Control Railway | Amplifier | Telecommunication

T14

VISION:

TO MAKE IRISET AN INSTITUTE OF INTERNATIONAL REPUTE, SETTING ITS OWN STANDARDS AND BENCHMARKS TO ENHANCE QUALITY AND INCREASE PRODUCTIVITY OF SIGNALLING & TELECOMMUNICATION PERSONNEL THROUGH TRAINING

MISSION:

INDIAN RAILWAYS INSTITUTE OF SIGNAL ENGINEERING & TELECOMMUNICATIONS
SECUNDERABAD - 500 017

Issued in June 2011

T14 TRAIN TRAFFIC CONTROL
CONTENTS

Chapter 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Description General principles of control working The control communication systems Different control communication systems & equipments OFC based control communication systems VF Repeaters Patching of Controls Control Telephones & other Control Equipments Interruptions & Routine Tests on Control Circuits Trouble shooting of DTMF Equipment

Page No. 1 8 20 47 57 72 81 101 113

Reviewed by

Amit Jain, PT Ch. Vasudev, ICT1 V.K. Goyal, Sr.Professor-Tele K. Srinivas, JE II(D) Ch. Vasudev, ICT1 14-07-2005 October ‘08 June 2011 126 64

Approved By DTP and Drawings

Date of Issue First Reprint Second Reprint No. of Pages No.of Sheets

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1 GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF CONTROL WORKING 1. 1. The movements of the train traffic in each of these control sections is individually monitored and regulated from the control office with an intention to provide an effective and efficient train operating system. 1. IRISET 1 T-14 Train Traffic Control .1 Introduction to Control Working Control or Train Traffic Control in Indian Railways is the name given to the Train Operations System which is setup specifically for the purpose of running the trains punctually and efficiently. For this purpose first. signal cabins etc. signal cabins etc. a Control Office is setup at the Divisional Head Quarters and the total track area under the divisional jurisdiction is divided into smaller segments called control sections.2 The Control Setup The Control setup is implemented on divisional basis. This is achieved by closely monitoring and controlling individual train movements and also by regulating the overall traffic movement. The control office is meant for giving necessary directions and suggestions to the track side railway stations.CHAPTER .4 Objects of Control Control over the movement of trains over a section of the Railway is exercised round the clock to achieve the following: (a) Cohesion in moving train traffic (b) To avoid delay to trains and traffic (c) To effect economy in working of trains (d) To improve the general working of trains and (e) To increase the efficiency in working of trains. S&T department provides the telephone communication facility required between the control office and all track side Stations and other agencies connected with train working. in regard to the train and traffic movements. This speech communication system between the Control Office and track side stations is known as Control Communication System. 1.3 Means of Control The control over the train traffic movements is exercised by means of a direct telephone communication between the Control Office and the way side train working agencies like railway stations.

2 Traffic (Deputy) Control:. iii) Arranging the running of engineering material trains to the best possible advantage of Engineering department.5. Engines.e. train working. v) Securing maximum workable load for each train compatible with the type of engine utilized and the special characteristics of the section over which the train is to be worked. 2) 3) Way Stations. iv) Arranging Engineering and/or Power blocks in such a way as to involve the minimum disturbances to train running v) Arranging relief and regulating trains in the event of accident 1. iv) Regulating traffic for fulfilling interchange commitments.1 Train Control:. viz.General Principles of Control Working 1.3 Power Control:.The objectives of train control are as under i) ii) Ensuring the punctual running of Mail. shunting and banking. direct from locomotive running sheds for all operating requirements.5. ii) To ensure the most economical use of engine power available. Express & Passenger trains. Running Goods trains to best possible paths and with the least possible detention enroute. iii) Maintaining fluidity of Marshalling yards. iv) Managing the traction power supply and OHE system 1.5 Functions of Control The functions of the control may be best described under the following three heads: (a) Train control (b) Traffic (Deputy) control (c) Power control 1. and Communication between Control office and Way stations 2 T-14 Train Traffic Control IRISET . iii) To ensure the return of engine to Home running sheds at regular intervals for washouts and other maintenance requirements.The objectives of power control are as under i) Requisitioning locomotive power i.The objectives of deputy control are as under i) ii) Allotment and distribution of coaching and Goods stock in stations.5.6 Elements of a Control The basic elements involved in the train control system are 1) Control Offices. Securing maximum utilization of rolling stock. 1.

1. Apart from the Divisional control office.7 The Control Offices The Control office is the central place from where the movements of all the trains are controlled and regulated. In addition to these. the following places that are lying within the Division’s jurisdiction are also provided with sub-control offices subject to the following conditions: (a) Area Control: Areas of exceptional industrial or commercial importance are provided with subsidiary control offices called as Area Control. where the traffic density and/or difficulties in providing effective communication right up to divisional control justifies separate organization for controlling and regulating traffic.1 Divisional Control Office: The divisional control office may be described as the nerve center of the Divisional Operating organization. A control office exists at each of the Divisional Headquarters station. (b) Sub-control: Sometimes. It functions under the overall charge of a Chief controller who is assisted by a Deputy Chief Controller. The central control office performs the following i) ii) Maintains detailed operating position and oversees the daily performance. It is connected with all Divisional headquarters control offices and with important stations/yards with a view to regulate the traffic over entire zone and to co-coordinate with adjoining railways.7.2 Central Control Office Operating above all the divisional control offices there is a Central Control Office situated at the zonal Headquarters.General Principles of Control Working 1.7. IRISET 3 T-14 Train Traffic Control . 1. The Control Offices setup at the divisional headquarters play key role in train operations. Sub-control offices are provided to control a limited portion of the division. there also exist other control offices which either operate over a smaller area of control or play a role of a coordinating agency between control offices. It maintains various operating records for reference and keeps the Headquarters offices informed of the latest position. The following are the different types of control offices that may be provided in a railway zone.

assists them during their work and also scrutinizes the control charts.General Principles of Control Working iii) The stock section of the central control collects various information and prepares detailed position of day-to-day operating performance. 1. In electrified sections the power controller is called as Traction Loco Controller (TLC). Giving clear and concise orders to stations well in advance and Plotting neatly and clearly the movement of all trains on the Control Chart.8. Each control section is manned round the clock by the Section Controllers in shift duties.8 The Control Office Organization at Divisional Headquarters 1. who also perform the shift duties. 1. iv) Its Mechanical and Electrical wings assist in assessing the performance of their respective departments in every day’s operation and in calculation of kilometerage and punctuality.1 The control organization generally consists of a special officer deputed for the purpose and the following staff: Chief Controller: He is the executive authority in charge of the control office and is responsible for the efficient operation of the control office. In addition to these there may be other controllers as mentioned below depending on the needs of the division. Each section is provided with a separate self-contained control communication circuit and a separate control office communication equipment. In view of the arduous nature of their work. IRISET 4 T-14 Train Traffic Control .8. Deputy Chief Controller: He directly supervises the work of the section controllers. the duty hours of train controllers are generally restricted to 6 hours working per day.2 Each Divisional Control Office is divided into one or more sections. Traction Power Controller: A TPC is also provided in electric-traction areas for the purpose of managing the traction power supply and OHE system. Power Controller: For Looking after and arranging the train engines and engine crew requirements in the division by contacting loco sheds. Section/Train Controller: He deals with the actual movement of the trains in his section. The work of Section Controllers is supervised by Deputy Chief Controllers. His main duties include • • • Ensuring efficient running of the trains over the section that he controls by arranging judicious crossing and precedence.

gradients and the layouts of sidings is exhibited in front of him. the diagram showing various OHE sections. Facilities should exist for the way station to be "rung" to establish communication. in the section. a diagram showing the layouts of stations and yards.3 The Section Controller of each section is provided with telephone communication facility for contacting stations. important cabins. 1.General Principles of Control Working 1. 1.Control Section in a Division 1. the efficiency of the control working mainly depends on the performance of the communication system provided between the control office and all the way side stations in the division. Hence. so that from the transmission point of view the best conditions are not always obtained.1.4 A typical layout showing the various section controls of a Division is as given in the fig.8. Fig. IRISET 5 T-14 Train Traffic Control .1. In electrified areas.1. The above are generally referred to as ‘way stations’. sub-sections and elementary sections is also exhibited.10 Communication Between Control Office & Way Stations The Communication plays an important role in control working because the means of train control is only through the speech communication between the controller and all his way side stations. For the guidance of the section controller. Loco sheds etc. loop capacities. Communication is normally required with: (a) Railway station (b) Signal Cabin (c) Loco shed (d) Sidings (in special cases) (e) Officers’ rooms (as per requirement) (as per requirement) (f) Officers' residences (g) Residences of other emergency staff.9 Way Stations The length of the control section is determined purely on traffic considerations. In cases where ringing facilities are not given the way station is referred to as a ‘speaking extension’.1.8.

11 Train Control Charts The train control charting is exercised adopting graphical plotting method.2. These are useful in revision of time tables and planning the running of any extra trains. The distance axis gives the overall length of the section with names of the stations and the distances between stations. reasons for undue detention etc. In the graphical plotting method of train control. The oblique lines indicate the movement and the horizontal lines the detention of trains. Computers are provided in the control office with train charting software named ‘Automatic Train Charting’ installed in them. The smallest sub-division of time axis may be 1 or 2 or 4 minutes depending on the density of traffic. Automatic Train Charting is being introduced using computers in place of manual charting where a network of Data loggers is provided. Presently. a graphical chart for 8 hours duration is provided in which the distance is indicated on the Y-axis and the time on X-axis. IRISET 6 T-14 Train Traffic Control .1 Master Charts Master charts are basically similar to train control charts but are prepared for 24 hours duration instead of 8 hours according to the scheduled running of trains as per the working time table in force. Automatic Train Charting Train charting is done automatically from the online information available from the data loggers network.11.General Principles of Control Working 1. 1. (a) Red: (b) Blue: (c) Green: (d) Black: for Expresses and other top priority trains for other passenger trains for Military specials and Fast Goods for other Goods trains A typical chart is shown in figure-1. In plotting movements of various classes of trains on the control chart pencils of the following colours shall be used. Each section controller shall record on control chart the movement of all trains over his section on receipt of information from each station during his period of duty. The chart is provided with a border on all the four sides to record other particulars regarding the trains.

1. Train Control Chart IRISET 7 T-14 Train Traffic Control .2.General Principles of Control Working Fig.

4.General Principles of Control Working Objective: 1. Control or Train Traffic Control means _________________________________________ The means by which control of train traffic is exercised ___________________________ Role of S&T in Control working _______________________________________________ The function of proper utilization of rolling stock comes under _________________control Efficient utilization of Engine power falls under _________________ control Power Controller in electrified sections is called as ______________________Controller. 3. 5. Write about different types of Controllers available in a Control Office. What is the meaning of Control and what are its objects? What is Central Control office? Write about control organization at divisional headquarters. 2. 6. 2. 6. 5. Trains movements information of a particular day can be had from _________________ Subjective: 1. What do you understand by a Way station? Which are all called as way stations? Explain about Train Control Chart? IRISET 8 T-14 Train Traffic Control . 3. 4. 7. 7. What are the functions of control? Write about any function.

2 Control Circuit Every section controller in the control office is provided with an independent speech communication link which enables him to speak with any way side station in his control section. (b) Party Line Circuit: In a party line circuit.The Control Communication Systems CHAPTER .3 Choice of Control Circuit Generally. IRISET 9 T-14 Train Traffic Control . Generally magneto ringing is used and the code consists of combinations of long and short rings. in the telephone circuits used for providing speech communication the following types of configurations are possible. Hence.1 Control Communication The speech communication facility provided between a divisional control office and all the way side stations falling under its jurisdiction for the purpose of facilitating supervision and control of train traffic movements is generally known as the control communication. 2. In view of the large number of way stations in a control circuit. This independent speech or telephone communication link is called a Control circuit. more than two subscribers are connected to a single line and the individual subscribers are called by a system of coded ringing. This circuit is not economical for train control working in view of the large number of lines required to be drawn between control office and way stations.2 THE CONTROL COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS 2. this circuit is normally limited to 4 subscribers for efficient working. Hence the control communication contains number of such control circuits to cater to the communication needs of various controllers/sections present in the control office. The number of lines will be proportional the number of subscribers. Permutations and combinations by this methods are limited since a multiplicity of codes leads to confusion and the required number is not always obtained due to incorrect decoding of the signals especially when they are combinations of short and long rings. when secrecy is to be maintained. this system is also not suitable for train control working. (a) Point-to-Point Circuit: Point-to-point communication circuit is generally used between two subscribers. 2.

For calling any individual subscriber a unique selective calling code is implemented. 2. Loco sheds. loco sheds and yards in a control section for the control of train movements and effective utilization of section capacity.5 Types of Railway Control Circuits According to traffic requirements and to cater to the needs of an Electric Traction area or a Non-Electric Traction area following Railway Control Circuits are provided: a) Section Control/Train Control: This is provided for communication between the Section/Train Controller in the control office and all wayside stations. b) Deputy Control: This is provided for communication between the Deputy Controller in the control office and important stations. yard offices etc. This circuit is suitable for railway control working because it can accommodate large number of subscribers or way stations on a single control circuit. For this reason the omnibus circuit configuration is adopted for all railway control circuits. iii) The locations connected in the section control circuits are all track side railway stations. ii) Every division contains such section control circuits. On this type of line or circuit secrecy cannot be maintained among he individual subscribers but this is not at all a problem since railway control circuits are meant for official communication related to trains working. important signal cabins.The Control Communication Systems (c) Omnibus Circuit: In an omnibus circuit all the users or subscribers are connected to a single speech channel or circuit. iv) The section control circuits are provided both in RE and Non-RE Sections. They should provide satisfactory and reliable communication between the controller and the various way-side stations. junctions & terminal stations. loco sheds. 2. yards. i) Section Control is provided mainly to control the movement of trains within the control section given. block cabins. Goods sheds and residences & chambers of important officials concerned. IRISET 10 T-14 Train Traffic Control . junction stations.4 Railway Control Circuits Railway Control Circuits are omnibus telephone circuits which provide communication with each train working point. thus facilitating efficient train operation.

j) Emergency Wireless Control Communication: It is provided between control office/way stations and train crew for use in emergencies. h) Remote control is meant for remote operation of 25 KV Traction equipments. line blocks etc. train ordering etc in particular. traction and permanent way staff with traction power controller. isolators (in yards) and near bridges. which works on Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition Systems (SCADA) principle. loco sheds and important signal cabins in a division for supervisory control of traffic operation in general and for collecting particulars such as yard reports and mid-night figures. ballast movement. for getting information on the movements of rolling stock. important Station Master's Offices for optimum utilization of electric locomotives. Example: (a) (b) Mobile Train Radio Communication(MTRC) VHF system IRISET 11 T-14 Train Traffic Control . e) Traction Power Control: Provided between traction power controller and SM's Office. d) Traction Loco Control: Provided between traction loco controller and loco sheds.) along the route. The emergency sockets are provided on rail posts at an interval of 1 Km (Max. i) Emergency Control: Provided from selected points along the track route for establishing communication between train crew (in case of emergency). c) Loco Power Control: This is provided for communication between the Loco Power Controller in the control office and the various loco sheds. f) S&T Control: Provided between test room and way stations and residences of S&T officials for effective maintenance of S&T equipments. g) Engineering control is mainly used for controlling maintenance activities of engineering department like track maintenance. FPs/SPs/SSPs for maintenance of OHE system in RE areas.The Control Communication Systems yard master's offices. important stations and yards in a division for the optimum utilization of the locomotives. They are also provided at FP/SP/SSPs.

At Traction Power Controller’s room. As the maintenance staff of the Electrical Department has to contact the Traction Power Controller frequently these tapings are taken from a separate circuit instead of from the section control circuit so that the section control circuit is not disturbed unnecessarily. To get over this difficulty tapings are provided from the underground cable at intervals of about 1 KM and these are terminated on 6-pin socket. The emergency control circuit is a 4-Wire circuit and works similar to any other 4-Wire control circuit. The line diagram showing the network details of emergency control circuit is given below. control office equipments are provided one set for Traction Power Control working. A separate cable quad is allotted for the working of the emergency control circuit. it is not possible to connect a portable telephone to the control wires to establish communication between control office and any point on the railway line. To respond to a call initiated from an emergency socket. two sets of 4 wire HQs. IRISET 12 T-14 Train Traffic Control .The Control Communication Systems 2. to contact the controller by the maintenance staff or Train Guard in emergencies. During emergencies they have to hook the portable telephone to the overhead line wires directly using the telescopic tubular pole to establish communication with the controller. generally a microphone and a loud speaker is provided with TPC. The control office can be contacted by plugging a portable control telephone into any of the sockets.6 The Emergency Control Circuit In non-electrified sections provided with over head line wires for control working. and another for Emergency Control working which has provision for transfer of call from emergency control circuit to the Section Controller if needed. This separate circuit is called the Emergency Control Circuit. a 2-wire portable telephone and a collapsible telescopic tubular pole are provided to them. When circuits are through underground cables.

it will be used for providing control communication. 2.6.The Control Communication Systems 2. due to the high attenuation offered by the thin conductor wires. 2. is used for extending Emergency control circuit. and any one of the cables listed at (b) to (d) above.8 Implementation of Control Circuits The control circuits can be implemented by any one of the following means: a) b) c) d) 2-wire line on Overhead Alignment or 4-wire line in Underground Cable or VF Channel in a OFC communication System MTRC or VHF Communication System (only for Emergency Communication) Among these. IRISET 13 T-14 Train Traffic Control . As an amplifier is a unidirectional device. and other local circuits between adjacent way stations. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Optical Fiber cable Telecommunication quad cable used in Railway Electrified area 6 quad PET cable 4 quad PET cable Overhead Lines In sections where fiber optic communication system is available. The second and third methods are suitable for both RE and Non-RE areas. two separate amplifiers are required for boosting both-way speech on control circuit. Block circuit. Because of this the 4-wire working is chosen whenever underground cable media is employed for control communication. there is a need for the use of speech amplifiers in both the directions. Its usage in new sections has been stopped as per railway board’s policy.7 Media used in Control Communication Following wired media are used for control working on Indian Railways. a) Why 4-wire line in Underground Cable Systems? In underground cable communication circuits. the 2-wire line on the overhead alignment cannot be used in RE-areas because it is prone to very high induced voltages due to the 25 KV AC traction supply.1 Emergency Wireless Control Communication: Communication is also provided in some sections of Indian Railways by wireless communication networks like MTRC or VHF link etc for the purpose of communication between a moving train and the control office or nearest ASM office.

The controller and the wayside stations should be able to have conference facilities. at a time. The controller should get an audible indication when the bell at the called station rings.9 Control Circuits for RE & Non-RE areas According to the needs of an Electric Traction area or Non-Electric Traction area the following Railway Control Circuits are provided: a) Control circuits in Non-RE Area (1) Section control (2) Deputy control (3) Engineering control (4) Emergency control (in underground cables only) (5) Loco Power Controller b) Control circuits in RE Area In 25KV AC electrified areas. the following additional control circuits are provided. in addition to the above control circuits mentioned for nonRE Areas.10 Requirements of the Control Circuit A railway control circuit has to be designed to provide both speech communication and signaling facilities by satisfying the following requirements: (a) Speech requirements: Speech between the controller and the farthest station should be acceptable irrespective of the number of wayside stations listening in. (b) Signaling requirements: The controller should be able to call any station along the route or a group of stations or all stations simultaneously. 2. (6) Traction Power Control ( in place of Loco Power Controller) (7) Traction Loco Control and (8) Remote control. This special type of signaling is called Selective Calling System IRISET 14 T-14 Train Traffic Control . normal type of signaling which is employed on telephone circuits cannot be used because it leads to ringing of all the subscribers connected on the omnibus circuit. 2. we need a special type of signaling arrangement which enables selection of individual subscribers even on this common omnibus line.11 Special Signaling Requirements of an Omnibus Circuit As an omnibus circuit is shared by number of parallel subscribers. Because of this reason.The Control Communication Systems 2.

For prolonged ringing. The panel is equipped with 16 push buttons. and any particular station being called by operating 2 buttons corresponding to the first two digits of the code. The transmission of the tones is so fast (typically in millisecond) that the signalling does not interfere with the speech at all. Among these two frequencies one is below 1000Hz (row) frequency and the other is above 1000Hz (column) frequency.The Control Communication Systems 2. The impulses are received at the way stations by polarized relays or selectors (STC Selector-4301-A) adjusted to close the contact for the local ringing circuit for a particular code. IRISET 15 T-14 Train Traffic Control .13 Description of the DTMF Signaling system DTMF is a system of signalling originally evolved for the transmission of dialling information to automatic telephone exchanges from subscriber's telephones.12 The Selective Calling Systems implemented in Indian Railways Since our railway control circuits are omnibus in nature. These are given in chronological order. we need to use. instead of a rotary selector key of the previous case. So far the following types of selective calling techniques have been implemented on Indian railways for control circuits. both within the VF band. All stations can be signalled simultaneously by pressing a general call key. NOTE: The first two types are now obsolete and hence they will not be described further. as mentioned above. (c) Dual Tone Multi Frequency (DTMF) System In this system for every key pressed in a push button panel two frequencies are being transmitted simultaneously as per the standard DTMF frequency plan. the same selective calling method of signaling which is required for omnibus circuits. (a) STC Key Sending System In this system coded impulses are generated by means of a rotary selector key (STC Key-4001-A /4002-A /4002-B) mounted in a key case being turned at a time to call any particular station. 2. the long ring key is operated. 2 digit codes are used to call either one station at a time or a nominated group at a time or all at the same time. Its versatility has lent itself suitable for the transmission of impulses in the selective calling system used in Railway Control Circuits as well. In this system two tones of frequency within the voice band are sent out on line corresponding to a given digit. (b) PUSH Button Sending System The Push Button Sending System consists of a push button panel and an impulsing unit in the control office.

are used. Each value on the keypad is represented by two tones (or frequencies) ie. 2. c3. Since the tones are in VF range. c2.c1.r1. r3. the signaling can be transmitted on the same transmission medium such as the O/H lines and U/G cables. There are four Row frequencies . one row frequency and one column frequency.1. IRISET 16 T-14 Train Traffic Control . and that is why two tones. The keypad is a 4 x 4 matrix type as shown in the figure 2. Another reason is O/H line noise or line whistles should not be recognised as signal.1 Why two tones? Since the signalling tone is in-band (within voice band). r4 and four Column frequencies . The tones are so chosen and recommended by ITU that minimum inter modulation occurs between each of the 16 possible tone pairs. One tone from the low frequency group and one from the high frequency group are paired to mark the keyboard output. c4. which are harmonically unrelated.The Control Communication Systems Column Frequencies (Hz) DTMF Tones 1209 1336 1477 1633 r1+c1 697 Row Frequencies (Hz) 1 4 7 G r1+c2 2 5 8 0 r1+c3 3 6 9 LR r1+c4 A B C D 770 r2+c1 r2+c2 r2+c3 r2+c4 852 r3+c1 r3+c2 r3+c3 r3+c4 941 r4+c1 r4+c2 r4+c3 r4+c4 Fig.. r2. any voice simulation should not be recognised as a tone pulse.

VHF.Using 4/6 Quad PET Cable Without Loading 3) OFC Based Control Communication System NOTE: As per the policy of Railway Board all overhead alignment system of BSNL as well as Railways should be replaced. (c) A maximum of 99 Way Stations can be connected as against the 78 stations in 17impulse system. microwave or OFC networks without any special arrangements for patching. (d) No moving parts. Because of this. (b) No need for high voltage DC or 50v / 50Hz A. presently the following types of control communication systems are being used in Indian Railways. However. the DTMF Signaling is chosen for fulfilling selective calling requirements of all Railway Control communication systems of presentday. Also reduction in hardware. 1) 2) Overhead Alignment Based 2-Wire Control Communication System Under Ground Cable Based 4-Wire Control Communication System a) Conventional System .14 Advantages of DTMF selective calling system The DTMF Selective calling system is adopted for Rly.The Control Communication Systems 2. Control communication because of the following specific advantages: (a) For Selective calling on O/H lines system (2W) or U/G cables (4W) system. and hence absolutely maintenance-free. the DTMF signaling is adaptable. A significant improvement in system reliability. (g) Ideal for establishing local control from the accident spots. IRISET 17 T-14 Train Traffic Control . (e) No adjustments of voltage/current are involved at any of the Way stations irrespective of location. With the above advantages the DTMF Signaling has superseded all other types of selective calling systems. as the equipment is entirely solid state. 500mV typically. The system is readily adaptable for patching to any voice channel over UHF. (f) The system is immune to line noises and line distortion and hence poor line conditions do not degrade the performance.C. (No need for Signal Regenerator Relay panels in the RE area) Low level signalling. Based on the media used. (Direct interface to line). where required the same should be followed as detailed in old Telecom Manual (1971 edition). (h) A tone generator IC generates the DTMF tones.Using RE Main Cable With Loading b) Equalizer Amplifier System . 2.15 Systems of Control Communication: The type of control communication network to be provided is decided by the type of media deployed between the control office and the way stations.

if required. Adjustment and maintenance of the equipments in the control office and way-side stations should be easy and simple. and carrier circuits worked on radio. 9. 12. Wherever traffic is light. IRISET 18 T-14 Train Traffic Control . The signaling used for selective calling shall not hamper normal telephone conversation on the line. The equipment should work satisfactorily within allowable margins of line characteristics without frequent critical adjustments. as laid down in the telecom manual. The headquarters equipment provided with the controller should have facility for selectively calling any station. 10. 5. Feature of prolonged ringing of any way-station is desirable. Facility for selectively calling a particular group of stations may also be provided wherever required. 11. The system should be compatible with open-wire lines and underground communication cables (both 4-wire and 2-wire working).16 General Requirements of The Control Communication System Any system to be adopted for control communication system should fulfill the following requirements. A ring back facility shall be provided to automatically inform the controller whenever the bell/buzzer at a way station rings in response to the call initiated by him. 4. 7. The system should be capable of progressive expansion without any replacement. 3. The equipment should be rugged and capable of intensive use. 8. Facility should exist for selectively calling one or all stations. 2. facilities may be provided to call the attention of the controller by the way-stations.The Control Communication Systems 2. 6. 1. and the circuit is not manned round the clock.

of tones used in DTMF system. Why only Omnibus circuit is adopted for railway control circuits? 5) Mention different control circuits used in RE and Non-RE areas and also briefly describe about important control circuits. What are the requirements of control circuits? List out the general requirements of control communication system. What is selective calling system and why it is used on railway control circuits? 10) List out different types of selective calling techniques 11) Explain about DTMF selective calling system 12) What are the advantages of DTMF signaling? IRISET 19 T-14 Train Traffic Control . _____________________ Subjective: 1) 2) 3) 4) What is Control communication and control circuit? Name different control circuits used. Type of signaling system suitable for control circuits is ___________________________ Emergency control sockets are provided on rail posts at _____________km intervals. 6) 7) Mention different types of control circuits and their usage Explain about the following controls a) b) c) d) 8) 9) Traction power control Remote control Section control Deputy control Explain about Emergency control circuit with a simple sketch.The Control Communication Systems Objective: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Railway control communication circuits are of ______________________ type circuits. ______________________________ Maximum no. Name any one control circuit used only in RE sections. Mention different types of speech (or telephone) circuits. of way station codes available in DTMF system. __________________________ No.

4) The OFC based control communication system is the latest trend and it is gradually replacing all the other control communication systems. The need of loading the cable is also eliminated. The underground cable based Conventional System is widely and extensively used throughout the Indian Railways and accounts for a large share.2 Underground Cable Systems: Presently there are following two underground cable systems: a) Conventional System .Different Control Comm. Systems & Equipments CHAPTER 3 DIFFERENT CONTROL COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS & EQUIPMENTS 3. following additional equipments are required. 4/6 Quad PET Cable Equalizer Amplifier System is a new system introduced in recent years which drastically reduces the number of joints to be made on the underground cable. (a) VF Repeaters (b) Isolation Transformers These two equipments are provided at fixed intervals along the entire route.3 Conventional System & Its Equipments Irrespective of the Control Communication system used. in Conventional system using underground cable media.1 Present Day Scenario of Control Communication Systems 1) 2) The overhead 2-wire system lines or less important routes. 5) Wireless Emergency Communication through MTRC/ VHF for Train to Control Office direct Communication. 3) The other type of underground cable based system. the following two equipments are compulsory and these equipment should comply with the RDSO specification No.Using RE Main Cable With Loading/ PET 4/6 Quad Cable With Loading b) Equalizer Amplifier System . IRS TC : 60/2007 (a) Control Office Equipment and (b) Way Station Equipment In addition to these. IRISET 20 T-14 Train Traffic Control . is almost obsolete and is available in some branch 3.Using 4/6 Quad PET Cable Without Loading 3.

4. The station master then lifts his telephone hand set and talks with the controller. joints.two VF amplifiers .Different Control Comm.IRS TC: 50-90) This equipment is generally placed at every 50 Km interval along the track. When a way station responds to his call the controller talks to him using either handset or mic & loudspeaker combination.4. With help of this equipment the controller can selectively call any required way station in his section and can talk to him in regard to the movements of trains in the section. 3.4 DESCRIPTION OF THE EQUIPMENT 3. that is Trans and Receive.IRS TC: 60-2007) This is provided with the controller in the control office at the divisional head quarters. Each amplifier offers a maximum gain of 24 dB. 1 Control Office Equipment: (RDSO Spec .two VF amplifiers plus a leak amplifier . for every control circuit. 2 Way Station Equipment: (RDSO Spec .IRS TC: 60-2007) This equipment is provided at every way side station along the track and also at yard master offices and loco sheds etc. Systems & Equipments 3.4. 3 VF Repeater: (RDSO Spec . This equipment consists of (a) (b) (c) (d) DTMF Decoder & Buzzer Speech Amplifiers Control Telephone and Power supply unit On receiving a DTMF station code from the controller the DTMF decoder circuit decodes and compares it with the pre-set station code. These amplifiers compensate for the losses or attenuation introduced by the quad cable conductors. equipment tapings etc. 3.one each for each direction. The equipment comprises – a) b) c) d) Controller’s Console Table Microphone Loud Speaker Power Supply Unit The controller calls any way station by sending a 2 digit DTMF station code using the keypad. It accommodates a pair of amplifiers . There are three types of VF amplifier modules in this equipment (a) VFR module (b) VFL module (c) Buffer module IRISET . If the received code matches with station code the buzzer rings and catches the attention of station master.two VF amplifiers for branching purpose 21 T-14 Train Traffic Control . When the controller keys-in the 2 digit code of a station the DTMF encoder circuit converts these 2 digits into DTMF codes and transmits on the line to the way stations. The called station code is displayed on the 2 digit 7-segment LED display panel.

Systems & Equipments 3. In this system. Due to this the time required for jointing the entire length of cable is drastically reduced. This system is called as Equalizer Amplifier type Control Communication system. High frequencies are more attenuated than low frequencies. constructed along the track side. A new control communication system is introduced which is designed on a new concept to overcome the difficulties faced in the installation and commissioning of conventional type of control communication system. 3. This amplifier performs the role of a repeater amplifier of the conventional system.Different Control Comm. These transformers are used for tapping (derivation) of control circuits and also as isolation transformers.IRS TC: 22-76) These transformers are provided at every way station. in cable huts.4. 3. 3. 1 What is Equalizer Amplifier? This is an amplifier followed by an equalizer circuit which provides equalization as well as amplification of VF frequencies. These 3. 5 Cable Hut Generally the isolation transformers are mounted on a rack and this rack is placed inside a small room. is called cable huts are located at every way station along the track. 3. Cable Hut. One transformer is required for each pair of a quad. Equalizer-Amplifiers are provided at every way station. 4 Isolation Transformers: (RDSO Spec . The frequency response of these long distance cables is not flat over the entire VF (voice frequency) range. all the joints needed on RE Quad Cable except the normal joint are dispensed with.4. in RE-Areas. With the use of this new system. To correct for or to boost the reduced levels of high frequencies Equalization is used.5. on the underground cable circuits. 22 T-14 Train Traffic Control IRISET . instead of Repeater Amplifiers at fixed intervals.5. It also eliminates loading of the Quad Cable. 2 What is Equalization? Railway control circuits are working on very long distance cables spanning over a few hundreds of kilometers. as a result of which the signal levels of higher end frequencies in VF band get reduced.6 Special Features of Equalizer Amplifier type Control Communication System 1) 2) 3) 4) It eliminates the need of intermediate repeater stations and cable huts.5 EQUALIZER AMPLIFIER SYSTEM (RDSO/SPN/TC/34/2002 ) The control communication system so far we have discussed is used very extensively all over the Indian Railways and is known as conventional system. to nullify the induced voltages on the underground cable conductors.

) No separate VF repeater stations & cable huts are required at any place Provision of VF repeaters & cable along the cable route as these are huts at fixed intervals is required combined with the way station along the entire cable route equipment itself. All other types of joints are All types of joints are required on the dispensed with. This is not possible in this system simply by DIP switch settings Built-in provision for Radio patching is Separate arrangement is to be made available through the 4-way amplifier for Radio patching No need of any Leak amplifier Leak amplifier is required for communication among way stations 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 IRISET Cost of each way station equipment is Cost is very low for way station very high equipment This system offers maximum FOUR This system can offer more number control circuits only of control circuits. optionally. Remote monitoring and controlling of No remote monitoring and controlling way stations is possible and hence can of way stations is possible be managed unmanned.7 Comparison Between Equalizer Amplifier And Conventional Systems S. 3. 23 T-14 Train Traffic Control .Different Control Comm. Conventional Type System Loading of cable is very essential in this system 2 Balancing condensers are added in the Balancing of the cable is provided way station equipment itself. Local 8-line intercom facility can be No such provision is available in this provided. It offers 4-way connectivity at every way station. at way stations. (But for EC socket cable. Systems & Equipments 5) 6) 7) 8) It also eliminates the need of leak amplifier in the terminal repeater in test room. Auto-bypassing of way station is available. At wayside station an 8 line local intercom facility is also offered. in case of power failure or No such facility is available any other fault in the control circuit. out of many possible slopes. derivation is required at every 1km. This system also offers remote monitoring and management of way side stations from the test room. but not through balancing joints directly on directly on the cable the cable Only normal joint is required on the cable.No 1 Equalizer Amplifier Type System Loading of the cable is not needed. system Required Equalization slope can be chosen.

3. (a) Control Office Equipment (b) Way Station Equipment and (c) Test room Equipment In conventional type control communication system loading of the quad cable is done. Loading compensates for the voice signal level loss at high frequencies. This equipment accommodates both the VF amplifiers and isolation transformers. It consists of the following modules. in addition to the DTMF decoder. In addition to these two there are two buffer amplifiers also for providing a 4 .way connectivity. gain of +20dB each. Each equalizer amplifier gives a max.9 Control Office Equipment: This equipment is the same as that used in conventional system with the following minor modifications. Systems & Equipments 3. i) It suits quad cable of 470 ohm characteristic impedance and ii) digit / 2 digit dialing mode can be selected 3. The following figure shows the 4-way connectivity of an equalizer amplifier. All these have to comply with RDSO draft specification RDSO/SPN/TC/34/2002.10 Way Station Equipment: The way station equipment used in the equalizer amplifier system is totally different from that of conventional type system. IRISET 24 T-14 Train Traffic Control . (a) Equalizer Amplifier (b) Isolation Transformers (c) DTMF Decoder (d) Remote monitoring and Battery Management (e) Local 8-line Intercom exchange (f) Power Supply unit and (g) Control Telephone 3.10. It means the process of equalization eliminates the need for loading the quad cable.8 Equipments in Equalizer Amplifier System (RDSO/SPN/TC/34/2002) The following equipments are used in Equalizer Amplifier system. The same benefit is obtained by equalization in the new system of control communication.Different Control Comm. by adding small value of inductors separately on to each limb of quads. The gain can be varied through DIP switches providing an attenuation of 0 to 10dB. 1 Equalizer Amplifier This module accommodates two equalizer amplifiers one for trans direction and another for receive direction.

3 DTMF Decoder This card or module provides the same function as that of the way station decoder in the conventional type control system.1 The gain. These isolation transformers provide an impedance of 470 towards line side.. 2 Isolation Transformers This card is housing 4 pairs of isolation transformers. attenuation and equalization of both trans and receive amplifiers are selected with DIP switches. one pair for each direction of the 4way connectivity equalizer amplifier. With the help of these four circuits.4 TRANS Attenuation REC Attenuation 1 OFF ON OFF ON 2 ON ON OFF OFF Table-1 Amp Gain 5dB 10 dB 15 dB 20 dB 1 ON OFF OFF OFF OFF 2 ON ON OFF OFF OFF 3 ON ON ON OFF OFF 4 ON ON ON ON OFF Amp Attenuation 0 dB 1 dB 2 dB 3 dB 4 dB Table-2 3. Two DIP switches are provided for selecting the 2digit station code. Systems & Equipments In addition to these circuits the equalizer amplifier card also accommodates two Buffer circuits.10. There is also provision for adding balancing condensers on this card. ie. IRISET 25 T-14 Train Traffic Control . DIP Sw -7 DIP Sw -3 TRANS Gain REC Gain DIP Sw .OUT RX . two amplifiers and two buffers.3.IN To Far End side To SM’s Control Telephone Fig.10. it provides a facility for 4-way connectivity at every way side station as shown below.Different Control Comm. To Radio Patch or Branch line IN OUT BUF-1 To Controller side TX-IN RX-OUT Equalizer Amp Card BUF-2 IN OUT TX . 3. For example the DIP settings in M/s Indisco make system are given in Table1 and table2 on next page.8 DIP Sw .

Slave card ( at every way station ) Every way station equipment is provided with the remote monitoring cum battery management slave card (RMT BTMN slave). The Intercom circuit can cater for a maximum of 8 subscribers or lines.Master card ( at Test Room) (b) Remote Monitoring . reconnection. These two modules are (a) Remote Monitoring . voltage measurement. In addition to this it also offers battery management function at way stations. This facility offers disconnection. Systems & Equipments 3. an intercom exchange facility is offered at way stations in the equalizer amplifier system with the help of two modules. This code is separate from the 2 digit way station code used by the controller for calling way stations. 3.10. set by two DIP switches provided on the card. sending power supply status and sending alarm to test room in case of power supply failure.Different Control Comm. All 8 telephones are assigned a single-digit or 2-digit number. 6 Local 8-Line Intercom Exchange Optionally. Telephone connections to this intercom can be extended up to a loop resistance of 300 .10. a) disconnects the line and the equipment on any of the 4 sides b) restores or reconnects the disconnected line c) changes over the batteries that are on load and charge d) reads the power supply voltage to the equipment and sends to master e) sends the status information of the mains and the two battery supplies to master f) sends to local loud speaker an audible tone g) the remote control card gets reset 3. Each slave card is identified by its own 2-digit Remote Station-code. 5 Remote Monitoring & Battery Management Cards The remote monitoring feature is provided through a set of two modules one of which is installed in the test room equipment and the other in every way station equipment. Normal auto telephone instruments can be used on these lines. 4 Remote Monitoring & Battery Management System A Remote monitoring facility is provided in equalizer amplifier type control communication system. It is possible to enable/disable control access facility (on any one control circuit).10. to all the 8 telephones from the test room. The slave card performs the following functions on receipt of remote commands from master. through an access code. Controller can talk to any of the IRISET 26 T-14 Train Traffic Control . which are sufficient for providing some communication facility to the supervisory staff of various departments headquartered at way side station.

3. The test room equipment consists of the following units (a) DTMF Keypad & Display (b) DTMF Tones Transceiver (c) Handset & Loud speaker (d) Remote Monitoring & Battery Management unit (master) (e) Equalizer Amplifier (f) Isolation Transformers (g) Dual Power supply unit IRISET 27 T-14 Train Traffic Control . The Controller equipment is connected to the quad cable via the test room equipment. 8 Control Telephone A telephone instrument without dialing facility is provided at the way stations to enable ASMs to converse with the controller.10. Two separate rechargeable batteries of 40 AH each are provided for fulfilling the load requirements of every way station equipment.chargers which derive 12V DC from the mains 230V AC supply. The first 2-digits are station address code and the third digit is local telephone number ignoring first digit if 2-digit numbering is used.Different Control Comm.11 TEST ROOM EQUIPMENT OF EQUALIZER SYSTEM Test room equipment plays vital role in the equalizer type control communication system. 3.5 volts. 7 Power Supply System The power system provided with equalizer amplifier system consists of the following multiple power sources 1) Dual Power Supply Unit: It has two separate rectifier-cum. Auto-change over of batteries takes place once the load battery voltage drops to 11. Systems & Equipments subscribers by dialing a 3-digit DTMF code. This instrument is similar to the one used in conventional system. 2) NiCad Battery Set: The outputs of both these chargers are combinedly used (ORed through two diodes) for battery charging. The two batteries can feed the equipment for 72 hours. Conferencing facility is also available among the intercom telephones. One of these batteries supplies the equipment load while the other battery gets charged. It is used to perform the general maintenance functions like sending way station codes for checking the ringing at way stations and also for fault localization and restoration purposes. 3. In addition to this it is used to perform remote operations on the way station equipments. 3) Solar Supply: Provision is also made for connecting solar supply to the equipment for charging the battery during mains failures.10.

3.digit 7-segment LED display are provided on the test room equipment for testing and remote monitoring purposes. 3 Handset & Loud speaker A Handset is provided with the equipment for the purpose of communication with way stations or controller. IRISET 28 T-14 Train Traffic Control . 2 DTMF Transceivers A set of a DTMF tone generator and a DTMF tone decoder is provided in the equipment for the sake of sending and receiving DTMF codes respectively.11. The display is 4-digit wide because the remote command codes are 4 .11. 1 DTMF Keypad & Display A keypad with 16 keys. Systems & Equipments 3.digit long.Different Control Comm. which is same like the keypad provided on the Controller’s Equipment and a 4 . The loud speaker is for monitoring the speech between the controller and way stations. The test room SOS codes equipment receives DTMF reply signals during remote operations and during power supply failures at way stations.11. 3.

These are (a) Equalizer Amplifier (b) Isolation Transformers (c) Power supply unit 3.12 DESCRIPTION OF DTMF CONTROL COMMUNICATION EQUIPMENT Now let us study about the DTMF Control equipment which includes the Control office equipment and the way station equipment. 4 Remote Monitoring & Battery Management (Master) The master card is provided in the test room equipment to send remote control commands to any way station slave unit to perform remote operations at the way station and also to receive test acknowledgements as well as SOS codes from way stations.1 1) CONTROL OFFICE EQUIPMENT (IRS TC . Systems & Equipments 3. (e) Every station shall be assigned a distinct calling code.12. C & D. (c) It shall be possible to call maximum of 99 stations with 2-digit codes either one at a time or a nominated group at a time or all at the same time.60 /2007. a nominated group of stations may be assigned a group calling code. The remaining three modules are same like in way station equipment. (a) cut or disconnect the line and the equipment (b) restore or reconnect the disconnected line (c) changeover of batteries (d) read the power supply voltage to the equipment (e) know the status of the mains supply and the two battery supplies (f) send a tone (g) reset all remote control cards All these operations can be performed at a time on any three of the control circuits chosen. (d) Audible indication to the controller that the called station has been rung shall be provided. The push button for General call shall be designated G for calling all stations at the same time.Different Control Comm. 4 such groups should be provided in the system.11.60 /2007) Operating Requirements: (a) The technical requirements of the DTMF control office equipment should comply with the RDSO specification No. In addition. 3. (b) The system shall permit working of voice communication and signaling on an omnibus circuit tapped at way stations and other places. IRISET 29 T-14 Train Traffic Control . B. It performs the following remote operations at way stations. The push buttons should be designated as A. on 4 Wire or 2 Wire basis as required. IRS TC .

The group code/ general call code and transmission shall be accomplished by pressing relevant push button twice. C.5 second). (d) Hand set (e) Head set (f) Microphone (g) Loudspeaker (h) Hybrid attachment (required for 2-Wire operation) (i) Power supply unit DTMF Console Front Panel: The Keyboard on the front consists of total 20 keys. It should be possible to cancel the first digit within 5 seconds by pressing a single push button designated DL. c2. For example AA. (l) Facility to check the row /column frequency shall be provided by pressing push button designated RC for test mode.Different Control Comm. r4 : Row frequency group (697 Hz to 941 Hz) c1. GG etc. Then FOUR Group call keys .G and long ring key . DL. B. c4 : Column frequency group (1209 Hz to 1633 Hz) 2) General Description of Control Office Equipment The control office equipment with DTMF signaling consists of the following: (a) DTMF Console (b) DTMF code generator (c) Communication PCB consisting of Microphone amplifier. The first digit remains displayed for 5 seconds. D and one general call key . IRISET 30 T-14 Train Traffic Control . c3.LR.A.0 to 9 used for entering the 2-digit station codes. (g) The facility to repeat the last code transmitted by pressing one single push button designated RT shall be provided. facility shall be provided to extend this period as long as desired by pressing a single push button designated LR by repeatedly sending the last transmitted code after every 4. r2. after which it gets erased automatically. The display shall continue till the next code is generated. (i) (j) It shall be possible to send the signaling code even when two or more parties are in conversation and also to a station engaged in conversation. Head/Hand set transmitter amplifier & loudspeaker amplifier. The two push buttons for station code should be pressed in sequence within 5 seconds. Sixteen of these are DTMF keys arranged in 4 by 4 matrix. Systems & Equipments (f) The station code generation and transmission shall be accomplished by pressing two push buttons in a sequence. (h) The duration of the ringing at way station shall normally be 4 seconds (+/. (k) Facility to reset the system should be provided by pressing One single push button designated RS. These are TEN decimal keys .5 seconds. r1. RT and RC. In addition to these 16 keys there are FOUR function keys – RS. BB. r3.0. The station code being transmitted shall be displayed on the console. For group call and general call the same key is to be pressed twice. However.

DL .Reset key is used to reset the control office equipment. Similarly all row and column frequencies are sent sequentially one after other with every press of RC key.Row & Column Frequency Test key is used for generating individual row and column DTMF frequencies for testing purpose. On pressing this key the equipment goes into frequency test mode and outputs 1st row frequency (r1) on TX terminals on back panel.Repeat key redials the last code transmitted. if it is required to do so at any time. RT . RC . The equipment comes off the test mode by pressing reset key. Systems & Equipments RS .Different Control Comm. Now if RC key is pressed once again 2nd row frequency (r2) is outputted on tx terminals.Delete or Clear key used to cancel a wrong entry during the dialing process. The display shows r1 indicating the output frequency. IRISET 31 T-14 Train Traffic Control .

3.3 Front Panel of DTMF Head Quarter's Equipment Different row and column frequencies are as given below: Display r1 r2 r3 r4 c1 c2 c3 c4 Frequency 697 Hz 770 Hz 852 Hz 941 Hz 1209 Hz 1336 Hz 1477 Hz 1633 Hz Long Ring key (marked LR) is used to generate the long ring at way stations.Different Control Comm. Systems & Equipments 30 mm 50 mm 12 mm CHARECTOR HEIGHT RC 25 mm RS DL RT POWER ON 1 HANDSET 0 10 m m 2 4 7 5 3 6 8 G A B 9 0 L 100 mm OPERATING KEYS C D VOLUME CONTROL FOR LOUD SPEAKER 280 mm 300 mm 5 PIN SOCKET FOR HEADSET/HANDSET DTMF CONTROL ROOM EQUIPMENT Fig.2 Display Function keys RS DL RT RC 1 4 7 G 2 5 8 0 3 6 9 LR A B C D DTMF keys Fig. 3. IRISET 32 T-14 Train Traffic Control .

Systems & Equipments Console Back Panel . These tones are connected to the line through a combiner amplifier. the processor/controller stores the information and display the digit pressed.4 (a) Back Panel Side Panel Side panel consists of a volume control for loudspeaker marked as Volume and socket for the handset. As soon as a valid key closure (corresponding to the first digit of the station code) is detected. 6-way terminal strip having Trans (TX). Receive (Rx). the processor/controller updates the display and activates the tone generator to transmit DTMF tones for the keys pressed. The processor/controller waits for second key closure (corresponding to the second digit of the station code).3. This Microprocessor/Micro-controller keeps scanning the keyboard (4 By 4 matrix) lines to check for any valid keyboard entry. IRISET 33 T-14 Train Traffic Control . If a second valid key is pressed within the specified period. LS (Loudspeaker) terminals in pairs.Different Control Comm.The back panel consists of the following: 12 V DC Battery terminals. DC fuse holder.4 (b) Side Panel View 3) General Working Principle of DTMF Control office equipment: For DTMF tones generation the control office equipment contains a Microprocessor or a Micro-controller. in the order of key-press sequence. where they combine with speech signals coming from the microphone/hand set.3. Fig. Fig.

The level of the ring back tone when measured across trans terminals of way station equipment shall not be less than -12dBm. (c) After the buzzer in the telephone is actuated. D can be assigned to the way station. a visual indication of LED shall be lit in the telephone. it shall be decoded and a piezo-electric buzzer shall be activated even if the hand set is off the cradle. Systems & Equipments In the receive direction the speech coming from the way stations is filtered and amplified before sending to the loud speaker.2 1) DTMF WAY STATION EQUIPMENT (IRS: TC-60/2007) Operating Requirements (a) It shall be possible to assign any DTMF station code between 01 to 99 to a way station using DIP switches. IRISET 34 T-14 Train Traffic Control . The LED indication shall continue to be lit until the handset is lifted off the cradle. B. (b) On receipt of the valid code. C. a ring back tone shall be automatically and transmitted to the control office in acknowledgement of the receipt of ring.12. 3.Different Control Comm. And also any group code from A. (d) Along with the activation of the buzzer.5 3. A typical layout of control office equipment is as shown in the figure given below: Fig.

It is possible to assign station codes from 01 to 99. Controller transmitted DTMF code is received first at way station by a DTMF tone decoder IC which converts the DTMF tones representing the first digit into a 4-bit binary which is applied as input to a 4-to-16 line binary decoder. This same signal after passing through the FD DIP switch triggers a ½ second Mono-shot whose output is given as input data for a Flip Flop. (a) DTMF decoder & Speech circuits (b) Control Telephone (c) 12V DC Power supply & Battery unit The equipment entire circuitry for DTMF decoder & speech amplifiers is assembled on a single PCB and then it is placed in a wall-mountable metal cabinet. The decoder part of the circuit performs the following functions (a) Receives DTMF 2-digit station code and decodes it into 2 digit decimal code. The block diagram of Way station DTMF Decoder & Buzzer Activation Circuit is given below. Systems & Equipments (e) The-output level of the buzzer shall be adjustable by means of fixed pad. To IRISET 35 T-14 Train Traffic Control . The high signal representing the First Digit of the way station code passes through the FD DIP switch only if the setting on DIP switch matches with the received digit. (b) Compares it with the local code allotted to the station (c) Switches on a piezo buzzer. Similarly the second digit signal passes through SD DIP switch and applied as clock pulse to the Flip Flop. Two DIP switch units FD and SD (containing 10 positions in each) are provided to set the station code. The Flip Flop output triggers another mono-shot of 3 to 5 seconds timing which drives a piezo buzzer and also activates a ring back tone (RBT) circuit.Different Control Comm. when buzzer rings and (e) Amplifies speech signals in both directions 3) Working Principle: In the way station decoder unit a 2-digit station code is set locally. IRS: TC-60/2007. The appropriate switches marked 0 to 9 are to be turned ON. using two DIP switch units (each of 10 switches) which are named as FD (First Digit) switch and SD (Second Digit) switch respectively. Protection from transients in power supply to be provided. (f) The equipment shall not need manual resetting in case of power interruption. This equipment consists of the following units. 2) General Description of 4-Wire Way Station Equipment The DTMF way station equipment design has to comply with the RDSO specification No. if both codes are matched (d) Sends a ring back tone to the controller. 4) Code Setting Each way station is assigned a 2-digit code. Depending on the 4-bit binary value only one of 16 outputs becomes high.

Brief description of a speech conversion unit which is used with control equipment is given below. 3. the overall loss on 2-wire line should not exceed 12dB.10%). The design of this equipment should comply with the RDSO specification IRS: TC: 46/88.6 Block Diagram of Way station DTMF Decoder & Buzzer 5) Power Supply Arrangements System at the way station needs 12 V DC (+20%. IRISET 36 T-14 Train Traffic Control . This unit can also be used for providing a 2-wire interface to a 4-wire control equipment. A or B or C or D) from controller a separate DIP switch (containing 4 positions) is provided inside the equipment.13 Speech Conversion Unit (Hybrid) (IRS: TC: 46-88) The hybrid or speech conversion unit is required to interconnect a 4-wire control section with a 2-wire control section for speech conversion purpose. wall mounting type cabinet. It consists of a Trans amplifier. The desired special group code is selected by setting the corresponding position in the switch. 6) 2-Wire Way Station Equipment The 2-Wire Way Station Equipment is used in non-electrified sections where control communication is provided on overhead alignment. .3. Systems & Equipments receive a special group code (ie. A 4-wire equipment can be converted to have 2-wire interface by using Speech Conversion Unit also called as Hybrid. It is provided in a small M. for example with a 4 wire controller to provide a 2-wire connectivity.Different Control Comm. Reverse polarity protection is required to be provided. The following is the sketch of a hybrid unit used in control communication. a Receiver amplifier.S. FD DIP DTMF Tone Decoder 4-to-16 line Decoder G ABCD DTMF Signal Input ½ sec Mono SD DIP Flip Flop Clock 3 to 5 sec Monofor Buzzer Buzzer RBT Circuit General Call Group Call DIP ½ sec Mono Flip Flop Ring Back Tone To Controller Clock Fig. For satisfactory working of DTMF equipment in 2-wire overhead line territory. a Hybrid and a High pass filter. A typical Speech Conversion unit used with control equipment is shown below.

DTMF Decoder Unit DTMF DECODER RINGBACK CIRCUIT RBT BUZ Connecting a Way Station Equipment to U/G Cable Pairs Fig.3. The connection between the cable quad and the way station equipment is shown by the following figure.7 3.14 Connecting Way station Equipment to Quad Cable On the omnibus control circuit the way station equipment is connected by means of a derivation joint on the Underground (U/G) cable.8 IRISET 37 T-14 Train Traffic Control . 3.Different Control Comm. Systems & Equipments Fig.

Fig. A microcomputer handles all the functions of display. The DTMF Generator is Microprocessor based with self-check facility and display of called station’s assigned number.9. Systems & Equipments 3.16. tone generation.1 M/s Epsilon Electronics Equipments Make a) Description The control office equipment with DTMF selection system consists of the following circuits: (a) DTMF Generator (Encoder) (b) Speech Communication Note: In 2 wire system of working a 4W to 2W conversion unit (Hybrid) is also required additionally.16. The PCBs are functionally partitioned for modularity and are interconnected with minimal wiring for reliability and ease of maintenance. IRISET 38 T-14 Train Traffic Control . line interface and speech circuit. The Encoder of this equipment uses IC 89C51 micro controller for its working. The DTMF Generator is designed for 4W operations.3.9 Block Diagram of DTMF Encoder (M/s Epsilon make) 3. For interfacing the micro controller with display unit IC 74245 is used. timing and proper sequencing.3. display.2 M/s Tummala Electronics (P) Ltd Make This equipment consists of a micro controller based DTMF generator. The block diagram of this equipment’s encoder is shown in Fig.Different Control Comm.15 CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION OF DIFFERENT MAKES OF CONTROL OFFICE EQUIPMENTS 3. Tone generator (IC 8888) generates the required DTMF tones.

a pause corresponding to the OFF time is then generated. The 3rd digit on extreme left displays L additionally. along with just called station code two digits when LR key is pressed. The microprocessor scans the keyboard if any key has been pressed. Control card. display and the tone generator units are directly connected to Micro-controller. the dialing sequence is started. 3 separate ICs i.3 M/s Anu Vidyut Make The control office equipment consists of the following cards (a) (b) (c) (d) Key board & display card. the programmed EPROM. 74164 are provided for driving each digit of the code as shown in Fig. IRISET 39 T-14 Train Traffic Control . 10 Block Diagram of DTMF Encoder (Tummala make) This equipment’s encoder uses 8749 Micro-controller for its working. and the microprocessor then waits for the next key. if a key press is detected a debounce routine is used to debounce the key. A 7-Segment display is provided to show the dialed codes. Fig. similarly the other digit is also transmitted. and Power supply & filter a) Circuit Description Keyboard & Display card: It consists of 20 keys of which 16 are DTMF keys and remaining 4 keys are function keys.Different Control Comm.3. The keyboard. For example L36. Systems & Equipments A three digit.10. The number corresponding to the key pressed is indicated on the display. Control card: It consists of microprocessor. IC 34013 is used as tone generator. Amplifiers card. An AGC circuit is provided for the receive amplifier of the control room equipment.e. the DTMF generator is instructed to output the DTMF code corresponding to the first digit for a fixed ON time. When two digits of the dialed number is entered.16. 3.3.. peripheral ICs and the DTMF generator. seven segments LED display is provided to display the code being transmitted.

Block diagram of control unit in Fig.e.3. The selection of one of these two interfaces is done through a decoder IC 74156. display and tone generator through two I/O interfaces .e. Microphone Amplifier and Receive i.. which amplifies it and gives a maximum output of 1 watt at 4 ohms. Systems & Equipments The encoder of this equipment uses 8085 microprocessor for its working. The Microphone Amplifier circuit is designed to amplify 5mV input signal or 250mV input signal for dynamic and carbon microphone respectively. IC 8255 interfaces the microprocessor with tone generator (IC 22859).3. fitted on the side panel of console. The output of loudspeaker amplifier can be adjusted by Volume Control.. This microprocessor interfaces the keyboard. AGC circuit maintains a stable output in spite of the input variation between 0 to –20dBm. IC 8155 interfaces the microprocessor with the keyboard and display unit through port B and port A respectively.IC 8155 and IC 8255. The output of DTMF signal can be adjusted by preset marked as ‘DTMF GAIN’. This also amplifies the DTMF signal. The output of filter is given to loudspeaker amplifier. Fig. This generates the DTMF tones as per the key pressed on the keyboard. The output of AGC goes to filter circuit. A driver IC 74138 is used for display the digits. Loudspeaker Amplifier. Loudspeaker Amplifier: The loudspeaker amplifier is provided with an AGC circuit and a VF filter circuit.11 Block Diagram of DTMF Encoder (M/s Anu Vidyut make) Amplifiers Card: This card consists of Trans Amplifier i. Speech output can be controlled by preset marked ‘TX GAIN’.11 shows these details. IRISET 40 T-14 Train Traffic Control . This system uses IC 2764 as program memory (64 KB).Different Control Comm.

outputs of this MONO are connected as J and K inputs to a J-K Flip-Flop (IC 4027). The Q output of this J. It provides power supply to control and Trans & Receive card.K Flip-Flop is used to drive the piezo-buzzer through another MONO IC 4538 (3 seconds) and the ring back tone generated by the operation of the buzzer is fed back to the controller on his receive lines. These J and K inputs will remain for a period of 500 milli seconds and before the end of this period the clock has to be provided to trigger this Flip-Flop. The Decoder converts this to a sixteen-line output for ease of code setting through DIP switches. The output of the Decoder is passed on to a MONO IC 4538 (500mS) through the first digits 10 DIP switch positions. matches.1 M/s Tummala Electronics (P) Ltd Make The working of this decoder equipment is explained below with reference to Fig. provided the received first digit information and the first digit setting done in the DIP switch positions matches. The required clock will be coming from the Decoder as against the second digit information received from Trans lines. 3. The clock input to the J-K Flip. reaches the Flip. Any valid DTMF signal on the Trans lines is recognized by the DTMF Receiver (IC 8870) and a four-bit output is passed on to a Decoder (IC4514). IRISET 41 T-14 Train Traffic Control . which are out of the speech band. The Q and Q.Flop through the 10 DIP switch positions meant for the second digit of the code.Flop will appear only when the second digit information received and the second digit setting. Systems & Equipments Power Supply & Filter Card: It consists of a reverse polarity protection and the RC filters to smooth the power supply for different cards. The Filter circuit works for loudspeaker amplifier and it rejects the frequencies. Similar logic is employed to decode a group code and general call code. 3.16.Different Control Comm.16 DESCRIPTION OF DIFFERENT MAKES OF WAY STATION EQUIPMENT 3. respectively.12.

Its block diagram is given in Fig. The 8751 compares the received-digit information with the DIP switch-set digit information available on its I/O ports. It performs this comparison for both the digits of the DTMF code received from control office. The DTMF decoder IC 8870 supplies the received code digit information in 4-bit binary to the microcontroller 8751.13. This arrangement eliminates the disadvantage of non-ringing condition which results when more than one contact is set to ON position in any of the two DIP switches meant for station code setting. Epsilon is supplying microcontroller. IRISET 42 T-14 Train Traffic Control .16. Systems & Equipments Fig. If received code matches with the station code. Presently. 3.2 M/s Epsilon Make Way Station Equipment The earlier version of M/s Epsilon make way station decoder circuit was same as Tummala make except for a small change that the 4 to 16 line decoder IC 4514 outputs were fed to DIP switch contacts through series diodes.12 3. the buzzer and LED in the Control telephone on ASM’s desk are activated. 3. 8751.Different Control Comm. set by the DIP switches. based way station decoders.

3. where the output of it is appearing on one of the 16 output lines according to the pressed first digit of the code key at the controller’s end. The speech signals will be received by the control telephone receiver and the DTMF signals are fed to decoder unit in the decoder. provided the 10 DIP switches position for the first digit of the station code setting coincides with the digit pressed at the controller’s end. This MONO in turn provides the D-input to the first D flip-flop of 4013.14. IRISET 43 T-14 Train Traffic Control .13 Block Diagram of Epsilon Way Station DTMF Decoder 3. The required clock to trigger this second Flip-flop is coming from 4514 demultiplexer through the second set of 10 DIP switches. This binary output is applied to a 4 line to 16-line demultiplexer. The incoming DTMF signals are applied to 8870 decoder to produce 4-bit binary output.16. 3. The speech and DTMF signals coming from the controller on receive pair are amplified by the combiner amplifier before they get separated. This mono provides a time delay to cater for the delay between the first and second digit transmissions. set as per the second digit of the station code.Different Control Comm.3 M/s Anu Vidyut Make Way Station Equipment The block diagram of the above make equipment is as shown in Fig. the 8870 decoder also produces a triggering pulse to 74221 MONO. The output of this first D flip-flop is taken as data input to the second D flip-flop. This output line is extended to 4013 first D flip-flop as clock input. Systems & Equipments RBT to RX pair To LED in control phone To Buzzer in control phone DTMF code input DTMF Tone Decoder 8870 Microcontroller 8751 SD SW3 for Group Code SW2 FD SW1 Fig. Along with the 4-bit binary output.

DTMF : . For group / general call. a similar arrangement is made with another set of 74221 MONO and 4013 D-flip-flop.3 to 3. With operation of the buzzer. : -20dB : +12dB : -15dB to +10 d B : within 3dB from 0.3. signal level (d) Trans output (e) Gain variation (f) Min. Systems & Equipments Fig. Input signal (h) AGC dynamic range (i) (j) (l) Frequency response Insertion loss Quiescent current : Std.14 The output of the second D flip-flop provides the required driving current for the operation of buzzer through another 74221 MONO. Working current IRISET 44 T-14 Train Traffic Control . the ring back tone collected through the operated buzzer is fed back to controller on his receive pair along with speech signals coming from the control telephone microphone. This MONO determines the length of the ringing period. Technical Specifications: (a) Signaling (c) Min.25dB : 0dB : 12dB.4KHz : 2dB for Trans & 0. nominal for both Trans and Rec.5dB for Rec. : 12VDC : less than 150 mA : less than 500 mA (b) DTMF Signal output level : 0 to –7dB (k) Operating voltage (m) Max. input signal (g) Max.Different Control Comm.

Different Control Comm. VF REPEATER STATION F ENCODER MIC HAND SET LS Fig. VF Repeaters and cable huts is as shown in the figure-3.31 Control Communication System Layout The layout showing the working of control with DTMF signaling consisting of control office equipment.15. Systems & Equipments 3.3.15 IRISET 45 CONTROLER'S BOOTH DTMF VF MAIN REPETER STATION A 4 WIRE DTMF CONTROL COMMUNICATION SYSTEM LAYOUT CABLE HUT STATION B STATION C STATION D STATION E T-14 Train Traffic Control . way station equipments.

_____________of quad cable is eliminated in Equalizer amplifier system. Systems & Equipments Objective: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Presently. 10) DTMF signal normal output level in Control office equipment is _____________________ Subjective: 1) 2) 3) 4) Mention different types equipment required in Conventional system Mention different types equipment required in Equalizer Amplifier system List out the main differences between conventional and equalizer systems Explain the principle of working of DTMF control office equipment with a neat block diagram. In addition to Control telephone a DTMF _____________ is also needed at way stations. there are _______control communication systems working on UG cable media. The dual power supply unit in Equa. In addition to speech unit a DTMF ________________ is also needed at control office. IRISET 46 T-14 Train Traffic Control .Different Control Comm. 5) 6) 7) 8) Explain the working principle of DTMF way station equipment with a block diagram What are the operating requirements of DTMF way station equipment Draw the schematic diagram of a 4w to 2w converter( hybrid ) Show the control communication layout with a schematic. system is used for_________________________ 6) 7) 8) 9) SOS code is sent by a ___________________ to test room equipment in case of fault. __________ of VF amplifier modules are available in a VF repeater bay. _______________________________is an additional facility in Equalizer amplifier system. A speech conversion unit is used for ________________________________________. Amp.

is already provided in most of the railways by the RailTel Corporation of India Limited which is a Government of India undertaking under the Ministry of Railways. as shown in fig.1 shows an arrangement for connecting the conventional DTMF control equipment to one of the 4-wire speech channels on RailTel OFC network. IRISET 47 T-14 Train Traffic Control . more number of control circuits can be provided between control office and way side stations using more speech channels on the network. to modernize Train Control Operation and Safety System of Indian Railways. STM 1 . Fig. in Indian Railways there are two types of OFC based control communication practices in use. In addition to offering services to Indian Railways. These are(a) (b) Control Communication Using Conventional Control Equipment Control Communication Using CCEO System 4. internet and internet-enable service providers.1.To convert 2Mbps stream to 30 VF channels and vice versa The OFC backbone facility. In the same way. control communication between control office and way side stations can be provided by dropping one or more speech channels at every way station for using them as omnibus speech channels.OFC based Control Communications Systems CHAPTER 4 OFC BASED CONTROL COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS 4. As its OFC network is laid alongside the railway track it is very useful in fulfilling the train control communication needs of railways] Using the OFC backbone provided by RailTel or by an individual Railway on its own.To drop & insert 2Mbps stream and handle transmission related tasks. Presently. [The RailTel Corporation was formed in Sept 2000 with the objectives to create nationwide Broadband Telecom and Multimedia Network.1 Control Communication Using Conventional Control Equipment Control communication can be provided between control office and way side stations by connecting conventional control equipment to the same omnibus speech channel at the control office as well as at the way side stations.1 on next page. Primary Digital Mux . 4.1 Introduction For providing Control communication through OFC medium an infrastructural setup providing the following two equipments at all wayside stations is essential. RailTel also offers a nationwide backbone support to many of the present-day cellular. 4.

RDSO/SPN/TC/66/2007. As per this specification the control equipment to be used with OFC medium should consist of the following Seven segments or units.2 the connectivity scheme of the main equipment of CCEO system on an OFC based communication network is shown below. Its design is based on the RDSO specification. 4. IRISET 48 T-14 Train Traffic Control .1 Connecting Conventional Control Equipment to an omnibus speech channel on OFC Network for providing Control Communication 4.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Name of the Unit or Segment Control Room Equipment (CRE) Test Room Equipment (TRE) Local Telephone Equipment (LTE) Multi Telephone Way station Equipment (MTWE) Two-Wire Dialing Control Telephone (TDCT) Three Way Amplifier (TWA) Remote Patching Equipment (RPE) Table-1 Part of Headquarters Equipment Way station Equipment In the general block diagram given below in fig. S.OFC based Control Communications Systems RS DL RT RC 1 4 2 5 7 3 6 8 G A B 9 0 L C D Fig.1.2 Control Communication Using CCEO System The CCEO (Control Communication Equipment for OFC) System is a new type of control communication equipment proposed by RDSO for use with OFC medium. 4.

TDCT (Two wire Dialing Control Telephone). or even any Local Telephone in the headquarters and can have conversation. The Controller can call any way station telephone ie.page shift key for calling another set of 40 way stations and 10 LTs. It is having facility for selective calling and speech communication.to select handset or Mic & L. v) Mic . iv) General . 4.3 System Description of CCEO The CCEO system consists of the following equipment (1) Headquarters Equipment (2) Way Station Equipment 1) Headquarters Equipment of CCEO: The following units are provided at the headquarters in the control office (a) Control Room Equipment (CRE) (b) Test Room Equipment (TRE) (c) Local Telephone Equipment (LTE) (a) Control Room Equipment (CRE) This equipment is provided on the controller’s desk. Table Microphone and loud speaker 2) 4-digit 7-segment display and LED Bar type Level Indicator 3) 40-keys.to call Way Stations.used to assign (program) way station codes to each of the 40 keys so that every way station can be called only with single key press.General Block Diagram of CCEO 4.used to give general call to all way stations. ii) Program .used to disconnect a local telephone temporarily.to call Local Telephones and 4) 5-Special function keys i) Shift . 10-Numeric keys.2 ..1. IRISET 49 T-14 Train Traffic Control .OFC based Control Communications Systems Fig.S and type of station code in program mode. The CRE consists of the following units 1) Handset. iii) LT cut .

Ring back to the controller when way station rings is available. Facility to call way stations individually or as a group exists. 2) 3) The TRE has two 4-wire interfaces of the same control channel.OFC based Control Communications Systems Main Features and Functions of Control Room Equipment (CRE). IRISET 50 T-14 Train Traffic Control . and 20 (b) Test Room Equipment (TRE) This unit is provided in the test room for carrying out maintenance and testing functions on way station equipment. v) The other 4-wire line interface of TRE is used for Radio Patching. The Constructional and Functional Features of the TRE : 1) The VF channel provides a 2-way digital branching interface with a 600 ohms line impedance and unity gain. In combination with a Shift Push Button total 80 way station TDCTs local telephones can be called from CRE and TRE. Both 40 Push Button keypad and 10 push button numeric keypad are provided with single key calling facility. It consists of the following two parts 1) Control Unit & Line Interface Control Unit This unit consists of a i) ii) iii) iv) A handset LCD Display & Keypad Loud speaker with volume control Bar indicators for Trans and Receive levels Line Interface The TRE has the following types of line interfaces i) 4-pair or 8-wire line interface for connection with CRE ii) Dual 4-wire line control circuit interface. It has provision to configure 4 or 9 Push Buttons for group calling. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) It operates on -48VDC extended from the TRE Facility to call way station phones or local telephones with single key press only. 40 push buttons are used for calling way stations whereas the 10 numeric keys are used for calling Local Telephones in headquarters. The TRE is provided with a numeric push button keypad and an alpha numeric LCD display. iii) 6-wire line interface for Local Telephone Equipment iv) The TRE is connected directly through one of these 4-wire line interfaces to the speech channel designated for control working on the OFC network.

The ringing period of these telephones is generally fixed for 1minute. When its handset is lifted a local telephone is directly connected to the 4-wire control circuit on the OFC system. drawn from the OFC system provided at way stations. 5) A monitor speaker is provided along with volume control for monitoring the conversation on line. (c) Local Telephone Equipment (LTE) the Gf400 system. 1) The Multi Telephone Way station Equipment (MTWE) works on -48 volt dc. 7) 8) The TRE operates on -48VDC and also extends the same to CRE Gain setting between -6 dB to +6dB is possible for both DTMF and VF signals on the trans and receive paths. Using LT-Cut push button the controller can temporarily disconnect any local telephone that he desires. These telephones can be rung from both CRE and LTE. No dialing facility is available for these telephones.OFC based Control Communications Systems 4) The Test Room staff are able to call and talk with any TDCT at way stations and also any Local Telephone in headquarters from the TRE. Arrangement also exists to mount it on a standard 19” rack. IRISET 51 T-14 Train Traffic Control . 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) A group of 20 standard (2-wire) auto telephones can be connected to this unit As these telephones get -48VDC supply from the LTE no separate supply is required at the location. (a) Multi Telephone Way station Equipment (MTWE) (b) Two-Wire Dialing Control Telephone (TDCT) (c) Three Way Amplifier (TWA) (d) Remote Patching Equipment (RPE) (a) Multi Telephone Way station Equipment (MTWE) This unit is provided at every way station and it is connected to the OFC system by a 4-wire cable. Its details are as following. 6) A level indicator for monitoring the trans and receive levels is available on the panel. 2) Way Station Equipment of CCEO The way station equipment consists of the following units. This device is wallmounting type and can be mounted next to the OFC equipment. It gives facility to connect maximum 4 control telephones at a way station. to be The LTE is called as LTI (local telephone interface) in discussed later.

4) The TWA is used as a means to provide connection to additional MTWE and not to branch out the control circuit to any other network. 3) The TWA is directly interfaced to the 4-wire control circuit on the OFC system with a 600 ohms line impedance. Wherever more than one MTWE is to be deployed. 8) If more than four TDCTs are required at a way station it is possible to connect one more MTWE to increase capacity by another four TDCTs by using a TWA unit which is discussed next to this. IRISET 52 T-14 Train Traffic Control . (b) Three Way Amplifier (TWA) The TWA unit is used when the number of telephones required at a way station are more than four which is the maximum capacity of a MTWE unit. It can be mounted next to the OFC equipment. 2) The TWA provides a unity gain three way branch amplifier configuration. It can also be mounted equipment on a rack. the TWA can be used. whenever one of its TDCTs rings.OFC based Control Communications Systems 2) The MTWE is directly connected to the 4-wire control circuit (VF channel) on the OFC system. Gain setting between -6 dB to +6dB is possible for both for DTMF and VF signals on the trans and receive paths of the equipment. By using TWA one more MTWE can be provided at a way station.3 to know the connection scheme. for limited use. within 10 meters. Each can also be set for a group code number. 9) It is possible to program a TDCT such that it can only dial four other way station phones. In situations where the wire pair connecting the TDCT is broken no feedback is generated. for example to a microwave channel etc. 5) The feedback tone (positive type) is initiated only if the telephone ringing current is detected. 7) The MTWE has facility to program each of the TDCT for dialing or non-dialing permission. 6) The MTWE can provide four independent calling numbers for the four TDCTs connected to it. The details of TWA are as given below. 3) Four numbers of Two-wire Dialing Control Telephones (TDCT) can be connected to each way station equipment on twisted pair cable. 4) A feedback tone is generated by the MTWE and sent to Headquarters equipment. 1) The Three Way Amplifier (TWA) also works on -48 volt dc and is wall- mounting type. See the Figure 4.

3 .OFC based Control Communications Systems Fig. 2) The RPE is used to patch the control channel with a 4wire speech channel on any other communication network like microwave or BSNL network etc. 1) This device can be mounted on a wall or in rack and to be mounted next to the OFC equipment. (d) Remote Patching Equipment (RPE) The function of RPE is to provide patching of control circuit with any other speech communication network through the other 4wire control channel interface. 4) 5) The visual indication provided during ringing remains on till the handset is lifted. The patching can be effected locally from the way station where the RPE is provided or remotely from the TRE in the test room.Using TWA for connecting one more MTWE (c) Two-Wire Dialing Control Telephone (TDCT) 1) The Two-wire Dialing Control Telephone (TDCT) is the standard auto telephone instrument with a handset and a numeric dial.5 Minutes. This is done by connecting the second 4-wire interface of the control channel (600 impedance) to the patching network using one or more RPEs. (b) The ringing period of way station telephones is adjustable between 10 Seconds to approximately 3. IRISET 53 T-14 Train Traffic Control . The TDCTs are used in pulse dialing mode. 2) 3) Each TDCT is connected to MTWE with a twisted pair having a loop resistance of less than 1200 Ohm The TDCT is a normal auto telephone but the system offers it the following additional features. The TX of the handset will be enabled either by tapping the cradle switch or by pressing any one of the numeric keys on the telephone. 4. (a) As soon as the handset is lifted. Its constructional and functional details are given below. but keeping the TX path disconnected. the telephone gets connected to the control circuit with Rx path being made through.

2 GF400 System Gf400 is an OFC based Control Communication System designed and supplied by M/s Marvel Electronics as per the RDSO specification No. The RPE offers a unity gain path for the patching channels. Fig. 4. While patching is effected from TRE it uses unique identification number or address for each RPE in the patching path.1 Introduction to Gf400 System 4. RDSO/SPN/TC/66/2007 for CCEO system. IRISET The Headquarter Equipment and 54 T-14 Train Traffic Control .OFC based Control Communications Systems 3) The patching can be effected locally by a push button press on the front panel of RPE or through a remote command from TRE. 4. Both these equipments operate on -48 volt supply. 9) The Fig.4 .4. The system mainly comprises of two main parts. The identification number or address allotted to each of these RPEs is between 1 to 9. 8) It is also possible for the TRE to get the status of each RPE (patched or unpatched condition).2. 4.2.4 shows the arrangement for patching the control circuit to a microwave or BSNL network.2 Components of Gf 400 System Gf400 System comprises all the equipment required for providing control communication. 7) It is possible to use up to nine RPEs on one control circuit. The two main parts or equipment of this system are – 1. one is the Headquarters Equipment and the other is the Way station equipment.Patching of Control Circuit with MW or BSNL channel Using RPEs 4) 5) 6) The patching path through the RPE is isolated by transformer.

The Headquarter Equipment It comprises of – a) b) c) Gf464 . Each of these equipment is constructed in modular form and accommodates the following modules.Three Way Amplifier Unit Gf463 .6 mm diameter twisted pair cable. Length of the 4 wire line used for connecting the Way station Unit to the OFC system should not be more than 10 meters.Local Telephone Equipment (LTE) Way Station Equipment The way station equipment comprises ofa) b) c) Gf446 – Multi Telephone Way Equipment / Station Way Station Unit Gf432 . Way station telephones are connected using a 0.Remote Patch Equipment Specific Features of Gf400 System a) b) c) d) e) f) The control channel or circuit on TRE has two 4-wire line interfaces. The Way Station Telephone can also call the Test Room or the Control Room equipments by dialing 98 or 99 respectively. The Way Station Equipment.Line Interfacing and Control Unit (TRE) Gf466 . The maximum cable length for 2 wire Local Telephones connected to Test Room Equipment is 1km on a 0.6 mm diameter telecom cable up to a distance of 2 km The following table shows the functional equality between the units of Hf400 system and the units of RDSO specified CCEO system.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 IRISET Equipment Name of the Unit System in Hf400 Equivalent Unit in CCEO (TRE) Test Room Equipment (CRE) Control Room Equipment (LTE) Local Telephone Equipment (MTWE) Multi Telephone Way station Equipment (TDCT) Two-Wire Dialing Control Telephone (TWA) Three Way Amplifier (RPE) Remote Patching Equipment T-14 Train Traffic Control Headquarters Equipment Gf464 Line Interfacing and Control Unit Gf466 Desk Equipment for Controller Gf468 Local Telephone Interfacing Unit Gf446 Way Station Unit Way Station Way Station Telephones Equipment Gf432Three Way Amplifier Gf463Remote Patch Equipment Table-2 55 .OFC based Control Communications Systems 2. A Way Station Telephone can call other Way Station Telephones by dialing a two digit number.Desk Equipment for the Controller (CRE) Gf468 . S.

Explain about headquarters equipment in Gf400 system. Explain about control communication through Railtel OFC network. 12.OFC based Control Communications Systems Objective: 1. Mention the OFC based control communication systems you know and explain about any one with a diagram. 7. 4. 9. 2. Telephones having dialling facility are known as __________________________ Maximum length of 2-wire telephone line usable in TRE is ________________________. 6. TWA is used for ________________________________________________________. 15. Radio patching in CCEO system can be effected remotely from______________________. 6. 5. What is CCEO system? And explain with a block diagram. 14. 8. Maximum length of 2-wire telephone line usable with MTWE is _____________________. 9. Equipment used Railtel’s OFC control communication system are ___________________ In CCEO system TRE can use ________________________ no. IRISET 56 T-14 Train Traffic Control . 10. of 2-wire telephones. Explain about the use of TWA. 3. 8. 12. 7. Mention the function of CRE Write about TRE Explain about MTWE 10. What are units in the Headquarters equipment of CCEO system? Briefly explain about each one. 5. What is TDCT and its features? 11. What are units in the Waystation equipment of CCEO system? Briefly explain about each one. Explain about way station equipment in Gf400 system. In Gf400 system the equipment equivalent to TRE ______________________________ 13. 2. What is RPE and when is it used? 13. 4. Radio patching equipment in Gf400 system _____________________________________ Subjective: 1. 11. Draw the schematic diagram of Control communication system on Railtel network. Briefly explain about Gf400 system. of control telephones a MTWE can have __________________________ Supply voltage required for CCEO system is __________________________ Dialling facility is not available in telephones connected to ________ equipment of CCEO. Maximum no. Equivalent of TWA in Gf400 system __________________________________________ 14. 3. ____________types of OFC based control communication systems are used in Indian Railways at present.

One pair of amplifiers is required for every control circuit.1.VF Repeaters CHAPTER . (b) Equalizer Amplifier System (Using Under Ground Quad Cable without loading) It consists of Equalizer amplifiers and Buffer amplifiers as per the specification RDSO/SPN/34/2002.2. of control circuits. 5. of amplifier pairs as the no. IRISET 57 T-14 Train Traffic Control .5 VF REPEATERS 5.1. One Trans amplifier and one Receive amplifier is provided for each quad. The Repeater installed in Test Room is named as Terminal Repeater and Repeaters situated at regular intervals along the track are named as Intermediate Repeaters. 4-Wire VF Repeater Amplifier This is provided in both main and intermediate repeater stations for all circuits to compensate for the loss incurred due to i) attenuation of the cable. and buffer amplifiers as per specification IRS: TC-50-90. The repeater equipment should consist of as many no. General Description VF Repeater stations are provided along the transmission line of underground telecommunication quad cables to boost the signal by way of compensation of loss in signal strength incurred during the transmission of speech and signaling through various parts of communication circuits. VF Repeater Equipment (IRS: TC-50-90) This equipment is placed in VF repeater stations located at approximately 50km intervals along the track. The VF Repeaters are classified as Terminal or Intermediate Repeaters as per their location. 5. The VF Repeaters used in Railways are of the two types as given below: (a) Conventional VF Repeaters (Using Under Ground RE /Quad Cable with loading) It consists of VF amplifiers and Leak amplifier. It provides the required amplification in both the directions of a control channel to compensate for the attenuation in the transmission path. ii) insertion loss of the sectionalizing transformers at cable huts and repeaters and iii) bridging loss due to tapping transformers at way stations.3.

The gain of each amplifier is +24dB. Otherwise. For this reason leak amplifier is used to leak (or couple) the way stations’ speech signals from controller’s receive pair to his trans pair and thus enabling intercommunication among way stations. Suppose. This means that any way station can hear the voice of other way station only if that speech signal is available on the trans pair. Dy. Traction Loco Control. One pair is for trans of controller and another pair is for the receive of controller. The way stations control telephone receiver is connected to trans pair of the controller. Note: When Leak amplifier is disconnected VFL is equivalent to VFR VFR Card: The circuitry on the VFR card is the same like that on VFL card. with same gain.VF Repeaters Generally. Maintenance Order Wire (MOW) and Emergency Control require Leak Amplifiers along the cable route. Leak amplifier is not required for Remote Control. That is. 4 VFL cards or modules and 4 VFR cards and one buffer card are provided with every repeater bay. a buffer amplifier is provided at the junction for avoiding heavy shunting loss occurring due to direct connection of branch line cable. In addition to Trans and Receive amplifiers there is also one more amplifier called Leak Amplifier on the VFL card. The voice output (or trans) of both these stations travels on the same receive pair of controller. singing or whistling takes place rendering noisy conversation and also crosstalk is induced into other control circuits in the cable. Each control circuit uses two pairs of a quad on telecom cable. Traction Power Control. However this leak is not provided in all repeaters. VFL Card: It houses two VF amplifiers. Each of these cards contains one Trans Amplifier and one Receive Amplifier. there is no Leak Amplifier on VFR card. that is a gain of +24dB. The buffer amplifier works as interface between the main cable and branch line cable shunted with high impedance. The Purpose Of Leak Amplifier: It is provided for intercommunication among the way stations. two way stations need to talk with each other. it has the same VF amplifier circuits. Circuits Requiring Leak Amplifiers: All omnibus control circuits like Section control. IRISET 58 T-14 Train Traffic Control . This cross connection facilitates the way stations to speak with one another. BUFFER Card: In a control section comprising a main line and branch line. for branching off from an intermediate location. one for trans and another for receive. Engineering Control. one for trans direction and another for receive direction. Control. But there is one difference. the gain on the control circuit increases and subsequently. If leak amplifier is connected to a control circuit at every repeater station instead of at alternate ones. The VFL additionally contains one Leak amplifier which is to be connected between Rx-out and Tx-in.

Amplifier Panel In this panel two or more amplifier-shelves are provided. All cable connections from distribution panel for inputs and outputs such as Trans-IN. (c) The rest of the place in the bay below the distribution. Regarding termination of cables. For monitoring the circuit’s separate U-link panels at the input and output of the amplifiers are provided.3. for each direction.3. U-Links permit connection and disconnection between cable wires and VF amplifiers circuits. 5. Link Panel The equipment consists of 4 nos.3.VF Repeaters 5.Houses Two VF Repeater Amplifiers only . Distribution Panel It consists of Krone connectors (most widely used connectors in telecommunication) on to which connections from UG cable wires are terminated. All together the following three types VF amplifiers modules can be accommodated in this panel.2. 1) 2) 3) VFL Card VFR Card Buffer Card . Each shelf can accommodate 4 number of VF amplifier modules (VFL / VFR) and a power supply module for these four modules.Houses Two VF Repeater Amplifiers and a Leak amplifier .3. IRS: TC-50/90) This equipment is pre-wired repeater bay consisting of the following: (a) Distribution Panel (b) Link Panel (c) Amplifier Panel (d) Loud speaker Amplifier 5. IRISET 59 T-14 Train Traffic Control . termination & monitoring panel is provided in the top most position of the bay. Trans-OUT.5 mm. The frame of this bay is made of sheet metal of minimum thickness 2. Structural Layout of the Repeater Equipment The equipment consists of the following: (a) 4-Wire VF Repeater & Miscellaneous Bay of suitable size to accommodate other sub-assemblies. leak amplifier and buffer amplifier panels according to the requirement. separate Krone connectors are there for each incoming and outgoing cable.3. Receive-IN and Receive-OUT for all the Quads are terminated on upper links of link panels and from bottom links of link panels connected to the Amplifier panel. It includes the power distribution units for 24 volts DC working.1. 5.2. M/s Indisco Make VF Repeater Equipment (As per Spec. 5. of link panels with U-Links.Houses Two VF Buffer Amplifiers used for branching and monitoring purpose. termination and monitoring panel is used for providing VF Repeater amplifier. (b) The power distribution.

The purpose of this attenuator is to adjust the gain of a VF amplifier to a required level. The switch settings for different attenuation values can be seen below.VF Repeaters Block Diagrams of VF Amplifier Modules (a) TRANS IN VFL Card Attentr 0-15dB Amplifier +24 dB TRANS OUT LEAK OUT Amplifier -20 dB Attentr 0 -15dB LEAK IN REC IN Attentr 0 . below +24dB.2 for adjusting Receive slope DIP Switch .5 for adjusting attenuation of Leak Amplifier DIP Switch . The attenuation range offered is between dB which is selected by 1 are used respectively.4 for adjusting Trans slope Leak Amplifier setting: ( only on VFL card ) DIP Switch . For Trans and Receive gain settings DIP-SW3 and DIP-SW- .6 for connecting / disconnecting Leak Amplifier IRISET 60 T-14 Train Traffic Control 0dB to –15 DIP switches. The following DIP switches are provided on VFL and VFR cards Gain adjustment: DIP Switch – 1 for adjusting Receive gain DIP Switch – 3 for adjusting Trans gain Equalizer setting: DIP Switch .15dB Amplifier +24 dB REC OUT Block diagram of VFL (b) VFR Card TRANS IN Attenuator 0-15dB Amplifier +24 dB TRANS OUT Input Isolatio Output Isolatio n Attenuator REC IN 0-15dB Amplifier +24 dB REC OUT Block Diagram of VFR A variable attenuator is also provided with each VF amplifier in both VFL and VFR cards.

VF Repeaters

DIP Switch Settings for VFL & VFR Cards Trans Gain
DIP Switch
1 OFF ON OFF ON OFF ON OFF ON OFF OFF OFF ON 2 ON ON OFF OFF ON ON OFF OFF ON OFF ON OFF

Receive Gain
DIP Switch
ATTN 0 dB 1 dB 2 dB 3 dB 4 dB 5 dB 6 dB 7 dB 8 dB 10 dB 12 dB 15 dB GAIN 24 dB 23 dB 22 dB 21 dB 20 dB 19 dB 18 dB 17 dB 16 dB 14 dB 12 dB 9 dB 1 OFF ON OFF ON OFF ON OFF ON OFF OFF OFF ON 2 ON ON OFF OFF ON ON OFF OFF ON OFF ON OFF

SW – 3
3 ON ON ON ON OFF OFF OFF OFF ON ON OFF OFF 4 OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF ON ON ON ON

SW – 1
3 ON ON ON ON OFF OFF OFF OFF ON ON OFF OFF 4 OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF ON ON ON ON ATTN 0dB 1dB 2dB 3 dB 4 dB 5 dB 6 dB 7 dB 8 dB 10dB 12dB 15dB GAIN 24dB 23dB 22dB 21dB 20dB 19dB 18dB 17dB 16dB 14dB 12dB 9dB

(c)

BUFFER Card

Like VFL and VFR the Buffer amplifier module also has two VF amplifiers of +24dB gain each. But its attenuator is different which can be adjusted between 0-24dB. These amplifiers are mainly used for branching of control circuits. When branching is not

required the buffer amplifier is utilized for monitoring of speech on control circuits.
TRANS IN Attenuator 0 - 24dB Amplifier 24 dB Gain TRANS OUT

Output Buffer

Input Isolation

Output Isolation
REC OUT

REC IN

Attenuator 0 - 24dB

Amplifier 24 dB Gain

Output Buffer

Block diagram of BUFFER The following DIP Gain adjustment: DIP Switch – 1 DIP Switch – 2 DIP Switch Settings
1
ON OFF ON OFF ON OFF ON OFF ON ON ON ON ON IRISET

switches are provided on Buffer card for adjusting Receive gain for adjusting Trans gain for BUFFER Card
2
OFF OFF ON ON OFF OFF ON ON OFF ON OFF OFF OFF

Trans SW -2 & Receive SW-1
3
ON ON ON ON OFF OFF OFF OFF ON ON OFF ON ON

4
ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON OFF OFF OFF ON OFF

5
OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF ON ON 61

ATTN 0 dB 1 dB 2 dB 3 dB 4 dB 5 dB 6 dB 7 dB 8 dB 10 dB 12 dB 16 dB 24 dB

GAIN 24 dB 23 dB 22 dB 21 dB 20 dB 19 dB 18 dB 17 dB 16 dB 14 dB 12 dB 8 dB 0 dB
T-14 Train Traffic Control

VF Repeaters

5.3.4 Loudspeaker Amplifier Loudspeaker Amplifier consists of a speaker and the amplifier circuit housed in a wooden cabinet. It is supplied in a separate wooden box. Connection strip for connections are provided on the back of the speaker box inside the repeater panel. 5.3.5 Power Supply System Power supply system is to be connected separately. The power supply system should consist of a battery bank of 24 Volt. The capacity of the batteries can be chosen as per the back up required. A battery charger will be used to charge these batteries.

5.4.

Technical Specification
VF Amplifiers (VFL &VFR) 1. Operating voltage 2. Input current Trans & Receive Amplifiers: a) Gain b) Input impedance c) Output impedance d) Frequency response e) Attenuator Range Attenuators: Four attenuators of value 1dB, 2dB, 4dB & 8dB are provided. Equalizers: Active circuit equalizer slopes for 0.3 to 3.4 KHz. (a) (b) (c) (d) 0.5 dB +/-0.2 dB 1.0 dB +/-0.2 dB 2.0 dB +/-0.2 dB 2.5 dB +/-0.2 dB : 24dB +/-0.5dB : 1120 : 1120 +/-5% +/-5% : 24 VDC nominal(21 to 30 VDC) : Less than 30 mA per PCB

: Flat within +/-0.1dB for 0.3 to 3.4KHz. : 0dB to -15dB

Leak Amplifier: - Available only on VFL cards. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) : -20 dB (loss) : High ≥10K : High ≥10K : ≤ 1.0 dB : ≤ 1.0 dB : 4 attenuators of value 1dB, 2dB, 4dB & 8dB are provided. (g) Total attenuation level : 15 dB (Selection by dip switches) (h) Leak Amplifier is connected in the circuit by SW – 6 i) To connect : all the four switches in SW-6 should be ON ii) To disconnect : all the four switches in SW-6 should be OFF. Gain Input impedance Output impedance Input insertion loss Output insertion loss Attenuators

IRISET

62

T-14 Train Traffic Control

VF Repeaters

Buffer Amplifier : (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) Gain Input Impedance Trans Output Impedance Trans Input Impedance Receive Output Impedance Receive Shunting loss Frequency Response Attenuator Range : : : : : : : : 24 dB ±0.5dB High 1120ohm ± 5% 1120 ohm ± 5% High Better than 1. 5dB Flat within ± 0.2 dB 0dB to -24dB

Attenuators: (5 attenuators) - of 1dB, 2dB, 4dB, 8dB, 16dB are provided with tolerance of ± 0.2dB. Mechanical Dimensions of VF Repeater Bay: Height Width Depth Legs for floor mounting : Depending upon no. of panels : 625 mm : 330 mm : 110 mm

5.5.

Equalizer-Amplifier Type Control Communication System used with 4/6 Quad PET cable (as per specification RDSO/SPN/34/2002 )

5.5.1

General Details The control circuit works on PET quad cable of 0.9mm diameter with characteristic impedance of 470 ohms. (a) The PET quads are not loaded. To compensate uneven attenuation over VF band, every station is provided with this system to provide communication at that station and also to equalize the loss in the VF range. (b) Balancing of various quads is carried out at every station by providing suitable condensers if required on control side. (c) It is possible to provide end patching or mid patching from underground quad cable media to radio communication system for normal working or working in case of failure without reversing the direction of amplifiers. (d) The circuit gets isolated from the system, if any card of that circuit is taken out, and in case of power supply failure at a station, the station is bypassed.

5.5.2

System Configuration The system comprises following assemblies: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) Cable termination, distribution & monitoring panel U link panel Equalizer Amplifier and V F transformer panel DTMF Decoder 8 Way Intercom. System Remote Monitor/sensor Power supply unit.
63 T-14 Train Traffic Control

IRISET

a loud speaker with a loudspeaker amplifier (200-milli watts output) is provided. the Krone connectors are provided with IPM (Integrated Protection Module) consisting of poly. 5.5. Radio Patch or Branching end and ASM’s Control Telephone end.5.control circuits can be accommodated on this panel.5 Equalizer Amplifier and VF Transformer Panel Two types of cards/ modules.3 Cable Termination. 5. insertion loss of the transformers and bridging loss of the tapping transformers at way station.6 Technical Details of Equalizer Amplifier The 4–way VF equalizer amplifier is provided to compensate for the loss of the speech level due to cable attenuation. LDs and fuses. 2. 5. The cabinet is wall mounting type or floor mounting type. 64 3.5. T-14 Train Traffic Control .4 U Link Panels 2 rows of U links of adequate number and size are provided for interconnecting incoming /outgoing cables to the V F Repeater circuits. the system is provided with one Emergency socket. IRISET Control end. The complete system is housed in a standard 19 inches rack. 5. In the Test Room repeater one additional card consisting of 4 buffer circuits is provided. A phantom circuit derived from the emergency socket is also provided to plug-in a magneto-telephone to communicate with maintenance staff at emergency socket or from one station to another station. On the distribution panel. All non-current carrying metal parts are bonded together and earthed. one 4-way equalizer amplifier card and one isolation transformers card. are provided in this panel. 4. For monitoring VF circuits. A test tone generator of 1KHz +/.100Hz at 0dBm +/-1 dB output at 470 ohms is also provided in the monitoring panel. The 4 ways of equalizer amplifier are 1. separate Krone connectors are provided. two terminals are provided for extending the power supply to monitor card.switches. On the incoming and outgoing cables.5. Cards needed for 4 . radio patching and way station equipment. These two cards cater for one control circuit. Cabinet will be made of metal sheet of steel having minimum thickness of 1.VF Repeaters In addition to the above.2 mm. Distribution & Monitoring Panel For terminating the incoming and outgoing cables. Far end. for connecting the emergency circuit through one buffer amplifier for communication between stations to control office during emergency.

VF Repeaters (a) Trans. Surge protection is also provided at input and output of each amplifier. (a) DTMF Decoder The function of this unit is to decode selective calling DTMF station codes (or other codes also) and then to activate the buzzer. which neither have telephone exchange nor connected to the Divisional office by any other means other than the control communication. In case of manual equalization. (c) Each amplifier is provided with variable equalizer to compensate the slope of cable attenuation in the frequency range of 300Hz to 3400Hz. IRISET 65 T-14 Train Traffic Control . and receive amplifiers are identical (b) Input and output of the amplifier is provided with isolation transformers. it is possible to select a particular characteristics by choosing a DIP switch position depending upon the sectional length for compensation.Way Intercom Exchange (a) This Intercom facility provides communication to the supervisory staff of various departments headquartered at stations.way Branch: Each way station equipment is provided with 4 way full conference circuit as per block diagram given in figure below. (e) Multi . (d) The equalizer circuit consists of single or multiple profile filters to compensate attenuation characteristics. (b) 8.

charger and battery status.. Remote sensor automatically sends fuse fail signal to Test Room equipment along with its ID. (d) Power Supply Unit (a) The power supply unit is operated normally with 230 VAC (160–270V).e. (i) This Intercom facility need not be provided in Main Repeater situated in headquarters station. This includes two 40AH batteries and dual power supply unit. Send AC fuse. These commands with relevant access codes are displayed on the equipment in addition to being displayed at control desk in Test Room. (g) There is a facility to bar any subscriber for communicating with the controller. Provision for Solar power operation is also available with automatic change over from 230 VAC to solar supply and vice-versa. Battery change over.VF Repeaters (b) The controller can call any of the subscribers using DTMF codes. (c) The telephone connections to this Intercom can be extended up to loop resistance of 300 ohms. (e) It is possible to call any subscriber within the group using suitable access codes. On failure of AC fuse. (h) Normal auto dialing telephone can be used. (c) Power supply is provided with self-resetting type short circuit protection. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) Disconnect one side of card of that circuit at a particular station. irrespective of the position of the subscriber’s telephone i. (d) It is possible that all the subscribers can talk to each other without disturbing the controller (conferencing). Over voltage (above 270V) protection is available. (f) By dialing suitable access code any subscriber can communicate with the controller. Buffer 2 cut for card of that circuit at a particular station. (b) Power-supply system is fully duplicated. For providing this facility a Remote monitor is provided in the Test Room and Remote sensor is provided in Intermediate Repeater. Disconnect another side of the card of that circuit at a particular station. Remote Monitoring Facility (c) Remote monitoring facility provides for remote monitoring and fault localization from Test Room. It is possible to execute the following remote functions on control circuits using remote monitoring facility (except Emergency control ). deputy control and S&T control circuits separately. Connect cards of that circuit at a particular station. IRISET 66 T-14 Train Traffic Control . This facility can be provided to section control. whether it is free or engaged. Connect power supply voltage. Buffer 1 cut for card of that circuit at a particular station.

Pot -1 Pot -2 Pot -3 Pot -4 (a) 300 . The details of these two are as given below 5. Far end .0KHz.8 . 4-Way Branching system: Each station equipment is provided with 4-Way branch system. both the batteries go below 11.5KHz.2. (g) The power supply unit shall be suitable to charge the batteries at 1/10th of rated current.4kHz. the change over process again begin once command for battery change over is given locally or from Remote monitoring unit. one shall remain as standby and this unit automatically connected to battery charging system whenever main unit fails. One battery bank shall be connected to load while the other shall be connected to the power supply unit for charging. EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTION OF EQUALIZER AMPLIFIER SYSTEMS Presently there are two types of Equalizer Equipments uses in Indian Railways. Reverse polarity protection is also provided in the module. 1. Changeover of battery is also possible through remote operation as well as manually. The 4 ways are: (a) (b) (c) (d) Control end . Each amplifier has a graphic equalizer with 4 nos. Radio patch or Branching end and Control telephone end.800Hz. An indication/alarm to this effect is provided in the Test Room with station code.5 volts.6 . of multi turn potentiometers for adjustment of gain for 4 different frequency bands.5 volt.VF Repeaters (d) The way station equipment is automatically bypassed in case of fault or when the battery voltage drops to threshold voltage of the amplifier. (f) The change over stop if due to any reason. capable of operating the equipment for 72 hours at least are kept in a separate housing made of unbreakable material (to avoid damage to the equipment).2 . 5. If the voltage across the battery on-load drops down to 11.3. IRISET 67 T-14 Train Traffic Control .1. The capacity of each battery shall be minimum 40 AH.6.6. (e) Power Supply Management Module: Out of two power supply units. (h) A set of two low maintenance batteries of 12 volts each. and are sourced from reputed manufacturers against performance guarantee of 24 months minimum.1 Equalizer Amplifier System RDSO/SPN/TC-34/2002) (M/s EPSILON make as per Spec. 0. It should be a constant current/constant voltage device. 1. However. change over between the two batteries takes place automatically.

3 to 3.VF Repeaters Fig. M/s Epsilon make Way Station Equipment Rack (Equalizer Amplifier System) In the 4-way equaliser amplifier provided in this system the Buffer-1 is used for radio patching and Buffer-2 is used for connecting to SM’s DTMF decoder and control telephone.5 dB. uniform speech levels. The frequency response of the transformers in the range 0.4 KHz is within +/-0. easy radio patching. dispersal of leak amplifiers. The VF isolation transformers used are 470 : 470 in main Trans/Receive circuits and higher impedance for buffer circuits. This enables wayside-to-wayside conferencing without insertion loss. IRISET 68 T-14 Train Traffic Control .

VF Repeaters 5.2 M/s Indisco Make Equalizer Amplifier System Fig.6. M/s Indisco make Way Station Equipment Rack (Equaliser Amplifier System) TX-IN Equalizer VF Filter Attenuator (Max –10dB) & Amplifier (Max +20dB Combiner (Adder) TX-OUT BUF –I IN VF Filter Combiner (Adder) BUF -I OUT BUF -II IN VF Filter Combiner (Adder) BUF -II OUT RX-IN Equalizer VF Filter Attenuator (Max –10dB) & Amplifier (Max +20dB Combiner (Adder) RX-OUT Circuit Block Diagram of Equalizer Amplifier in Indisco System IRISET 69 T-14 Train Traffic Control .

The following table gives the details of these.65 dB 8.09 dB DIP SW2 1 OFF OFF OFF DIP SW1 2 OFF OFF OFF 3 OFF OFF ON 4 ON OFF OFF 1 ON OFF OFF 2 ON ON OFF 3 ON OFF OFF 4 ON OFF OFF DIP Switch Settings for Equalizer Slope Selection (a) Technical Specifications: (a) Input impedance (b) Nominal gain (c) Frequency response (d) Output (adjustable) (e) Harmonic distortion @1kHz (f) Cross talk level @1kHz between any two channels (g) Variation slope : +/-10d B (0.VF Repeaters There are four relays on the equalizer amplifier PCB. which are provided for effecting disconnection between U/G cable line and the circuits. Some sample slope settings with these DIP switches are shown below. Some Samples of Slope Settings for Equalizer Amplifier Slope 12.4kHz) : 470 : 20dB +/-1dB : +/-3dB : -2dB to 0dB : ≤3% : Better than –60dB Trans & Receive Amplifiers: - IRISET 70 T-14 Train Traffic Control . Relay Name Relay-1 Relay-2 Relay-3 Relay-4 Bypasses / Isolates Far end cable from TX-OUT & RX-IN Buffer-1 Buffer-2 Controller end cable from TX-IN & RX-OUT Name of Remote function performed West cut Buffer-1 cut Buffer-2 cut East cut Selection of Equalizer Slope Equalization slope in M/s Epsilon system is selected by 4 potentiometers whereas in M/s Indisco system by two DIP switch assemblies of 4 contacts each.09 dB 5.3 to 3.

5. 8. 4. What remote functions are offered by the equalizer system? Draw the block diagram of Equalizer Amplifier system of any make. IRISET 71 T-14 Train Traffic Control . _______________________ 13. Explain about Local Intercom Facility of Equalizer Amplifier system.______________________ 12. 3. ___________________________________ 10. 3. 7. In repeater equipment the VF amplifier module containing leak amplifier is______________ Purpose of leak amplifier is to facilitate ________________________________________ Control Circuit not requiring leak amplifier is ____________________________________ Difference between VFR and VFL modules. Mention an extra facility available in Equalizer amplifier system. 2. 4. 5. 11. 9. 6. ____________________________ Input and output impedance of VF amplifiers is _____________________________ Main advantage in Equaliser Amplifier system. Maximum gain of Equalizer amplifier. Minimum gain selectable for Equalizer amplifier is _________________ Subjective: 1. Explain about the 4-way amplifier with a sketch. Briefly explain about the Remote Monitoring feature of Equalizer Amplifier system.VF Repeaters Objective: 1. 4-way amplifier is available in _____________________________________system.______________________________________ Gain of VF amplifier is ______________ Maximum attenuation that can be set in Indisco VF amplifiers is __________________ Operating voltage of VF repeater amplifiers. 2.

As such whenever the control communication is interrupted either totally or partially. the way station equipment also is in the circuit.6 PATCHING OF CONTROLS 6. This section control circuit is used always. (b) Radio patching. for train control communication between controller and way stations. (a) Patching with the Deputy control wires. the following patching arrangements are used to replace the interrupted portion of the section control to achieve an interruption-free train control communication. In case there is any interruption due to a line fault in any portion of the section control.1. IRISET 72 T-14 Train Traffic Control .2 Switching Arrangement at Way Stations With Over Head Alignment The simplest switching arrangement used at the SM’s office of a way station. the switching arrangements available at each way station are to be known thoroughly.Patching of Controls CHAPTER . provided with control communication through over head line wires. (DPSTs) The circuit diagram of the arrangement with two switches is given in the figure-6. alternate arrangements are made.1 Patching of Control Circuits The Control circuits which are connected mainly with the train traffic are generally two. This is the normal position. not only the operations are hit but also the way stations are de-linked from the Headquarters which master-minds the train operations. The section control is the more vital circuit concerned with the movement of trains. 6. Before affecting any one of the above patchings. If this communication gets interrupted. is of two types: (a) Utilizing two double pole double throw switches (DPDTs) (b) Utilizing three double pole single throw switches. intensively. and (c) Patching with Co-axial/OFC channels hired from BSNL.1. the line is made through with the way station equipment disconnected. than the other control. When both the switches are put in bottom positions. Both these circuits will have the same alignment on overhead line or through same under-ground quad cable. When both the switches are in top position. 6. one is the Section control and other is the Deputy control.1 General Description We have seen that the control communication is vital for smooth and efficient train operations.

2 SWITCHES 1 WEST 2 EAST WAY STATION EQUIPMENT Note: a) b) c) d) Switches 1 & 2 down (normal condition) . The operation involved is only disconnect or connect the required switch so the manipulation is fool proof. 2 & 3 UP ( Normal Condition) . This consists of one switch each for the incoming and outgoing lines and a third switch for the way station equipment. two switches for three operations -normal.e. Fig. The disadvantage is the likely confusion in the manipulation of switches by the station staff during tests.Patching of Controls If one switch only is kept in the middle or top position. Switch 1 up – west side disconnected.6.2 Switching Arrangement with 3 DPST switches (a) Switches 1.Way station equipment is in the circuit (b) Switch 1 or 3 only Disconnected .way station equipment in circuit. Switches 1 & 2 up – through office equipment disconnected and line is made through.Way station equipment disconnected and the line is put through IRISET 73 T-14 Train Traffic Control . Fig. the particular end gets disconnected at the station with office equipment out of circuit. Switch 2 up – east side disconnected.2.1 Switching Arrangements With 2 DPDT Switches The arrangement with 3 DPST switches is given in the Fig 6. 6. Normally the way station switch is kept at the center of the line switches.The corresponding side disconnected (c) Switch 2 only disconnected . the connections to which are tapped from the inter-connecting wire between the two switches. test both ways and isolate office with line through. The main advantage of this arrangement is the saving in the number of switches i.

Patching of Controls

6.3

Switching Arrangements at Way Stations with Under Ground Cable
In case of way stations provided with control communication through under ground cable, the switching/isolating arrangement is done only at the cable huts and VF Repeaters available enroute. At each cable hut/ VF Repeater the cables coming from different directions are terminated using individual Krone tag blocks. Then these terminated wires are extended to isolating transformers and VF Amplifiers through Ulinks. For isolating the two portions of a circuit the U-links provided in between them are to be removed. For patching a portion of a circuit with other circuit, patch cords in conjunction with the U-link locations are used. The arrangements at a cable hut and at a VF Repeater are as shown in the figures 6.3 & 6.4 below.

Fig. 6.3 Isolation arrangements at Cable Hut using U - Links

Fig. 6.4 Isolation arrangements at V F Repeater using U - Links

6.4
6.4.1

Patching with Deputy Control Circuit
Patching with 2-Wire Deputy Control Circuit (Over head Alignment) For patching purpose, deputy control circuit is looped in at every third/fourth station, and at such stations suitable arrangements are made on the test panels. Two sample switching arrangements adopted by Railways are shown in Fig.6.5 & 6.6 It will be noted that the code for both section control and deputy control section should be the same. Seven double poles, double throw (DPDT) switches are required.

Fig.6.5 Control Switching Arrangements At Way-Stations
IRISET 74 T-14 Train Traffic Control

Patching of Controls

For Inter Connection of Section & Deputy Controls

Another switching arrangement is shown in Fig.6.6. Six DPDT switches are used in this arrangement.
Dy. CONTROLS OUT

Dy. CONTROLS IN

SECTION CONTROL

LINE

Dy. CONTROL

TO SEC - CHL. WAY STATION TELEPHONE SET

SEC - CHL. OUT

TO Dy. CAL WAY STATION TELEPHONE SET

SEC. CHL.

PATCHING ARRANGEMENT BETWEEN Dy. - CHL & SEC - CHL AT WAY STATION (EASTERN RLY)

Fig.6.6

6.5

Patching with Deputy Control on U/G cable wires
The patching of section control wires with the Deputy Control wires, to substitute the faulty portion of the section control is as shown in the fig.6.8. In underground quad cables, the substitution of the section control faulty portion with the Deputy Control wires will be done from one VF Repeater or Cable hut to adjoining VF Repeater or Cable hut, covering the faulty portion. The VF Repeater/ Cable hut is chosen for substitution because the termination arrangements are only available at these places. No termination arrangements are available in Station Master’s Room for underground cables as done in the case of overhead lines. i) To isolate the faulty section of the section control, remove the U-links provided on section control wires on far end at station A and on control end at station B. ii) To prepare the Deputy Control wires ready for patching, remove the U-links provided on Deputy Control wires on control end at station A and on far end at station B. iii) Patching will be effected as shown in the fig.6.8 using patch cords.

IRISET

75

T-14 Train Traffic Control

Patching of Controls

Faulty Section Stn. A Stn. B

S/C Control end

Dy./C Control end

Fig.6.7 Patching Arrangement with Dy. Control Wires

6.6

Radio Patching
It will be noted that in the above Deputy Control patching arrangements where one physical circuit is patched to another physical circuit, the basic disadvantage is that both the circuits patched are prone to the same type of faults, generally. Also, to maintain the control communication link in abnormal weather conditions like storm, floods and heavy wind, the physical patching with Deputy control wires will not be much useful. Therefore, a suitable alternative would be to patch the circuit with a more reliable circuit, which is immune to the faults that interrupt the physical circuit. As we have seen, the control communication is vital for smooth and efficient train operations. If this communication gets interrupted, not only the operations are hit but also the way stations are de-linked from the Headquarters which master-minds the train operations. As such whenever the control communication is interrupted either totally or partially, alternate arrangements are made through Microwave Radio Relay System wherever such a system exists on the same route. This is called Radio Patch of Control Circuits. The Radio patch can be effected either from the remote end of the control circuit or from anywhere 'in the middle, provided there exists such a facility. For the radio patch to work effectively, the speech level and signalling voltage levels should be adjusted properly. The speech level should give good both way communication for all way stations. The signalling level should be sufficient to ring all way station equipments satisfactorily. As the DTMF Signalling lends itself suitable for both 2 wire and 4 wire circuits and also the signalling is in voice frequency range no separate arrangements are required while patching on Microwave System.

IRISET

76

T-14 Train Traffic Control

C Mux. At the distant end.6. See figure . the speech is converted from 2-wire to 4-wire at the Head quarters end and 4W to 2W at the distant end.9. Fig.8 Radio Patch on Underground Cable: Where control communication works on underground cable the reliability of communication is quite high.9 Patching With OFC Channels Hired From BSNL. R A D I O R A D I O Mux. This conversion is accomplished in the MUX equipment at the microwave station. they are transferred back on to the overhead line wires after isolating the interrupted section. B Stn. IRISET 77 T-14 Train Traffic Control . A Control Office Stn. 6.Patching of Controls 6. In under ground cables the circuits work on 4 wire basis. where control works on overhead alignment on 2-wire basis if the circuit is interrupted due to line problem the speech and signalling are transferred on to the Microwave System at the head quarters end. long distance OFC channels are hired from BSNL for patching.8 Faulty Section Stn. The ring back from the way stations will be connected on to the controller’s receiving pair. 6. The patching arrangement is as shown in the figure 6.7 Radio Patch On Overhead Alignment: In Non-RE areas. Radio patch is felt necessary as an emergency measure in the event of cable failure or theft.9 6. In controlled sections where a Railway Microwave System doesn't exist. These hired channels are provided between the control office and some of the important Railway stations on the control section. the signalling will be on the Controller's Trans pair extended from control test-room to microwave station. Since Microwave system works on 4-wire basis.

B OF Cable Stn. B OF Cable Stn. Any one of these may be adopted for patching. 6. See figure-6. A OFC Equipments Stn. C Stn. But for connecting the wayside EC sockets. D 6/4 Quad Cable Terminations 6/4 Quad Cable Stn. D 6/4 Quad Cable Terminations 6/4 Quad Cable Fig. In sections where optical fibre cable is laid. Stn. A OFC Equipments Stn.10 Patching of OFC Channels to 6-quad/4-quad U/G Cable for Emergency Control. the OFC channel meant for EC working has to be patched to the 6 quad or 4 quad PIJF cable at the stations. EC sockets are connected by tapping the Emergency circuit on quad cable. 10 Patching of OFC Channels with EC Quad Wires IRISET 78 T-14 Train Traffic Control . C Stn.Patching of Controls 6.10. all the controls will be working through the OFC channels.

6.10 IRISET 79 T-14 Train Traffic Control .Patching of Controls Fig.

5. 2.Patching of Controls Objective: 1. What is patching and why is it required? Show the patching arrangement between section control and Dy. 3. No. What is Radio patching? When is it implemented? Show different ways of OFC channel patching with quad cable for emergency control circuit. 4. of OFC patching practices followed for EC circuit _____________________________ The Radio patch connection is taken from Buffer ________ in Indisco equipment. Interconnection between section control and Dy. Subjective: 1. IRISET 80 T-14 Train Traffic Control . 4. 2.Control circuits. Control is called ____________________ Radio patching means ____________________________________________________ Separate equipment for radio patching is not needed in ____________________system. 3.

Both transmitter and receiver are electro dynamic transducer type. cradle switch. The control way station equipment provide battery for the microphone. HMT with press to talk switch.1. respectively. 6 way rosette box. On receipt of a valid code. It has a pre-amplifier circuit in the Trans side to give an output voltage of 250mV across the line with 1120 type transmitter (220 load impedance for an input of 5mv across the dynamic load resistance). 2.Control Telephones & other Control Equipments CHAPTER .1 Way Station Control Telephones 4-Wire Way Station Control Telephone The 4 .1 7. coil cord of length 1.7 CONTROL TELEPHONES & OTHER CONTROL EQUIPMENTS 7. The telephone consists of ABS (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene) body. 7.2 Salient Features 1. the way station equipment extend an audio output and positive of battery to the loudspeaker and LED display device. The circuit diagrams of two different makes of 4-wire way station control telephone are as given below in fig. buzzer and LED.5 meters. They are desk type and work in conjunction with control way station equipment on 4-Wire basis.2 IRISET 81 T-14 Train Traffic Control .1 & 7.wire way station control telephones are provided at way stations for providing communication from 4-wire omnibus control network.1. 3. Trans and receive amplifiers provided in the control way station equipment take care of matching of the impedance of microphone and receiver with that of the line. The details of 4-Wire way station telephone as per Specification IRS: TC: 38-97 are as given below: 7.

2 IRISET 82 T-14 Train Traffic Control .33 MFD 8 5 10 ohm MIC LED PTT BUZ REC 100 MFD GND MIC + VE CS 5K 10 ohm 10 MFD LED CS NC 10 ohm HIGH 2K 10 K 10 K 10 MFD SCR LOW 1K NC CS 4 WIRE CONTROL TELEPHONE (M/s EPSILON make) Fig.1 The 4-wire control telephone termination details: 1 2 1 2 LED DISPLAY DEVICE 3 3 MIC 12 V .Ve FROM DTMF DECODER 4 4 5 5 6 REC BUZZ 6 7 8 9 10 11 7 8 MICRO SWITCH Terminal Strip Inside Rosette Terminal Strip Inside Control Telephone TERMINATION DETAILS OF 4 WIRE CONTROL TELEPHONE Fig.7.Control Telephones & other Control Equipments 10 ohm NC CS 10 MFD IN 4007 10 MFD IN 4007 COM REC 560 ohm 10 MFD 10 K PTT 1 6 2 LM 386 3 0.7.

1 Salient Features 1.7.5K 0.3 2.10%).2. HMT. HANDSET CO NNECTIO N TERM INAL BO CO X NNECTIO N PTT + VE M REC IC HANDSET PART 1 2 3 4 G ND 5 6 PTT REC M IC G ND CS 7 8 9 10 11 LED BUZZ + 12V 12 13 14 4 REC 5 G ND 47 F 2 +VE 1K 1 PTT 470 0.6K 15K 100K 100 P1 NC1 100K 470 10K 1K 10K 10 F LED NO P1 1 CO N2 CIRCUIT DIAG RAMO 4-W W STATIO CO F IRE AY N NTRO TELEPHO ( M ANUVIDYUT M ) L NE /S AKE Fig.Control Telephones & other Control Equipments 7.6K 10 F IC3161 IC1/B 100K 100K 20K 10 F 5. 4.047 10 F IC3161 IC1/A 15K R9 47 F 10K 470 10 F 5. When the telephone is lifted. 7. It works along with 2-Wire DTMF way station equipment. 3. Working voltage is 3 VDC (+ 20% or .2 2-Wire Way Station Control Telephone (As per IRS: TC: 37-97) 2-Wire way station control telephones are provided at way stations for providing communication from 2-Wire omnibus control network. Whenever the way station is called the piezo-buzzer comes ON in addition to a latched LED indication until the handset is lifted.1 3 M IC 47 F 6 G ND 100K 1. this LED gets off and the communication is made. IRISET 83 T-14 Train Traffic Control . Both transmitter and receiver are electro-dynamic transducer type. and rosette are made of ABS (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene). The telephone body. Hand set is provided with approved micro-switch.

6. Insulation resistance should not be less than 10 M (tested with 500 VDC Megger). Insertion loss should not be greater than 0. The current consumption: 30mA 75mA 125mA in idle condition during conversation during ringing period IRISET 84 T-14 Train Traffic Control .2 MFD 41 K BC 547 TR 1 33 ohm 0.3 Universal DTMF Wayside Control Telephone (IRS: TC 82-2005) Universal DTMF Way Side Control Telephone is suitable for both 4 Wire and 2 Wire working.027 MFD 47 MFD 330 ohm 2 3 4 IC LA 3167 5 1 10 MFD 1K 2.4 7.4.47 MFD 50 K 0.2 MFD 470 ohm 470 MFD 10 K +3V NC 1 1 ohm CIRCUIT DIAGRAM 2 WIRE WAY STATION CONTROL TELEPHONE (M/s ANU VIDYUT make) Fig. There is a flap on front side of the telephone.7.2 K 560 ohm 0. Both input and output terminal strips for amplifier PCB are provided inside the telephone body.8dB while speaking.2 dB while listening & 0. 7. The telephone works on 12V DC with ±20% supply voltage.Control Telephones & other Control Equipments 5. 8. The circuit diagram of 2-Wire way station control telephone manufactured by M/S Anu Vidyut is shown in the figure-7. When this flap is opened two DIP switch assemblies are visible which are used for setting the way station code. When Idle current should be less than 20mA. The telephone includes the circuitry of conventional control telephone as well as DTMF decoder equipment. VCC 1 ohm 8.033 MFD 560 ohm 10 MFD D1 D2 R1 Rx R2 TR 2 BC 547 56 ohm 500 ohm T2 PTT T1 T1 L2 MOV 100 V 500 ohm Tx L1 100 K +3V +3VP1 GND 2.

or in 4 wire. A separate compartment is provided with a lid and sealing facilities to house two flash light cells of 1.Wire Portable Control Telephone This telephone is used for communicating from an emergency site with the controller.Control Telephones & other Control Equipments 7.5 IRISET 85 T-14 Train Traffic Control . Both transmitter and receiver are of electro dynamic transducer type. This telephone is in the form of rectangular box made of mild steel consisting of main body and cover.4. The upper part accommodates HMT and cords.1 2. These telephone sets are also provided with some important maintenance staff of Engineering. S&T and Electrical (OHE & TRD) departments to have communication for maintenance of their respective gears. 7. 2. The lower part accommodates one matching transformer PCB and screw terminals. approximately) to which the portable control telephones are to be plugged to communicate. The main body is divided into 2 parts.7. These are available in 2 wire. Transmitter works on 3 volts The internal wiring of the components of the telephone is as shown in the fig. 7.4. or in 2 wire/ 4-wire forms.2 Features 1. In Railway Electrified areas and some of the Non Electrified areas where underground cables are provided for control working.4 Portable Control Telephone Portable control telephones are used to communicate with the controller from the section provided with either over head alignment or underground cable.5 volts each. Emergency sockets are provided along the cable route (at every 1 KM. by hooking to the overhead alignment provided along the track. These telephones are provided with Drivers & Guards to communicate with the controller in case of accidents and other unusual occurrences.

These are also used by engineering and S&T staff.3 4 wire/ 2 wire Portable Control Telephone (IRS: TC: 75-99) Portable control telephones are provided with train crew for talking with controller in emergencies. the same switch is to be operated to 4W sides. the receive pair will become common pair and serve for both trans and receive directions.Control Telephones & other Control Equipments P C B A M P LIF IE R 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 L1 L2 3V B A T TE R Y R E C E IV E R HM T DTT M IC N O TE 1 ) TR E M IN A LS 1 TO 10 D IR E C TLY M O U N T E D O N P C B 2 ) R x A M P LIFIE R G E TS S U P P LY T H R O U G H C R A D LE S W ITC H 2-W IR E P O R T A B L E C O N TR O L T E LE PH O N E Fig-7. A 4w/2w portable telephone is very useful as it can be used both in 4 wire and 2 wire territories. By pressing the press to talk (PTT) switch provided in the HMT.6. The internal wiring diagram showing the internal components and the connections between them is given in the figure-7.5 7. IRISET 86 T-14 Train Traffic Control . By this operation. For using in 4 Wire sections. A 4W/2W switch provided is to be operated to 2W side for using in 2 Wire sections.4. the 3 volts speaking battery gets extended to the microphone. Separate amplifiers are provided for the microphone and the receiver.

1 DPDT SW TR 4W S11 S21 P2 S22 Tx AMPLIFIER _ + _ + Rx AMPLIFIER P1 2W S12 C13 14 X-FORMER .6 IRISET 87 T-14 Train Traffic Control . 1.Control Telephones & other Control Equipments 6 PIN EMERGENCY PLUG 2W Tx Rx L1 L2 Rx 4W Tx BATTERY ROOM Rx(4w) Tx(4W) + 3V C12 1 2 3 4 5 13 L1 N MOVR RC 6 2W L2 X-FORMER .2 7 8 9 10 EAR 11 12 HAND SET MIC PTT 4W/2W PORTABLE EMERGENCY CONTROL TELEPHONE(M/s BENTRON MAKE) S. 2.7.No. PRESS PTT SWITCH IN HANDSET & START CONVERSATION Fig. OPERATION INSTRUCTIONS 2W OPERATION 4W OPERATION PRESS 2W/4W SWITCH TO 2W POSITION CONNECT L1 & L2 TO 2W LINE PRESS 2W/4W SWITCH TO 4W POSITION CONNECT 6 PIN EMERGENCY PLUG TO 4 WIRE EMERGENCY SOCKET PRESS PTT SWITCH IN HANDSET & START CONVERSATION 3.

of 1.7. PTT T1 Tx 33 K 470 MFD 4W 1.5 MFD L1 MOV L2 Rx MIC 0. the battery is connected to the circuit.5 dry cells). The telephone works on 3 VDC (2 Nos.1/100 0.5 K 10 MFD 15 K 1 IC LA 3161 2 5 220 Pf 4 3 10 MFD 68 ohm 100 K ON / OFF 47 K 56 K 2W 10 MFD REC 560 K 56 K 10 MFD 202 Tx 500 ohm 201 T2 1.COLOUR LED 4 WIRE / 2 WIRE LIGHT WEIGHT PORTABLE CONTROL TELEPHONE (M/s EPSILON make) Fig. With the help of a switch.1/100 0.3 4-Wire/2-Wire Light Weight Portable Control Telephone (IRS: TC 78-2000) The diagram shown next is a 4-Wire/2-Wire Light Weight Portable Control Telephone manufactured by M/S EPSILON as per RDSO Specification IRS: TC: 78-2000 : Its use is the same like the above mentioned 4w/2w portable telephone with an extra advantage of light weight. The telephone can be selected for 2-Wire/4-Wire operation with help of 2W/4W switch.1/100V 1K 10 MFD 1K 560 ohm +3V D3 560 ohm 2N 2222 A 2N 2222 A BI .7 This lightweight portable control telephone enclosed in ABS plastic molded box.4.Control Telephones & other Control Equipments 7. IRISET 88 T-14 Train Traffic Control .

By this.5 2-Wire 12-Way DTMF Telephone (IRS: TC: 80-2000) This telephone is an electronic version of Magneto telephone used for providing communication at LC gates.8 Originating a call: The calling subscriber will lift his telephone hand set and press the number on the key pad. The specifications of this telephone are as per IRS: TC: 80-2000. Cabins etc. generates a command according to the key pressed and delivers it to the Tone Generator (IC1214B). with whom he desires to contact.7. The numbering scheme used in the system is as given below: (a) (b) (c) 2 to 10 and * (11) are used as 10 slave telephone numbers. It works on 2-Wire omnibus circuit tapped at different places for point to point and multi point communication. which is scanning the keypad lines. if finds a valid entry.Control Telephones & other Control Equipments 7. Standard DTMF tones are used for selective calling. These decoded signals actuates the buzzer through the Micro-controller where strapping is available as per the number allotted to the telephone. The circuit diagram of this telephone (Epsilon make) is as given in fig. 1 is used as Master telephone number. # is used for General call from the Master telephone. As a system. Receiving a call: The DTMF tones are first received and decoded by a Decoder (IC 8870). This telephone works on 12 VDC. It is possible to assign any code to a slave telephone in the decimal system. IRISET 89 T-14 Train Traffic Control . This has an additional feature of push button (4x3 matrix) for calling the other locations. This Tone Generator generates the required DTMF tones and feeds on to 2Wire line. at a wayside station. the Micro-controller (IC 89C2051). The ring back tone generated by the actuation of the buzzer is fed back to the calling subscriber. the telephones are provided in Master-Slave configuration. There is 1 Master + 10 Slave telephones.

33mfd 10mfd 0.1MFD C2 13 7 C3 14 A 500K 10MFD P1-3 * 0 # R1 15 100K R2 16 C2 R2 C1 R4 R3 C2 R4 C3 R1 C1 R3 17 R4 UM 1214 B DTMF TONE 18 Generator 3 X' TAL3 T-14 Train Traffic Control 4 1 2 5 P1-6 IRISET Z1 560 +12V FUSE 10mfd L1 0.047mfd 10mfd SL100 P1-0 Fig.01mfd 56K MOVR1 470 MFD .7.047mfd 10mfd 10k +12v 10mfd 0.01mfd SL100 500 47 MFD 78LO5 + 12 V 10 D4 +5 V D7 +12V 104 pF 10 10mfd 560 10K 10mfd 2 LM386 15 10mfd 100 3 MIC 4 7 8 5k 10 0.8 11 12 13 14 15 18 17 89C2051 16 15 14 13 12 10 6 7 8 9 11 KEY PAD CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF 2-WIRE 12 WAY DTMF TELEPHONE ( M/S EPSILON MAKE ) +5V LED 10 1 2 3 104PF P1-1 4 5 6 1K 8 6 56K P1-2 7 8 9 C1 12 0.VE MOVR2 L2 10 10mfd 1K +5v 100mfd 390k 16 17 18 10K 10mfd HIGH +5v 0.1mfd 100mfd 1M 82 0.1mfd 100k 2 100k 104pf 10mfd 1k ME LOW BUZZER CALLING 0.P1-5 P1-4 Control Telephones & other Control Equipments 10 D1 D2 REC 220k 3 U3 MT 8870 U4 1 4 X'TAL1 4 10mfd 5 33pf X'TAL2 6 9 5 7 DTMF TONE DECODER 3 220 1 20 10 LED1 0.1mfd 50k LM386 120 90 .

4-wire Omnibus Control Circuits or Channels at way IRISET 91 T-14 Train Traffic Control . • Provision also exists to increase the number of subscribers in a particular Control Channel by utilizing the resources of other unused Control Channels.6 Electronic LC Gate Telephone (RDSO/SPN/TC-51-2004) This system is meant for communication between ASM office and LC gates. The master phone operates on 12V supply derived from a 24V 7AH maintenance free battery. It works on Master and slave principle. • IWCCE can cater for eight stations • IWCCE can connect up to 30 Way Station Control Telephones (Subscribers). The equipment is designed to work with the Control Office Equipment designed of as per IRS : TC 60-2007. For calling master from the slave telephone a push button is provided The master is provided with separate push buttons for calling each slave 7. Engineering control circuits at a way station and will additionally facilitate Intercom Facility amongst Control Telephone Subscribers. • • • • • • • • Each LC gate phone is connected with ASM’s master telephone only when it is called by the master. distance between the master and an LC can be up to 6km using a pair of 0.7 Integrated Way Station Control Communication Equipment (IWCCE) (RDSO/SPN/TC/70/2007) This will replace all the 4-W Way Station Equipments used separately with Section Control. Traction Power Control. * 6 (six) Subscribers each to first two Control Channels and * 3 (three) Subscribers each to remaining six Control Channels. One master at ASM office can be connected to 4 LC gate telephones using an omnibus 2wire line.9mm copper cable Each LC gate telephone works as an electronic magneto telephone without the need of any battery or power supply source at the LC gate Master operates with 12V DC and slave LC gate phones with 24V DC. Deputy Control.Control Telephones & other Control Equipments 7. The max. A 24V power supply to LC gate phones is extended through the same omnibus speech line from the master. Its main features are as given below. The connectivity is through a 2 wire line Even though all telephones are interconnected using an omnibus line there is confidentiality in the speech between ASM and an LC gateman.

BSNL Telephone etc. After IRISET 92 T-14 Train Traffic Control . • If any exchange subscriber wants to dial IWCCE subscriber. • Way Station Control Telephones connected to the IWCCE have dialing facility to call other control telephones and they can use either Pulse dialing or Tone dialing. • The ring at the control telephone lasts for the period of 15 seconds whenever called and gets terminated as soon as handset is OFF-hook. then the local call is disconnected and the control call is extended to the selected subscriber. Subscriber/User connected with this equipment has facility to access any of the tie lines as per requirement. • These Way Station Control Telephones have volume control facility.). in addition to communicate with the controller of the connected 4-W control circuit. If the desired subscriber is already off. there is no ring back tone to controller. • The IWCCE has facility to generate ring back tone whenever a ring comes from the Control office. For group or general call from control equipment. • The IWCCE supports the intercom as well as exchange access facility. • The equipment has facility to extend standard communication tones like ringing tone. dial tones. • The system has provision for gain adjustment of 4-Wire Control circuit in both Tx & Rx directions. • As soon as the handset is lifted. except # and * keys. • In case of Railway or BSNL exchange tie lines (telephone line) to be interfaced by the equipment. • If programmed. The Tx of the handset is enabled either by tapping the cradle switch or by pressing anyone of the keys on the telephone handset. the control telephone gets connected to the control circuit with the Rx path through but keeping the Tx path disconnected. • For selective calling from Control Office Equipment a ring back tone is sent back to the controller if the desired way station phone handset is in on-hook. ring back tone.hook.Control Telephones & other Control Equipments • The system decodes both two digit and three digit DTMF code coming from head quarter equipment and generates ring to the desired subscriber. number busy tone etc. • The equipment also has the facility to interface at least two analog tie lines like Railway Telephone. if a control call comes during a local conversation. The same way station telephone can be used for this purpose when it is free. the exchange should have tone detection facility. an acknowledgement tone is sent. the call from Controller can be diverted to any other telephone under same or different control channels in case of unattended call or telephone instrument faulty. However. Local conversation can not disturb the call on omnibus control circuit. it has to first dial exchange number of the particular line connected to the IWCCE to get IWCCS dial tone and then dial subscriber code XY as long as dial tone persists (15 sec.

7. Objective Objective of the voice data logger or recorder of control circuits in a control office is to record conversations of at least last 170 hours on every channel of control circuits and other important circuits as deemed necessary in a control office for its subsequent use required for Railway’s operational needs. • Tie line terminating facility: (i) It is possible to terminate one Railway and one BSNL telephone circuit at all the Way Station equipment having intercom facility for communication of Way Station subscribers with Divisional/other subscribers on Railway/BSNL Network and viceversa. provided on the SM’s table. (ii) Provision for tie line bypass directly on the telephone instrument. • Way station subscriber has programmable exchange priority feature. the incoming exchange call gets landed to a particular subscriber if programmed as operator. The way station telephone works on twisted pair cable having a loop resistance of less than 1200 Ohms. • • • • • Voice calling from way station telephone to the controller is available in the system. IRISET 93 T-14 Train Traffic Control . All the Way Station Control Telephones work in tandem with IWCCE and do not require separate power supply. • Provision is there to bar the Intercom & Tie line access facility on a particular telephone through software.Control Telephones & other Control Equipments this interval. if the line is engaged by some other low priority subscriber. if required.8 Voice Data Logger ( RDSO/SPN/TC/038-2002 ) The RDSO specification for voice data logger covers the requirement of Voice Data Logger for control circuits in control offices along with an optional facility for missed call monitoring. The IWCCE works with -48V± 20% DC Power Supply. Optionally the equipment can also work as “missed call monitor”. A priority subscriber can get access to exchange tie line. The system is compatible to work on any communication media like OFC or Microwave. is also available. in case of equipment shutdown. • Call Overriding Facility For Controller: Controller has overriding priority to call a particular way station telephone even if the subscriber is busy in conversation on intercom or Tie lines.

the earliest records are replaced by the latest ones. c) Secondary back up storage is provided to back up data on CD/DVDs or removable hard disk. iii. ii. e) Missed call Recording Facility with the following features: i. ii. i. Voice card not responding All back up devices are full/ failure Any other abnormal conditions The messages for alarms and indications are displayed visually and also announced verbally through a loud speaker. Input to the system is taken from electrical circuit of the respective microphone with a level of at least 20 dB below the signal level transmitted into the control circuit network. iii. 3. Facility to copy selected record on removable disk. 2 wire E/M or 4 wire E/M or Analogue Telephone line (with input impedance of 20 K ohms) or Wireless any one at time. The system consists of the following sub systems – a) Interface for each channel separately for inputting from control circuit of i. iv. Data Security Feature i.. ii. 2. ii. Date-time stamping for every missed call Caller line identification for calls if CLI facility is available in the telephone Operator identification stamp 4. ii. It is not possible to delete any records and also to format the hard disks by conventional methods When the storage capacity of the hard disk is exhausted or specified recording hours are complete there shall be automatic rollback i. It is possible to have different types of inputs to different channels b) Storage Equipment: The Storage device shall preferably be a hard disk of suitable capacity supported by one more hard disk following RAID-1 architecture for redundancy. It should be possible to retrieve data from both the hard disks.Control Telephones & other Control Equipments Requirements: As per RDSO specifications a voice data logger for recording the conversations on control circuits shall meet the following requirements: 1.e. Playback Facility: One channel should always be available as replay channel for live monitoring of any of the 16 channels. iii. 94 T-14 Train Traffic Control IRISET . The equipment has a capacity to record conversations of control circuits from 4 to 16 channels at a time for at least 170 hours per channel. d) Alarm System: There are alarms and indications if – i.

The SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) performs remote controlling and monitoring functions upon the sectioning/sub-sectioning/feeding points and overhead equipment (OHE). Both Host and FEP are duplicated for 100% standby support.receives command from headquarters PC and passes on to control circuit • a microprocessor based control unit and • an interrupter The modem receives remote command from the headquarters PC and passes it on to the control circuit. Each RTUs consists of • a modem . Supervisory (Operator) terminals. The control units have provision for connecting a keyboard and a monitor and can be programmed for different options or functions. The remote control (MMI) software used for Remote Control in Secunderabad RC centre of SCRly is SETSS which is an abbreviation for ‘Standard Electrical Traction SCADA Software’. The control unit drives the interrupter either to OPEN or CLOSE the HT supply circuit.Control Telephones & other Control Equipments 7.9 Remote Control & SCADA In Electrified sections of Railways there is a need to provide a control circuit called Remote Control which is used by the Electric Traction Power wing. running MMI (Man-Machine-Interface) IRISET 95 T-14 Train Traffic Control . The control units also collects status of all the remote interrupters and sends to the supervisory PC at the headquarters. And also data regarding the remote equipments health is collected and sent by it. The SCADA system consist of • • a Supervisory Computer System software at headquarters station and Control Units. The RTUs (control units) make measurements as well as report back to and execute commands from the supervisory computer. located at remote stations along the track for performing data acquisition and control functions. The Supervisory Computer system consists of a Host computer used as server and a FEP (front end processor) computer connected to the RC quad in the communication cable through a modem. The control units are RTUs (Remote Terminal Units). working as clients to the server are used to send the control and measurement commands to RTUs and also to acquire data from RTUs. The Remote Control circuit is used for implementing the SCADA system.

Wayside telephone unit will work similar to Auto telephone and it becomes a subscriber of a Railway Telephone Exchange by pressing Star button (*) on its key pad or becomes a subscriber of a BSNL Telephone Exchange by pressing Hash button (#). Connectivity is achieved automatically through Base station unit provided in the Test Room.7.10 Auto Dialing System (IRS: S-83/2007) With the inclusion of Auto dialing system to the existing Emergency control circuit.10 Specifications of Auto Dialing System manufactured by M/S Bentron Power Systems 7.Control Telephones & other Control Equipments Host/Server PC FEP PC Trans pair Modem RTU RTU RTU Receive pair Operater Console Fig. The block diagrams of the auto dialing system is shown in the fig.6. The system mainly consists of the following units: (a) Way side telephone unit and (b) Base station unit The wayside telephone unit work s from emergency socket and base station unit is provided at the Test Room. and works as part of the overall system.7.9 Remote Control Setup for SCADA 7. A loud speaker is provided to monitor the speech from wayside telephone. through Test Room. This Auto dialing system connects Railway Exchange or BSNL Exchange by pressing the designated button from the wayside telephone unit. IRISET 96 T-14 Train Traffic Control .1 Base unit: Base unit is to be placed at the control test room where Exchange telephone connections and 4-Wire Emergency circuit is available. LED indications are provided on the front panel of this unit to indicate whether wayside telephone is connected to BSNL or RLY Exchange. facility is extended to the Emergency socket available alongside the Railway track to connect any subscriber either of a Railway Telephone Exchange or of a BSNL Telephone Exchange in case of emergency. 12 digits LED display shows the Telephone number dialed from the wayside telephone.

Connection to the desired auto telephone can be established by dialing the desired number. *.2.7.6.0.3.5. (*) Key is used to establish connection with the RLY. : 12 digit 7 segment display to indicate the Telephone number dialed from the way side telephone (d) Loud speaker output (e) Frequency response : 1 watt max. When the (*) key is pressed once.2 Wayside Telephone (or Field Unit): 4-Wire Way side Telephone is kept in a wooden box along with a 12 V/ 7AH battery which is to be carried to the way side from where communication is to be made through the emergency control line. (b) LED indication for RLY Exchange Connection and (c) LED indication for BSNL Exchange Connection.20% : 300mA max.8. and (#) Key is used to establish connection with the BSNL Exchange.6. Fig.9 7.4. and # to establish Connection with the Exchange telephones. A 3x4 key matrix with key numbers 1. : within +/-3dB Indications available on Base unit are as given below (a) LED indication for power ON. Exchange. Ring back tone will be heard and conversation can be made through this IRISET 97 T-14 Train Traffic Control . dial tone from the RLY Exchange will be available. It has the following facilities.Control Telephones & other Control Equipments Specifications (a) Power supply (b) Current consumption (c) Dialed number display : 12VDC +/.7.9.

The wayside telephone has the facility to ring when its telephone number is dialed from an Exchange telephone. The wayside telephone can be dialed from those telephones by dialing this allotted number. 7. 6. 6.Control Telephones & other Control Equipments wayside 4-Wire telephone. 5. Connection to the desired auto telephone can be heard and conversation can be made through this wayside 4-Wire telephone. 0. If the connection is to be established with a BSNL Exchange telephone. 4. (#) key is pressed once. A buzzer for audio indication that the telephone is being called. 2. When the conversation is over the 4-Wire telephone can be disconnected from the Exchange by pressing (*) key once more. 8. 1. dial tone from the BSNL Exchange will be available. LED indication for RLY Exchange Connection and LED indication for BSNL Exchange Connection. From RLY Exchange one number has to be allotted to the Emergency wayside telephone and similarly another number is to be allotted from BSNL Exchange. LED indication for power ON. 3. 2. 2. 9. 9. 8. 4. 3. RLY and BSNL Exchange lines are to be connected to the Base unit. typical : 20dB maximum : 1. Signalling mode Transmitting media Current consumption : By DTMF : Any VF transmission media : 20mA (max) in idle mode 100mA(max) while talking 4. 5. 7. IRISET 98 T-14 Train Traffic Control . *. and # : 12 VDC : within +/-3dB Indications available on Field Telephone are as given below 1. 3. (#) Key is to be pressed once more to disconnect the line. Signalling level Speech level Line attenuation Keys Power supply Frequency response : 0 dBm maximum : -5 dBm.

Control Telephones & other Control Equipments

Fig.7.10

7.5

Operation in Brief: • • Insert the 6-pin plug into the Emergency socket. Make the switch on. Power-ON LED glows.

To Connect to Railway /BSNL Exchange Lift the handset of the telephone. Press (*) key to connect RLY Exchange. Or (#) key connects BSNL Exchange. Dial tone is received. Dial the desired telephone number of Exchange. This gives ring to the called Telephone and ring back tone is received. When the called party lifts the handset connection is established. After conversation to disconnect the wayside telephone press (*) key once more for RLY Exchange., (#) key once more for BSNL Exchange. To Receive call from RLY/BSNL Exchange When wayside telephone gets a call from Exchange Telephone, the buzzer rings and LED corresponding to calling Exchange glows. Lift the handset and Press (*) key to connect RLY Exchange. or (#) Key to connect BSNL Exchange. At the end of conversation to disconnect the wayside telephone press (*) key once more for RLY Exchange, (#) key once more for BSNL Exchange.

IRISET

99

T-14 Train Traffic Control

Control Telephones & other Control Equipments

Objective: 1. There is no ____________________ facility in a Control Telephones provided at way stations. 2. A universal control telephone has a ________________________in addition to control phone. 3. 4. A portable EC telephone is used by _________________________________. A 2-wire 12-way telephone consists of one master and ______________________slave phones 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Electronic LC gate phone has one master and __________________slaves phones Electronic LC gate master phone operates on ________ DC supply. IWCCE can replace all ____________________ used at a way station. It can be connected to ___________________ no. of control circuits ____________ no. of telephones IWCCE can cater for.

10. Voice data logger is used in ________________offices in railways 11. Minimum no. of speech channels recorded by one voice logger unit._____________ 12. SCADA system is operating through ________________control circuit. 13. Auto dialing system is used in emergencies for providing _______________________ facility at a track side place. Review Questions 1. 2. 3. 4. Explain about any control telephone you know. Explain about universal control telephone. Describe about different types of portable EC telephones Briefly explain about the following: a. 2 wire control telephone b. 2-wire 12-way DTMF telephone c. Electronic LC gate phone 5. 6. Explain about IWCCE and its main uses. Briefly explain about the following: a. Voice data logger b. SCADA 7. Explain about Auto dialing system

IRISET

100

T-14 Train Traffic Control

Interruptions & Routine Tests on Control Circuits

CHAPTER – 8 INTERRUPTIONS & ROUTINE TESTS ON CONTROL CIRCUITS
8.1 Introduction
The causes for interruption to control communication can be many. personnel should be aware of some of the common faults, the But, an S&T various test and

procedures or practices to be adopted for detecting the cause of these faults

also to localise the exact place where the fault occurred. Different test procedures are to be adopted for different types of media used for providing the control communication.

8.2

Faults on Overhead Lines
The following is the general procedure to be adopted in localizing the faults on Overhead Lines. (a) First, localize the defective section to the minimum possible block section. (b) Then, verify the office and confirm whether the fault is in the office or line.

8.3

The faults occurring in the Overhead line may be classified under 4 categories:
(a) Disconnection (b) Earth (c) Contact (d) Twist

8.2.1 Disconnection:

P

A

B

C

D

Q

Consider a section P-Q with intermediate station A, B, C and D as shown. In the event of disconnection between section B and C, ringing and speech would fail for all stations between C and Q. The circuit between P and B will function normally. Assume that the control office is located at P in which case the section is located by ringing the last station of the correct section i.e., B and then ensuring that ringing is not possible at the adjacent station C. Station B should be instructed to call C via block telephone and ask the Station Master at C to confirm that controller is not heard with his office switch connected as well as the line made through at C. Controller at P ensures the faulty section is then localised as B - C. 8.2.2 Earth Fault

P
IRISET

A

B
101

C

D

Q
T-14 Train Traffic Control

earth faults due to loose joints at transposition points.2. Remarks Under 'remarks' column. 8.Interruptions & Routine Tests on Control Circuits Assume an earth fault in the section B&C which will cause heavy hum or induction if one limb is earthed and also in the case of earthing of two limbs if the earth connection is not good. Localization is done as before. A 100-page foolscap ruled book shall be allotted for the purpose and the pages divided equally for each section control. 8. Defective section has to be isolated for working in the correct section. there will be a crackling sound besides the hum. block bell beats and magneto ringing as the case may be according to the circuit to which the contact is made. IRISET 102 T-14 Train Traffic Control .6 Interruptions Registers shall be maintained to record the interruptions in the control sections under the charge of SE/SSEs. pole or bracket. Localization is done as before.4 Twist Fault P A B C D Q In this case the line will be silent. Localisation is difficult in these cases and ladder inspection by maintenance staff should be ordered after localising the faulty sections regularly.2. Localisation is done as before and defective section is isolated. If the earth is made by slight rubbing contact with stay wire. There will be breakdown for stations adjacent to and beyond the fault. enter details of the faults removed by concerned LM at the specified mileage or details of office fault if fault is in the office.2.3 Contact Fault P A B C D Q The symptom in this case is induction with AC. Cases occur like intermittent disconnection due to loose joints at transposition points. earth faults due to bad leveling and sagging wires.5 Intermittent Faults: All the above cases dealt are to describe regular faults in persisting fault condition. 8. 8.2. but in this case the switch on C Station side at B station should be disconnected to render working possible in section P and B. The details shall be entered in the following proforma: Date Sub-section Nature of Interruption Fault From To Total Period in Hours.

A recommended method is for the testing official to remain at the tail end of the section under test with an assistant at the control office to give the required tests.2 Quarterly or Half yearly Tests: A joint Test is arranged with the P&T department for conducting Conduction. This test should be taken during the hottest period of the day (i.) between 12 and 13 hours. This should be taken along with the insulation test at the coldest period of the night (4 A. the test is taken from the terminating point of the line from D.e.3. E (Line 1 to Earth) (c) L2.M.).e. If the testing point is at E the staff will be posted at A and E. (a) L1. Conduction test gives the loop resistance of the conductors of the circuit and indicates the condition of joints of way station loop terminations of the line. Tests are taken for sections of 15 to 20 miles and since control working has to be suspended during tests.4 Routine Tests on Control Circuits on Over Head Lines At least six stations are rung at random choosing two stations each from tail end. A being the control end. mid-section and near section of the control circuit.1 Weekly Ringing Test: 8. L2 (Cross insulation) (b) L1. Insulation test gives the leakage of the line and also indicates the insulation resistance of the insulators. The transmission test gives the overall transmission loss of the system and also indicates the magnitude of the insertion losses of the way station equipments. It is ensured that all stations ring properly. E (Line 2 to Earth) IRISET 103 T-14 Train Traffic Control .M. A B C D E Consider the section above. It will be ensured that at E. Three readings are taken. The details are entered in a register maintained for this purpose in the proforma shown below: Date Station Rung Remarks Signature of the Testing official 8. etc. "D" first disconnects the switch to isolate "E" end and an insulation test is taken from E for section D-E. way station fittings.M to 5 A.) between 4 AM and 5 A.3. This test should be taken at the coldest period of the night (i. these tests should be conducted as quickly as possible. Insulation and Transmission loss tests.Interruptions & Routine Tests on Control Circuits 8.

The output is terminated on a standard value of impedance say 600 ohms. then Y-X dB gives the dB loss of the entire circuit with equipment and the defective equipment should further be localised. This value should be checked with the specified dB loss for the conductor used. sections B-E.. When the value of Q & R is not equal. This consists generally of three units. an attenuator and a level meter. For conducting transmission loss test. limb to earth insulation is equal to Q mega ohm. Standard insulation testers known as "Bridge meter" are available in which facilities are provided for measuring resistance also. (b) All the way station equipments are joined to the line.: Line-to-Earth Insulation: Same as above and also indicate whether balanced or unbalanced. The conduction tests for the same section are taken during noon with all offices disconnected. The attenuator setting may vary from -20 to +20 dB and the level for zero dB may vary according to the manufacturer. The bridging impedances now are the selector relay circuits alone. The range may be continuous or may be in certain preset spot frequencies as 400. The tone generator should be an audio frequency oscillator generating frequencies ranging from 100 HZ to 10. and R mega ohm per mile for L1 and L2 respectively. say "Y" dB. The oscillator and attenuator have to be kept at the sending end of section being tested and the level meter at the receiving end. the loss of which is negligible at speech frequencies. Similarly. disconnecting his office and the test is repeated for sections C-E. the tone oscillator. L2 (loop) (b) L1. E (Line I to Earth) (c) L2. "X" dB). but the general standard is 1 mw across 600 ohms. If it is different.e.000 HZ. a transmission measuring kit is required. 800. IRISET 104 T-14 Train Traffic Control . The level meter is similarly calibrated in decibel scale with corresponding ranges from -10 to +20 dB. the output is correctly calibrated as per the dB scale provided on the attenuator. or 1000 c/s.Interruptions & Routine Tests on Control Circuits D then puts the line through. If cross insulation equal to P mega ohm per mile. The reading should be the same as above (i. The Tests Should Be Taken As Follows: (a) All the offices are disconnected and the overall loss of the line above is measured. then P = Q + R and Q = R. three readings are taken: (a) L1. Let this be "X dB". E (Line 2 to Earth) Reading for a conduction test is taken with Wheat-Stone bridge type ohmmeter. and a meter is provided with a red mark on the scale so that if the output control is adjusted for the pointer to coincide with the red mark. In this case also. A-E are tested. then the line is called unbalanced.

v.Interruptions & Routine Tests on Control Circuits (c) Each station is directed to keep the telephone in speaking position and remain on the line and the reading taken. of selectors) iii. During cold weather : 1 M During hot weather :2M per mile. Periodical testing is conducted as per CSTE’s circular of zonal Railways. Transmission loss This depends upon the type of conductor and its loop resistance. i. The loss which is "Z" . vi. This may differ from railway to railway. Conduction: This depends on the type of the conductor. All spare pairs in a cable shall be tested periodically once a year to ensure that they are in good condition. vii. dB loss for line only (indicate total mileage) ii. routine tests shall also be conducted on the cables to ensure that the cable is in good condition and efficiency of the control circuits are maintained. iv. iii. viii. Record your observations as under: i. Insulation Transmission loss Through tone test (Level test) Conduction (Continuity) Cross Talk Psophometric noise Level Repeater amplifier gain Earth 105 T-14 Train Traffic Control IRISET .5 Routine Tests on 4-wire Control Circuits of Underground Cable Apart from the testing to be performed during laying and after laying the cables. This will provide data to decide as to when a cable has served its life and to replace the same in time to avoid complete breakdown. per mile. Let this be "Z". dB loss with all selectors connected (indicate No. dB loss with one telephone at a time switched in (indicate type -of telephone) The Recommended Standards Are As Follows: Insulation: i. Repeat test for all telephones in the circuit under test. ii. 8. This will help in using the same pairs whenever a working pair has been faulty and the control circuit carried by it has to be transferred to one of the spare pairs. Generally the following tests are conducted as per the schedules followed in zonal railways. ii."X" dB should correspond with the specified loss given for the particular type of telephone by the manufacturers.

Isolation Transformers In Cable Huts Disconnect U links of one control circuit at both adjacent VF repeaters Bypass isolation transformers in cables huts as shown in the figure Connect one lead of 100V Megger to one conductor of quad and another to ground then rotate handle of megger fast and record the reading on it Compare this with standard value to know the condition of insulation. i. Two types of insulation measurements to be carried out. 6. Insulation between two pairs of a quad can also be measured. 2.1 Insulation Test : This test is conducted to know the condition of Insulation of the quad cable between two VF Repeater. 4. 5. ii. The test will be conducted with Insulation Megger at 100 VDC (Balanced cable). This can be done on all conductors. Between pairs of a quad only where the quad is untapped between the measuring points. For testing facility one pair of quads of main cable is put through bypassing the transformer at cable huts. This will help to know the condition of the insulation of the cable from repeater to repeater. 3. Between each conductor and earth. For this a tone of 800Hz at 0dBm is used to feed the tone at cable point with appropriate impedance matching. 8.4. The Measured values shall be verified with standard values whether there is any deterioration of insulation or not.4.2 Transmission Loss Test: Tone test on each pair of the quads of the cable is conducted from repeater to repeater. 7. Test Setup VF Repeater VF Repeater 100V Megger Procedure for Insulation Test 1. The standard section loss is given in level diagram of the cable. The insulation of the trunk cable is tested with the help of a Megger of 100V (Balanced cable). Repeat the same for all conductors of the cable.Interruptions & Routine Tests on Control Circuits 8. IRISET 106 T-14 Train Traffic Control .

isolation loss of less than 0.25 dB / KM (loaded cable) and characteristic impedance is 1120 Ω.016 dB /tap The Typical Losses On The Cable Test Setup VF Repeater Isolation Transformers In Cable Huts Oscillator VF Repeater Level Meter Procedure for Transmission Loss Test 1. 5. 3. 8. No 1 2 3 4 Loss Introduced by Quad Cable (Un-Loaded) Quad Cable ( Loaded) Isolation Transformers Bridging loss due to Tapping Table-1 Loss 0. 4.016 dB / tap due to tapping transformers).6 dB/ isolation due to provision of isolating transformers at cable hut and bridging loss of 0.6 dB/isolation 0.25 dB / km. at one Measure its level at the other end repeater on the cable side with a level meter or TMS kit Compute the transmission loss on the cable from these two values This loss should not be more than -20dBm.63 dB/km 0. Disconnect the VF repeater from the cable by removing U links Select proper output impedance Feed a tone of 800Hz at 0dBm to the cable points on one pair of a quad end VF repeater using an Oscillator or TMS kit. The measured cable loss should not exceed 20dB (includes cable loss of 0. Generally it is fixed to –5dBm tone level and every repeater has the output tone level of –5dBm.25 dB/km Less than 0. Each repeater verifies the tone level at the input of the repeater at cable point and compares the reading with the standard section loss of the cable.3 Through Tone Test (Level test): Through tone test is conducted for each working circuit by the Test room. S. 2.4.Interruptions & Routine Tests on Control Circuits The typical cable loss in the telecom cable in RE area is 0. The test room gives the tone of 800Hz at fixed level in the cable point by disconnecting the control side and the level is maintained at every repeater by giving the same output to the next section. 6. The level of tone depends on the sectional loss of the cable. The output tone level of the IRISET 107 T-14 Train Traffic Control .

ii. Main cause for crosstalk is high levels in the channel introducing crosstalk.4 Conduction (Loop) Test: The conduction/loop test is conducted between i. of copper cable is 56 Ohms/Km. 8.9mm dia. The last way station should have a tone level of –20dBm.4. (which depends on the sectional loss given by the level diagram) on Trans pair of a control circuit towards UG cable side Tone level is measured at every VF repeater and its output is adjusted. so that the last way station in the section ahead can receive an input level of -20dBm. it is adjusted as per the loss of the preceding section of the cable. which depends on the sectional loss of cable. 2. 3. cable hut to cable hut and repeater to cable hut in each pair of the cable. IRISET 108 T-14 Train Traffic Control . The maximum gain of an equalizer amplifier is 24 dB. This is also called as Level test and it is conducted by test room for each circuit. The standard value as per IRS-TC 30-1997 for 0. In 4wire TTC systems all control channels or circuits are accommodated on the same quad cable. Sometimes speech in one quad gets into adjacent quads through induction and causes disturbance to speech on those quads. by At Test Room feed 800Hz tone at a fixed level.Interruptions & Routine Tests on Control Circuits repeater is checked to know the standard output level of repeater amplifier. to maintain it at the fixed level. A bridge Megger or a digital multimeter can be used.4. Test Setup Test Room -5dBm VF Repeater -5dBm VF Repeater -5dBm -5dBm VF Repeater Oscillator Level Meter Level Meter Level Meter Procedure Through Tone Test 1. say -5dBm. If it is required to adjust the gain of the amplifier.5 Cross Talk Measurement: Cross Talk means induction due to speech signals in adjacent circuits or channels. 8. The instruments required are Oscillator and Level meters or TMS kits. if required. Disconnect cable points from control office equipment in the Test Room removing U links.

ii. IRISET Feed a tone of 800Hz at 0dBm on one pair of quad-1. Measure for the induced signal on a pair of quad-2 at far end repeater. ii. Measured signal level should be better than -65dB 109 T-14 Train Traffic Control .near-end crosstalk (NEXT) and far-end crosstalk (FEXT). iii. Measured signal level should be better than -61dB Measurement of Far-End Crosstalk (FEXT): For measuring FEXT make arrangements as shown below. 2) Feed a tone of 800Hz at 0dBm on one pair of quad-1 at Repeater A Measure for the induced signal on a pair of quad-2 at the same repeater. iii. Setup Oscillator VF Repeater A Pair of Quad-1 VF Repeater B Pair of Quad-2 Level meter Setup for measuring NEXT Procedure For NEXT i.Interruptions & Routine Tests on Control Circuits The crosstalk is classified into two types . 1) Measurement of Near-End Crosstalk (NEXT): For measuring NEXT make connections as shown below. Crosstalk measurement is carried out between repeater to repeater. Setup Oscillator VF Repeater A Pair of Quad-1 VF Repeater B Pair of Quad-2 Level meter Setup for Measuring FEXT Procedure For FEXT i.

talk meter. Frequency Response is also to be found by feeding all the frequencies in VF range. Setup Input Output Oscillator Level Meter VF Repeater Amplifier Setup for Repeater Amplifiers Gain & Frequency Response Measurements IRISET 110 T-14 Train Traffic Control . Cross talk measurement is done by feeding a 800 Hz tone on one pair of a given quad and measuring the cross talk on one pair of adjacent quad.4.5 dB with pad set to 0dB attenuation. 8. As per the standards of communication circuits the psophometric noise voltage should not exceed 2 mV. Far end cross-talk (FEXT) should be better than –65dB. ii..4. The full amplifier gain is 24 dB ± 0.7 Tests on VF Amplifiers in RE Repeaters: At a repeater station both Trans and Receive Amplifiers gain and frequency response measurements are made periodically. Psophometric test should be done from repeater to repeater. Both types of cross talk measurements are required to be performed ie. iii. 8.Interruptions & Routine Tests on Control Circuits Points to Remember i. Cross talk is to be measured once in a quarter with cross. These measurements are made with the help of TMS kit or an Oscillator and a Level meter. near end (NEXT) and far end (FEXT).6 Psophometric Noise Voltage Measurement: 1) 2) 3) 4) Measurement of psophometric noise voltage on telecom cable should be done once in a year. The gain with different setting of pads should also be measured. Measurements are taken between conductor of a pair and also between conductor and ground. Cross talk measurements are to be carried out between repeater to repeater. v. iv. vi. Near end cross-talk (NEXT) should be better than –61dB. The following tests are performed on VF amplifiers in Repeater stations 1) 2) 3) 4) The Gain of trans and receive amplifiers should be measured once in a month.

The equipment is disconnected from earth electrode by providing alternative earth connection to the equipment.8 Earth test: The test is conducted twice in a year.4.Interruptions & Routine Tests on Control Circuits Procedure 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Make connections as shown above Feed 800Hz tone at -20 dBm level from oscillator to the input terminals of TX Repeater amplifier.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Name of Test Attenuation/Transmission Loss Test Cross Talk Test Noise Level Test Loop Resistance/ Conduction Test Insulation Test Level Test Earth Test VF Amplifier Gain Measurement Frequency Response of VF Amplifiers Psophometric Noise Measurement Periodicity Monthly Quarterly Half Yearly Yearly Table-3 IRISET 111 T-14 Train Traffic Control .4. Cable Not more than Huts and Way stations Screen/Armour Earth for AluminumNot more than Sheathed Telecom Cable Surge arrestors / lighting dischargers of Not more than Telecom Equipment Table-2 8. The value should be less than 5 ohms. Limits of Earth Resistances Values S.9 Periodicity of Tests on UG Cable Circuits: The following table gives the schedule for periodical tests performed on UG cable control circuits. the measurement of earth resistance with each electrode is taken and recorded. one test is conducted before the monsoon and another test is conducted after the monsoon. If there are multiple electrodes for parallel earthing.No 1 2 3 Equipment Earth Resistance Required 5 1 10 value Equipment earth in VF repeaters. These test are carried out from Repeater to Repeater S. Measure the output with level meter Compute the gain Repeat the same steps for RX amplifier 8.

_________________________ Value of psophometric noise level should be below ______________________ Subjective: 1.Interruptions & Routine Tests on Control Circuits Objective: 1. 6. 3. 2. 7.____________ On UG cable circuits transmission loss test periodicity is ________________________ Time for taking insulation test on overhead lines. What is the procedure for frequency response test of VF Repeater amplifiers? IRISET 112 T-14 Train Traffic Control . 6. Mention the faults occurring on overhead lines. 4. The symptom for contact fault on overhead lines is __________________________ Interval for measuring attenuation/transmission loss on overhead lines. 5. What is the procedure followed for locating the disconnection on overhead lines? List out different test carried out on quad cable circuits periodically. Show with table the periodicity of various tests on UG cable circuits. How do you conduct transmission loss measurement on UG cable circuits? Explain with a sketch the procedure involved in conducting Insulation test on UG cable lines. 7. 2. Twist fault can occur only on _____________________lines ________________ sounds is the result of an earth fault on overhead circuits. _________________________ Time for taking conduction test on overhead lines. 5. 8. 4. 3.

Fault localization and restoration is generally called as trouble shooting.2. IRISET Problem may be in Controller equipment or Disconnection in quad between controller and test room 113 T-14 Train Traffic Control .9 TROUBLE SHOOTING OF DTMF EQUIPMENT 9. v. ii. 9. To avoid this.Troubleshooting of DTMFEquipment CHAPTER . ii. iv. iii.2 LIKELY FAULTS ON CONTROL SYSTEMS 9.2. immediate localization and restoration of faults is needed.1 Trouble Shooting In case of any faults on control circuits the Control Communication between control office and way stations is interrupted and subsequently the movement of trains is affected badly. ii. iii. Causes: This problem may be due to i.1 One Way Speech to Controller: a) No Trans From Controller : This means way stations do not receive controller speech.2 Both Way Speech Loss at Controller: There is no speech in either direction Causes: i. iv. v. Causes: i. Disconnected or defective earphone or loud speaker Receive amplifier gain may be very low or amplifier IC may be defective Disconnection between amplifier output to the terminal strip on the back of the equipment Disconnection in receive cable-pair U-links are not put through or defective U-links in test room panel One by one these aspects are to be checked to localize the fault. 9. The likely causes for this problem can be Microphone or mouth piece may be defective or got disconnected Trans amplifier gain may be very low or amplifier IC may be defective Disconnection between amplifier output and the terminal strip on the back of the equipment Disconnection in trans cable-pair U-links may not be put through or may be open in the test room panel One by one these aspects are to be checked to localize the fault. b) No Receive to Controller from any Way Station: This means that controller does not receive speech of any way stations.

Disconnection in the receive pair Wrong setting of station code at that particular way station or stations. d) Continuous Ringing Causes: i. This may occur due to • Break in the test room panel board • Or no output from terminal repeater in the test room. v. The problem may be in the test room. IRISET Due to faulty output IC in the DTMF decoder unit DTMF decoder circuit doesn’t get reset after ringing period due to break in the circuit Due to faulty Flip Flop/ Mono-shot IC 114 T-14 Train Traffic Control . iv. The main cause of this problem can be a break or short in the Trans pair beyond the way station at this point. No Ringing at All Way Stations in the Entire Section c) Causes: i. iii. ii. a) No Ringing At A Way Station Causes: i. ii. This means more than one contact may be made ON in either First Digit DIP switch or Second Digit DIP switch.Troubleshooting of DTMFEquipment 9. Or if all these stations are located immediately after a repeater. Check for the correctness of the above mentioned things one by one till the fault is located and problem is solved. Power supply may not be extended Problem may be in the piezo buzzer itself Or any IC or component in the decoder circuit may be faulty iii. that particular repeater output may not be present. b) No Ringing at All Way Stations Beyond a Point Causes: i.2. ii.3 No Ringing : a) At one or two way stations b) At all way stations beyond a point c) At all way stations in the entire section. The problem may be in the controller equipment such as • No DTMF signal output from it or • Its DTMF signal level may be very low or • Tone sending relay may not be operating ii.

This can be confirmed by taking tone test with the help of TMS kit. v. Generally. connected Procedure For Locating The Fault: i. Compare this with the level shown in Level chart. This fault is clearly in the Repeater. ii. IRISET 115 it is free from T-14 Train Traffic Control . iii.5 No Communication Between Way Stations Cause: i. (Because amplifier gain is +24dB and selectable attenuation is between 0dB to –15dB. This problem is solved by balancing the cable.2. The main cause of this problem is Leak Amplifier may not be between the trans and receive pairs. Remedy : i) First find out the control circuit having high level on its line by taking level test.6 Singing On Control Circuits Cause: The main cause for singing is high levels on the line Remedy : Locate the VF repeater having high gain. Check the working of leak amplifier by tone test Its gain should be –20 dB max.Troubleshooting of DTMFEquipment 9. Then adjust it to normal level for restoration of the system 9.2. iv. iii. If no output from the LA check first the DIP switch connecting it to the control circuit.2. In spite of this if cross talk is there on control circuits it can be due to the following reason ii) High levels on any control circuits in the cable can also induce crosstalk into adjacent circuits in the cable.7 Cross Talk On Control Circuits Cause: i) It is already known that the main cause of cross talk in cable circuits is the capacitive unbalances in the cable.2. No output or low output from the repeater equipment Procedure For Locating The Fault: i. ii) Reduce gain on the circuit inducing crosstalk to normal level iii) Then take cross talk tests on the disturbed circuit to confirm cross talk.) 9.4 No Speech or Low Speech Beyond a VF Repeater Cause: i. Feed any tone in VF range at –10 dB level to the input of repeater trans amplifier and measure its output. ii. the out of a repeater falls between –1dB to + 14 dB. 9. If there is no output check the amplifier circuit and fix the fault.

9.r.t figure 9.1 Trouble Shooting of Tummala make 4-wire DTMF Way station Equipment ( w. IRISET 116 T-14 Train Traffic Control .Troubleshooting of DTMFEquipment 9.3 Circuit Trouble Shooting Procedure As Given By A Manufacturer The following is the trouble suiting procedure for Way station Equipment as given by M/s Tummala Electronics 9.2.3.8 Noise Hum on Control Circuits Cause: i) Due to low insulation of cable ii) Due to entry of water into paper quads of cable iii) Due to earth contacts iv) Due to contacts between conductors caused in a damaged cable v) Due to a defective joint on cable Remedy : i) Take insulation test and find out the 9. Localize the spot and replace it with a new piece of cable at that area.3) The following TEST Equipment are required for trouble suiting Way Station Equipment: (a) 3½ digit multi-meter (b) Test Jig (c) 12 V @ 100 mA DC power Supply with current limit.2.2. 9.9 Hum On Control Circuits Cause: Hum is generally caused by the chargers used at repeater stations/at test room and also due to earth faults on the line. Remedy : Locate the source of hum by sequentially switching of chargers in the route one by one and attend to the fault to eliminate the hum.10 Recurring Interruption on a Circuit Recurring interruption on control circuits is generally caused due to low insulation resulted by water entry into the cable joints.

If so switch off DC power to the equipment and remove ICs marked. and Q5. TP 11 goes high if the corresponding Dipswitch is ON. else replace IC2. XII. Press keys 1. and IC4 to IC 10 before carrying out any further testing. When a Group code button is pressed. else change Dipswitch. TP4 should go high momentarily and return to 0 after about 1 second. 2 …9. else replace IC5. else replace IC7 or Q2 after checking Q4. TP6 goes high when the general call button is pressed the second time. else replace IC3 or D7. Buzzer should be ON if TP 10 momentarily touched to ground. Press general call twice while monitoring TP6. else check the power supply lead wires etc. VI. Press first digit of the code then TP5 should go high momentarily. IC1. At TP1 measure the voltage. Press first digit and second digit keys in sequence. Check the DC voltage at the test points mentioned below: IV.Troubleshooting of DTMFEquipment a) DTMF Decoder The following step-by-step test plan is to be adopted whenever a DTMF receiver is to be serviced. else replace IC4. Connect the ground lead of the multi-meter (set to 20 VDC range) to the ground (12V point) of the equipment. else replace Buzzer after checking Q4. 0 successively and check whether the corresponding point on the code setting terminal block goes to 5V. V. else replace IC6. IC2. TP7 goes high.25V. TP2 voltage should be 5V +/-0. when a key is depressed. XI. X. marked +12V & 12V with proper polarity. It should be greater than or equal to 9V. again TP6 should go high. Apply 12V± 3VDC to the battery terminals of the equipment. Press general call twice. IRISET 117 T-14 Train Traffic Control . else replace IC4 IX. Press G on the test jig. They should be at about 3 V AC (change the multi-meter setting to read the AC voltage). XIII. I. If the standing current is less than 25mA then continue testing as shown below. NOTE: TP3 will remain high until the key on the test jig is released. – II. VIII. III. VII. Press general call twice and monitor TP8 and collector of Q2. Connect test jig output to TRANS terminals of the equipment and check whether the test point marked3 on the equipment is going high. Also check whether equipment is drawing more than 25mA of current. else replace IC5.

iii. b) i. else replace IC3. IC9. Check for the flashing of LED and buzzer sound. check for the action of the relay RL1. IRISET 118 T-14 Train Traffic Control .Troubleshooting of DTMFEquipment XIV. Check and replace buzzer if not coming ON. Short the terminal marked Bz to-12 V. Speech Circuit Check whether 12 V supply is available on the terminals marked + 12V& -12 V on the rosette. Relay RL1 and Transformer TR1 iv. Short terminal marked PTT to –12 V. ii. if provided. Now the current should be less than 20m A. v. If the supply cannot be realized then check any fuse. remove all ICs except IC3 as suggested and monitor the current. If the current exceeds 20m A by inserting a particular IC. If no speech is going to controller check Microphone connections. Switch OFF the power supply and insert one IC at a time and monitor the current each time. replace it and continue testing. If the LED is not flashing check the telephone and the connecting wires. If the relay does not operate when PTT is shorted then change the relay after ensuring continuity of telephone cord. After ensuring fuses connection check reception in telephone and Transformer TR2 as well as IC8 in the equipment. In case the equipment is drawing more than 25m A of standing current while conducting test 4 above.

1UF 10UF D9 D14 D15 D16 2 D17 ST 15 9 10 8 7 6 5 4 18 17 20 13 16 15 14 11 DT 19 6 R14 3 14 D4 100K 1 4 7 IC1 8870 13 D3 R5 12 D2 5V 5V A B C D SW DIP-4 R34 270K 14 RC 1 2 3 4 8 7 6 5 SW 11 D1 O/P R19 100K C32 0.10F 5V 4001 R38 10K Q4 TP10 4.12V NC +12V MIC -VE RX BZ PTT LED 10UF 12V 6 2 C14 12v 100MA D5 D6 18Z3 2.1UF 220K R18 C28 0.8M 034 0.1UF 5V 10K TP4 R13 100K TP11 TP3 C24 C23 IC4A 4538 2 C27 10UF 1 4 5 5V RC CX +T 7 -T R 3 100K 0.9.33UF R31 10M 8 9 10 IC7C 4093 TP8 R32 10K RBT O/P R33 1K BZ Q2 SK100 5V Y1 3.1UF 0.33UF 12 5V R30 270K TP9 13 C31 IC7D 4093 11 0.57M 8 10 IC10A 1 2 IC6B 4538 Q R35 10K 10 3 5 6 9 5V 5V 4001 C40 C33 10UF 15 CX 12 +T -T R 1 3 11 9 5 6 3 IC7B 4093 R36 12 13 O/P 1 4 2 5V IC7A 4093 RELAY IC100 11 GND R39 100E D20 6.1UF R23 100K 5V 5V 5V R16 2 3 1 S T D19 R21 100K FIRST DGT C21 D4 22 D4 N N I V C C CODE 620E D3 21 D2 3 D1 2 D3 D2 D1 2 4 Fig.2UF 1K / 1W C15 10UF R1 100E 2 C13 R9 R8 10K D1 R7 470E RL1 4 5V 5V 8 C26 R24 47K 14 RC Q 3 CLK K R 4 TP6 Q 2 5 Q R 9 6 J S Q CX +T -T 10 1 6 5 15 12 5V 11 5 C17 1UF RELAY GND IN4003 6 D4 08Z2 12V 8 TX C19 R11 10E 12V 9 1 16 RELAY DPDT 13 11 10UF Troubleshooting of DTMFEquipment C18 TP5 10UF 6 8 TRANS TRANS REC REC GND +12V IRISET TB1 TB2 1 3 4 5 6 7 8 2 C1 R2 10E IC5A 7 4027 IC10B 4001 TP7 R29 220K 2 C29 10UF 1 4 R10 5K 2 + 3 47KPF R12 220E C20 100UF 5 IC9 LM386 IC6A 4538 RC CX +T 4 5V IC10C 8 9 R27 4001 10 5 -T R Q 7 5V Q 6 O/P RT 150E 4 1 CX IC4B 4538 5V 1 3 R22 220K SECOND DGT C25 0.1UF C22 R15 330K R17 1 10K IC2 4514 Q 6 10 13 11 Q S J CLK K 9 IC58 4027 Q 15 1 8 1 7 6 Y1 Y2 Y3 Y4 Y5 Y6 Y7 Y8 Y9 Y0 YA YB YC OL C30 14 R 1 2 Q 0.3 01 BC107 a b c d e f g h i j a b c d e f g h i j a b c d e f g h i j 119 R25 47K 0.WIRE DTMF WAY STATION EQUIPMENT (M/s TUMMALA MAKE) .2V C35 0.2UF TR2 D3 08Z2 1 3 F1 2 4 5 6 RBT O/P 6 R4 100E C10 100UF TP2 5V 8 5 8 C6 47KPF 2 8Z1 TP1 IN4003 1 VI C16 10UF D7 6.7K T-14 Train Traffic Control 4 .2V 2 IC3 LM7805 V0 3 G N D R6 10K R3 50K TP12 + 3 - 5 IC8 LM386 D2 12V TR1 C2 4 1 10UF IN4003 6 2.01UF R40 BZ1 R41 100K R42 10K Q5 BC107 5V Q 6.

What are the likely causes if there is no speech to controller from any way station? What are the likely causes for no ringing at a way station? Mention causes and remedial procedure for no/low speech beyond a point on control circuit.Troubleshooting of DTMFEquipment Objective: 1. 3. There is no communication beyond an intermediate VF repeater. 4. The cause may be _________________________________________________ Subjective: 1. If there is no trans from controller one of the likely cause can be _____________________ If there no ringing at a way station one of the likely cause can be _____________________ ______________________can result in both way communication loss with the controller. 2. 3. 2. What is the cause of crosstalk and the procedure to find IRISET 120 T-14 Train Traffic Control . 4.

1) IRS TC: 38/97 (Amd.F. 1120: 1120 .1) IRS TC 37/97 (Amd. 2) IRS TC 68/2004 Amd-1 Overhead Item 21 Insulator Light Weight Unbreakable Polycarbonate IRS TC: 32/2007 Amd-1 IRISET 121 T-14 Train Traffic Control . Six Pin Emergency Plug And Socket Multi Channel Voice Recorder Voice Frequency Communication Underground Quad cable System For Specification / Drawing No.1) IRS TC: 78/2000 (Amd. 4) 13 14 15 16 17 18 Control Equipment for OFC 19 20 Control Communication Equipment for OFC (CCEO) Using 2-Wire Telephone.1) IRS TC:61/93 (Amd.F.1) IRSTC:79/2000(Amd. cable circuits. 1120: 600 & 470 : 1120 V. 12 Way DTMF Telephone 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Universal Wayside DTMF Control Telephone Emergency Control Room Equipment Light Weight Portable Control Telephone 4-Wire Way Station Control Telephone 2 –Wire Way Station Control Telephone 4-Wire/2 Wire Combined Portable Control Telephone Magneto Telephone Desk Type Desk Type Electronic Magneto Telephone Power Supply Unit For Telecom Installations At Way Side Stations In 25 KV Electrified Area 48V SMPS Power Plant For Indian Railways Telecom Equipments With FR/FC Module Auto Dialing System From Emergency Socket in RE Area V.2) IRS TC: 72-97 (Amd.Troubleshooting of DTMFEquipment ANNEXURE-1 List of RDSO Specifications for Different Telecommunication Items S. Multiplexer (Primary & Drop Insert) RDSO/SPN/TC/66/2007 (Amd.1) RDSO/SPN/TL/23/99 (Ver-3) Amd-1 IRS: S-83/2007 Amd-1 IRS TC:22/76 IRS TC: 76/2000 with Amd-1 IRS TC : 42/87 (Amd .1) IRS TC: 75/99 (Amd-2) IRS TC: 36/97 (Amd. 1) IRS TC 82/ 2005 (Amd.1) RDSO/SPN/TC/38/2002 (Rev.No Name of Telecommunication Item 1 2 4 Wire / 2 Wire Train Traffic Control Equipment with Dual Tone Multi Frequency ( DTMF ) Signalling Repeater Station Equipment Desk Type 2 Wire. IRS TC: 60/2007 IRS TC 50-90 IRS TC 80/2000 (Amd. Tapping Transformer .1.1) Amd-1 RDSO/SPN/TC/34/2002 (Ver. Transformers (2T/3T) Suitable for underground telecom.

Thermo Shrink Jointing Kit For Jointing Underground Quad Cable Thermo Shrink Jointing Kit For Jointing Underground PIJF Cable IRS TC. (Rev.1 RDSO/SPN/TC/67/ 2008 (Rev-1) RDSO/SPN/TC/62/2008. 1.2 ) IRS TC 30/2005 (Ver.4 mm dia Copper Conductor 4/6 Quad Cable Fibre Distribution Management System Joint Closure for Composite (Optical & Quad) Underground Armoured Cable. Telecom Cable & Accessories 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 PIJF Telephone Cable Underground Railway Jelly Filled Quad Cables For Signaling And Telecom Installations 24 Fiber Armoured Optic Fiber Cable Composite Underground Armoured Cable Consisting of 6 Copper Quads And 8/24 Fibers 1.-2.41/97(Amd.0) RDSO/SPN/TC/72/2007(Amdt. 1. Electronic L. based announcement System.-1) Amd.0) (Amdt-1) IRS TC 77/2006(Rev.1 RDSO/SPN/TC/50/2007 (Rev 5.1) Amd. Rev-3 RDSO/SPN/TC/071/2008 (Rev.0) Amd-1 Miscellaneous Telecommunication Items 31 32 33 34 LC Gate Control Equipment Using Wired & Wireless Data Communication.No.-2. Amd-2 RDSO/SPN/TC/61/2007. No.No Name of Telecom Item Specn. True Colour Video cum Train Information Display System.Troubleshooting of DTMFEquipment S./ Drg.1 RDSO/SPN/TC/57/2006 (Rev. 4 IRS TC:55/2006 Rev-1 Amd.C Gate Telephone System Emergency Socket Box of FRP Material Integrated Passenger Information System Consisting of train Indication coach guidance and P.1 35 36 37 38 IRISET 122 T-14 Train Traffic Control .0) With Amdt.0) Amdt. Digital Clock with GPS Synchronization Fibre Distribution Management System for Composite (Optical and Quad ) Underground Armoured Cable Integrated Way Station Control Communication Equipment RDSO/SPN/TC/49/2003 Version 3 RDSO/SPN/TC/51/2004 (Ver.C.2.-1 RDSO/SPN/TC/56/2007(Rev.-1 RDSO/SPN/TC/70/2007 With Amendment.1) RDSO/SPN/TC/037/2000 (Ver.-0) Amdt-2 RDSO/SPN/TC/44/2002 Ver. 3) Amdt.

1 Automatic Radio Patching System for Control Circuit TC 59-93 using DTMF Signalling in Optic Fiber Communication IRISET 123 T-14 Train Traffic Control . 19. 14. 2. 13. Underground Rly Jelly filled quad cables for Signaling Amendment -1 and Telecom Installation. TC 36-97 2Wire way station control telephone with ElectroTC 37-97 dynamic transducer. 15. Dehydrator System for Microwave Link. TC 48-90 Polystyrene Condenser for Balancing and Building out TC 49-93 Network. Specification for Loading Coil joints. Amendment -2 Amendment -3 Amendment -4 Light weight unbreakable plastic insulator for TC 32-2007 overhead telegraph and telephone lines. cable with Poly-Al Moisture Barrier. Code of practice for protection of Radio relay station TC 39-86 against lighting. Cable Termination boxes (Indoor) for Railway Electrified Area. 20. 11. TC 41-97 Polythene insulated polythene sheathed jelly filled telephone. 18. 10. 4.1 with Amendment –1. 8. TC 43-87 Cross Talk Measuring Sets. Magneto telephone with Electro-dynamic transducer. 5.F. 22. Specification No. TC 50-90 TC 55-2006. and Signaling Transformers used for derivation and Termination of Underground Telecommunication Cable Circuits. TC 45-88 Junction Equipment and speech Conversion TC 46-88 Equipment used in AC Electrified Area.Pin Emergency Plug and Socket. Amendment -1 Amendment -2 Six . 16. 6. C. 12.No 1. 9. Balancing Condensers. Repeater Station Equipment.Troubleshooting of DTMFEquipment ANNEXURE-2 LIST OF TELECOM SPECIFICATIONS (IRS :TC) S. 24 F Armoured Optical Fiber Cable. 3. 4 Wire way station control telephone with ElectroTC 38-97 dynamic transducer. TC 10-73 TC TC TC TC TC TC 11-73 13-2000 18-75 22-76 29-81 30-05 7. Item Minimum performance requirements for long system for 120 Channels on Indian Railways. TC 42-87 Transmission Measuring Sets. Rev. 17. 21. Digital Capacitance Unbalance Measuring set.

Emergency Control Room Equipment. 33. TC 75-99 TC 76-2000 2T/3T VF Transformer. Amendment -1 Light weight portable control telephone (4Wire/2Wire). 38. TC 67-94 TC 68-04 Primary Digital Multiplexing Equipment. With corrigendum Auto Dialling System in RE area TC 83-2007 IRISET 124 T-14 Train Traffic Control . Electro-dynamic Transducer. 34. TC 64-94 (34+2)MB 7GHz Digital Microwave Antenna. 26. TC 80-2000 TC 82-2005 Universal way station control telephone.Troubleshooting of DTMFEquipment 23. 7GHz Microwave Antenna. 36.1 Power supply unit (PSIJ) for Telecom Installation at way TC 72-97 side stations in 25 KV Electrified Area. 25. Amendment . Thermo shrink jointing kits for jointing underground quad Rev. 24. 29.. 35. 31. 32. TC 79-2000 Desk Type 2wire 12 way DTMF Telephone. Amendment -1 TC 77-2006. TC 61-93 2MB Digital UHF Equipment. 4 Wire/ 2 Wire train traffic control equipment with Dual TC 60-2007 Tone Multi Frequency (DTMF ) Signaling. TC 74-97 4Wire/2Wire Portable Emergency Control Telephone. 37. 28. 27. TC 78-2000 Desk Type Electronic Megneto Telephone. TC 66-94 3M dia.1 cable. 30.

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