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to different organisation perspectives, namely modernism, symbolic-interpretive, post-modernism, and critical theory perspective. In this essay, I will talk about the determinants of power, control and resistance, and also the different ideas about the nature of organisations. As mentioned by Lewis (2000), modernism was born in the 18th century, by a group of intellectuals, with the likes of Adam Smith, Adam Ferguson and John Miller. Critical sociological issues were raised by them, and this is a change in principles in social organisation. The start of modernism is formed, and it is also known as the enlightenment age, where there are emergences of a brand new society based on new ideas as provided, especially on the growth of modern cities, as well as social classes. Strong industries, science, technology and urbanism are rising, and revolutions like the industrial revolution, and concepts like scientific management were implemented. Modernism believes in a top-down approach, where leaders are the ones who holds power, and control whoever who are under them. They believe in strategic contingencies and resource dependence theories (Hatch and Cunliffe 2006), where effectiveness is very important, conflicts should be minimized among the organisation, and different units are to institutionalise their duties, so as to provide for the core organisation. Critical theory dated itself back to the Marxian theory, where Max Horkheimer first defined critical theory as a radical and emancipator form of the theory itself, in 1937 at the Frankfurt School of Sociology (Simonds 1980). The critical theory critiques and questions the theories of modernism, as critical theory is oriented towards critiquing and changing the society as a whole, as compared to modernism theory that explains and understand the society. Critical theory is geared towards reducing entrapment in terms of dominances and dependence, and obeying the emancipator needs to look into the areas of autonomy. (Habermas 1990) Therefore it is flowing with ideologies that the totality of the society is what we should be directing at, and by integrating the society into one body, it will improve the understanding of how modernism had formed the society, explicitly developed by Marx in his Theses on Feuerbach, where although philosophers have only interpreted the world in certain ways, the point is to change it as a whole. Modern and critical perspective thoughts are drastically different, when it comes to terms of power, control and resistance.
in his three faces of power. so that employees can give active consent to their own exploitation through false consciousness. The . and the critical perspective is that control should be exercised through hegemony and systemically distorted communication process. which is very close to theory developed by Steven Lukes’ third face. (Thompson 1983) Power on the top should be emancipated. there is a need for the organisation to resist it. Therefore critical scholars find the need to study about this. in which there are three theories which are often used. Power is situated at the very top of the management. The locus of power is hierarchical authority. Control is also viewed differently by both modern and critical scholars. controlling and manipulating the organisation so that those who are lower in the hierarchy will be exceptionally skilled in their position. (Bradshaw 1976) In modernism. instead of being forced to silence. but is not able to provide to the organisation’s core activity. control is deemed to flow from a managerial angle. The cybernatics theory aligns organisational and individual goals using methods of allocation or feedback and rewards mechanism. economic and political structure is extremely strong. there should be a close relation between humans and ethics in decision making processes. For the modern perspective. we can say that the modern perspective of view is a classical example of how industries were run. theorists often sought mechanisms to help them with control of employees.In terms of locus of power. where control is exercised by monitoring performance of employees through the mechanisms of the market. the agency theory. instead of the top dominating it. it is the radical approach to the modern perspective. and there should be a sense of autonomy in power. where only the top have knowledge and ability to resolve critical issues within the organisation (Weber 1964) As for the critical perspective of view. Though the critical scholars agree that the locus of power should be determined by structures set out. where the ideology of a common social. It is believed that instead of rational and hierarchical ideas that are held by modernist. and the clan control. so that selfinterest is minimised and the organisation’s interests is served. and the theory is illustrated in communicative rationality. but when it comes to the rational of determining decisions as an organisation. which was a theory of Habermas. bureaucracy or organisational culture (Hatch and Cunliffe 2006). the cybernatics theory. especially during the days of the industrial revolution. Critical scholars have always been interested in how networks of power relations are intertwined with knowledge and ideology. and that decision making should be an organisational-inclusive process.
where he used this concept to explain that groups are able to give their active consent and spontaneous comment when institutional and ideological forms of domination become a part of their life. most of the time through false belief or consciousness. the most successful being if a person is not coerced. through behaviour altering and motivation creating. where social practices shape the desires and actions of particular groups in ways that actually work against their interest. Hegemony is a concept introduced by Antonio Gramsci (Litowitz 2000). and spend more time and effort in it. Modern scholars believed that resistance in the organisation is counterproductive. so that performance and effectiveness will be maximised and not affected. they are usually not taken into consideration by the top management. Lastly. like spending more time at the office. which is taken for granted. and employees are consented to exploit the organisation. especially the third face. Usually employees do not have a say. Power and control is seemed as the absolute determinant to grow and improve an organisation at its top effectiveness. which was a privilege to the higher ups. which is greatly critiqued by critical theorist. Though the methods are different. it is often believed that control should be exercised through hegemony. there is a clear differentiation between the two schools of thought. and in the three faces of power mentioned by Steven Lukes. and the clan control is a combination of both. who are people in the higher management. If given active consent.agency theory works on the behaviour of people. (Hatch and Cunliffe 2006) In critical theorist. The beliefs from these theories is that employees are made to speak up and contribute more than they are supposed to. If employees fail to submit and create resistance within an organisation. people will start to protect the interests of organisational owners. distorted communication processes. they are considered leaving from their . (Hatch and Cunliffe 2006) This can be seen from the beliefs of what modern scholars have in terms of locus of power and implications for control. liken to means of propaganda through extremely huge organisations (Hatch and Cunliffe 2006). but is able to participate freely in established thinking and talking that is seem normal. for resistance. the intentions of what modern theorist are doing is that they are trying to manage employees by consciously pulling and pushing the mind frame of employees to follow the organisation’s objectives and goals. in return it is believed that they will unconsciousness be more participative in what they do. and it should only be dealt with and managed by those in power. or even if they do. as they exploit the organisation. and thus controlling them from by that perspective. workers will then engage in activities that benefit the organisation more.
As for critical perspective. there is a great difference in perspective between the modern and critical perspective. (Royle 2002) As for critical theorist. and have a healthy growth (Simonds 1980). and control the organisation. and top managements will think of ways to suppress them.supposed position of skills. . Therefore he believed that only through forms of open communication. came out with concepts of freedom and resistance that encourages members of organisations to speak up and openly critique of what they think organisations should comply to. and the strength to overthrow those in power and make radical changes. and is eradicated as soon as it surfaces. there won’t be growth. where power is being provided only to the top. It is believed that without conflict. especially by believers affected by the Marxian theory. and they are strongly encourage to think different from how the organisation is. Power. they see resistance as inevitable. control and resistance is largely focused on the top management in modern perspective. and argued that in current times organisations are inherently non-democratic and pervades our daily experience. Foucault. so that there will be room for improvement. therefore resistance is sought after so that conflict can occur. and the organisation can run on maximum effectiveness. only through conflicts will an organisation learn from them. Deetz (2008) drew from major critical theorists. members are greatly encouraged to critique and question. when they create resistance and conflicts. Therefore resistance is necessary to create conflict. and thus improving the organisation. and continuously create resistance. Resistance is greatly discouraged of. which robs members of their freedom and democracy. In conclusion. and resistance to suppressed conflict will improve workplace democracy. and thus they will be a thorn. so that they can enforce control to the lower layers. and whoever who is willing step up and make the change among others will be the one holding the power. a critical theorist. as since from how employees were suppressed by the top management in McDonald’s Germany.
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