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CULINARY TERMS DHUNGAR This is a quick smoke procedure used to flavour a meat dish,daIs or even raita.

The smoke very effectively permeates everygr a i n o f t h e i n g r e d i e n t s a n d i m p a r t s a s u b t l e a r om a , whiche n h a n c e s t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e d i s h . T h e p r o c e d u r e m a y b e carried out either at the intermediate or the final stag e o f cooking. This is a common technique employed while makingk a b a b s . T h e m e t h o d i s a s f o l l o w s . I n a s h a l l o w u t e n s i l or a lagan in which the meat or mince has been marinated, a smallbay is made in the center and a katori or onion skin or even abetel leaf (depending on the dish) is placed. In it a piece of livecoal is placed and hot ghee, sometimes mixed with aromatic h e r b s o r s p i c e s , i s p o ur e d o v e r i t a n d c o v e r e d i m m e d i a t e l y with a lid to prevent the smoke from escaping. The lid is not r e m o v e d t i l l a b o u t 1 5 m i n u t e s , s o a s t o a l l o w t h e s m o k e t o work on the ingredients inside. The coal is then removed from the utensil and the meat put through further co o k i n g processes. DUM DENA This is a frequently method used in Awadh cooking. ' D u m ' l i t e r a l l y m e a n s ' b r e a t h ' a n d t h e p r o c e s s i n v o l v e s pl a c i n g t h e s e m i - c o o k e d i n g r e d i e n t s i n a p o t or d e g , s e a l i n g t h e u t e n s i l with flour dough and applying very slow charcoal fire from top,by placing some live charcoal on the lid, and some below. TheP e r s i a n i n f l u e n c e i s m o s t e v i d e n t i n t h i s m e t h o d t h o u g h i n Awadh it has acquired its own distinct character. The magic of dum' is the excellent aroma, flavor and texture which resultsf r o m s l o w c o o k i n g . T h i s m e t h o d i s f o l l o w e d f o r a n u m b e r o f delicacies such as the Shabdeg, Pulao and Biryani. Any dishcooked by this method is 'Dum Pukht' or 'Dum Bakht'. GALAVAT Refers to the use of softening agents such as papain (from rawpapaya) or kalmi shora to tenderise meat.

BAGHAR This is a method of tern pering a dish with hot oil / ghee andspices . It may be done either at the beginning of the cookingas in curries, or at the end as for (pulses). In the former, thefat is heated in a vessel to a smoking point and after reducingthe flame, spices are added to it. When they begin to crackle.the same process is carried out in a ladle which is immersed in the cooked dish and immediately covered with a lid, so thatthe essence and the aroma of the spices, drawn out by the hotghee are retained in the dish giving it their flavour. GILE HIKMAT Talking of Persian influence on Awadh cuisine one cannoti gnore this in teresting method adopted for cooking. 'Gil' inPersian is earth or mud and ' Hikmat ' implies the procedure of t h e H a k i m s . T h i s m e t h o d i s g e n e r a l l y f o l l o w e d t o p r e p a r e 'Kushtas' which are the ash-like residue of substances which c a n n o t b e c o n s u m e d i n t h e i r n a t u r a l f o r m a s t h e y ar e t o x i c ,f o r i n s t a n c e g e m s o r m e t a l s . B u t w h e n a d o p t e d f o r c o o k i n g purposes the method is as follows. The meat or vegetable to bec o o k e d i s g e n e r a l l y t a k e n w h o l e and stuffed with nuts ands p i c e s , I t i s t h e n w r a p p e d i n a b a n a n a l e a f o r c l o t h a n d covered completely with clay or ' Multani Mitti ' (Fuller's Earth )so as to seal it. It is thereafter buried about 4-6 inches deep.

Aslow fire is then placed on top for 6-8 hours after which the food is dug out and is ready to be served! LOAB This is a term which refers to the final stage in cooking when t h e o i l used during cooking, rises to the surface. giving thed i s h a f i n i s h e d a p p e a r a n c e , T h i s o c c u r s m o s t l y w h e n s l o w cooking of gravy dishes is involved.

MOIN It is the shortening of dough. In this process fat is rubbed intot h e f l o u r a n d m a d e i n t o a d o u g h f o r k a c h o r i s o r

p o o r i s orparathas. This makes the final product crisp, flaky a n d crumbly. ITTR (Perfumes) The use of perfumes play an important role in Awadh cuisine t h e y a r e used to enhance the aroma of the dish and make itd e l i c a t e . M o s t c o m m o n l y t h e y a r e m a d e f r o m m u s k d e e r , hunting of which is now banned worldwide. Yakhni cuts (Mutton)

The cuts for Yakhni are generally bony pieces with flesh onthem. These cuts are usually taken from the joints and theribs of the a n i m a l . T h e b a s i c p u r p o s e o f m e a t i n pr e p a r i n g Yakhni is to derive the juice and flavour and hence the shape of the meat does not count much. Chandi warq This is the process in which small pieces of silver are placed. b e t w e e n t w o s h e e t s o f p a p e r a n d t h e n p a t t e d c o n t i n u o u s l y with a hammer till it becomes papery thin. These are used in decorating the dishes before presentations, e.g. Chandi kaliya,Moti pulao. Zamin doz This is a style of cooking in which a hole is dug in the ground a n d t h e i n g r e d i e n t s a r e p l a c e d a n d c o v e r e d w i t h m u d . T h e n burning charcoal is placed over it. The cooking process takes about 6 hours.