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04 Data Communications
1.1 Communication Networks
Definition: The set of devices, mechanisms and procedures by which end-user equipment attached to the network can exchange meaningful information.
1.1.1 Typical functions: A path by which electrical signals can be transmitted. A mechanism by which bits can be converted to and from electrical signals. The means to give meaning to groups of bits. Bits are typically grouped in units called frames, packets or messages. Methods to overcome deficiencies in the electric path that might cause electric signals (the bits they represent) to be misinterpreted. Techniques for selecting and maintaining a path through the network to perform the above functions.
AT77.04 Data Communications
1.1.2 Network Structure: the general network structure includes
• Hosts (Computer, terminal, telephone or any other communicating devices) are connected to the communication subnets, provides various services to its users.
• Communication subnet (network node, a subnet, or a transport system). In general, consists of transmission links and switching systems.
▪ Transmission links carry the bits from one computer to another through networks, connect various switching elements of subnets and define
topology (physical connection) of the subnet. The subnet defines the three lower layers of OSI-RM.
▪ Switching system is responsible for forwarding the data to its
destination over the transmission links. After receiving data from its source, looks for a free transmission link between it and the switching element which is connected to the destination host. If it finds a free link, it will forward the data onto it; otherwise, it will store the data in its memory and try another route for the data. It will send the data to another switching element, which will again look for a free link until the data is delivered to its destination.
AT77.04 Data Communications
1.1.3 Type of communication service
• Point-to-point communication • Multicast communication • Broadcast communication
(a) Point-to-point communication Data from one host is transmitted over either direct or indirect links between nodes. - In a direct link, nodes are directly connected via a physical communication medium during data transfer. - In the indirect link, the data in transferred over intermediate nodes until it reaches the destination host. The data from an incoming line arrives at the node, which stores it and waits for a free link between nodes. If it finds a free link, the data is sent over it; Otherwise it send it over intermediate nodes. At each intermediate node, data is stored and forwarded to the next available node.
A communication system supporting point-to-point communication is defined as point-to-point, store-and-forward or packet-switched subnet.
The usual way of implementing this communication is to set the high-order bit in the address field (of data) to 1 (one). 1-4 . This type of communication suffers from the problem of contention. To solve this problem.04 Data Communications (b) Multicast communication Data can be sent to users of a selected group. it requires a complex protocol at each node. There exists only one channel or circuit which can be shared by all connected users (of the selected group) hosts/nodes.AT77.
04 Data Communications (c) Broadcast communication A more general form of multicast communication. satellite. A special code in the address field of the data is used to distinguish between point-to-point and multicast communications. it can copy the data into its buffer. where data is delivered to all hosts/nodes connected to the network. The data is sent on the network circuit and is received by every host/node connected to it. This type of shared communication typically defines the following network topologies: bus. 1-5 . If the address of any connected host/node matches the address contained in the data. radio and television.AT77.
Message Switching.04 Data Communications 1. and Packet Switching 1-6 .2 Switching Techniques • Circuit Switching .Shared resources .Virtual circuits .Dedicated resources • Message Switching • Packet Switching .AT77.1.Datagrams Figure 1.1 Comparison of Circuit Switching.
informs the required terminal and then receives its response. This requires a subscriber’s request for service.). Connection Setup. coaxial cable.1 Circuit Switching A complete circuit (route or path) between source and destination nodes is established before the data can be transmitted. 2. The following three steps are required to establish the connections: 1.04 Data Communications 1. After the communication is completed.2. Data Interchange. 3. satellite link. searches and grabs a circuit. etc. the link channels and shared devices are released. 1-7 . The circuit between the source and destination can be established on any communication link/transmission medium (telephone lines. identifies the terminal. The established link is held during the transmission of data between source and destination and sends out the billing information (depending on the distance and duration of the connection) to the subscribers.AT77. Connection Termination. microwave link.
• It requires a call set-up during which resources are not utilized. then circuit switching is uneconomic to meet the delay requirements of bursty traffic.04 Data Communications Problems with Circuit Switching • Many data sessions are low duty factor (bursty).More of a problem in high-speed networks. • If communication is expensive. then circuit switching is not economical (or even practical) . 64 kbps) . This allocated capacity is idle when the session has nothing to send. 1-8 .. (message transmission time)/(message interarrival time) << 1 Same as: (message arrival rate)*(message transmission time) << 1 • The rate allocated to the session must be large enough to meet the delay requirement.AT77.Difficult to support variable data rates. • Circuit switching usually uses a fixed data rate (e.g. If messages are much shorter than the call setup time.
Bursty traffic => X << 1 => low utilization • Example .1 = 80.R must be large enough to keep X small .X < 0.=> R > 8.000 bits) .000/ 80.04 Data Communications Circuit Switching Example L = message lengths (bits or bytes) = arrival rate of message (messages/sec) R = channel rate (bits/sec) X = message transmission delay =L/R .000 bytes (8. = 1 message per second .000 = 10% • With packet switching channel can be shared among many sessions to achieve higher utilization.AT77.000/ 0.L= 1. 1-9 .000 bps utilization = 8.1 seconds (delay requirement) .
1-10 . errors. message are sent using the store-and-forward approach. QoS (Quality of Service) parameters. and these blocks are transmitted in a sequence. constructs the original message from the blocks (by putting them in the same sequence as when it was transmitted) and sends an acknowledgement to the source. etc. The receiver. the source node will transmit the same message again on the same link.AT77.04 Data Communications 1. or some other failure). A circuit (or path) is not established exclusively for a message. Each message is divided into blocks of data by users based on the capacity of the networks.2 Message Switching An individual message is separately switched at each node along its route or path from source to destination. The first block of the message contains control information regarding routing.2. If the destination node does not accept the message (due to incomplete message. after receiving these blocks. instead.
shortest route. heavy traffic. etc. etc.If it does not find any intermediate node within the constraints. loss of acknowledgement.2. it will store the blocks and keep on trying to find free links until it finds one and transmits the block to it. The intermediate nodes are predefined between source and destination on the basis of certain criteria (e. it will reroute the blocks on a different alternative route.. The switching nodes store the blocks of message and look for the free link to another switching intermediate node. shareable files and programs. real-time data. heavy traffic.04 Data Communications 1. Each block of messages is received as a complete frame and errors are checked in each block separately. broken links.2 Message Switching (cont. .g. fastest route. If it finds any free node. it sends one block at a time to that node until all the stored blocks are sent. then that block will be re-transmitted unidirectionally (simplex operation) 1-11 . If an error is found in any block.) The intermediate switching nodes will store the block of messages in the event of circuit failure. If it does not find any free node.AT77.).
. heavy traffic on a particular node will be handled by itself.04 Data Communications Problems with Message Switching Due to no limit on the size of the blocks of messages.AT77. Advantages and Disadvantages of Message Switching The message switching technique is less expensive than circuit switching and is widely used as a technique for interconnection. 1-12 .Each of the nodes connected in the network share the load on equal probability and hence the channels are utilized to their maximum capacity. the following problems may occur: 1. as such. then waiting and response time for the blocks to be transmitted may be significant. 2. The switching node must have enough storage capacity for storing the blocks. If a free link between source and destination is busy for a long time. This network allows the efficient utilization of a communication link. Thus the technique seems to be useful for batched messages of longer duration but not suitable for interactive messages of shorter duration. It does not support dynamic load balancing and.
2.04 Data Communications 1.1 Concept of Packet Switching 1-13 .3 Packet Switching Figure 1.2.AT77.
packet switching is based on the concept of message switching with the following differences: Packets are parts of messages and include control bits (for detecting transmission errors). results in out-of-sequence arrival at destination.AT77. Networks break the message into blocks (or packets). while in message switching. this is performed by users.2.) In principle. The message is divided into blocks (or packets) of fixed size with its own control information regarding the routing. Route chosen on packet-by-packet basis.3 Packet Switching (cont. Different packets may follow different route. Due to very small storage time of packets in the waiting queue at any node. etc.. has to arrange the packets in the same order as they were transmitted from the source. across the network. The receiver.04 Data Communications 1. users experience bi-directional transmission of the packets in real time. after receiving the packets out of sequence. 1-14 .
In this case. . thus minimizing the resource requirements of the nodes. it will reject the packets until its load becomes moderate. If the destination node does not receive all the packets within the specified time. it will request the sending node to transmit the same packet again.If any particular node is already heavily loaded.) If any node receives a garbled packet. the acknowledgement will not be sent out after the receiving node receives the missing packets.AT77.04 Data Communications 1. The packet switching technique allows the switching nodes to transmit the packets without waiting for a complete message and also allows them to adjust the traffic they have. 1-15 . .2. it sends a request for the data (instead of acknowledgement) to the source about the missing packets.3 Packet Switching (cont. The acknowledgement will be sent upon receiving the last packet.
. ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode).000 nodes in a mesh...2. .AT77. .1 Mode of Operation of Packet Switching • Datagram Packet Switching .Route chosen on packet-by-packet basis.g. . . reassembling and maintaining the path/route until the packets are delivered to the destination. e.No need to establish the connection between the source and destination.04 Data Communications 1.Route is chosen at start of session and it is only a logical connection. .The VC number must be unique on a given link but can change from link to link.g. .3. unique VC numbers imply 1 Million VC numbers that must be represented and stored at each node.Packets are labeled with a VC# designating the route. 1-16 .The network manager performs the operations of segmenting. Imagine having to set up connections between 1. e.Packets may arrive out of order at the destination. IP (The Internet Protocol) • Virtual Circuit Packet Switching .Different packets may follow different routes.All packets associated with a session follow the same path.
(Need only be done once at start of session) . .2.Save on route computation. Figure 1. . • For Virtual Circuits.04 Data Communications 1.Need unique source and destination addresses.2 Table of Switching Node 1-17 .Facilitate QoS provisioning .More complex and Less flexible.Save on header size.Once established.AT77. • Merits of virtual circuit .3.2. addressing information must uniquely distinguish each network node and session . local virtual circuit members can then be used to represent the virtual circuits on a given link: VC number changes from link to link.2 Comparison of the Mode of Operation of Packet Switching • For Datagram. only the virtual circuits on a link need to be distinguished by addressing .Global address needed to set-up virtual circuit.
3 Comparison between Circuit approach and Datagram approach 1-18 .04 Data Communications Virtual Circuit approach Datagram approach Figure 1.AT77.2.
AT77. 2. In circuit switching. While in circuit switching networks. Each node has its own queue storing those packets which are going to use the node. but there may be some delay in their delivery. .Since the link can be shared by a number of different packets. the packets may be lost (not transmitted) in the event of a busy network. In packet switching networks. After the communication link is established. 1-19 . packets will be accepted. and the necessary conversion between different data rates is done by the network. stations with different data rates can communicate with each other. 3.3 Advantages and Disadvantages Comparison of Switching Techniques 1.04 Data Communications 1. the packets (of different or the same data messages) may be transmitted during the established connection. both stations must have the same data rate. The link utilization of packet switching is improved over circuit switching. In packet switching.
1-20 . The delay in the transmission of packets at any node may become a problem in the case of packet switching. In the case of circuit switching. Circuit switching generates the ordered delivery of the packets. Priorities can be assigned to the switching nodes in the packet switching such that nodes with higher priorities will transmit the packets waiting in their respective queues before the lower priority nodes.3 Advantages and Disadvantages Comparison of Switching Techniques (Cont.) 4. while in the case of circuit switching. 6. there is no concept of priority.04 Data Communications 1. 5. while packet switching does not give any guarantee for the ordered delivery of the packets. a dedicated circuit has been established and hence there is no delay in the transmission.AT77.
packet transmission delay Sender notified of connection denial Overload may block call setup.04 Data Communications 1.AT77.4 Comparison of Communication Switching Techniques Circuit Switching Dedicate transmission path Continuous transmission of data Fast enough for interactive Messages are not stored The path is established for entire conversation Call setup delay. no delay for established calls Electromechanical or computerized switching nodes User responsible for message loss protection Usually no speed or code conversion Fixed bandwidth transmission No overhead bits after call setup Overload increases packet delay Small switching nodes Network may be responsible for individual packets Speed and code conversion Dynamic use of bandwidth Overhead bits in each message Overload may block call setup. increases packet delay Small switching nodes Network may be responsible for packet sequences Speed and code conversion Dynamic use of bandwidth Overhead bits in each packet 1-21 . negligible transmission delay Busy signal if called party busy Datagram Packet Switching No dedicated path Transmission of packets Fast enough for interactive Packets may be stored until delivered Route established for each packet Packet transmission delay Sender may be notified if packet not delivered Virtual Circuit Packet Switching No dedicated path Transmission of packets Fast enough for interactive Packets stored until delivered Route established for entire conversation Call setup delay.
04 Data Communications 1.5 OSI Reference Model Protocols: A protocol is concerned with exchanging streams of data between two entities Key functions of protocols: • Segmentation and Reassembly • Encapsulation • Connection Control • Ordered Delivery • Flow Control • Error Control • Multiplexing 1-22 .AT77.
An entity may require that data transfer comes to some sort of closure from time to time. can be provided. 5. without a maximum block size. 2. one station could monopolize a shared medium. More equitable access to shared transmission facilities. 1-23 . The communication network may only accept blocks of data up to a certain size. lower level protocols may need to break up the data into blocks of some smaller bounded size. The typical reasons for segmentation: 1.AT77. for checkpoint and restart/recovery operations.1 Segmentation and Reassembly (a) Segmentation: Whether the application entity sends data in messages or in a continuous stream. for example. For example.04 Data Communications 1. If an error is detected. Error control may be more efficient with a smaller PDU size. A smaller PDU size may mean that receiving entities can allocate smaller buffers. 3. a block of data exchanged between two entities via a protocol.5. 4. accepts message up to 8063 bytes in length. ARPANET. (PDU: Protocol Data Unit. with shorter delay. only a small amount of data may need to be retransmitted.
04 Data Communications Disadvantages of Segmentation 1.AT77. If PDUs arrival out of order. PDU arrival may generate an interrupt that must be serviced. More time is spent processing smaller and more numerous PDUs. Hence the smaller the block. Smaller blocks result in more interrupts. 1-24 . Each PDU contains a fixed minimum of control information. 3. (b) Reassembly: The segmented data must be reassembled into the messages appropriate to the application level. 2. the greater the percentage of overhead. this task is complicated.
04 Data Communications 1.5. • Protocol control: Additional information is included to implement the protocol functions. Each PDU contains not only data but control information.AT77. Indeed. Data are accepted or generated by an entity and encapsulated into a PDU containing that data plus control information.2 Encapsulation Definition: The addition of control information to data. The control information falls into three general categories: • Address: The address of the sender and/or receiver may be indicated. some PDUs consist solely of control information and no data. • Error detection code: Some sort of code is often included for error detection. 1-25 .
04 Data Communications Encapsulation. Segmentation and Reassembly A message is segmented into three PDUs before transmission.1 Encapsulation. Segmentation and Reassembly Layer N Layer N Layer N-1 Layer N-1 Figure 1. the PDU headers are stripped off and the segmented data are recombined for delivery to the user. Upon reception.AT77.5. 1-26 .
5.3 Connection Control (a) Connectionless data transfer: An entity may transmit data to another entity in an unplanned fashion and without prior coordination. Protocol Entity Connection Request Protocol Entity Connection Accept Data and Acknowledgements Figure 1.04 Data Communications 1.2 Three phases of Connection Establishment Data and Acknowledgements Terminate-connection Request multiple exchange Terminate-connection Acknowledge 1-27 .5. (b) Connection-oriented data transfer: Consists of three phases.AT77.
Typically. During this phase. Data transfer After connection establishment.AT77. one side or the other wishes to terminate the connection and does so by sending a termination request. error control) is exchanged. Connection establishment During the connection establishment phase. both data and control information (flow control. one station will issue a connection request to the other. the data transfer phase is entered. 1-28 . two entities agree to exchange data.04 Data Communications Connection-oriented data transfer: Consists of three phases. Both entities must be using the same protocol. Connection termination Finally.
. 1-29 . The receiving entity typically allocates a data buffer with some maximum length.5. the receiver’s buffer may fill up and overflow while it is processing old data.Because they may traverse different paths through the network.5.5 Flow control: A technique for assuring that a transmitting entity does not overwhelm a receiving entity with data.AT77. examine the header and strip it from the PDU) before passing the data to a higher layer user. there is a risk that PDUs will not arrive in the order in which they were sent. In connection-oriented protocols. In the absence of flow control. When data are received.4 Ordered delivery: When two entities are in different hosts connected by a network. .04 Data Communications 1.e. 1. the receiver must do a certain amount of processing (i. it is generally required that PDU order be maintained.
based on the use of sequence numbers.04 Data Communications 1.5. ▪ Retransmit after timeout The sending entity will note the time that it sends each PDU. the sender assumes that the PDU did not get through and retransmits that PDU.6 Error control: A technique that allows a protocol to recover from lost or damages PDUs. There are three mechanisms: ▪ Positive acknowledgement It is the responsibility of the receiving protocol entity to acknowledge each PDU that it receives.AT77. If a PDU is lost in transit. then the intended receiver will obviously not acknowledge it. 1-30 . -This is done by sending back the sequence number of the received PDU to the other side. If a PDU remains unacknowledged after a certain amount of time.
the receiver assumes that an errors has occurred and discarded the PDU. 1-31 . the error detections is needed. The receiver performs the same calculation and compares the calculated result to the result stored in the coming PDU. The sending entity performs a calculation on the bits of the PDU and adds the result to the PDU.AT77.04 Data Communications ▪ Error detection The PDU gets through but the bits have been altered by errors in transit. If there is a discrepancy. To account for this contingency.
performance or efficiency. these could all be multiplexed on a single network connection. 1-32 .04 Data Communications 1.AT77. Three particular types of construction of (N) connections on top of (N-1) connections are distinguished: • One-to-one: Each (N) connection is built on one (N-1) connection. • Downward multiplexing (splitting): A single (N) connection is built on top of multiple (N-1) connection.5. or share a single (N-1) connection to make efficient use of the lower-level service. • Upward multiplexing: Occurs when multiple (N) connections are multiplexed on. If several transport connections are needed between a pair of hosts.7 Multiplexing: A function that may be exercised when more than one layer of a communications architecture employs a connection-oriented protocol. the traffic on the (N) connection being divided between the various (N-1) connections to improve reliability.
04 Data Communications Multiplexing of Protocol Connections Figure 1.AT77.3 Type of Multiplexing 1-33 .5.
1 Tasks involved in sending letter 1-34 .04 Data Communications 1.AT77.6.6 The Layer concept Figure 1.
6.AT77.04 Data Communications Entity in Layer Concept Figure 1.2 The Layer Concept 1-35 .
or also be differing (N) entities. corresponding to different protocol standards at that level. Each entity communicates with entities in the layers above and below it across an interface. The (N-1) entity provides services to an (N) entity via the invocation of primitives. 1-36 . A primitive specifies the function to be performed and is used to pass data and control information. An (N) entity implements functions of the (N) layer and also the protocol for communicating with (N) entities in other systems.04 Data Communications Any layer is referred to as the (N) layer. The interface is realized as one or more service access points (SAPs). There might be multiple identical (N) entities.AT77.
210) Request Indication A Primitive issued by a service user to invoke some services and to pass the parameters needed to fully specify the requested service. A Primitive issued by a service provider either: (1) To indicate that a procedure has been invoked by the peer service user on the connection and to provide the associated parameters. A Primitive issued by a service user to acknowledge or complete some procedures previously invoked by an indication to that user.3 The Interaction Primitives Request Confirm SERVICE PROVIDER SERVICE USER Indication Response 1-37 . SERVICE USER Figure 1. or (2) To notify the service user of a provider-initiated action.04 Data Communications 1. Response Confirm A Primitive issued by a service provider to acknowledge or complete some procedures previously invoked by a request by the service user.6.1 Primitive Types (X.AT77.6.
The source (N-1) entity prepares an (N-1) PDU to be sent to its peer (N-1) entity.indication. 1-38 . The source (N) entity invokes its (N-1) entity with Data. 3. Associated with the primitive are the parameters needed. The destination (N-1) entity delivers the data to the appropriate destination (N) entity via Data.AT77. which includes the data and a source address as parameters. 5. 6.response primitive to its (N-1) entity. such as the data to be transmitted and the destination address. If an acknowledgement is called for.confirm. The following steps could occur: 1. The acknowledgement is delivered to the (N) entity via a Data. 4.request primitive.04 Data Communications Example of Interaction Primitives (Confirmed type) Consider the transfer of data from an (N) entity to a peer (N) entity in another system. The (N-1) conveys this acknowledgement in an (N-1) PDU. 2. the destination (N) entity issues a Data.
6.AT77.04 Data Communications 1.6.4 The Logical Relationship of Data Units 1-39 .2 Logical relationship between data units in adjacent layers (N)-PDU (N) Layer (N-1) PCI (N-1)-SDU PDU: Protocol Data Unit SDU: Service Data Unit PCI: Protocol Control Information (N-1)-PDU (N-1) Layer Figure 1.
if the SDU is segmented by the sending (N-1) entity. . 1-40 . Alternatively.It must pass its (N) PDUs down to the (N-1) layer. it must be reassembled by the receiving (N-1) entity before delivery to the receiving (N) entity. . The (N-1) views data coming from the (N) layer as an (N-1) service data unit (SDU). An entity in the (N) layer cannot directly pass data to a peer entity at the (N) layer. The (N-1) entity may map an SDU arriving from above into a single PDU.AT77. the identity of the SDU as a unit is preserved from one end of the connection to the other. the (N-1) entity may segment the (N-1) SDU into multiple PDUs.04 Data Communications Data unit: The data that passes between entities in the form of a collection of bits. In any case. The PDU is passed as a unit between peer entities.
6.3 Seven Layers OSI Reference Model Figure 1.AT77.6.5 Seven layers OSI Reference Model 1-41 .04 Data Communications 1.
6.04 Data Communications Figure 1.AT77.6 An Exchange using Seven layers OSI Reference Model 1-42 .
Provides various network services required by user applications. and others are provided by TCP/IP communication interface (UNIX).04 Data Communications 1. 1-43 .420 interpersonal messaging (for PSDNs) • CCITT X. remote procedure call (RPC). simple network management protocol (SNMP). T101 videotex (for PSTNs) • Network file system (NFS).6.400 message handling (MHS) (for PSDNs) • CCITT FTAM (file transfer access and management ) (for PSDNs) • CCITT X. Example of Standards: • CCITT X.500/520 directory services (for PSDNs) • CCITT TTX telex service (for PSTNs) • CCITT T100. file transfer protocol (FTP). . simple mail transfer protocol (SMTP).Serves as a window between application processes which are using OSI-RM and defines its aspect for various application entities.3 Seven Layers OSI Reference Model (cont.) Layer 7: Application layer . remote login (Rlogin).AT77.
3 Seven Layers OSI Reference Model (cont.AT77.) Layer 6: Presentation layer . ISO 8825 • CCITT X.04 Data Communications 1.Provides suitable syntax for data transmission. X. Example of Standards: • ISO 8822 presentation service and syntax notation (for LANs) • ISO 8823 presentation layer protocol (for LANs) • ISO 8824. means of data formatting (data compression. data encryption for security. T61 (for PSTNs) 1-44 .). privacy and authentication. etc.226 (for PSDNs) • CCITT T50.Provides efficient data transfer across the layers of the networks. . T51.6.216.
Obtains virtual end-to-end message service from transport layer. Example of Standards: • ISO 8326 session service specification (for LANs) • ISO 8327 session layer protocol (for LANs) • CCITT X.6. billing function. etc. since transport to application are all in the operating system and do not really need standard interfaces. .) Layer 5: Session layer .Standardization has not proceeded well here.225 (for PSDNs) • CCITT T62 (for PSTNs) • Remote procedure control (RPC) library (UNIX) 1-45 .AT77.Provides directory assistance. access rights.04 Data Communications 1. .3 Seven Layers OSI Reference Model (cont.215/X.
3 Seven Layers OSI Reference Model (cont. The functions of the transport layer are: 1. Break messages into packets and reassemble packets size suitable to network layer.The transport layer provides a virtual end-to-end message service to the high layers.6.224 (for PSDNs) • CCITT T70 (for PSTNs) • Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) (UNIX) 1-46 . Example of Standards: • ISO 8072 transport service specification (for LANs) • ISO 8073 transport layer protocol (for LANs) • CCITT X. 2.The network layer provides a virtual end-to-end packet pipe to the transport layer. Recover from residual errors and failures. . Re-sequence packets at destination. Multiplex sessions with same source/destination nodes.214/X. 5.) Layer 4: Transport layer . 4.04 Data Communications 1. Provide end-to-end flow control.AT77. 3.
3.2.25-3 (packet-switched network) • CCITT T30 (for PSTNs) • ISO connectionless mode network Internet Protocol (IP) (UNIX) Figure 1.213 (circuit-switched network) (for PSDNs) • CCITT X.451 (for ISDNs) 1-47 .g.) Layer 3: Network layer .6. Example of Standards: • CCITT’s X.3 Seven Layers OSI Reference Model (cont.Adds its own header to the packets received from the transport layer.Accepts incoming packets from the transport layer and transit packets from the DLC layer. • CCITT X.04 Data Communications 1.450 and I. high-level data link control (HDLC for level 2 and packet level standard for level 3.6.21 has been defined for level 1.AT77. . destination address).Routes each packet to the proper outgoing DLC or (at the destination) to the transport layer.. This header provides the information needed for routing (e.7 Network layer • CCITT I.25 includes lower three layers known as level 1. • X. .
AT77.441 (for ISDNs). 1-48 .) Layer 2: Data link layer -Responsible for reliable and error-free transmission of packets across a single link.28 (character-oriented) • CCITT X.212/222 (for PSDNs).6.21-2 (circuit-switched network) • CCITT X.Provides synchronization and delimiting between sender and receiver. • Framing: Determine the start and end of the packets • Error detection: Determine which packets contain transmission errors • Error correction: Retransmission schemes (Automatic Repeat Request (ARQ) .04 Data Communications 1. ISO/DIS 6159 HDLC unbalanced classes of procedures. CCITT T71 (for PSTNs) • Protocols for HDLC: ISO 3309 HDLC procedures (frame structure). ISO/DIS 5335 HDLC procedures (elements of procedures). logical (UNIX) • CCITT I. Example of Standards: • High level data link control (HDLC: bit-oriented) • ANSI’s X3.440 and I.3 Seven Layers OSI Reference Model (cont. ISO/DIS 6256 HDLC balanced classes of procedures-Ethernet.25-2 (packet-switched network) • CCITT X.
AT77.04 Data Communications
1.6.3 Seven Layers OSI Reference Model (cont.) Layer 1: Physical layer - Responsible for transmission of bits over a link. - Connects the network to the transmission medium and also generates the electromagnetic signals. - Offers two types of transmission configurations: point-to-point and multipoint. - Supports different types of the line configurations: half-duplex and fullduplex in serial and parallel modes. Example of Standards: • EIA-232-D; 25 pins, EIA RS-449 (RS-422-A and RS-423-A); 37 pins. • EIA-530, EIA-366 • CCITT X.21-1 (circuit-switched network); 9 pins • CCITT X.21 bis (for the PSDNs) • CCITT X.25-1 (packet-switched network) • CCITT V.24 (list of definitions for the interchange of circuits between DTE and DCE for the PSTNs) • 5.28 (electrical characteristics for unbalanced) • 5.21(general-purpose interface between DTE and DCE) for Ethernet, token bus (UNIX) • CCITT I.430 and I.431 (for ISDNs).
AT77.04 Data Communications
1.6.4 OSI Operation
Outgoing frame construction Incoming frame reduction AP data
X Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data link Control Physical
F A C NH TH SH PH
Y Application Presentation Session Transport Network
data data data
data (I field) Bits Communication path
Data link Control Physical
Figure 1.6.8 The Concept of OSI Operation
AT77.04 Data Communications
1.6.4 OSI Operation (cont.)
Figure 1.6.9 Application layer (7)
4 OSI Operation (cont.) Figure 184.108.40.206 Presentation layer (6) 1-52 .AT77.04 Data Communications 1.
11 Session layer (5) 1-53 .4 OSI Operation (cont.04 Data Communications 1.6.6.) Figure 1.AT77.
AT77.6.6.04 Data Communications 1.) Figure 1.12 Transport layer (4) 1-54 .4 OSI Operation (cont.
4 OSI Operation (cont.13 Reliable process-to-process delivery of message 1-55 .AT77.6.04 Data Communications 1.) Figure 1.6.
) Figure 1.04 Data Communications 1.4 OSI Operation (cont.6.AT77.14 Network layer (3) 1-56 .6.
) Figure 1.6.6.AT77.04 Data Communications 1.4 OSI Operation (cont.15 Source-to-Destination Delivery 1-57 .
16 Data Link layer (2) 1-58 .AT77.4 OSI Operation (cont.04 Data Communications 1.6.6.) Figure 1.
6.6.04 Data Communications 1.17 Hop-to-Hop Delivery 1-59 .4 OSI Operation (cont.AT77.) Figure 1.
4 OSI Operation (cont.6.18 Physical layer (1) 1-60 .) Figure 1.6.04 Data Communications 1.AT77.
5 Summary of Layer Functions Figure 1.6.AT77.04 Data Communications 1.19 Summary of Layer Functions 1-61 .6.
04 Data Communications 1.6. Figure 1. and specific.6. logical. port.AT77.20 Addresses in TCP/IP 1-62 .6 Addressing Four levels of addresses are used in an internet employing the TCP/IP protocols: physical.
The trailer usually contains extra bits needed for error detection.1 Data Link layer using Physical Address A node with physical address 10 sends a frame to a node with physical address 87. These are the only addresses needed.AT77. 1-63 . The rest of the header contains other information needed at this level. At the data link level this frame contains physical link addresses in the header. The two nodes are connected by a link.04 Data Communications Example 1 (Physical Address) Figure E.
2 Network layer using IP Address 1-64 .AT77.04 Data Communications Example 2 (IP Address) Figure E.
the physical addresses have only local jurisdiction. located on one LAN.04 Data Communications We want to send data from .to a node with a network address P and physical address 95. the physical addresses will change when the packet moves from one network to another. Because the two devices are located on different networks.AT77. we cannot use physical addresses only. What we need here are universal addresses that can pass through the boundaries of LANs. 1-65 . respectively). They will not change when we go from network to network. located on another LAN. However.a node with network address A and physical address 10 . which remain the same from the original source to the final destination (A and P. The network (logical) addresses have this characteristics. . The packet at the network layer contains the logical addresses.
AT77.04 Data Communications Example 3 (Port Address) Figure E.3 Transport layer using Port Address 1-66 .
Since the data size is larger than the network layer can handle.04 Data Communications Data coming from the upper layers have . and k is the address of the receiving application). The two packets are now passed to the transport layer. The two packets are delivered to the destination network layer. which is responsible for removing the network layer headers. each packet retaining the service-point addresses (j and k). the data are split into two packets. The packets may travel on different paths and arrive at the destination either in order or out of order. Then in the network layer.AT77. 1-67 .service-point (port) addresses j and k (j is the address of sending applications. network addresses (A and P) are added to each packet. where they are combined for delivery to the upper layer.
AT77.6.21 Comparison of TCP/IP and OSI Model 1-68 .04 Data Communications TCP/IP and the OSI Model Figure 1.
This sub-layer is used at gateways between the different networks. It is responsible for routing and flow control between networks. so looks like a network layer to the end-to-end transport layer.04 Data Communications Internet Sub-layer A sub-layer between the transport and network layers is required when various incompatible networks are joined together. In the internet.AT77. hence only one protocol is needed. 1-69 .IP is often used as the network layer protocol. this function is accomplished by using the Internet Protocol (IP) . It looks like a transport layer to the networks being joined.
6.22 Internetworking with TCP/IP 1-70 .AT77.04 Data Communications Internetworking within TCP/IP Figure 1.
AT77.04 Data Communications Encapsulation in TCP/IP Figure 1.23 Encapsulation in TCP/IP 1-71 .6.
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