of ghettos which precluded coordinated action. Mauthausen and other camps. and encouragement from the Wet. armed rebellions took place in Warsaw (April 1943). and elsewhere. the lack of trained military officers and sufficient arms. and forbade rescue negotiations with Nazis.Germans encouraged local population to kill Jews and confiscate their property. 1942 Final Slaughter of Innocents On January 20. they were then shot. treblinka. Denmark. At Auschwitz and Majdanek. open hostility. Able-bodied teenagers and adults were used as slave labor for German industry until they too were sent to gas chambers and replaced. The Wannsee Conference was held to coordinate the destruction of European Jewry. On December 17. children and elderly.4 million Jews were inadequate to murder the remaining Jews of Europe and others singled out for destruction. Deportations to extermination and concentration camps began in March. A number of individuals. or torture. At Dachau. Jews were rounded up and taken outside the city. Forced to strip naked. and Ukraine became indispensable. 1943 at the Bermuda Conference. and public officials were involved in rescue activities in Bulgaria. Kletsk Ghettoes. At Belzec. and Chelmno.771 Jews were machine-gunned on September 29-30. Italy. Tuchin. refused ships for those who managed to escape. Japan attacked Pearl Harbor. On December 7. 33. Gassing of Jews began on December 8. 1943 Ghetto Revolts and Partis The plight of refugees discussed on April 19. Mir. Ukraine. or fear of local population to get involved limited escape. places of refuge.000 Jews from Warsaw were departed. at Chelmno Extermination Camp in Western Poland.
the mentally disabled. Rebellions occurred at Sobibor (October 1943). The war ended on May 8. Those unable to keep up were shot. Efforts to destroy evidence of Nazi atrocities using Jewish labor failed because of the magnitude of the task. Sadistic “medical” experiment were conducted on hundred of healthy subjects under the guise of scientific research. 1944-1945 Death Marches and Liberation As millions of Jews were being killed. Over a hundred Jewish underground organizations resisted in ghettos and other areas. Let us hope that the lessons of the Holocaust will never be forgotten and become and eternal warning against the dangers of Naziism. Both hindered organized resistance. Deceptions to allay the inmates fears occurred as often as brute force. hundred of thousands of inmates were evacuated with little food of clothing and marched or taken in open transports from camp to camp. and hatred. the international military tribunals. 1945. 26. Allied force landed on Normandy on June 6. Auschwitz liberated in January. tried twenty-two leading Nazis. bigotry. Treblinka (August 1943). Twelve were sentenced to death. Those not tortured to death were left scarred for life.Bialystok (August 1943) and in Vilna (September 1943). three to life in prison. .000-400. and the chronically ill. “Anti-Nazis”.000 other Jews were evacuated to construct military fortifications in Southern Germany and Austria. the Nazis also murdered hundreds of thousands of others including Gypsies. Revolts in camps were initiated by Jews who had worked there a long time and understood their fate. deliberating in Nuremberg. New arrivals were too disoriented and exhausted. 1945 by the Soviet Army. Jehovah' Witnesses. and Auschwitz (October 1944). Between 300. From October 1945 to October 1946. four to long terms in prison and three were not convicted. Bergen-Belsen on April 15 by the British. Whether western civilization will learn to respect the rights of Jews and other minorities remains unanswered. and Mauthausen on May 3 by the Americans. Buchenwald on April 11 by Americans. Homosexuals. despite the numerical superiority of inmates over guards. 1944. Tens of thousands in Central and Western Poland fled to the forests. As they neared the camps. Dachau on April 29.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.