Determination of Radio Refractivity Using Meteorological Data

Mindaugas Žilinskas
Department of Radio Communication, Communications Regulatory Authority of the Republic of Lithuania, Faculty of Physics, Vilnius University, Vilnius, Lithuania mzilinskas@rrt.lt

Stasys Tamošiūnas, Milda Tamošiūnaitė
Institute of Applied Research, Vilnius University Vilnius, Lithuania stasys.tamosiunas@ff.vu.lt milda.tamosiunaite@ff.stud.vu.lt

Milda Tamošiūnienė
Semiconductor Physics Institute Vilnius, Lithuania milda@pfi.lt
Abstract—Seasonal and daily variations of radio refractivity have been analyzed in the localities of Lithuania. The method proposed in the Recommendation of International Telecommunication Union (ITU) has been used. The local meteorological data have been used in calculation of radio refractivity. The values of radio refractivity have been determined in Vilnius, Kaunas, Klaipėda, and Mažeikiai. The meteorological data collected in February, April, July and October have been used. The highest values of the radio refractivity have been observed in Klaipėda in the year 2009. In July 2009, the values of the radio refractivity were highest in all localities investigated here and over all the time of the day. Keywords- electromagnetic wave; propagation; radio refractive index; atmospheric refractivity

index [4]. The climatic conditions are very changeable and unstable in Lithuania [5]. The territory of Lithuania belongs to the area where there is the excess of moisture. The relative humidity is about 70% in spring and in summer while in winter it is as high as 85 – 90% [6]. Lithuanian climate is also characterized by large temperature fluctuations. Difference between the warmest and coldest months the temperature is 21.8oC [5]. It was noted in [7], [8], that even small changes of temperature, humidity and partial water vapor pressure lead to changes in the atmospheric refractive index. Short time variation of the refractive index over line-of–sight paths of approximately 3 km in mountainous coastal waters using X– band was presented in [4]. In [9], the measurements of these meteorological parameters were made in the different time of year and different time of the day. The values of the refractive index have been determined by using measured meteorological data. In [10], it was mentioned that seasonal variation of refractivity gradient could cause microwave systems unavailability. Having in mind the variable character of Lithuanian climatic conditions, the influence of the climatic peculiarities on the electromagnetic waves attenuation in the Baltic Sea region has been analyzed in [11] – [12] where the electromagnetic waves attenuation due to the rain and attenuation due to the clouds have been analyzed. In this paper, our activities will be concentrated on the analysis of the seasonal and daily variations of the atmospheric radio refractivity at the Earth’s surface in Lithuania. II. CALCULATION OF RADIO REFRACTIVITY

I.

INTRODUCTION

In design of the radio communication networks, it is important to know the atmospheric radio refractive index (the ratio of the velocity of propagation of a radio wave in free space to the velocity in a specified medium [1]). The knowledge of refractive index is always required when measurements are made in air [2]. The path of a radio ray becomes curved when the radio wave propagates through the Earth’s atmosphere by reason of the variations in the atmospheric refractivity index along its trajectory [1], [3]. Refractivity of the atmosphere affects not only the curvature of the radio ray path but gives some insight into the fading phenomenon [1]. The anomalous electromagnetic wave propagation can be a problem for radars because the variation of the refractive index can induce loss of radar coverage [4]. In practice, the propagation conditions are more complicated in comparison with the conditions predictable in design of radio system in most cases. The meteorological conditions have a significant impact on radio wave propagation through atmosphere. The anomalous propagation is due to the variations of the humidity, temperature and pressure that cause variations in the refractive

A. The refractivity N The value of the radio refractive index n is very close to the unit and the changes in this value are very small in the time and in the space.

Kaunas. the average value of N ≈ 315 [1] is used. The values of the coefficients a. The values of temperature. e= where Hes 100 (3) ⎛ bt ⎞ es = a exp ⎜ ⎟ ⎝t+c⎠ (4) with t temperature (°C). and atmospheric pressure were taken from http://rp5.ru/archive. The refractivity is expressed in N – units. for frequencies up to 100 GHz. The highest values of N were in July in all the localities investigated here and over all the time of the day.65 was in Vilnius. In Vilnius and Kaunas.11 was in Klaipėda and minimum one N = 296. Calculation of the partial water vapor pressure e The relationship between the partial water vapor pressure e and the relative humidity H (%) is [1]: Figure 1. Dependences of average value of N on the time of day in Vilnius. Dependences of average value of N on the time of day in Mažeikiai. that expression (2) may be used for all radio frequencies. It is seen. the diurnal variations of radio refractivity are not marked. the term of radio refractivity N is used [1]. There are two terms (the “dry term” and the “wet term”) in relationship (2). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION until nine o’clock in the afternoon in all localities investigated here excepting in Klaipėda. The partial water vapor pressure e was determined by using (3) and (4). This may explain the difference between the daily variations of N in Klaipėda and in other localities analyzed here. and Mažeikiai) situated in the Continental Part of Lithuania and it are slightly different in Seacoast (in Klaipėda). es is a saturation vapor pressure (hPa) at t (°C) temperature.With the aim of making them more notable. p (hPa) is the atmospheric pressure. The climate of Continental Part of Lithuania is typical climate of the middle part of the East Europe. In Mažeikiai and Klaipėda. B. maximum monthly variations of N were observed in April (see Table II). 1 – 4. The difference in the climate of Continental and Sea coastal parts of territory of Lithuania was emphasized in [5] and [11]. e (hPa) is partial water vapor pressure. The data presented in Figs. The values of the refractivity N have been determined by using (2). the error is less than 0. It was mentioned in [1] and [13]. At the Sea level. the diurnal variations of N–value are small in all localities. The climate of Klaipėda is specified as moderate warm climate. In Klaipėda.5%. [13]: N = ( n − 1) × 10 6 . and Klaipėda in different months of the year 2009 are presented in Figs. Kaunas. and the difference ΔN between maximum N–values and minimum ones (yearly variation of N–value) are presented. In Table I. The dependences of average value of N on the time of day in Vilnius. . The lowest values of N were in April in the noontime and in the afternoon Figure 2. maximum N–values and minimum ones. The behaviors of the dependences of refractivity N on the diurnal time are similar in all the localities (Vilnius. humidity. According to the Recommendation of ITU [13]: (1) N= 77. The highest value of ΔN was in Kaunas and the lowest one was in Klaipėda.php?wmo_. III. Mažeikiai.6 ⎛ e⎞ ⎜ p + 4810 ⎟ T ⎝ T⎠ (2) where T (K) is a temperature.1–4 show that in February and in October. b and c (for water and for ice) are presented in [1]. maximum monthly variations were observed in July. that the yearly maximum N–value N = 350.

In Table IV.49 44. Dependences of average value of N on the time of day in Klaipėda.50 313.74 313. TABLE IV.50 N-units 312.98 1.TABLE II. The results obtained here. Figure 4.11 312. It was concluded in [14] that during the warm season the radio refractivity gradient is more sensitive to moisture gradients than to temperature gradients. Dependences of average value of N on the time of day in Kaunas. THE MAXIMUM YEARLY N–VALUE.33 12. the monthly variation of N in Mažeikiai is twice as much than N variation in Klaipėda.65 303.07 has been obtained in February 2009 in Klaipėda and this value is near one measured in Sea coast of Latvia [10].35 350.61 41.07 6. Such behavior of refractivity variation has been observed in the localities investigated here.97 313. It was concluded in [10]. THE REFRACTIVITY N IN KLAIPĖDA IN FEBRUARY 2009 Time of day 00:00 03:00 06:00 09:00 12:00 15:00 18:00 21:00 Refractivity.38 7.11 296.61 312. THE DIFFERECE ΔNm BETWEEN THE MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM MONTHLY Nm – VALUES IN YEAR 2009 Locality Vilnius Mažeikiai Kaunas Klaipėda Difference Δ Nm. Refractivity N.56 313.98 344. THE AVERAGE N–VALUES IN THE LOCALITIES OF LATVIA [10] Locality Liepaja Ventspils Riga Daugavpilis Figure 3. N-units February April July October 1.85 . N-units Febryary August 315 314 313 313 339 338 335 332 In July.17 TABLE III. N-units Maximum N–value Minimum N–value Difference ΔN 338. TABLE I. The data presented in [10] show that the N – values are the highest in Seacoast in winter and they are lower in the Continental part of territory. Daugavpilis is situated in Continental part of Latvia.49 299.99 2.24 13.74 14.58 15.77 37. The average daily N –value N = 313. Liepaja and Ventspils are situated on Baltic Sea cost. The following results were obtained by measuring practically in Latvia: ~313 N – units in February and ~336N – units in August as shown in Table III [9].90 2.84 42.35 3.49 345.91 2.38 2. that the variation of the relative humidity is more noticeable in the warm seasons. The meteorological data collected in the localities investigated here show.59 14.22 312.31 1.58 312. the theoretical refraction coefficient for Latvian territory is ~310 N – units (in February) and ~340 N – units (in August). that refractivity gradient variation has noticeable influence in coastal regions of Latvia during the summer time neither in winter. According to [10]. show that such peculiarity of behavior of N–variation has been observed in Lithuanian territory: The highest N–values were observed in Klaipėda in all seasons of the year 2009. AND DIFFERECE ΔN BETWEEN THESE VALUES IN YEAR 2009 Locality Vilnius Mažeikiai Kaunas Klaipėda Refractivity.12 2. THE MINIMUM YEARLY N–VALUE. we present the values of the refractivity N at different time of the day averaged over the month in February 2009 in Klaipeda.

Journal of Atmospheric and Solar–Terrestrial Physics." Annales Geographicae. pp. vol. pp. Norland. The yearly maximum N–value N = 350. pp. 1985. 2008. pp. J. Bagdonas. M. REFERENCES [1] R. No. [6] .07 has been obtained in February 2009 in Klaipėda and this value is near one measured in Sea Coast of Latvia [10]. pp. pp. Brewster. 39. Bukantis. Journal of Infrared and Millimeter Waves. M. Journal of Atmospheric Surface Layer. Zilinskas. It was estimated that the values of refractivity N were highest in July (in all localities investigated here) round the clock. D. 490– 493. “The dynamics of the Baltic Sea Region climate humidity in 1950–2004. 6. N. 3rd ed. The highest N–values were observed in Klaipėda. 2006. Serdega and G. vol.CONCLUSIONS The average daily N –value N = 313. In February and in October. “Variation of radio refractivity with respect to moisture and temperature and influence on radar ray path”.2. Hill. Zilinskas. B. 3..65 was in Vilnius in the year 2009. “Calculation of radio signal attenuation using annual precipitation and heavy rainfall data”. pp. Karalevičienė. Wroclaw: Oficyna Wydawnicza Politechniki Wroclawskiej. 2008. “Study on the vertical profile of refractive index in the troposphere”. 23. “Refractive index and atmospheric correction to the distance to the Earth’s artificial satellites”. 21. New York: WILEY–INTERSCIENCE. S. Kinematics and Physics of Celestial Bodies. Guo and S. Xue. 2007. Advances in Atmospheric Sciences.221–224. the daily variations of N–value are small in all localities. 236–243. 2. 1098–1106. M. M. pp. Int. R.1. M. Radio System Design for Telecommunications. Freeman. Tamosiuniene. Dutton. Recommmendation ITU–R P. Wroclaw. 2006. vol. No. J. M. 4. “Refraction seasonal variation and that influence on to GHz range microwaves availability”. No. The radio refractive index: its formula and refractivity data. 1968. 78. The Reference Book of Agrometeorologist." PIERS Online.84–88. vol. 5–14. Priestley and R. Poland. L. 24–26 May 2006. Vilnius: Mokslas. A. 1103–1111.. [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [2] [3] [4] [13] [14] [5] J. No. 25. 2. R. Gao. South Western Nigeria”. Tamosiunaite. 68. No. Tamosiunas and M. Krakow. 2000. Ajewole. 6. Pankauskas. 39–42. “Radio refractive index in the lowest 100– m layer of the troposphere in Akure. 28–30 June 2006. 7. 2007. vol. J. Kablak. 18 th International Wroclaw Symposium and Exhibition on Electromagnetic Compatibility. “Measuring High–Frequency Refractive Index in the Surface Layer”. Tamosiunas. O. No.. 2007. The highest value of ΔN was in Kaunas and the lowest one was in Klaipėda. Tamosiuniene. Li. and M. vol. 321– 324. Ivanovs. 1987 (in Lithuanian). New York: Dover Publications. Radio Meteorology. January 2006 (in Lithuanian). G. JOHN WILEY&SONS.453–9 (1970-1986-1990-1992-1994-19951997-1999-2001-2003). 233–251. S. vol.11 was in Klaipėda and minimum one N = 296. 2006. pp. I. and A. Falodun. T. Bean and E. S. “The influence of the climatic peculiarities on the electromagnetic waves attenuation in the Baltic Sea region. E. R. K. pp. Electronics and Electrical Engineering. “Temporal variation of the refractive index in coastal waters”. No. INC. No.2. Proceedings of International Radar Symposium IRS 2006. vol.

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