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Geol.

11 1st Sem AY2011-12

9/19/2011

Groundwater

The Hydrologic Cycle

Geology 11 Principles of Geology A. M. P. Tengonciang & D. D. N. Javier Department of Physical Sciences University of the Philippines, Baguio

Precipitation = Runoff + Infiltration + Transpiration + Evaporation

Saline

Earths Inventory of Water

Fresh

25% of all the fresh water on Earth

Tarbuck & Lutgens, 20xx. Earth Science

http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/graphics/earthwheredistribution.gif

DDNJ

Geol. 11 1st Sem AY2011-12

9/19/2011

Groundwater

Sources of groundwater
Connate water water that has remained trapped in a sedimentary rock since the original sediments were deposited in the water prior to lithification; may be very old and saline Meteoric water water of atmospheric origin, which reaches the Earths surface as rainfall or seepage from surface water bodies Juvenile water original water formed from magmatic processes; has never been in the atmosphere

- all water in the ground occupying the pore spaces within rock and regolith - that portion of precipitation (rainfall, snow, etc.) which seeps through the ground and is stored below the surface Geologic importance: erosional agent; equalizes streamflow (reservoir for rivers during periods of no rain) Economic importance: drinking water, irrigation, livestock, power generation, industrial cooling

Zone of aeration unsaturated zone, vadose zone (Lat., shallow) water is able to pass through to reach the water-table (vadose water) pore spaces are not completely filled with water Zone of saturation phreatic zone (Gr., well/spring) pore spaces are saturated with water Water table upper surface of zone of saturation

The Water Table


-boundary between the unsaturated (vadose) zone and saturated zone of an aquifer Note: The vadose zone has an important environmental role in groundwater systems. Surface pollutants must filter through the vadose zone before entering the zone of saturation.

Capillary fringe zone where water is drawn upward by capillary action; immediately above the water table

DDNJ

Geol. 11 1st Sem AY2011-12

9/19/2011

Water Table
Important in predicting the productivity of wells Explains the changes in flows of springs and streams Accounts for fluctuation in levels of lakes Unobservable directly, but can be mapped and studied in detail in areas where wells are numerous The shape of the water table is usually a subdued replica of the surface topography Irregularities are due to: variations in rainfall nature of carrying material slow and varied groundwater movement under different conditions

downward movement of water from the soil to the water table

Porosity
Measure of how much of a rock is open space Percentage of total volume of rock or sediment that consists of pore spaces (absolute porosity) Effective porosity the proportion of the rock or sediment consisting of interconnected pores Dictates the amount of water stored by material

Porosity in Sediments
Porosity in different sediments. A.) A porosity of 30 percent in a reasonably well-sorted sediment. B.) A porosity of 15 percent in a poorly sorted sediment in which fine particles fill spaces between larger grains. C.) Reduction in porosity in an otherwise very porous sediment due to cement that binds particles together.

DDNJ

Geol. 11 1st Sem AY2011-12

9/19/2011

Typical Values of Porosity

Porosity
Primary created by the same processes that formed the material sediments & sedimentary rocks vesicular lava deposits Secondary develops after the material was formed rock fractures (joints and faults) cavities formed by dissolution of soluble rocks
22 Bedient et al., 1999.,

Porosity and Permeability

Permeability
Measure of the ease with which water can move through a porous rock The ability of a material to transmit fluid Related to the effective porosity of a material the smaller the pore spaces, the slower the movement of water sandstone good permeability shale poor permeability
Porous and Permeable

Reduced Porosity and Permeability

Porous but not Permeable

Porosity and Permeability

Porosity and permeability

shale

sandstone

limestone

Porous but not Permeable

Porous and Permeable

DDNJ

Geol. 11 1st Sem AY2011-12

9/19/2011

Groundwater Movement
HYDRAULIC HEAD/ FLUID POTENTIAL = h

Groundwater Flow Velocity - Darcys Law v = K * (h1-h2)/l


v: velocity K: hydraulic conductivity

(length units)

Measure of energy potential (essentially is a measure of elevational/gravitational potential energy) The driving force for groundwater flow Water flows from high to low fluid potential or hydraulic (even if this means it may go "uphill"!) Hydraulic head is used to determine the hydraulic gradient

Hydraulic head = the driving force that moves groundwater. The hydraulic head combines fluid pressure and gradient, and can be thought of as the standing elevation that water will rise to in a well allowed to come to equilibrium with the subsurface. Groundwater always moves from an area of higher hydraulic head to an area of lower hydraulic head. Therefore, groundwater not only flows downward, it can also flow laterally or upward.
S. Hughes, 2003

Groundwater Movement -- Darcys Law


The velocity of groundwater is based on hydraulic conductivity (K), as well as the hydraulic head (I). The equation to describe the relations between subsurface materials and the movement of water through them is

Groundwater Movement -- Darcys Law Q = KIA -- Henry Darcy, 1856, studied water flowing through porous
material. His equation describes groundwater flow. Darcys experiment: Water is applied under pressure through end A, flows through the pipe, and discharges at end B. Water pressure is measured using piezometer tubes

Q = KIA
Q = Discharge = volumetric flow rate, volume of water flowing through an aquifer per unit time (m3/day) A = Area through which the groundwater is flowing, cross-sectional area of flow (aquifer width x thickness, in m2) Rearrange the equation to Q/A = KI, known as the flux (v), which is an apparent velocity

Hydraulic head = dh (change in height between A and B) Flow length = dL (distance between the two tubes) Hydraulic gradient (I) = dh / dL
S. Hughes, 2003 S. Hughes, 2003

Groundwater Movement
Table 10.6 in textbook (Keller, 2000)

Porosity and hydraulic conductivity (rate at which water moves through a material) of selected earth materials

High K materials

Material Unconsolidated Clay Sand Gravel Gravel and sand Rock Sandstone Dense limestone or shale Granite

Porosity (%) 45 35 25 20 15 5 1

Hydraulic Conductivity (m/day) 0.041 32.8 205.0 82.0 28.7 0.041 0.0041

Hydraulic conductivity = ability of material to allow water to move through it, expressed in terms of m/day (distance/time). It is a function of the size and shape of particles, and the size, shape, and connectivity of pore spaces.

S. Hughes, 2003

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Geol. 11 1st Sem AY2011-12

9/19/2011

Discharge area

Discharge area

Wells Unconfined aquifer

Water table Days Years Unconfined aquifer

Wells

Water table Days

Confining beds Decades Confined aquifers Centuries Flow lines Millennia Confined aquifers

Confining beds

Flow lines

Discharge area

Discharge area

Wells Unconfined aquifer

Water table Days Years Unconfined aquifer

Wells

Water table Days Years

Confining beds Confined aquifers Confined aquifers

Confining beds Decades

Flow lines

Flow lines

Discharge area

Discharge area

Wells Unconfined aquifer

Water table Days Years Unconfined aquifer

Wells

Water table Days Years

Confining beds Decades Confined aquifers Centuries Flow lines Confined aquifers

Confining beds Decades

Centuries Flow lines Millennia

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Geol. 11 1st Sem AY2011-12

9/19/2011

Effluent streams
Receive water emerging from a submerged spring or other groundwater seepage The surface of the stream directly relates to the water table, thus will rise and fall as the water table rises and falls Common in temperate to tropical climates; run year round

Influent streams
May or may not be directly connected to the water table Supplement the water in the zone of saturation, producing an upward bulge in the water table directly underneath Common in arid climates; may be temporary, only present when rainfall or flash flooding occurs

Groundwater storage & movement


Aquifer permeable rock strata or sediment that transmits groundwater freely (e.g. sands, gravels, fractured rock)
An aquifer is a formation that allows water to be accessible at a usable rate.

Aquitard impermeable rock strata or sediment that slows down or retards water movement (e.g. clay, non-fractured rock) Aquiclude (aquifuge) porous rock stata or sediment with poor permeability such that it blocks groundwater movement

Unconfined aquifer

Unconfined Aquifer
They are not sealed off at any point. Recharge can occur anywhere. Water at w.table under atm pressure. Must lower bucket or pump to access water.

-Sealed off -Transmits water down from R.A. -Water confined in aquifer unless drilled. -Water under hydrostatic pressure. - Water rises; well may flow. Unconfined aquifer an aquifer whose upper limit is the water table; has no confining layers that retard vertical water movement Confined aquifer an aquifer sandwiched between two impermeable strata; Confined aquifers have non-permeable layers, above and below the aquifer zone, referred to as aquitards or aquicludes.

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Geol. 11 1st Sem AY2011-12

9/19/2011

Springs
Form when an aquiclude blocks the downward movement of groundwater and forces it to move laterally towards a more permeable bed or area of less confinement Dependent on rock types and relationships, primary & secondary porosity and permeability

Perched aquifer an unconfined groundwater body supported by a small impermeable or slowly permeable layer Spring natural flow of groundwater resulting from the intersection of the water table with the land surface

Porous limestone overlies an impermeable shale unit, and a line of springs occurs along the hillside where the two rock units meet

Springs issue from the contact between a highly jointed lava flow and the underlying impermeable mudstone

Springs

Springs flow from the place where a fault intersects the ground surface

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Geol. 11 1st Sem AY2011-12

9/19/2011

Springs

Desert Oases

Wells
Openings bored into the zone of saturation
Successful and Unsuccessful Wells
Yields to wells from non homogeneous rock can be variable. A.) wells that penetrate fractures in metamorphic and igneous rocks produce water. Dry wells result if no water-bearing fractures are encountered. B.) Perched water bodies above the main water table are held up by aquicludes and provide shallow sources of groundwater. Wells that miss the perched water body and do not reach the deeper water table are dry.

Wells
Drawdown lowering of water table resulting from the removal of water from a well cone of depression Hydraulic gradient slope of the water table; increases with more groundwater extraction, thereby increasing the rate of groundwater flow into the well

Artesian wells
Groundwater under pressure rises above the level of the aquifer Conditions for an artesian system: Water must be confined to an aquifer that is inclined so that one end can receive water Aquicludes or aquitards, both above and below the aquifer, must be present to prevent the water from escaping; the pressure created on the aquifer will cause the water to rise Does not always connote free-flowing surface discharge Nonflowing artesian wells pressure surface is below ground level Flowing artesian wells pressure surface is above ground level

DDNJ

Geol. 11 1st Sem AY2011-12

9/19/2011

Flowing or Artesian Well Development

Flowing Artesian Wells


groundwater in confined system is under enough pressure that no well pumping is needed!!!

The Dakota Aquifer System

Problems with groundwater withdrawal


Groundwater depletion or lowering of the water table groundwater removed from an aquifer exceeds the amount produced (i.e., demand >> supply). caused by: too much demand too little recharge

Lowering of the Water Table

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Problems with groundwater withdrawal


Saltwater contamination commonly occurs in many coastal areas where there is a direct relationship between fresh groundwater and salt groundwater since freshwater is less dense than salt water, it floats on the salt water and forms a large lens-shaped body that may extend to considerable depths below sea level excessive pumping depletes the fresh groundwater, causing salt water to rise to a height where it can be drawn into wells, contaminating the freshwater supply

Saltwater Intrusion

Animation

Problems with groundwater withdrawal


Groundwater contamination due to human activities most common source of pollution is sewage (septic tanks, inadequate/broken sewer systems, barnyard wastes, etc.) other sources include highway salt, fertilizers, pesticides, plus chemicals that may leak from pipelines, storage tanks, landfills and holding ponds.

Before

After

Reversal of Groundwater Flow Direction

Reversal of Groundwater Flow Direction

Animation #1 Animation #2

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Geol. 11 1st Sem AY2011-12

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Development of Contamination in Groundwater

Contaminant Plumes

If contaminants are INSOLUBLE (do not dissolve or mix in the water)

If contaminants are soluble (completely dissolved in the water) they move with the local groundwater flow

Contaminant Plumes

Problems with groundwater withdrawal


Pore collapse because water cannot be compressed, it holds the grains of the rock or sediment apart extraction of water from pores eliminate the support holding the grains apart (air that replaces the water can be compressed) grains pack more closely together, permanently decreasing the porosity and permeability of the rock

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Problems with groundwater withdrawal


Surface subsidence common in areas underlain by thick layers of unconsolidated sediments as water pressure drops, the weight of the overburden is transferred to the sediment increased pressure packs the sediments tightly together and the ground subsides

USGS scientist, Joe Poland shows the amount of ground subsidence in the San Joaquin Valley, California between 1925 and 1977 due to fluid withdrawal and soil consolidation.
http://www.aegweb.org/images/Geologic%20Hazards/subsidence_Poland.jpg

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The Leaning Tower of Pisa (Italy) tilts because the removal of groundwater caused its foundation to subside Land subsidence is most severe for clay- and organic-rich sediments
In coastal areas, land subsidence may even make the land surface sink below sea level The flooding in Venice, Italy, is due to land subsidence accompanying the withdrawal of groundwater

Nixa, Missouri

A sinkhole collapse early morning of 13 Aug 2006 in Nixa, Missouri is responsible for the disappearance of a garage and the Chevy Cavalier once parked inside. The sinkhole was initially estimated to be approximately 18 m in diameter and 23 m deep.

Guatemala City

Guatemala City

This 100 m-deep sinkhole swallowed about a dozen homes on 23 Feb 2007, and is so far blamed in the deaths of three peopletwo teenagers, found floating in torrent of sewage, and their father, who was pulled from the chasm. Rainstorms and a ruptured sewer main may have caused the sinkhole. After the collapse, the seemingly bottomless depths gave off tremors, sounds of flowing water, and the scent of sewage.
http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2007/02/070226-sinkhole-photo.html

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Damaging effects of subsidence


Construction damage (buildings, roads, dams, etc.) Alteration of landscape Increased risk of flooding (lowered land surface) Case study: Pampanga Delta subsidence - initial results of an 3-year research project funded DA-BAR, with initial funding from UP-CIDS
People involved: Rhodora Aparente, Cherry Ringor, Nathaniel Baluda, Kelvin Rodolfo, Corazon Lamug, Fernando Siringan, Cristina Remotigue, Napoleon Villanueva

Typical emerging well


1989

2001

Well rising outdoors


0
1.3 11.0 >4 3.8 1.9 3.3 2.2

0.5 cm/yr

2.3 cm/yr 1.8 cm/yr


3 2 0.7

1.76 cm/yr
2.7

40.6 cm/yr

Legend
Benchmarks (DPWH 2001) Roads Emerging wells (cm/yr) Lineaments 0

N
10 kms

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At Manilas South Harbor mean sea level rose at about 2 millimeters per year from 1902 to the early 1960s . . . . . . then started rising ten times as fast. WHY?

Subsidence from water withdrawal


Loosely packed sand When water is removed, grains crowd together a little more closely. Volume is somewhat reduced, so land sinks a little. But sand cannot compact very much. and can shrink much more.

Groundwater withdrawal!

Global warming

778 MLD 725 MLD

250 MLD

<20 million liters per day (MLD)

Another consequence of population growth

Freshly deposited clay contains much more water . . .

Our delta sediments are very clayey!

Other East Asian Coastal Cities Sinking from Excessive Groundwater Usage
LOCATION PERIOD Tokyo, Japan 1918-87 SUBSIDENCE Meters cm/year 4.5 2.8 2.63 0.66 6.5 8.2 6 8.25 Shanghai Hanoi Bangkok Yun-Lin Manila Tokyo Osaka

Some other regions of subsidence from overpumping of ground water


LOCATION London, England Venice, Italy Nile Delta, Egypt Houston Texas New Orleans, LA Mexico City, Mexico PERIOD 1865-1995 1952-69 1985-2000 1943-73 1924-78 1970-73 SUBSIDENCE Meters cm/year 0.65 0.014 0.08 4.0 2.3 2.0 0.15 1.6 0.5 0.8-1.7 0.5 8.5 7.4 3.7 5.0 9.4

Osaka, 1934-68 Japan Shanghai, 1921-65 China Yun-Lin, 1989-97 Taiwan (Fishpond area!) Hanoi, 1988-93 Vietnam Manila Bay 1964-2002 Bangkok, 1980-90 Thailand Jakarta, 1991-99 Indonesia

Sta. Clara Valley, Calif. 1920-67

0.1-0.3 2-6 1 0.5-1 2.5 5-10

0.3-0.8 4-10

Latrobe Valley, Austral. 1961-78


Jakarta

Geologic work of groundwater


Groundwater dissolves rock Groundwater is often mildly acidic Contains weak carbonic acid Forms when rainwater dissolves carbon dioxide from the air and from decaying plants Caverns Most caverns are created by acidic groundwater dissolving soluble rock at or just below the surface in the zone of saturation

Effects of Ground-Water Action


caves (or caverns): naturally formed underground chamber most caves develop when slightly acidic ground water dissolves limestone along joints and bedding planes, opening up cavern systems as calcite is carried away in solution most caves probably are formed by ground water circulating below the water table
H2O + CO2 + CaCO3
water carbon dioxide calcite in limestone

Ca++ + 2HCO3
calcium ion bicarbonate ion

development of caves (solution) development of flowstone and dripstone (precipitation)

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Geologic work of groundwater


Features found within caverns Composed of dripstone (travertine) Calcite deposited as dripping water evaporates Collectively, they are called speleothems Includes stalactites (hanging from the ceiling) and stalagmites (form on the floor of a cavern)

Chemical Weathering of Carbonates


Carbonic acid dissolves the calcite in limestone liberating CO2 and dissolved Ca2+. Carbonates exposed to rain continuously dissolve. This dissolution results in caverns and karst topography.

stalactites: icicle-like pendants of dripstone hanging from cave ceilings, generally slender and are commonly aligned along cracks in the ceiling, which act as conduits for ground water stalagmites: cone-shaped masses of drip-stone formed on cave floors, generally directly below stalactites

Catastrophic Subsidence: Caves

Collapse into caverns Caverns produced by dissolution of limestone by acidic waters

Acid produced when CO2 dissolves in water (carbonic acid) Rock dissolves below water table Dropping water table leaves behind caverns

Water moves along fractures and bedding planes in limestone, dissolving the limestone to form caves below the water table

Falling water table allows cave system, now greatly enlarged, to fill with air. Calcite precipitation forms stalactites, stalagmites, and columns above the water table

Formation of Sinkholes

Sinkholes
December giant sinkhole, Alabama (130 m long x 46m deep) formed 1972

Weakened cave roofs collapse Often due to pumping of groundwater (water helps support overlying rock) Over 4000 sinkholes have formed since 1900 in Alabama alone!

Winter Park, Florida sinkhole (100 m across x 34 m deep) formed 1981

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Original artwork by Gary Hincks

Cavern Features
Composed of dripstone (travertine) calcite deposited as dripping water evaporates. Collectively, they are called speleothems. Stalactites (ceiling) and stalagmites (floor).

Soda straws in Carlsbad Caverns National Park

Kartchner Caverns, Arizona

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Speleothems in Carlsbad Caverns National Park

Geologic work of groundwater


Karst topography Landscapes that to a large extent have been shaped by the dissolving power of groundwater Some common features include: Irregular terrain Sinkhole or sinks (formed by groundwater slowly dissolving the bedrock often accompanied by collapse) Striking lack of surface drainage (streams) Caves and caverns Tower karst

Karst topography
an area with many sinkholes and with cave systems beneath the land surface

Karst topography is marked by underground caves and numerous surface sinkholes. A major river may cross the region, but small surface streams generally disappear down sinkholes

Subsidence Due to Karst

Karst Sinkholes and Subsidence

Natural development of sinkholes and underground streams in limestone areas is a major factor in the subsidence of certain areas of Baguio City including Crystal Cave Dominican Irisan Lourdes

Burnham U.P.

MGB, 200x

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Ground subsidence in Crystal cave

(MGB, 2006)

Satellite View Karst Topography

Karstic Area

Source: Photograph NASA.

Luoping, Yunnan province, China

Tower Karst, Southeastern China

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Arecibo Radio-telescope, Puerto Rico

Restificar et al. (2006) Protection of Karst in the Philippines. Acta Carsologica 35, 1, 121 130.

Restificar et al. (2006) Protection of Karst in the Philippines. Acta Carsologica 35, 1, 121130.
Restificar et al. (2006) Protection of Karst in the Philippines. Acta Carsologica 35, 1, 121130.

Chocolate Hills, Bohol

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Coron, Palawan

Saint Paul Limestone Cave, Palawan

Limestone Cliffs - Palawan

Callao Limestone caves, Cagayan

Hundred Islands - Alaminos

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The geology of Hundred Islands

Wawa Gorge Montalban, Rizal

Hot Water Underground


hot springs: springs in which the water is warmer than human body temperature water can gain heat in two ways while underground:
ground water may circulate near a magma chamber or a body of cooling igneous rock ground water may circulate unusually deep in the earth

Geysers:

Intermittent hot fountains/columns of water

geyser: a type of hot spring that periodically erupts hot water and stream; the water is generally near boiling (100oC)
1 3

Hot Water Underground

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Geothermal Energy
Electricity can be generated by harnessing naturally occurring stream and hot water in areas that are exceptionally hot underground (geothermal areas); nonelectric uses of geothermal energy include space heating, as well as paper manufacturing, ore processing, and food preparation

Wallys and Deannas Groundwater Adventure http://earth.uwaterloo.ca/outreach/ museum/wally-and-deannasgroundwater-adventure Isang Maikling Kwento
Sa buhay ng tubig

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