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PART II: SYNTAX THE SIMPLE SENTENCE Definition Classification Parts of the Sentence The Main Parts of the

Sentence The Subject The Predicate Agreement of the Predicate with the Subject The Secondary Parts of the Sentence The Object The Attribute The Adverbial Modifier. Detached Parts of the Sentence The independent Elements of the Sentence Sentences with Homogeneous Parts WORD ORDER SYNTAX THE SIMPLE SENTENCE The Main Parts of the Sentence The Subject The Predicate Agreement of the Predicate with the Subject The Secondary Parts of the Sentence The Object The Attribute The Adverbial Modifier. Detached Parts of the Sentence The independent Elements of the Sentence Sentences with Homogeneous Parts WORD ORDER THE COMPOUND SENTENCE AND THE COMPLEX SENTENCE The Compound Sentence The Complex Sentence THE SEQUENCE OF TENSES THE INDIRECT SPEECH General remarks Inverted order of words Position of the object Position of the attribute Position of the adverbial modifiers THE COMPOUND SENTENCE AND THE COMPLEX SENTENCE The Compound Sentence General Notion Types of Coordination The Complex Sentence General Notion. Types of clauses. THE SEQUENCE OF TENSES THE INDIRECT SPEECH

PART II: SYNTAX


THE SIMPLE SENTENCE

Types sentence

of Characteristics

Examples

the declarative sentence the interrogative sentence:

States a fact in the affirmative or He was born in 1962. negative form a) general questions: b) special questions: c) alternative questions: d) disjunctive questions: Do you like art? Where do you live? Do you live in town or in the country? You speak English, dont you?

the imperative sentence the exclamatory sentence two-member sentence

Induces a person to do something, so it Stop talking! expresses a command, a request, an invitation, etc. Expresses some kind of emotion or What a lovely day it is! feeling

1 it has two members: a subject and a predicate (if one of them is missing it is easily understood from the context). It can be: a) complete when it has a subject and a predicate: b) incomplete: (when one of the principal parts or both of them are missing, but can be easily understood from the context they are called: elliptical):
1 it has only one member which is neither the subject, nor the predicate 2 it is generally used in descriptions and emotional speech 3 the main part is often expressed

She had established immediate contact with an architect. I met her yesterday. Who does it for you? James, of course. Where were you yesterday? At the cinema. Dusk of a summer night. To have his friendship, his admiration, but not at that price.

a one membersentence:

unextended

by: 1) noun (sometimes modified by attributes) 2) infinitive 1 consists only of the principal parts:

She is a student. Winter!

extended

2 consists of the subject, predicate They visited me yesterday. and one or more secondary parts:

QUESTIONS
Types of questions General Characteristics 1 require the answer yes or no. Examples Do you have classes on Saturday? Are you well today? Who is Cher? How do people communicate? Do you have English on Monday or on Tuesday? You are Jenny, arent you? It isnt a very nice day, is it?

Special

2 begin with an interrogative word.

Alternati ve Disjuncti ve

3 indicate choice. 4 require the answers yes or no and consist of an affirmative statement followed by a negative question, or a negative statement followed by an affirmative question. 5 we repeat the auxiliary verb in the question.

You havent been here before, have you? NB. If theres no auxiliary we use: do, She bought this book, didnt she? does, did. You can speak French, 1 If we have modal verbs, we repeat cant you? Youre coming, arent them in the question. 2 Notice the meaning of yes and no in you? Yes. (I am coming.) answer to question tags. No. (Im not coming.)

THE MAIN PARTS OF THE SENTENCE


THE SUBJECT Ways of expressing the subject: Examples

1 a noun in the common (or occasionally The teacher brought a map. possessive) case Adas is a noble heart. 2 a pronoun (personal, demonstrative, That set me thinking of my plan of action. All were happy. indefinite, possessive, interrogative) Hers is not a very successful plan called me. 3 a substantivized adjective or participle 4 a numeral (cardinal or ordinal) The wounded were taken good care of. The two were quite unable to do anything. The fist stood in front of him.

5 an infinitive, an infinitive phrase or To live is to work. construction To be a rich man is not always roses and beauty. 6 a gerund, a construction gerundial phrase or Lying doesnt go well with me. Winning the war is what counts. On is a preposition.

7 any part of speech used as a quotation

8 a group of words which is one part of The needle and thread is lost. (here the the sentence, i.e. a syntactically subject represents one person). Their friend and defender is darkly indivisible group. groping towards the solution.

It as the subject of the sentence

Type of subjec t notion al

Characteristics

Examples

it represents a living being or a thing and has the following characteristics: 1 stands for a definite thing or some abstract idea the personal it: 2 points out a person or thing expressed by a predicative noun, or it refers to the thought contained in a preceding

The door opened. It was opened by a young girl. It is John. It was a large room with a great window.

statement, thus having a demonstrative meaning the demonstrative it: formal it does not represent any person or thing. Here we must distinguish: a) the impersonal it, which is used to denote: 1 natural phenomena or that which characterizes the environment. 2 to denote time and distance: b) the introductory or anticipatory it introduces the real subject: c) the emphatic it is used for emphasis:

Dick came home late, it provoked his father.

It is cold in winter. It is delightfully quiet in the night. It is morning already. It was curious to observe that child. It was he who had brought the book.

THE PREDICATE

Type of predica te The simple predica te

Expressed by:/ characteristics 1 a finite verb in a simple or compound tense form

Examples Yesterday, Ann arrived home late. My dear I have been looking for you everywhere.

2 a phraseological unit: to get rid, to take care, to pay attention, to lose sight, to make fun, to take care, to take part, to have a swim, to have a run, to give a laugh, to give a push, to take a look, etc. a) a finite verb which lost its concrete meaning + a noun mostly Burton gave a kindly little chuckle. used with the indefinite article b) a finite verb + abstract noun without article

Then we got rid of such NB. The characteristic feature of this inconveniences.
predicate is that the finite verb has lost its concrete meaning to a certain extent and forms one unit with the noun, consequently the noun cannot be treated as an object to the verb. It is impossible to put a question to the second component. C o m p a r e: My friend gave me an interesting book to read. The man gave a violent start.

The 1 consists of two parts: compou a) a finite verb + b) some other

nd predica te The compou nd nomina l predica te The compou nd verbal predica te The compou nd verbal modal predica te

part of speech: a noun, a pronoun, an adjective, a verbal, etc. 2 link verb + predicative. 3 it denotes the state or quality of the person or thing expressed by the subject. He grew more cheerful.

It is of two types: 1. the compound verbal modal predicate 2. the compound verbal aspect predicate shows whether the action is possible, impossible, obligatory, necessary, desirable, etc. It consists of: You can prove everything and nothing. 1 a modal verb and an infinitive. The operation was to take 2 modal expressions: to be + place in the capital of the city. Infinitive, to have + infinitive. I have to work for my living. 3 a verb with a modal meaning ( to to throw hope, to expect, to intend, to He wanted attempt, to try, to endeavor, to long, himself into the whirlpool of to wish, to want, to desire, etc.) and Paris. He tried to open the tin an infinitive or a gerund. with a pocket knife. I am going to leave Paris.

4 modal expressions ( to be able, to be obliged, to be bound, to be willing, to be anxious, to be capable, to be going) and an infinitive. The 1 consists of such verbs as: to begin, compou to start, to commence to fall, to set nd about, to go on, to keep on, to verbal proceed, to continue, to stop, to give aspect up, to finish, to cease, to come and predica an infinitive or gerund. te 2 Would and used + Infinitive, which express a repeated action in the past, also belong here. Mixed types of predica 1 the compound modal nominal predicate. 2 the compound aspect nominal

His bones ceased to ache.

I used to write poetry myself when I was his age.

He greatly longed to be the next heir himself. I continued to be glad for that.

te:

predicate. 3 the compound modal aspect predicate. I had to begin living all over again.

NB. The link verbs and their characteristics Examples The nightmare of my life had come true. (link verb) Giles and Beatrice were coming for the night. (verb of complete prediction) The poor man sat amazed. Tome went home miserable.

1 have partly lost their original concrete meaning: to appear, to get, to grow, to continue, to feel, to keep, to look, to turn, to hold, to prove, to turn out, to loom, to rank, to remain, to run, to seem, to smell, to taste, to fall, to stand, to go, to work. Many of these verbs can be used both as verbs of complete predication fully preserving their concrete meaning and as link verbs: to be, to grow, to look, to feel, to come, to go. 2 There are some verbs which, though fully preserving their concrete meaning, perform the function of link verbs: to lie, to sit, to die, to marry, to return, to leave, to come, to stand, to fall, to go, etc. They are used with a predicative. According to their meaning link verbs can be divided into two large groups: a) link verbs of being and remaining: to be, to remain, to keep, to continue, to look, to smell, to stand, to sit, to lie, to shine, to seem, to prove, to appear, etc. b) link verbs of becoming: to become, to get, to grow, to come, to go, to leave, to run, to turn, to make, etc.

He was a nice-looking man of thirty perhaps... ... he grew handsomer and more interesting.

The predicative is expressed by: 1 a noun in the common case, occasionally by a noun in the possessive case. 2 an adjective 3 a pronoun personal, possessive, negative, interrogative, reflexive, indefinite, defining. 4 a word of the category of state: 5 a numeral, cardinal or ordinal.

Examples She is a pretty child. Hes awfully dear and unselfish. It was he. What is he? You are nobody.

He was aware of the state in which he was. Im only 46. He was the first to break the dead silence. The things were outside her experience. Junes first thought was to go away.

6 a prepositional phrase: 7 an infinitive, infinitive phrase, or an

infinitive construction.

His first act was to bolt the door on the inside. The best thing is for you to move in with me. My favorite sport is swimming. The topic of their conversation was their going on an expedition.

8 a gerund, gerundial phrase, or gerundial construction.

9 Participle II or very seldom Participle I; the He was surprised at the sound of his voice. latter is generally adjectivized. The moment was soothing to his sore spirit. 10an adverb. It was enough the way she said it.

AGREEMENT OF THE SUBJECT AND PREDICATE 1 a singular subject takes a singular verb and a plural subject takes a plural verb: 2 Collective nouns may be followed either by a singular verb or a plural one. When such a noun is regarded as a whole it takes a singular verb: But when it is thought of as a group of individuals, it takes a plural verb: However, such collective nouns as: cattle, clergy, people, police, public are always followed by a plural verb. 3 Two singular subjects connected by either... or; neither ... nor; not only ... but also; no less than ... ; and not are followed by a singular verb: But when one subject is singular and the other one plural, the rule of proximity must be observed: 4 Two or more subjects connected by and take a plural verb: However, when the two subjects are regarded as a whole, a single idea, they are followed by a singular verb: This girl speaks English. These girls speak English. My family is called Smith.

My family are at home. The cattle were gazing in the field. The police are investigating the case. Either the boy or the girl knows the answer.

Neither the teacher nor the pupils are in the classroom. Neither the pupils nor the teacher is in the classroom. The dog and the cat are under the table. Fish and chips is a traditional English food. Whisky and soda is Tims favourite drink. My neighbour and friend comes here every day.(one person)

My neighbour and my friend come here every day.(two different persons) 5 Nouns denoting units of measurement Fifty pounds is a lot of money. take a singular verb when they are Five years is a long time. (= period) Twenty miles is a long distance. preceded by a numeral: 6 A singular noun proceeded by each, Each boy tells us a joke. either, ever, or neither takes a Either book is interesting. Every student knows this answer. singular verb. Neither solution was good. 7 When a plural noun is preceded by Neither of the girls lives/live in this neither of, it can be followed either by house. a singular or a plural verb: 1 The nouns body, heart, life, mind, soul are used in the plural whenever they refer to more than one person: 1 When the formal subject of a sentence is there, the predicate must agree with the real subject: 2 The noun number takes a singular verb when it is preceded by the definite article the and a plural verb when it is preceded by a: 3 When the pronoun it is used in identifying or emphatic constructions, it is followed by a singular verb: 4 Singularia Tantum nouns (advice; information; furniture; damage; luggage; knowledge; machinery, etc.) are followed by a singular verb: 5 Pluralia Tantum nouns will be followed either by plural verbs: a) when they name things made of two parts (glasses; scissors; trousers) b) when they are one of these: chemicals; contents; ashes; surroundings, etc. or by singular verbs: a) when they name diseases: measles; mumps b) games: billiards; draughts c) when they are one of these: news; works, etc. either by singular or by plural verbs after names of sciences, subjects or after such nouns as: Many people lost their lives in World War II. Theres a book on the table. There are many trees in the garden. The number of mistakes is very large. A number of people were waiting for me. It is these boys who broke my window. Your information is very interesting. Kerrys luggage was very heavy.

His trousers are very smart.

Mumps is a very common illness with children. Her news is extremely interesting. Acoustics is the scientific study of sound. The acoustics of this room are very good.

means; series; species. 6 The words hundred, thousand, million etc., take the plural verb:

Three hundred men were coming to the meeting.

7 The fractions -their verb depends Half the land is hilly. Half of the puppies were black. on the noun determined by them: Nine-tenths of English speech is idiomatic. Two thirds of the flowers were faded. A great deal of time and pains is necessary for the study of English. A great many of the children were 9 A great (good) many the plural present. verb. 8 A great (good) deal takes the singular verb: 1 Fish. Fruit. (pesti, fructe) take the plural Are the fish fresh? The fruit were green.

2 A + noun + or two very often takes A word or two is sufficient to convince him. the plural verb:

THE SECONDARY PARTS OF THE SENTENCE


THE OBJECT Ways of expressing the object: 1 a noun in the common case Examples: We ought to give him a present, too.

2 a pronoun ( personal in the objective You ought to know all about statues case, possessive, defining, reflexive, and things. demonstrative, indefinite) 3 a substantivized adjective or participle 4 an infinitive, an infinitive phrase, or an infinitive construction Jane Forsyte always championed the unfortunate. The sergeant ordered his men to stop.

5 a gerund, a gerundial phrase, or a gerundial construction 6 any part of speech used as a quotation 7 a prepositional phrase with a noun or a gerund 8 a group of words which is one part of the sentence, i.e. a syntactically indivisible group

Could they prevent flying in war-time? He called hsst several times. Do you object to my going away for a month. He found a number of persons in that room.

Kinds of object s Chara cteristi cs

The direct object 9 is a noun in the common case or a pronoun in the objective case that completes the meaning of a transitive verb 10is used after transitive verbs 11is used without any preposition

The indirect object

The complex o

12denotes a living being to whom the action of the verb is directed 13sometimes it also denotes a thing 1. of the first type, which expresses the addressee of the action. 1 is used with transitive verbs which take a direct object, so it hardly ever stands alone. E.g. She gave him an interesting book to read.
NB. As a rule the indirect object comes before the direct object. In this case it is used without a preposition. E.g. Without hope she sent Soames the telegram. When the direct object precedes the indirect object, the latter is used chiefly with the preposition to and sometimes for. E.g. He was giving an interview to the correspondents. But when the direct object is a pronoun and the indirect object a noun, the indirect object follows the direct object. E.g. I sent him to his mother. When the direct object is expressed by the pronoun it, it always precedes the indirect object. E.g. Give it to him. There are a number of verbs after which the indirect object is used with the preposition to even when it comes before the direct object. These are: to explain, to dedicate, to suggest, to relate, to announce, to ascribe, to attribute, to communicate, to introduce, to submit, to repeat, to dedicate, to disclose, to interpret, to point out. E.g. I shall dictate to you the names of books.

1 consists components 2 it can be pre and non-prep 3 the first com a noun in the case or possessive personal pr the objective possessive pr 4 the second c is an infi participle, a seldom a adjective, denoting sta prepositional

E.g. She think very clever. He could see and Great talking toget

Thus these tw with impatience three years to

2. of the second type (prepositional indirect object), 2 which is more frequently used with intransitive verbs 3 does not always express the addressee of the action. 4 it can be used with any preposition 5 is used with verbs, adjectives, words denoting state, and nouns of verbal origin. E.g. She was not aware of his being there. THE ATTRIBUTE 1is a secondary part of the sentence which qualifies a noun, a pronoun, or any other part of speech that has a nominal character 2can be either in pre-position or in post-position to the word it modifies Ways of expressing the attribute: 1 an adjective Examples The big girl is very lazy.

2 a pronoun (possessive, defining, I looked at her from that moment. demonstrative, interrogative, relative) In his final examinations he won six 3 a numeral (cardinal or ordinal) distinctions. 4 a noun in the common or possessive case I recognized him as Todd, the village painter and carpenter. Her fathers nerves would never stand the disclosure. The letter from her sister reassured her. The room above is large and light. I was dazzled by the snow glittering on the tree tops. Sally hated the idea of borrowing and living on credit. All right, go back to your office; youve got work to do. I dont like dont-talk-to-me air.

5 a prepositional phrase 6 an adverb 7 Participle I and II or a participial phrase 8 a prepositional phrase or a prepositional construction with a gerund 9 an infinitive, an infinitive phrase, or an infinitive construction 10quotation group

The apposition
1is a special kind of attribute which is expressed by a noun (with or without accompanying words) which characterizes or explains the word modified by giving the person or thing another name Types of Characteristics: appositi on the 2 is not separated by commas and close stands in close connection with the appositi word modified (usually it is a proper on noun). It denotes: a) a title, rank, or profession, or relationship Examples:

the loose or detache d appositi on

b) or a geographical name: NB. Sometimes the apposition consists of the preposition of + noun. 3 it is not so closely connected with the Dr. Smith, my predecessor, noun was a classmate of my fathers. 4 it is always separated by commas and has a stress of its own.

Professor Brown, Captain Marryat, Aunt Polly, etc The River Thames, Mount Everest, etc. the city of London

THE ADVERBIAL MODIFIER 1it is a secondary part of the sentence which modifies a verb, an adjective, or an adverb. 2according to their meaning we distinguish the following kinds of adverbial modifiers:

The adverbial modifiers: 1 of time 2 of frequency 3 of place and direction 4 of manner 5 of attendant circumstances

Examples: We shall try it tomorrow. They had often bothered him. Gains had spies everywhere. Their conversations were conducted with icy formality. Now I can go to bed at last without dreading

tomorrow. 6 of degree and measure 7 of cause 8 of result (consequence) 9 of condition 10of comparison 11 of concession. (it is very rare) 12 of purpose It is rather good. It weighs a pound. The men were weary, having run behind the beasts all day. She is too fond of the child to leave it. In case of your absence I shall leave you a note. Judice is as white as mud. Though frightened he carried it off very well. They opened the way for her to come to him.

Ways of expressing the adverbial modifier: 13 an adverb

Examples Rachel turned instinctively t prevent a misfortune. Next days the hours seemed to pass very slowly. I walked straight up the lane. Mary swims better than her sister. While waiting for the water to boil, he held his face over the stove. When questioned, she explained everything very carefully. He stopped and turned about, his eyes brightly proud. His father looked up without speaking. They rose to go into the drawing-room

14a noun with or without accompanying words 15a prepositional phrase 16a noun, pronoun, adjective, infinitive, participle, or prepositional phrase with a subordinating conjunction 17a participle or a participial phrase 18absolute constructions 19a prepositional phrase or construction with a gerund 20an infinitive, an infinitive phrase, or an infinitive construction.

REMARKS It is not always easy to discriminate between different parts of the sentence expressed by prepositional phrases. The following parts of the sentence are not to be

confused: 1. a prepositional indirect object and an adverbial modifier. 2. an attribute and an adverbial modifier of place. 1. a) Kate removed her eyes from the window and gazed directly at Papa. b) Decimus had been born in Rome.

In (a) at Papa is a prepositional indirect object as the noun denotes a living being. In (b) in Rome adverbial modifier, as the noun denotes an inanimate object and the question is: where had he been born? When the noun in the prepositional phrase denotes an inanimate object, very often 2 ways of analysis are possible. E.g. His wife was sitting before a very little fire. Before a very little fire can be treated either as an adverbial modifier or an object. 2. an attribute and an adverbial modifier of place. a) I thought you were going to a party at the club. b) The party will take place at the club. In (a) at the club is an attribute as it modifies a noun. It answers the question: What party? In (b) the same prepositional phrase modifies a verbal group; consequently it is an adverbial modifier of place.

DETACHED PARTS OF THE SENTENCE 1These are secondary parts which assume a certain grammatical and semantic independence. This phenomenon is due to their loose connection with the words they modify. Detached parts of the sentence The detached adverbial modifier Characteristics Examples

2 Any part of speech used in the function of an adverbial modifier may be detached, which accounts for the comma that separates it from the rest of the sentence. 3 An adverbial modifier expressed by any absolute construction is generally detached.

One summer during a brief vacation at Knocke, his visit has come to the notice of Brande. The train coming in a minute later, the two brothers entered their respective compartments.

4 Of all kinds of adverbial modifiers, that of attendant circumstances is He took farewell tired with waiting. most apt to become detached.

The detached attribute

1 can modify not only a common noun as an ordinary attribute does but also a proper noun and a pronoun.

Stout, middle aged, full of energy, she bustled backwards and forwards from the kitchen to her room.

The detached object

2 The prepositional indirect object is She does not change except her hair. often detached. A silver tray was brought, with German plums (stafide).

THE INDEPENDENT ELEMENTS OF THE SENTENCE They are words and word groups which are not grammatically dependent on any part of the sentence as:

The Independent Sentence

Elements

of

the

Examples Oh, if I only knew what a dreadful thing it is to be clean, Id never come. Good morning, sweet child!

1) Interjections: ah, oh, hurrah, eh, hallo, goodness gracious, good heavens etc. 2) Direct address: 3) Parenthesis. Characteristics: 3 shows the speakers attitude towards the thought expressed in the sentence. 4 or connects a given sentence with another one 5 or summarizes what is said in the sentence. 6 is connected with the rest of the sentence rather semantically than grammatically. 7 no question can be put to it. 8 very often it is detached from the rest of the sentence and consequently it is often separated from it by commas or dashes.

To be sure, Morris had treated her badly. Unfortunately, it will be you who will have to explain that to him.

1 indeed, certainly, assuredly, decidedly, in fact, truly, naturally, A parenthesis can be expressed by: surely, actually, possibly, perhaps, 1 Modal words: evidently, obviously, maybe, luckily. 2 firstly, secondly, finally, thus, 1 Adverbs wich to a certain extent serve consequently, then, anyway, as connectives, such as: moreover, besides, still, yet,

2 Prepositional phrases: 3 Infinitive and participial phrases:

nevertheless, otherwise, notwithstanding, therefore etc. 3 in a word, in truth, in my opinion, in short, by the by, on the one hand, on the contrary, at least, etc. 4 to be sure, to tell the truth, to begin with, generally speaking, strictly speaking etc.

SENTENCES WITH HOMOGENEOUS PARTS two ore more parts of the sentence having the same function and referring to the same part of the sentence. They are linked either by means of: coordinating conjunctions or asyndetically. Homogeneous parts Examples

1) two or more homogeneous subjects From the edge of the bed came a ripple to one predicate. and whisper. 2) two or more homogeneous predicates to one subject: That gentleman started, retreated, 1 simple predicates: rubbed his eyes, stared again and finally 2 a compound verbal predicate with shouted: Stop, stop! These sheets must be printed, dried, homogeneous parts within it. 3 a compound verbal aspect predicate cut. with homogeneous parts within it. 4 a compound nominal predicate with First he began to understand and then to speak English. several predicatives within it. The sky was clear, remove, and empty. 3) two or more attributes, objects, or The unlighted, unused room seemed to adverbial modifiers to one part of the absorb the moods of the house. sentence.

W ORD ORDER S subject P predicate O object A. - attribute Cog. O cognate object Comp. O complex object

DO direct object Prep. O prepositional object IO indirect object Ad. M. adverbial modifier 1) direct word order in the English declarative sentence: S + P + Os + Ad. Ms. 2) inverted order of words: P + S. Inverted order of words is used in: A) 1 interrogative sentences: 2 sentences introduced by there: 3 compound sentences, their second part beginning with so or neither: 4 simple exclamatory sentences expressing wish: Examples Where did they find her? There is nothing marvelous in this. Their parents escaped unhurt, so did three of their sons. Be it so!

B) The inverted word order is widely used when a word or a group of words is put in a prominent position. In this case inversion is due to the authors wish to produce a certain stylistic effect. Thus inversion occurs when: 1 adverbial modifier opens the sentence: a) Ad. Ms. expressed by a phrase or phrases open the sentence, and the subject often has a lengthy modifier: In an open barouche stood a stout old gentleman.

Never before and never since, b) an Ad. M. with a negative meaning opens the have I known such peace, such sentence. Here belong such adverbial modifiers as: happiness. in vain, never, little, etc. In this case the auxiliary do must be used if the predicate does not contain either an auxiliary or a modal verb. Now was the moment to act. c) Ad. Ms. expressed by such adverbs as so, thus, now, then, etc. placed at the head of the Thus he thought and sank down sentence, if the subject is expressed by a noun.
NB. If the subject is a pronoun, inversion does not take place. upon the wet earth.

Silently did the doctor bear all this.

d) Ad. Ms. of M. may or may not cause inversion. In case of inversion the auxiliary do must be used if the predicate does not contain either an auxiliary or a modal verb. 2 only, hardly, scarcely, (correlated with the Scarcely was one long task conjunction when), no sooner (correlated with completed when a guard unlocked our door. the conjunction than), nor open the sentence.

3 the sentence begins with the word here which Here is my card, Sir. is not an adverbial modifier of place but has some demonstrative force.
NB. If the subject is expressed by a personal pronoun,

the word order is direct.

4 postpositions denoting direction open the Out went Mr. Smiths head sentence and the subject is expressed by a again. noun. Here belong such words as: in, out, down, away, up, etc.
NB. If the subject is a pronoun, inversion does not take place.

5 an object or an adverbial modifier expressed by a word-group with not a..., or many a... opens the sentence. In case of inversion the auxiliary do must be used if the predicate does not contain either an auxiliary or a modal verb. 6 a predicative expressed by an adjective or by a noun modified by an adjective or by the pronoun such opens the sentence (in case the subject is a noun or an indefinite pronoun). 7 the predicate, which introduces conditional clause, is expressed by was, were, had, could, or should.

Not a soul did I meet with in all my drive.

Sweet was that evening. Such is life. Even were they absolutely hers, it would be a passing means to enrich herself

Position of the object a) in declarative sentences: 8 P. + O. (usually) 9 O. + S. + P. ( the purpose of A fearful voyage I had with such a monster in the vessel. emphasis)
NB. As a rule this prominent position of the object causes no inversion except when the object is expressed by word groups with not a ..., or many a...

1 S + P + Ad. M / Prep. I. O + D.O ( it occurs when the object has an attribute) 2 I. O + S. + P. (very rare) b) in exclamatory sentences we may have: What wonderfully blue eyes you have! 1 O + S + P:
NB. This position of the object usually causes inversion only in poetry, high prose, and negative exclamatory sentences. Passage after passage did he explore!

Position of the attribute It has 2 positions: a) pre-position The usual way of the attribute is before What extraordinary ideas you have! the word it modifies. b) post-position

2 Most adjectives in able, -ible are sufferings unspeakable, the only person generally placed after the noun, visible, etc. especially when the noun is preceded by the adjective only or an adjective in the superlative degree: from times immemorial, a poet laureate, 3 in some stock phrases: court martial, etc. 4 the adjective proper and present are We shant find anything about sculpture in this book, it deals with architecture placed after the noun. proper. (propriu-zis) All the people present ( prezeni) welcomed Paul enthusiastically. NB. This is not a proper (correct) answer to
5 attributes

expressed by numbers: 6 adjectives stand after indefinite and negative pronouns. 7 attributes expressed by prepositional phrases follow the noun modified. 8 to emphasize:

the question. Our present (actual) task is to cardinal preserve peace in the world.

page ten, room two. Id like to read something very interesting. Theres nothing extraordinary in her dress. As a gesture of proud defiance he had named his son Francis Nicholas. He gave Annette a look furtive and searching.

Position of the adverbial modifier 1 S. + Ad. M + P.: 2 S. + P. + D. O. + Ad. M.: Helen patiently heard me to the end. Helen heard me patiently to the end.

3 S + P. + Ad. M. + D.O. (when the She knew instinctively the principles of kiting. object has an attribute).

1. The adverbial modifier of time (Ad. M. T.) 4 Ad. M. T. + S + P...: 5 or S. + P. + ... Ad. M.: On Tuesday night the new laundrymen arrived. We shall try tomorrow.

6 Now and then can be placed in nearly She then remembered that there would any position: have been time for this. 7 The hour is generally mentioned At nine in the evening Mr. White opened the door. before a day, night, evening...

2. The adverbial modifier of place (Ad. M. Pl.) 8 Ad. M. Pl. + S. + P. + ...: 9 S. + P. + O. +... Ad. M. Pl.: Down in the mill yard a little girl was playing. A library was a common place for her, and he might see her there.

10 Sometimes: S. + P. + Ad. M. Pl. He emerged from the theatre with the + Prep. O. first of the crowd. 11 S. + P. + ... + Ad. M. Pl. + Ad. Im going to the country tomorrow. M. T. 12 S + P. + ... + Ad. M. Pl. + Ad. M. Sybil had gone to town to buy a new carpet. Purp.

3. Adverbial modifier of frequency (Ad. M. F.) 13 S. + Ad. M. F. + P.: (very often) 14 but S + to be/ modal verbs + A. M. F.:
N.B. but to emphasize: S + Ad. F. + P.:

She seldom comes on time. She is seldom on time.


You always are good with her.

She has never been asked about this. 15 S. + 1st aux. + Ad. M. F. + 2nd aux. + V.: 16 S. + sometimes/generally + P. or For he sometimes thought that... And I got so lonely here sometimes. S. + P. + sometimes/generally: 17 Sometimes Ad. M. F + S. + P.: Occasionally preachers. they followed the

4. Adverbial modifier of manner (Ad. M. M.) 18 S. + intrans. verbs + Ad. M. M.: 19 S. + transitive verbs + D.O. + Ad. M. M. 20 O.: 21 S. + P. + Ad. M. M. + Prep. I. S. + Ad. M. M. + P.: Dont worry, Louise said stoutly. Ann shakes Soames. hands effusively with

She leaned lightly against his shoulder. I slowly descended. These ladies were deferentially received by Miss Temple.

22 S. + aux. verb + Ad. M. M. + verb...:

5. Adverbial modifier of degree. ( Ad. M. D.)

23

always S + Ad. M. D. + P.:

I entirely agree with you. He is clever enough. ( in case of an adjective ) I have time enough to do it. I have enough time to do it.

24 S. + P. + Ad. M. D. ( enough):
25 S. + P. + noun + enough...:

26 or S. + P. + enough + noun +...:

THE COMPOUND SENTENCE AND THE COMPLEX SENTENCE THE COMPOUND SENTENCE( Fraza prin coordonare) 1it consists of two or more clauses coordinated with each other 2a clause is part of a sentence which has a subject and a predicate of its own. 3the clause may be connected in two ways:

1) syndetically: a) The darkness was thinning, but the street was still dimly lighted. b) He knew there were excuses, yet he felt sick at heart. 2) asyndetically: The rain fell softly, the house was quiet. The types of coordination: The types of coordination: copulative coordination ( connects the ideas) Expressed by: 1 and, nor, neither...nor, not only...but (also). Examples Not only did he speak more correctly, but he spoke more easily. Either our union must be consecrated and sealed by marriage or it cannot exist. I was not unhappy, not much afraid, yet I wept.

disjunctive coordination ( indicates choice)

2 or, else, or else, either...or, otherwise.

adversative coordination ( shows opposition)

3 but, while, whereas, nevertheless, still, yet.

causative consecutive coordination

4 for, so, therefore, accordingly, consequently, hence.


NB. For introduces coordinate clauses explaining the preceding statement. So, therefore, accordingly, consequently, hence introduces coordinate clauses denoting cause, consequence and result.

There was something strange with him, for he was strangely grave and looked ill.

THE COMPLEX SENTENCE


Characteristics

( Fraza prin subordonare) Examples

5 it consists of a principal clause and one or more subordinate clauses. 6 The clauses may be linked in two ways: 1) syndetically, i.e. by means of subordinating conjunctions or connectives:
2) asyndetically, i.e. without a conjunction or connective.

More and more she became convinced that some misfortune had overtaken Paul. (conjunction) All that he had sought for and achieved seemed suddenly to have no meaning. (connective) His steps quickened as he set out for the hotel.

7 it may contain two or more homogenous clauses coordinated with each other.

They were all obstinately of opinion that the poor girl had stolen the moonstone, and that she had destroyed herself in terror of being found out. I think I have noticed that they have an inconsistent way of speaking about her, as if she had made some great self- interested success in marrying Mr. Gowan.

8 it may be subordinated to the principal clause or to another subordinate clause.

Types of subordinate clauses Types of subordina te clauses Definition/ Characteristics Examples

The subject clause

Performs the function of subject to the predicate of the principal clause. It is connected with the principal clause in the following ways: 1 by means of the conjunctions: that, if, whether. 2 by means of the connectives: who, which, what, whoever, whatever, where, when, how, why. 3 asyndetically. It appears before or after: 4 the verbs: seem, chance, appear, turn out. 5 such adjectives as: likely, certain, possible, clear, true, important, alarming, etc. 6 some transitive verbs expressing mood: alarm, trouble, amaze, attract, confuse, relieve, discourage, embarrass, scare, etc. Performs the function of a predicative. The link verb together with the predicative clause forms a compound nominal predicate. It is connected with the principal clause in the following ways: 1 by means of the conjunctions: that, if, whether, as if. 2 by means of the connectives: who, which, what, where, when, how, why. 3 asyndetically

What I want to do is to save us both. It was unfortunate that the patient was brought in during the evening. Its a grand thing when you see the working class in action. It seemed that he was wrong. Its important that the students have fulfilled the tasks earlier. That she hasnt written yet amazes me.

The predicativ e clause

I felt as if death had laid a hand on me. The question was how was the matter to be kept quiet.

The direct Performs the function of direct object to the object predicate-verb of the principal clause. clause 1 The affirmative and interrogative sentences transformed into direct speech are also direct object clauses. It is connected with the principal clause in the following ways: 2 by means of the conjunctions: that, if, whether. 3 by means of the connectives: who, which, what, whoever, whatever, where, when, how, why. 4 asyndetically The Performs the function of indirect prepositio prepositional object to the predicate-verb of nal the principal clause. indirect 1 It is introduced by wh elements both

We asked him whether he had understood the instructions.

Remember that we have to leave by 11.00 a.m.

Look at who has come. Look where he is going.

object Attributiv e clauses (relative)

with and without prepositions: They are divided into: 1) attributive relative restrictive clauses 2 restrict the meaning of the antecedents. 3 they cannot be removed without destroying the meaning of the sentence 4 they are not separated by a comma from the principal clause 5 they are introduced by: a) relative pronouns: who, whose, which, etc. b) relative adverbs: where, when, etc. c) asyndetically 2) attributive relative non-restrictive (descriptive) clauses 1 do not restrict the meaning of the antecedents; it gives some additional information about them 2 can be left out without destroying the meaning of the sentence 3 they are often separated by commas 3) attributive appositive clauses 1 disclose the meaning of the antecedent, which is expressed by an abstract noun (opinion, reason, idea, problem, impression, doubt, excuse, question, fact). 2 are not separated by the principal clause by a comma 3 are usually introduced by: when, where, why, how, that, whether. Shows the time of the action expressed in the principal clause. 1 it is introduced by: when, while, whenever, as, till, until, as soon as, as long as, since, after, before, now that.

The bus that goes to the station stops at this corner.

I liked the film we saw yesterday.

Your desk mate, whose name I can never remember, has just phoned.

I dont know the reason why he left so quickly.

The adverbial clause of time The adverbial clause of place The adverbial clause of

I hope to visit you whenever I happen to be in London.

Shows the place of the action expressed in Deronda placed himself the principal clause. where he could see her. 2 it is introduced by: where, wherever. Shows the cause of the action expressed in As he had a liking for the the principal clause. spot, he seldom let a week 3 it is introduced by: as, because, since,

cause The adverbial clause of condition The adverbial clause of purpose The adverbial clause of concessio n The adverbial clause of result

for fear that, on the ground that, for the reason that, etc. States the condition which is necessary for the realization of the action expressed in the principal clause. 4 it is introduced by: if, provided ( that), so long as, suppose, in case, unless, etc. States the purpose of the action expressed in the principal clause. 5 it is introduced by: that, in order that, so that, lest, in case, for fear that. Denotes the presence of some obstacle which nevertheless does not hinder the action expressed in the principal clause. 6 It is introduced by: though, although, as, no matter how, however, whoever, whatever, whichever, notwithstanding that, in spite of the fact that. Denotes the result of the action expressed in the principal clause. 7 It is introduced by: so that, that.

pass without paying it a visit. I will do anything you wish, my brother, provided (dac) it lies in my power. I crouched against the wall of the gallery so that I should not be seen.

I enjoyed that day though it was cold and rainy. Darkness had fallen and a keen blizzard was blowing, so that the streets were nearly deserted. It was so hot that we opened all the windows. Joe left the house as he had entered it. We were going up the road as fast as we could.

The adverbial clause of manner The adverbial clause of comparis on

Characterizes in a general way the action expressed in the principal clause. 8 It is introduced by: ( exactly) as, (just) as. Denotes an action with which the action of the principal clause is compared. 9 It is introduced by: than, as, as...as, not so...as, as if, as though.

THE SEQUENCE OF TENSES

DIRECT OJECT CLAUSES A) Main / Regent Clause


PRESENT

Subordinate Clause Examples Any tense required by he meaning of the Mary explains/has explained/will explain that she goes/will go/has

PRESENT PERFECT FUTURE

clause

gone/went/had gone to London.

B) a) He said he had seen that film. b) I thought they were at film. c) They promised they would write that exercise again. However, there are some exceptions to the rules of sequence of tenses in direct object clauses: a) The verbs to ask, to demand, to insist, to She demands/requires/insists/etc. order, to recommend, to require, to urge, that you should arrive in time. etc. in the main clause are followed by the Analytical Subjunctive) b) Expressing 1 general (universal) truths (those The pupil said that five and five is ten. statements that are either generally It was proved that water boils at 100 C. accepted or can be scientifically proved) 2 lasting (irreversible) truths are statements whose validity exceeds the I knew that she is a widow. (her moment of speaking: condition of being a widow was The Past Tense forms of the verbs to know, irreversible at that moment) to believe, to realize may be followed by You realized that the boy is right. Present Tense since, in themselves, they imply the veridicity of the direct object.

TIME CLAUSES A basic rule is that no Future Tense can occur in a time clause. In its stead, the following tenses are used: Main/Regent Clause a) FUTURE Subordinate Clause PRESENT TENSE ( for simultaneous actions) b) FUTURE PRESENT PERFFCT (for anterior / prior actions) Examples Margaret will tell us the truth when she knows it The boy will translate the lesson after he has learnt the new words.

PAST TENSE (for simultaneous actions)

Mary visited us whenever she was free. I promised mother I would buy that book when I saw it. The children went to bed after they had done their lessons. We understood that they would come home after they had finished their work.

PAST PERFECT (for anterior/prior action)

NB. In the other types of subordinate clauses, there will usually occur those tenses that will be logically required, with no constraint: Types of clauses Attributive clauses Adverbial clause of manner Adverbial clause of comparison Adverbial clause of reason Examples Yesterday I bought a book which is very interesting/I will read this week/I have been looking for since April. Jack played tennis that day as he will never be able to play again Last year Mary spoke English better than her sister does now. My brother finished his work in the morning because he will go to a party this evening.

DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH A) USE In Direct Speech we give the exact words of the speaker, while in Indirect Speech we explain/report what the speaker has said. A) Reporting Statements When changing Direct Speech into Indirect Speech, there take place some changes. Generally speaking, words expressing nearness in Direct Speech become words expressing remoteness in Indirect Speech. Direct Speech I we My our This/ these here Indirect Speech he/she they his/her their That/ those there

now today tonight tomorrow yesterday ago next the day after tomorrow the day before yesterday

then that day that night the next day / the following day the day before / the previous day before the next in two days time two days before

As for the tenses used in Indirect Speech it must be shown that, when the reporting verb is in the Present Tense or in the Present Perfect, no tense change occurs in Indirect Speech: I shall buy this book tomorrow, Jane says. (Direct Speech) - Jane says that she will buy this book tomorrow. (Indirect Speech) But, when the reporting verb is in the Past Tense, the following change of tenses takes place: Direct Speech Present Indirect Speech Past Tense Examples I live in this house now, the girl explained. The girt explained that she lived in that house then. Past Tense Present Perfect Past Perfect We saw this film yesterday, the children told me. The children told me that they had seen that film the day before. I have not visited New York yet the tourist said. The tourist said that he had not visited New York yet. Future Future-in-thePast We shall not be late, my friends promised. My friends promised that they would not be late.

Exceptions

Examples

1 When the subjects of the reporting I must do all these exercises today, my

verb and of the action in the direct son complained. object clause are identical, the verb My son complained that he must do all must may remain unchanged: those exercises that day. My son complained that he had to do However, even in this case, the more all those exercises that day. frequent form would be: 2 Conditional sentences of Type II remain unchanged, as well as the subjunctive after: wish, would rather, its (high) time: I would write to her if I knew her address, the boy explained. The boy explained that he would write to her if he knew her address. She said: I wish I were younger. She said she wished she were younger. 3 Had better, might, ought to, used to, You might be right, she said. could, should, neednt do not normally She said that he might be right. change in Indirect Speech: 4 When expressing repeated actions in We often walked on the beach when we were young, my grandparents told me. the past: My grandparents told me that they often walked on the beach when they were young.

B) Reporting Questions 1 General (Yes/No) questions will be Is your mother at home? aunt Maggie wanted to know. - Aunt Maggie wanted to introduced by if/whether: know if/whether mother was at home. Will you go to the mountains or will you 2 Whether usually expresses a spend this week-end in town? my friend doubt and a possible choice asked me. - My friend asked me whether I between two alternatives: would go to the mountains or would spend that week-end in town. 3 Special questions will maintain, in Indirect Speech, the interrogative word they begin with: Where do you live? the policeman wanted to know. The policeman wanted to know where I lived.

NB. The word order of questions changes to the word order specific to statements when these questions are turned into the Indirect Speech. C) Reporting Commands Direct Speech Affirmative Indirect Speech Long infinitives Examples Come in! she told me. - She told me

commands Negative commands Not + long infinitives

to come in. Dont run in the street! mother advised her son. Mother advised her son not to run in the street.

The Imperative with let, when turned into the Indirect Speech, is normally introduced by the verb to suggest: Lets hurry now, he said. He suggested that they should hurry then. D) Reporting Exclamations 4 Exclamations with What What a sunny day she said. She said that it a... , or How... are reported was a sunny day. by: 5 Exclamations such as: She gave an exclamation of surprise/disgust/etc. Heavens , Oh , etc. are or She exclaimed with surprise/disgust/etc. usually reported by: 6 Other Changes She said Good morning! - She greeted me/wished me a good morning. She said Thank you! - She thanked me. She said Merry Christmas! - She wished me a merry Christmas. She said Liar! - She called him a liar. He said Damn! - He swore. .

SYNTAX
THE SIMPLE SENTENCE KINDS OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE 1. Define the kinds of sentences according to the purpose of the utterance. A. Presently, looking along the road, she [Kezia] saw two little dots. Now she could see that they were, the Kelveys... Hello, she said to the passing Kelveys. You can come and see our dolls house if you want to . . .But at that Lil turned red and shook her head quickly. Why not? asked Kezia. Lil gasped, then she said, Your ma told our ma you wasnt to speak to us. Oh, well, said Kezia. She didnt know what to reply. It doesnt matter Come on. Nobodys looking. ... Dont you want to? asked Kezia... Kezia led the way. Like two little stray cats they followed across the courtyard to where the dolls house stood Ill open it for you, said Kezia kindly. She undid the hook and they looked inside. Theres the drawing-room and the dining-room and thats the Kezia! Oh, what a start they gave! It was Aunt Beryls voice. Run away, children, run away at once. (Mansfield).

B. Laura was terribly nervous. Tossing the velvet ribbon over her shoulder, she said to a woman standing by Is this Mrs. Scotts house? and the woman smiling queerly, said It is my lass. Oh, to be away from this! She actually said Help me God! as she walked up the tiny path and knocked. To be away from these staring eyes, or to be covered in anything, one of those womens shawls even! Ill just have the basket and go, she decided. I shan't even wait for it to be emptied. Then the door opened. A little woman in black showed in the gloom. Laura said, "Are you Mrs. Scott?" But to her horror the woman answered, Walk in, please, miss," and she was shut in the passage. "No," said Laura, "I don't want to come in. I only want to leave this basket." The little woman in the gloomy passage seemed not to hear her. "Step this way, please, miss," she said in an oily voice, and Laura followed her. 2. Point out one-member and two-member sentences. Say a) if they are extended or unextended, b) if the two-member sentences are complete or incomplete. A. 1. Ben closed his eyes to think clearly for a moment. 2. Two cups of coffee, please,... young Flynn timidly ordered. What else do you want? Jam turnover. (Coppard). 3. Why did you leave her [baby] in that mill? Out of the rain. In her pram? Naturally. Shes asleep. ...The mystery was awful and complete. Abandoned perambulator! Total disappearance of a baby! Horror! Martyrdom! Death! (Bennett). 4. Scene I A room in Harley Street furnished as the Superintendents Office in a Nursing Home. (Berkeley). B. 1. He stared amazed at the calmness of her answer. 2. We must go to meet the bus. Wouldn't do to miss it. 3. Obedient little trees, fulfilling their duty. 4. Lucretius knew very little about was going on in the world. Lived like a mole in a burrow. Lived on his own fat like a bear in winter. 5. He wants to write a play for me. One act. One man. Decides to commit suicide. 6. A beautiful day, quite warm. 7. What do you want? Bandages, stuff for wounded. 8. How did he look? Grey but otherwise much the same And the daughter? Pretty. 9. And the silence and the beauty of this camp at night. The stars. The mystic shadow water. The wonder and glory of all this. 10. Ill see nobody for half an hour, Macey, said the boss. Understand. Nobody at all. 11. Mother, a mans been killed. Not in the garden? interrupted her mother. Garden at the manor house. A flight of grey stone steps leads up to the house. The garden, an old fashioned one, full of roses. Time of year, July. Basket, chairs, and a table covered with books, are set under a large yew tree. C. Find in an English text 4 examples of a two-member sentence: a) complete, b) incomplete, c) extended, d) unextended: 2 examples of a one-member sentence: a) extended, b) unextended. KINDS OF QUESTIONS 3. Define the type of question. 1. Lady Bracknell: Where did the charitable gentleman . . . find you?

2. Gwendolen: How long do you remain in town? 3. Jack: What on earth are you so amused at? 4. Algernon: Do you really keep a diary? 5. Gwendolen: I may call you Cecily, may I not? Cecily: With pleasure! Gwendolen: And you will always call me Gwendolen, wont you?Cecily: If you wish. Gwendolen: Then that is quite settled, is it not? (Wilde). 6. Wont you sit down? said Josephine. (Mansfield). 7. Theres no point in my seeing your people, is there? (Berkeley). 8. Is the poem The Cloud written by Shelley or by Byron? 4. Make up sentences of different types (declarative, imperative, exclamatory, all kinds of interrogative sentences) using the given words. 1. of, have, the, map, a, at, look, England. 2. be seen, Englands, the, may, cliffs, mainland, white, from. 3. sea, far, London, from, is, the? 4. close, arent, the, Wales, are, they, mountains, sea, to, in, the, quite. 5. weather, how, the, beautiful, is, calm, in, sea! 6. ancient, this, lose, of, post-card, dont, picture, castle, an. 7. is, a, landscape, this, picturesque, what! 8. centuries, invaded, the, what, in, tribes, Britain, VVI? 9. the, did, the or, Anglo-Saxons, win, the, of, battle, Hastings, Normans? 10. survives, the, in, Celt, language, of, some, Scotland, parts, and, Ireland. 5. Ask questions to which the parts of the sentences or the whole of the sentences given in bold type are the answers. 1. The first settlers in Britain belonged to the Celtic tribes. 2. The actual conquest of Britain by Rome did not take place before the 1st century of our era. (general, disjunctive). 3. We do not know the details of the Anglo-Saxon invasion of Britain. (general, disjunctive). 4. Numerous patients come to Bath to keep up health. 5. For those who seek a boisterous holiday Devonshire provides everything that could be wished for: golf, bathing, excursions, and trips. 6. Windsor Castle has been the home of English kings for nine hundred years. 7. The Castle stands upon a hill commanding the River Thames. 8. It is impossible to live anywhere in Britain far from the sea. (general, disjunctive). 9. In the month of August numerous yachting regattas may be seen near the Isle of White. 10. We shall see the highest tide if we come to the shore in full moon. 11. There are numerous kinds of strange seaweeds in the sea. (general, disjunctive). 12. Man has fished from earliest times. (general, disjunctive). 13. Although rather close to London, Epping Forest is the home of such wild creatures as foxes and deer. 14. The journey from London to the sea-shore does not take more than an hour. (general, disjunctive). 15. Hastings has a high

reputation in the world of music by reason of its annual Festival. 6. Change the following declarative sentences into disjunctive questions. Model: He is not ill. He is not ill, is he? 1. She is a talented singer. 2. Youll tell us about it. 3. He can swim. 4. Theyve come. 5. You saw him last night. 6. There is some time left. 7. It snowed hard yesterday. 8. Youll have to write to him at once. 9. He must have a good rest. 10. She was greatly astonished. 11. He doesnt speak French. 12. They havent come yet. 13. He didnt ring you up yesterday. 14. They werent at home. 15. She wasnt long. 16. They are not here. 17. She isnt clever. 18. There isnt much time left. 19. Im not good at algebra. 20. We shant go to the concert. 21. She bought a new hat. 22. They live at the corner of our street. 23. We hadnt been interested in it. 24. They didnt listen in last night.25. This photo was taken long ago. 26. She couldnt recollect your address. THE PRINCIPAL PARTS OF THE SENTENCE THE SUBJECT 7. Point out the subject. State what it is expressed by. Translate the sentences into Romanian. 1. Mary brought in the fruit on a tray ... (Mansfield). 2. Thinking wont help. (Mansfield). 3. From five to six is my real working time. (Shaw). 4. Captain Shotover: You frequent picture palaces. Mangan: Perhaps I do. Who told you? (Shaw). 5. Nobodys well in this world. (Coppard). 6. The wind blew down from the headland ... (Du Maurier). 7. Finding you has not made any difference, has it? (D Maurier). 8. The boat has been there, all these months. No one has moved anything. (Du Maurier). 9. ...Someone must have been talking ... You cant stop these people (Du Maurier). 10. Two is company, three is none. 11. The rhododendrons were upon us ... Already they looked a little over-blown, a little laded.(Du Maurier). 12. One of the second-class passengers has a room in the house... (Maugham). 13. Those are your clerks initials, arent they? (Berke ley). 14. Unfortunately the innocent are always involved in any conflict. (Greene). 15. One never knows another human being. (Greene). 16. All is well, said that sleeping lace ... But all the same you had to cry . .. (Mansfield). 17. The three reached the Museum Hotel after one oclock. (Cronin). 19. The sick do not ask if the hand that smooths their pillow is pure. 8. State with what meaning the pronouns one, we, you, they are used in the function of the subject. Translate the sentences. 1. One must spare other peoples feelings. 2. You cannot do different kind of work at a time. 3. We often see other peoples faults without seeing our own. 4. They say the weather will change soon. 5. We rather say Its me, not Its I 6. One should be careful when swimming in an unknown river.

9. State the nature of it. Translate the sentences. 1. It was a rare tonic to see Con again ... (Cronin). 2. It was possible to see the henhouse from the window of her bedroom ... (Bates). 3. I looked at my watch. It had gone eleven. (Greene). 4. You heard the news? Yes. Its a terrible thing, he said, terrible. (Greene). 5. It was dark in the hall. (Mansfield). 6. It was she who had stopped the car ... (Galsworthy). 7. Mr. DArcy, she said, what is the name of that song you were singing? Its called The Lass of Aughrim, said Mr. DArcy ... (Joyce). 8. It cast a gloom over the boat, there being no mustard. (Jerome). 9. The telephone rang. I went to answer. It was Joe Bjornson. (Scheurweghs). 10. How far is it from your house to the river? 11. Who is there? Its only me and my friends. (Scheurweghs). 12 ... it was the steppe that seemed unreal. (Lessing). 13. It was the dignity that checked my tongue. (Lessing). 14. This was the Old Chiefs country, he said. It stretched from those mountains over there way back to the river (Lessing). 10. Insert it or there. Comment on their use. Translate the sentences. 1. In the evening of that day __________ rained heavily. I went to the post office, and as I stood on the steps, umbrellaless ... a little, hesitating voice seemed to come from under my elbow. I looked down___________ was the First of the Barons with the black bag and an umbrella. He was asking me to share the latter. Now, __________is something peculiarly intimate in sharing an umbrella. is apt to put one on the same footing as brushing a mans coat for him. When we arrived at the pension ____________was very nearly an open riot ___________ was very friendly of the Herr Oberlehrer to have sent me a bouquet that evening. 2. ____________ s such a mistake, sighed Airs. Spears. To be weak with children when they are little ____________ is nothing like handing them over to their father. Then you dont whip them yourself? Never, I dont think ___________s the mothers place to whip the children, __________s the duty of the father. 3. ___________had been a bad day at the office. He was hot, dusty, tired out. In the corner of the drawing room _________was a picture, and on the top shelf stood a brown bear with a painted tongue. __________ seemed in the shadow to be grinning at Dickys father ___________ was nearly dark in the garden. (Mansfield). 4. The weather seemed to break this afternoon. ___________s the last of the heat waves for this summer. __________was hot in London, I said. The stars raced across the sky. _________were threads of cloud too ... _________ were woods about me, ___________was no Happy Valley. _________were nettles in the garden ... 5. ____________ is the middle of July. _________ is hot. ___________ is 30 degrees above zero. _________ is no wind. ___________ are no waves on the sea. ___________ is so pleasant to bask in the sun. ____________ are many people on the beach. __________ is on such hot days that I like to bathe most of all. 6. Look! _________ is a nest over your window! I know ___________is a swallows nest. __________ came in spring and built a nest here. Now ________ are some little swallows in it. ___________ is interesting to watch them. _____________ is the swallow that I like most of all the birds. 7. ___________ is late. ____________is 12 oclock at night. ____________ is very bad to go to bed so late. I can never go to bed in time: ____________is so much work to do. THE PREDICATE 11. State the kind of the predicate. 1. Are you a Devonshire girl? (Galsworthy). 2. That night he slept like a top ...

(Galsworthy). 3. The little boy was silent. (Galsworthy). 4. 1 can skin rabbits. (Galsworthy). 5. ... I went on holding his cold hands. (Du Maurier). 6. The mast began to shiver, began to crack. (Du Maurier). 7. It seems so odd to us (Du Maurier). 8. ... I couldnt help walking with my shoulders bent. (Greene). 9. The two guards looked at me ... (Greene). 10. 1 had a drink of brandy. (Greene). 11. His father might be dead. 12. On the first of October he was able to tell her to refurnish the house. (Cronin). 13. You werent allowed to retreat. (Aldington). 14. The signal officer made a face. (Aldington). 15. We dont have the same trouble.. 16. Gerald: I dont understand you now. (Wilde). B. Find in an English text sentences containing different kinds of the predicate. 12. Point out the simple and the compound predicate. 1. We shall be very pleased. (Galsworthy). 2. They would never have found her there. (Du Maurier). 3. Within ten minutes he had been awakened by his servant. (Aldington). 4. Ive gone lame. (Galsworthy). 5. She was moaning and crying. (Maugharn). 6. The doctor was feeling wan and nervous. (Maugham). 7. By this time to-morrow shell be gone. (Maugham). 8. The gramophone which had been silent for so long was playing ... (Maugham). 9. It wouldnt have been very nice for the Davidsons to have to mix with all that rough lot in the smoking-room. (Maugham). 10. My memory comes to the surface again ... at Malta, where I am being rushed by an Orient liner ... (Shaw). 11. Ive been trying to get in touch with you all afternoon ... (Cronin). 12. Everything seemed new and clear ... 13. He had been polite enough to the Macphails during the journey. (Maugham). 14. The sick man had been brought ashore ... (Maugham 13. Point out the link-verb of the compound nominal predicate. Translate the sentences. 1. He looked pale and tired. ( Mauriec). 2. He smokes one hundred and fifty pipes every day. That sounds a lot. (Greene). 3. What is Diolaction? I said. It sounds like condensed milk. (Greene). 4. He looked puzzled and suspicious. (Greene). 5. Please, keep quiet. 6. Arguments proved useless the old man was impla cab ... (Cronin). 7. It was growing twilight. (Bates). 8. Davidson looked scared, and his yellow drawn face went paler. (Aldington). 9. That peaceful sky hung arched over a desperate death- struggle of the nations. 10. This excess of caution seemed positively lunatic to troops coming straight from the front line ... Aldington). 11. Her mind was really getting muddled. (OCasey). 12 Her lips quivered as she sat silent. (OCasey). 13. He felt very conscious now ... 14. With this effort from his neck he passed out again, and this time into the furious black pain that seemed to last too long, although he remained half aware of it. 15. The blanched skin was slowly turning pink. 14. Insert the appropriate link-verbs (to look, to feel to be, to go, to stand, to break, to get, to seem, to grow to become) 1. I ___________ very lonely myself sometimes. 2. He landed perfectly and while the hound ___________ baffled flung him self at his hind-quarters... 3. The he was frightened: she __________ so pale. 4. Her short, red-brown hair had wildly loose. 5. Something horrible might happen ... and the money be snatched from her very lingers.

Oh, she would _________ mad then! 6. He _________ very short. 7. Looking round the restaurant she _____________ sure that no other woman there ... had as much as thirty pounds in her handbag. 8. Returning home in the afternoon she __________ conscious of her own betraying radiance. 9. Repton shrugged his shoulders, but he _________ happier. 10. She ___________ limp with her suppressed fear. 11. I _________ ten, replied the flustered boy. 15. Point out the predicative and state what it is expressed by. 1. ... Now the only thing to do is to admit the error. 2. My hand was hot, damp. (Du Maurier). 3. Hes a sticky sort of chap. (Pu Maurier). 4. The air was full of thunder. (Pu Manner). 5. I hope Dominguez is well? (Greene). 6. 1 was asleep at first, and then I didnt want to be disturbed. But I am disturbed, so come in, (Greene). 7. Phuong had probably only shown the letter as a kind of boast it wasnt a sign of mistrust. (Greene). 8. Shes no child. Shes tougher than youll ever be. (Greene). 9. Dont be an old stay-at-home (Cronin). 10. All morning he was in a mood of high satisfaction. 11. They were wider apart than before. (Cronin). 12. Thats all, he said. (Pu Manlier) 13. It was all gone; and he was forty-three. 14. He felt for a bunch of keys in his pocket. (Bates). 15. 1 felt physically sick. It was a long time since I had received a letter from my wife. I ... could feel her pain in every line. (Greene). 16. Comment on the use and the meaning of the given verb in the sentences of every group. Translate the sentences. to turn 1. M Macphail bent down ... and turned the body over. 2. The metallic blonde at the next table turned to her companion with a smile of amusement. 3. She wants to turn over a new leaf. 4. Andrew turned giddy. to give 1. Why didnt you give it [the telegram] to me? 2. The girl gave a little gasp. to cease 1. The dog has ceased barking. 2. The minis ceased. will 1. We cannot work, we cannot think, unless our stomach wills so. 2. She was so experienced in a boat. Yes, Frith ... But accidents will happen 3. Will you pass me the bread, please? 4. ... The jury will believe that at the inquest too. Phillips will tell them so. shall 1. I shall be of age next year. 2. Shall I write? Shall he help you? 3. Do have a short rest! You shall fall ill if you go on working like that. to fall 1. At last they the dogs fell on each other with terrible fury... 2. Dr. Macphail did not answer, and presently he fell asleep. 3. But soon he fell into a walk, then ran, and then walked again. 4. Ben fell back clumsily on to the two- inch coral edge of the water-line. to keep 1. I hid the paper under the cushion of the chair ... But I could not keep the morning editions from him. 2. He kept very still, and when he breathed out he kept the valve well into the coral behind him so that the air bubbles ... did not frighten them [sharks] off. 3. The perpetual harassing fire had kept him on the alert day and night. B) Find in an English text: 1) examples with the verb to be used a) as a notional verb in the function of a simple predicate, b) as an auxiliary verb, c) as a link-verb, d) with a modal meaning;

2) four examples with the verb to have used a) as a notional verb in the function of a simple predicate, b) as part of a phraseological unit, c) as an auxiliary verb, d) with a modal meaning; 3) four examples with the verb to do used a) as a notional verb, b) as an auxiliary verb, c) to emphasize the meaning of the notional verb; d) as a verb-substitute; 4) examples with the verbs to come, to turn, to get, to feel, to keep, to grow, to look, to sound. a) as notional verbs, b) as link-verbs. 17. Comment on the kind of the predicate as in the given model. Model: Ben ... took a quick look to see that Davy was not ill ... and went to sleep. took a quick look a simple predicate expressed by a phraseological unit; was ... ill a compound nominal predicate ex pressed by the link-verb was and its predicative, the adjective ill; went to sleep a compound verbal predicate of aspect containing the finite verb to go, which expresses the beginning of the action, and an infinitive. 1. When he came on deck next morning they were close to land. (Maugham). 2. In fancy he ... saw himself and her stealing forth at night ... till London swallowed them up, and the dreams of love came true. (Galsworthy). 3. Hello, Davison! You look hot. Have a cup of tea? (Aldington). 4. Youve been a little brick, Chris, the whole way through our bad times. (Cronin). 5. Father Brown made no answer. (Chesterton). 6. He had no impulse to explore the countryside. (Warner). 7. He was afraid of arriving home alone ... He began to loiter on purpose to be noticed ... (Greene). 8. He seemed scared about something. (Greene). 9. A table had been set up under a tree ... (Lawrence). AGREEMENT OF THE PREDICATE WITH THE SUBJECT 18. Use the appropriate form of the verb. Translate. 1. There (was, were) many people in the hall. 2. My school-mate and my new fellow-student (has, have) met at my place lately. 3. a) Our old teacher and friend (is, are) dangerously ill. b) Our old teacher and our young friend (is, are) dangerously ill. 4. When (is, are) your grandson and your granddaughter coming to see you? 5. a) The family (was, were) sitting round the table. b) The family (was, were) numerous. 6. The newly married couple (was, were) warmly congratulated by all their friends. 7. A number of people (was, were) standing on the river bank. 8. The number of books in my library (has, have) increased. 9. The two Gentlemen of Verona (is, are) a comedy by Shakespeare. 10. Two young men (was, were) smoking in the corridor. 11. The red and green plaid (is, are) on the sofa.

12. The grey and the black puppy (was, were) sleeping on the rug. 13. A lecture and a report on this subject (is, are) to be delivered on Friday. 14. The cattle (was, were) grazing in the field. 15. Twenty dollars (is, are) not much for this nice coat. 16. All the things (is, are) packed up. 17. Everything (is, are) packed up. 18. If one (works, work) hard, one (makes, make) progress. 19. Gymnastics (strengthens, strengthen) ones health. 20. The wounded (was, were) transported to the hospital. 21. The works (consists of, consist of) different shops. 22. Another three metres (was, were) bought for the girls dress. 23. No news (is, are) good news. 19. Comment on the use of the predicate-verb in the singular or in the plural. 1.... His people in Oughterard were written to. (Joyce). 2. After all it was his own fifty pounds ... 3. Yes, the newspapers were right: snow was general all over Ireland. (Joyce). 4. There stand three young men ... (Shaw). 5. The fleet drops behind ... (Shaw). 6. We found that the band had arrived, and were standing about in the hall rather pink in the face. ... The band were to be our guests for the night, and after we had welcomed them ..., the band were borne off to their quarters ... (Du Maurier). 7. Mr. Murdstone and I were soon off. (Dickens). 8. Before Brodie could speak he added: How are all the family? (Cronin). 9. The Mungo Clothing Company have taken the, shop next door to your husband (Cronin). 10: Oh, you [the unemployed] werent to have been paid. The North East [Company] never pay their crowds. (Mansfield). THE SECONDARY PARTS OF THE SENTENCE THE OBJECT 20. Comment on the kind of the object and say what it is expressed by. 1. You can leave your homework in the meantime. (Cronin). 2. Shes capable of deciding. (Greene). 3. Mr. Heng sent a polite verbal reply. (Greene). 4. She was leaning on the banisters, listening to something. (Joyce). 5. One must leave some goal for succeeding generations. (Berkeley). 6. And I shall go on lighting for the trust reposed in me by the dead. (Berkeley). 7. What would she think of him doing that, when everything ... depended on his not checking the foreman? (Galsworthy). 8. But the one revelation that always hurt her was his conception of his father as someone ... who knew wonderful things but didnt like to talk. (Wilson) 21. Oral exercise on the position of the indirect object. Place the direct object before the indirect object to make the latter more prominent. Use the preposition to or for.

Model: Give me the book. Give the book to me. 1. Show the children this wonderful picture book. 2. Tell somebody else this funny story. 3. Send her people a telegram. 4. Write his patents a letter of congratulation. 5. Cant you lend him a small sum of money? 6. Dont forget to buy your grandmother a new pair of spectacles in a leather case. 7. Bring us your family photos. 8. Dont give me back the money; it isnt mine. 9. Pass him the butter. 9. You neednt return him the book: it belongs to his sister. 11. Show her the snapshots, Ive seen them already. 12. Buy him a bicycle, his sister has got one. 22. A. Point out the object; define the kind of the object.

I. Read it! Read it to everybody! She used to read to rue while I was working. 2. Write this word! Write a few words to them! Write to him, he will be so glad to hear from you. 3. Sing a song! She sang some old Irish songs to the grateful listeners. Wont you sing to us? B. Insert the preposition to where necessary. 1. Explain ____ me how to do it. 2. My sister related ____ me all that had happened. 3. 1 often lend my dictionary ____ my friend. 4. He can prove this ____ everybody any moment. 5. He did not suggest ____ them that they should do it. 8. Describe ____ us all the details of the accident. 7. The author dedicated ____ the memory of his parents all the poems collected in the book. 8. These poems are ascribed ____ the pen of a young and gifted poet. 9. He introduced ____ his aunt all his young friends. 10. Can you lend ____ me your raincoat, please? 11. Has the doctor prescribed ____ you any new medicine? 12. We sent ____ her a basket of beautiful flowers. 13. Dont send the money ____ me, send it ____ your grandmother. 14. Give it ____ me. 23. A. Make up sentences with the verbs which may have two direct objects (to ask, to answer, to envy, to forgive, to strike, to excuse, to teach). B. Complete the following sentences (add a cognate object, using it with the attribute given in brackets). 1.The young man died ... (of a hero) 2.The old man sighed ... (deep). 3.He has lived ... (long and interesting). 4.After the excursion we all slept ... (sound). 5.Listening to the funny story he laughed ... (hearty). 6.Looking at the baby the mother smiled ... (happy). 7.He struck his enemy ... (deadly). 8.The troops won ... (glorious). 24. A. Make up sentences using the following words. 1. you, his, he, to, owes, success. 2. these, show, us, post-cards, to.

3. to, write, people, a, his, letter. 4. boy, explain, difficult, to, sum, the, this. 5. dictionary, her, give, my. 6. secretary, the, your, to, application, hand in. 7. your, buy, this, for, teddy bear, girl, little, wonderful. 8. it, do not, him, about, tell. 9. children, the, read, to. 10. girl, parents, introduce, this, to, young, your, charming. 11. work, suggest, them, method, to, the, of, right. 12. valuable, whom, this, does, to, belong, thing? B. Find in an English text some sentences with a) a direct object, b) two direct objects, c) a direct and an indirect object, d) an indirect object (without a direct object). 25. Ask a question on the prepositional object and its attribute, if any, as in the model. Model: I am greatly interested in this problem. What are you interested in? What problem are you interested in? 1. A symphony usually consists of four parts. 2. This collection of stamps belongs to my friend. 3. My decision depends on the state of my health. 4. My parents objected to my buying a motorcycle. 5. The reporter referred to our professors works. 6. Everybody spoke of the talented pianist. 7. The newspapers commented upon the proceedings of the conference of physicists. 8. They agreed upon the terms of the contract. 9. The students listened with great interest to the lecture on the international situation. 10. We were waiting for the 5.30 train. 11. The dean sent for the monitor of our group. 12. I looked for my green bag everywhere. 26. Point out the complex object. State what components the complex object consists of. Translate the sentences. 1. Sun didnt mind people not noticing him much.. (Mansfield). 2. And then, as by a miracle, the pigmy chest, which his hands enclosed, gave a short convulsive heave ... it almost made him faint. (Cronin). 3. Weve dreamed of him succeeding old

Palmerston as the Head of the Governmentbrought to the highest position in the country by us. (Berkeley). 4. She heard him absolutely roaring. And do you expect me to pay for this gimcrack excursion of yours? 5. Buried. You two girls had me buried She heard his stick thumping. 6 He did not want anybody to know, 7. You know that she took offence at the poor dear boys ever being born. (Dickens). 8. I will not sit here and hear such comparisons made. With that she stalked out, and made the door bang after her. (Dickens). 9. I shant even wait for it to be emptied. (Mansfield). 10. I only say, he resumed, ... that I disapprove of your preferring such company as Mistress Peggotty. (Dickens). 27. A. Insert a verb suitable to be followed by a complex object (to insist, to make, to keep, find, to wait, to hear, to want, to expect, to see, to let, to get). 1. Nothing will ________ me believe it was true. 2. I ________ him laughing loudly. 3. The father ________ his son to be an educated man. 4. I shall never be able to ______ my packing done by myself. 5. I am not going _______ you go home alone so late at night. 6. We _______ them cross the bridge. 7. We ______ him to come soon. 8. The public were ________ for the curtain to rise 9. He ________ them walking along a shady alley. 10. I didnt intend to ______ you waiting. 11. They _______ on my writing another letter. B. Complete the sentences giving the second element of the complex object. 1. 1 must have my hair 2. Nobody expected you ... 3. We shall get your luggage... 4. He waited for us ... 5. You cant rely on his 6. She watched the swallows ... 7. I suppose it ... 8. She considered herself ... 9. We were surprised at your THE ATTRIBUTE 30. Point out the attribute and say what it is expressed by. 1. Perhaps one day you will have a reason for writing about it. (Greene). 2. Horn made him a sign to come on to the veranda. 3. We used to have a very good horse and trap at home, said Aunt Julia sadly The never- to- be -forgotten Johnny said Mary Jane, laughing (Joyce) 4. They were strangers; they couldnt be expected to understand that father was the very last person for such a thing to happen to. (Mansfield). 5. On another occasion ... the same dear baby ... was the innocent occasion of Miss Murdstones going into a passion. (Dickens). 6. ... he realised suddenly ... that it wasnt fear of being caught that worried Davy but fear of being left alone. 7. That night in the surgery there were three patients, two of whom paid him the three and six penny fee... He had, in his first days practice, earned the sum of ten and six, (Cronin). 8. She looked at me ... with the slightest possible content a fancy-not-recognising-that-at-the-first glance expression. (Mansfield). 9. And Bertha smiled with that little air of proprietorship that she always assumed while her women friends were new and mysterious. (Mansfield). 10. I think I come across the same idea in a little French review quite unknown in England. 11. She was a well made woman of about fifty ... She had the look of a woman well-fed, well-taken-care-of ... (Cronin). 14. Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great English humorist tells tales out of an artists sheer love of story telling. (Delmer). 15. Bennett was the first to realize that the grey-skied region, known as the Potteries, contained excellent copy for a series of novels. (Delmer). 16. They must have a roof to cover them, a house to shelter them ...

(Cronin). 31. Place the attributes in the proper order in relation to the noun they modify. Model: a hut, wooden, small a small wooden hut 1. A man handsome, grey-haired; 2. a building ancient, dilapidated; 3. a woman sick, old; 4. an alley shady, broad; 5. a girl little, thin, with big eyes; 6. a plant tropical, fragrant; 7. a cliff lonely, about 20 feet high; 8. baby two-year- old, charming, this; 9. cousins his, both; 10. a leaf faded, oak; 11. a plaid checked, Scotch, woollen; 12. music sweet, exquisite, but quite unfamiliar to the listeners; 13. the pianist talented, admired by the public; 14. a report made by our professor, interesting, on modern English writers; 15. photo taken about 10 years ago, my schoolfellows; 16. a ladyGerman, middle- aged, stout; 17. cap favourite, my, old; 18. spectaclesold, my, in an old leather case; 19. a doctor very experienced, wellknown; 20. a story told by a friend of mine, interesting. 32. Ask questions on the attributes in bold type. (The interrogative words for use: what, which, whose, what kind of, what sort of, how much, how many). 1. He is a conscientious student. 2. Bus number 2 will take you as far as the Opera House. 3. This is a book on architecture. 4. Cold winds blow from the North. 5. This is my brothers tennis racket. To play tennis we must have four balls. 6. He drinks very much milk. 7. Give me the book on the left. 8. He lives in that house at the corner of the street. 9. They live in a new house of modern construction. 10. There are ten students in our group. 11. The meeting will take place in room 32. 12. You mustnt lift heavy things. 13. I like salt biscuits. 14. Ill go by the 3.30 train. 15. My friend spent two years in the North. 16. He delivered an interesting lecture. 17. Your brother is a most amusing companion. 18. She had a tiny brown spaniel puppy in her arms. 19. An old orchard of apple-trees stretched down to a stream. 33. A. Point out the attribute. State what it is expressed by. Translate the sentences. 1. There was nothing to say. 2. She was the first to help me. 3. I have a lot of things to see to. 4. There is nothing more to be done. 5. I have no intention to follow them. 6. Scientists from different countries will be present at the conference shortly to open in our city. 7. I hope to attend all the lectures to be delivered on this subject. 8. There is not a second to be lost. B. Find in an English text sentences including an attribute expressed by 1) an adjective, 2) a pronoun, 3) a numeral (cardinal or ordinal), 4) a noun a) in the common case, b) in the genitive case, 5) a prepositional phrase, 6) an adverb, 7) Participle I or II or a participial phrase, 8) a prepositional gerundial phrase or a prepositional construction, 9) an infinitive, an infinitive phrase or an infinitive construction, 10) a quotation group.

34. A. Make up sentences with detached attributes using the given words. Model: dismal cave, dark and cold. We found ourselves in a dismal cave, dark and cold. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. big man, broad-shouldered and heavy. nice young girl, very graceful and elegantly dressed. unknown lane, long and narrow. modern building, built of glass and concrete. nice room, light and clean. small kitchen, cosy and tidy.

B. Make up sentences, using the following words and phrases as detached attributes. rather high-flown; terrified by the accident; sick and tired; greatly surprised, quite depressed; fresh and jolly usually so considerate (of) ...; engaged in his work. 35. A. Point out the close and the loose apposition. 1. Maidenhead, a river resort, is on one of the River Thames... 2. The town of Windsor is a typically English town. (Britain) 2. William Langland, the humanitarian poet of the 14th century, deeply felt the social evils he saw around him. 3. Side by side with Langland lived another great English reformer, John Wycliff, one of the intellectual forces of the 14th century. 3. The poet Pope was Shakespeares second editor. 4. Jerome K. Jerome set England laughing ... with a farcial but exceedingly well- written story Three Men in a Boat. 5. The well known personage Sam Weller was Mr. Pickwicks witty, light-hearted, shrewd and faithful servant, a kind of Cockney Sancho Panza. 6. That is his father, Sir Robert, a perfectly honest old cavalier. (Chesterton). THE ADVERBIAL MODIEIER 36. State the kind of the adverbial modifier. Say what the adverbial modifier is expressed by. 1. I heard him knocking, so I ran upstairs to let him in. (Greene). 2. All at once the sheep-dog leapt to its feet. (Bates). 3. Ben was too busy to hear him now ... 4. Gabriel tried to cover his agitation by taking part in the dance with great energy. (Joyce). 5. Im here; Im working, morning, noon and night. (Berkeley). 6. Sophie pulled out the dress without saying anything. (Huxley). 7. There was a road to Cairo which went west across the desert. 8. They went down the stairs side by side. (Maugham). 9. Sometimes it is a joy in the very heart of hell to tell the truth. (Chesterton). 10. I believe that I began to know that there was something about my aunt, notwithstanding her many eccentricities and odd humours, to be honoured and trusted

in. (Dickens). 11. Your hands are like snowdrops, Mary ... They are cool like snow itself. 12. She hung her head a little, conscious of her own deficiencies and the oddity of her up-bringing ... (Cronin). 13. Lord Darlington: ... Gogo out of this house, with head erect, with a smile upon your lips, with courage in your eyes. (Wilde). 14. Here Nessie burst into the room like a young foal ... (Cronin). 15. Then in a moment she looked up, as though seeing him for the first time. (Cronin). 16. She sat down on the edge of the table, swinging her legs, watching me (Du Maurier). 17. She paused, her eyes never leaving my face. 18. Everybody coming in time, we shall begin the discussion at 3 oclock. 37. Point out the adverbial modifiers and state their kinds: 1. A long, soft ripple of wind flowed over the corn... 2. Yesterday I passed by an elm avenue... 3. ...the gardeners were busily potting out spring flowers. 4. The lines of the mountains were sharply defined against the profound blue. 5. Winter set in early and unexpectedly with a heavy fall of snow. 6. I quite understand you. 7. I was stiff with long sitting, and bewildered with the noise and motion of the coach... 8. The rest of the conversation is not important enough to be here related. 9. In case of your absence I shall leave you a note. 10. Even Miriam laughed in spite of herself. 11. Before switching on the electric light he pulled down the blind and drew the heavy curtain across the window. 12. She could run like an Amazon. 13. The gale had freshened since noon... and now blew with the strength of a hurricane... 14. She told me we must part, and told me why ... 15. I was completely happy. 16. Youve been working too hard lately. 17. He stood still a long while, surveying the hillside. 18. Martin talked for fifteen minutes with him... 19. By this time it was getting dark and snowing pretty heavily. 20. The stars were very bright. 21. I think its pretty easy, Nick. 22. I entirely agree with you. 23. Notwithstanding the cold weather, Henry Bosmans face glowed like the heater in his chambers... 24. They were walking eastward. 25. The door was not fastened within... 26. We shall be friends in spite of separation... 27. Outside it was getting dark. 28. Dessie stopped for a moment to ease her back. 29. He moved down the stream a few steps...

30. I flushed simply from being spoken to ... 31. Around them, in the alder clumps, the primroses grew in great profusion. 32. She strained her ears to catch the words. 33. Mrs. Pratt had driven to Winster to see her mother... 34. She walked briskly. 35. The sky had partly cleared, but was very gloomy ... 36. Mauki no longer weighs one hundred and ten pounds. 37. He therefore gave his horsemen orders to advance. 38. He was now a hundred yards from the water... 39. The unexpected offer of shelter was too unexpected to be resisted. 40. Once more he passed my table without stopping. 41. It was very interesting to me to see them together not only on account of their mutual affection, but because of the strong personal resemblance between them ... 42. Ben was too busy to hear him now... 43. She started the car, and, ... drove at full speed. 44. Being asked to sit down he laid his hat and stick on the table... 45. I thought I should sleep well being tired; but I didnt. 46. He stood on the porch sunning himself. 47. When dressed, I sat a long time by the window. 48. I did as requested. 49. Nobody spoke unless spoken to... 50. He is extremely well read though very young. 51. If necessary, I shall come tomorrow. 52. Little bare-legged children ran about him, playing on the grass. 38. Insert the adverbial modifier in the appropriate place. (Give more than one variants if possible). 1. It will be raining hard (soon). 2. The climate has been damp (always, in these parts). 3. It rains in autumn (usually). 4. There is no deep river, except the Tamar (on the southern coast of England). 5. The tourist put all the equipment which may be necessary during the tour (into his bag). 6. The ascent of the mountain peak will begin (early in the morning). 7. Ring me up (before leaving the town). 8. One strengthens ones health (by mountaineering). 9. I shall sleep much and take long walks (instead of taking medicine). 10. One must have a good rest (after training). 11. We sat down to table and had a hearty meal (on returning home). 12. He jumped at the offer (being invited to spend his vacation in a mountain-camp). 13. We shall go on an excursion (weather permitting). 14. We returned to the camp (the sun setting behind the mountains). 39. Insert the adverbial modifiers in their proper place. To his orderly he was cold and ... indifferent (at first). ... the change came (then, gradually). He might have changed his man (easily). He looked direct at his orderly (now, very rarely). ... As the young soldier moved, the elder watched him (unthinking, about the apartment). And an undiscovered feeling had held between the two men (from that time). The orderly was afraid of really meeting his master (henceforward). So he stared past his master (always)... He had served the Captain, and knew his duty (for more than a year). This he performed (easily) ... This irritated the officer (more and more). I flew into a rage with the young soldier (sometimes), and bullied him. The

words pierced to his intelligence (never). He had a scar on his left thumb. The officer had suffered from it (long). The Captain grew irritable (madly). He flung a heavy military glove into the young soldiers face (once). The youth tried to keep him self intact (instinctively) ... The youth was frightened (deeply). (Lawrence) 40. Ask questions on the adverbial modifiers in bold type. 1. All the preparations happily completed, we left for the South. 2. I see them twice a week. 3. One must handle this apparatus with great care. 4. After a good rest I can go miles. 5. The tourists were tired having covered over 30 miles that day. 6. She opened the window to air the room. 7. We have been living here since 1930. 8. The sailor ran to the front of the boat. 9. Rumours of his doings reached his relations from time to time. 10. In the fable the ant spends the summer gathering its winter store. 11. He opened the door for me to pass. 41. Make up sentences of your own using the following word combinations as adverbial modifiers. 1) of time or frequency: from time immemorial, since then, when a boy, when questioned, on returning home, from time to time, from that day on, in a day or two, not until, it was done, on that unforgettable day, with the flush of dawn; 2) of place or direction: behind the house, in front of the house, in the distance, at a distance, across the street, at the corner of the street, at the top of the page, at the bottom of, downstairs; 3) of manner or attending circumstances: on purpose, by chance, without a glance, with his fists clenched, with tears streaming down her cheeks, in a whisper, full of indignation, side by side, as if to stop him, never to come back; 4) of degree or measure: rather (well, badly, etc.), greatly (surprised, astonished, disappointed, etc.), to perfection, particularly, deeply, fairly well, over head and ears; 5) of cause: quite worn out, because of ones carelessness, not being able to, there being no time left, it being late; 6) of condition: weather permitting, but for (ones help, advice, kindness, etc.), if possible (necessary, obligatory), if (unless) discovered (asked, required, etc.); 7) of comparison: as if asleep (in doubt, etc.), like (all elderly people, all his relatives; a child, etc.); 8) of concession: difficult as it was, in spite of (the difficulties, the nasty weather, etc.), although quite tired (much weaker, etc.), notwithstanding his success (promise, etc.); 9) of purpose: for you to (have it, see it, etc.), in order to soothe the baby (to make it clear, etc.), lest he should forget it. DETACHED PARTS OF THE SENTENCE 42. Point out and define the detached parts of the sentence. Translate the sentences. 1. He was so earnest in his manner that, despite her apathy, Mary found herself

thanking him ... (Cronin). 2. In spite of himself, he watched him, gave him sharp orders (Lawrence). 3. Then the orderly shut himself off ... and waited, with sullen, flushed face, for the end of the noise. (Lawrence). 4. Dandy and Winter showed, so far, no signs of the bankruptcy prophesied for them by Soames ... (Galsworthy). 5. Presently he came to a standstill, with his hands deep plunged into his pockets and his shoulders hunched. (Galsworthy). 6. Between Michael and his senior partner a gulf was fixed, not less deep than that between two epochs ... (Galsworthy). 7. There he was, in his shabby overcoat, with his pale narrow face, and his disproportionately large eyes, and his sloping shoulders. (Galsworthy). 8. Jose! she said, horrified, however are we going to stop everything? (Mansfield). 9 He, however, was a gentleman, with long, fine hands and cultivated movements. 10. Michael moved his nostrils ... but he could catch no scent, except incense. (Galsworthy) Find in an English text sentences with the following detached members: a) a detached adverbial modifier. b) a detached attribute, c) a detached object. 43. Point out homogeneous parts, define them and state what they are expressed by. 1. She was wearing a black pleated skirt and a bright red blouse of very fine poplin. (Braine). 2. It was a low, pleasant laugh. (Braine). 3. Vaults closing! Samuel would say and yawn. (Bennett). 4. Was he unaware that his wife was the proudest and the most obstinate woman on earth ...? (Bennett). 5. She turns round and looks at her husband. (Wilde). 6. Algernon: Ah! that must be Aunt Augusta. Only relatives or creditors ever ring in that Wagnerian manner. (Wilde). 7. They could not have moved or spoken since he went. (Maugham). 8. He raised her to her feet and partly dragging her, partly carrying her, got her downstairs. (Maugham). 9. He has asked his questions querulously but sternly ... (Aldridge). 10. Regret for the past and the future is the same. 11. But again Ashurst smiled and shook his head. (Galsworthy). 12. She was walking on before him so lightly and so erect ...(Joyce). 13. Once he was caught in a knot of children running away from some thing or somebody .. (Greene). 14. Sophia got the kettle and washed it up. (Bennett). 15. There was starlight, but no moonlight. (Greene). 16. The third [girl] was perhaps seventeen, tall and fair- haired too. (Galsworthy). 17. In the silence Gabriel could hear the falling of the molten wax into the tray and the thumping of his own heart against his ribs. (Joyce). 18. Then, suddenly raising herself on tiptoe and resting her hands lightly on his shoulders, she kissed him. (Joyce). 19. He was both curious and eager to have more precise information of his friends of the previous evening. (Cronin). 20. Digging went on through Tuesday and Wednesday. (Warner). 21. I watched him read his letters, saw him frown at one, smile at another ... (Du Maurier). 44. Point out homogeneous parts and state how they are connected. 1. Both he who chooses heads and he who chooses tails are equally at fault ... (Greene). 2. Nobody ever saw Chirac or the old sail. (Bennett) 3. The room was plainly visible as commodious, comfortably, though not agreeably furnished. (Cronin). 4. She was sitting in a chair idly, neither reading nor sewing ... (Maugham). 5. She accused Robert of either taking the ornament or breaking it and concealing the breakage. (Du Maurier). 6. That night Ashurst hardly slept at all. He was thinking, tossing and turning. Next morning he got his cheque cashed, but avoided the shop of the dove-grey

dress ..., and, instead, bought himself some necessaries. (Galsworthy). 7. But I was more afraid of the pain than of the partisans ... (Greene). S. A moment later she pulled back the bolt of the bedroom door and then turned the key and opened the door and stood on the landing outside (Bates). Find in an English text some sentences containing homogeneous parts. ANALYSIS OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE 45. Analyse the following sentences according to the form given. Model: Clarice was waiting for me in my bedroom. It is a simple extended sentence. Clarice is the subject expressed by a proper noun was waiting is a simple predicate expressed by the verb to wait in the Past continuous tense, singular. for me is a prepositional object expressed by a personal pronoun, first person, singular, in the objective case, preceded by the pre position for. in my bedroom is an adverbial modifier of place expressed by a prepositional phrase. 1. Mary shook off her mantle with a shrug of her shoulders. (Cronin). 2. Passengers getting out of the open doors were bowled along the platform. 3. Trasker had been watching her with an inexplicable flush on his face ... (Wilson). 4. Dinner at the Traskers had become by this time almost a family routine for the Gorins. (Wilson). 5. Several shutters were put up in the windows of the shop to indicate a death. (Bennett). 6. The customer sent up by Constance had occupied the surface of her life for ten minutes, trying on hats. (Bennett). 7. She saw him put a piece of folded white paper on the top edge of the screening box and flick it down to her. (Bennett). 8. This was a disagreeable way of putting the business. (Dickens). 9. The two women stood side by side looking at the slender, flowering tree. (Mansfield). 10. She had to talk because of her desire to laugh. (Mansfield). 11. One winter afternoon she had been buying something in a little antique shop in Curzon Street. (Mansfield). 12. I opened the knife, and cut a: length of twine, and came back into the room again. 13 This time he allowed me to touch him and pull hold of his collar. (Du Maurier). 14. Most of the western rivers flow down a steep slope near the sea and are short and rapid. (Wide World Reader). 15. The southern rivers also rise near the coast and have short and rapid courses. (Wide World Reader). 16. The valley of the Tweed is remarkable for its magnificent trees. 17. The ebb flows to and from the great shallow of the North Sea produces an alternating tidal race, running with a speed of from six to ten knots an hour. 18. The contrast between the south-east and the north-west of Brit ain depends on a fundamental distinction in rock structure. 19. The well known cyclone on the 28 of December in 1879 was a real storm, the wind amounting in some places to a severe gale. 20. From the Pennine Chain good building stone, marble, and lime are obtained in large quantities. 21. Birmingham, Englands Second City, has the reputation of being able to make anything from an ancient relic to the automobile. 22. Stratford is an irresistibly attractive country town. THE INDEPENDENT ELEMENTS OP THE SENTENCE

46. Point out the independent elements, define them and say what they are expressed by. 1. Have one each, my dears, said cook in her comfortable voice. (Mansfield). 2. That was, so to speak, another gift from Warley. (Braine). 3. Hello, Eva, I said. Hello, Alice:.. (Braine). 4. Well, Miss Spencer, she greeted the former Baroness Zerlinski. (Bennett). 5. To do that lady justice, Miss Spencer bore the surprising ordeal very well. (Bennett). 6. But, on the whole, England has a gently sloping surface. 7. Oh, father! cried Nella, what a lot of mustard you have taken! (Bennett). 8. At length the reply from Mr. Murdstone came ... (Dickens). 47. Point out the parenthesis and state what it is expressed by. 1. He is my husband, and, of course, I do what he tells me. (Bennett). 2. As it was, Nella departed with surprising docility. (Bennett). 3. He looked at her in sullen amazement, but refused, none the less, to be diverted from the issue. 4. She glanced, sideways, at the old couple. Perhaps they would go soon. (Mansfield). 5. Gerald: They [women] are awfully interested, certainly, in things we dont care much about. 6. Needless to say, the total was more and not less than a thousand francs. (Bennett). 7. ... But theres no chance here, Mrs Bicket. Besides, he couldnt make two ends meet on this job, he told me. (Galsworthy). 8. According to your theory, were in a mighty soulful era. (Galsworthy). 9. To tell you the truth, I dont like to get up early. 48. A. Insert an appropriate word (word combination) as a parenthesis evidently, in fact, by the way, judging by ..., to cut a long story short, may be, besides, luckily, in my opinion, to tell the truth). 1. __________he is quite ill. 2. __________they got married. 3. __________ I dont like it. 4.____________ N. is the best violinist Ive ever heard. 5. __________I found out much later that I had been wrong. 6. Dont worry, __________she will come soon. 7. I have much work to do for to-morrow, __________my mother is unwell, so I must leave at once. 8. ____________ the driver managed to avoid knocking down the old man. 9. You have ____________been working very hard, you look so tired. 10. ____________Henry, how old is your sister? B. Make up or find sentences using the following words and word combinations as a parenthesis: a) modal words (such as: perhaps, maybe, certainly, etc.); b) adverbs (such as: besides, still, anyway, moreover, firstly, etc.);

c) prepositional phrases (such as: in truth, at least, etc.); d) infinitive and participial phrases (such as: to be frank, to be quite plain, etc., generally speaking, judging by your words, etc.). THE COMPOUND SENTENCE 49. Point out sentences with a) syndetic and b) asyndetic coordination. Comment on the types of coordination and on the conjunctions used in a). 1. I would not listen to her, I thought her hard and cruel. (Du Manner). 2. She put her hands up to her cheeks, but her eyes seemed to look right into his. (Galsworthy). 3. He went up to his bedroom to get a book, and his heart began to beat violently, for she was in there making the bed. (Galsworthy). 4. The cuckoos and a thousand birds were singing; the little streams were very bright. (Galsworthy). 5. Spreading four square in the midst of the British Kingdom is the inland Irish Sea; while for six hundred miles off the north western shores is the border of the ocean. (Mackinder). 6. In Britain even the leeward slopes receive abundant moisture; yet the rain-shadows to eastward and north-eastward of the hills are distinctly indicated upon the map. (Mackinder). 50. Point out the coordinating conjunctions connecting a) the clauses of the compound sentences and b) those connecting the homogeneous members of the simple sentences. 1. Miss Sharp only folded her own hands with a very frigid smile and bow, and quite declined to accept the proffered honour. (Thackeray). 2. A seed-cake and a bottle of wine were produced in the drawing-room and these refreshments being partaken of, Miss Sedley was at liberty to depart. (Thackeray). 3. He must go, or they would overtake him. (Lawrence). 4. If you meant to be a guest, you or your courier gave your card to Miss Spencer. 5. Racksole tried to catch the waiters eye, but could not. (Bennett). 6. She wanted to come and see you before, but she and Maxim have been so busy. (Du Maurier). 7. Neither she nor I could pick up any information on the subject. (Dickens). 8. Mrs. Septimus Small let fall no word; neither did she question June about it. (Galsworthy). 51. Comment on the meaning of the coordinating conjunction and (addition, succession or simultaneity; causative-consecutive or adversative meaning). 1. Rebeccas mother had had some education somewhere, and her daughter spoke French with purity and a Parisian accent. (Thackeray). 2. She had already taken leave of him once ...; and now she had nothing to say, nothing whatever. (Bennett). 3. On the instant she straightened up, and her eyes filled with a great pain. (Dreiser). 4. They were all tremendously great men, and the so-called experts were all tremendously sure they were right. (Berkeley). 5. A padding of unshod hoofs came up the lane, and three dim, dark shapes passed ponies on an evening march. (Galsworthy). 6. The catastrophe came, and she was brought to the Mall as to her home. (Thackeray). 7. Susan was a princess and I was the equivalent of a swine-herd. 8. There was a pane missing in the kiosk and a cold wind blew in. 9. That poor boy asked me to help him to get a chance to propose and I sent them out for a walk. (Berkeley). 10. Constance, in addition to the sciatica, had caught a sneezing cold, and

the act of sneezing caused her the most acute pain. (Bennett). 11. He laughed, and so did she. (Dreiser). 12. Then the bazooka shell burst on the tower and I was on my face again. (Greene). 13. ... theyve been married nearly ten years and they havent had any children. (Braine) 52. Make up one compound sentence by joining two simple ones with the help of the conjunction. Model: You dont like to have a tooth pulled out. I dont like to have a tooth pulled out. You dont like to have a tooth pulled out, and I dont like it either. 1. You have not been to London. I have not been there. 2. She does not like jazz-band. My people do not like jazz-band. 3. I never take medicine. She does not take medicine. 4. She is not fond of such kind of poetry. I am not fond of it. 5. My aunt never goes to football matches. My grandmother never goes to football matches. 6. You never make spelling mistakes. My friend never makes spelling mistakes. 7. I do not go to-the South in July. My sister does not go to the South in July. 53. Join the following sentences into one using the conjunction so or neither. (Mind the order of words in the second clause of the compound sentence). Model: I am going to hear this concert. My sister is going to hear it too. I am going to hear this concert, so is my sister. Bananas dont grow in the North. Pine-apples dont grow in the North either. Bananas dont grow in the North, neither do pine-apples. 1. He would have liked to be present at that lecture. I should have liked to be present at the lecture too. 2. I have never been to Scandinavian countries. My children have never been to Scandinavian countries either. 3. You are not responsible for this accident. Your husband is not responsible for it either. 4. But for the meeting I should have been at the concert yesterday. My fellow-students would have been there too. 5. I am greatly interested in this subject. My friend is also interested. 54. Using suitable coordinating conjunctions, convert the following simple sentences into compound ones. 1. It being stuffy in the room, I opened the window. 2. Thanks to the drivers skill, the old man was not knocked down. 3. Our work being completed, we may have a good rest. 4. For all his experience in this branch of science, he is sometimes compelled to consult the professor. 5. In spite of the snowstorm in the mountains, the geologists managed to carry out their work. 6. She spoke to me in low voice to avoid disturbing the patient.

7. He blamed nobody except his younger brother. 8. Except the pianist himself all the people found the concert to be a success. 9. That day the sea was too stormy for people to bathe. 10. During the holidays I went to Moscow to see an old friend of mine. 11. It being a nice little place, the host and the hostess were rather proud of it. 12. But for the umbrella he would have come home drenched and would have caught cold. 55. Complete the following so that compound sentences should be formed. 1. Take the lid off the pan, or else (the soup, to boil over). 2. Some people like hot weather, whereas (others, cant stand...). 3. Either you will buy the tickets, or (I, to ask ...). 4. You are inexperienced, hence (you, cant judge ...). 5. She is small and thin, while (her children, to be ...). 6. Both the friends were fond of music, so (they, to talk...). 7. I asked them to stay some days more, still (they, to make up ones mind ...). 8. The train started at 5 a. m., therefore (we, to get up ...). 9. He was quite a young boy, nevertheless (everybody, to respect ...). 10. Neither a telegram was sent, nor (a letter, to be written). 11. I met him somewhere, but ( not to remember ...). 13. She is a delicate child, while (her brother, to be ...). 14. He was not much afraid, yet (he, to ask ...). THE COMPLEX SENTENCE SUBJECT, OBJECT AND PREDICATIVE CLAUSES 56. Point out subject clauses and the connectives they are introduced by. 1. Whatever he thought of her would not go beyond him. (Galsworthy). 2. ... How that woman ever got into it [the world] with that name, is unaccountable to me. (Dickens). 3. What you ask is impossible. (Wilde). 4. What we want is rest, said Harris. (Jerome). 5. One night my fathers big red land was trampled down by small sharp hooves, and it was discovered that the culprits were goats. 6. What awakened him was the engine coughing. (Aldridge), 7. Is it to be hinted to me that I want in affection for my precious treasure ... (Dickens). 8. Its very strange, said Mr. Dick ..., that I never can get that quite right (Dickens). 9. Which side wins does not concern us here. (Shaw). 10. Its a good thing she went away with you. (Greene). 11. Whether I was her rival in sport or in studies seemed equally bad in her eyes. A. Find in an English text some complex sentences containing a subject clause introduced by a) the conjunctions that, whether; b) the conjunctive pronouns who, which, what and by the conjunctive adverbs where, when, how, why.

57. Point out predicative clauses; state by what connectives they are introduced. 1. I had said the name ... It was as though I had taken a purge and rid myself of an intolerable pain. (Du Maurier). 2. To blow the bridge at a stated hour based on the time set for the attack is how it should be done. (Hemingway). 3. The provoking thing was that ... Bertha couldnt make her out. (Mansfield). 4. This was not how the object itself would look: this was the image in a mirror, reversed. (Greene). 6. And this is what he remembered. (Gals worthy). 7. Dr. Macphails first thought was that something had happened to Miss Thompson. (Maugham). 8. The trouble was ... he got mixed up. (Greene). 9. We are just as we were, said Adrian, friends. (Galsworthy). 58. Define the kind of the subordinate clauses; isolate that which appears to be the principal clause. 1. What has happened to me is exactly what I willed to happen. 2. What annoyed me the most about him was that he stood four inches above me and was broader across the shoulders. (Braine). 3. What she simply couldnt make out what was miraculous was how she should have guessed Miss Fultons mood so exactly and so instantly. (Mansfield). 4. What weve got to decide now, however, is whether we really do trust Kate or not. (Mansfield). 5. What I mean is people dont suddenly for no reason have violent headaches. (Du Maurier). 6. What I mean is that you cant go cutting everybody. (Shaw). 59. State whether the object clauses are introduced asyndetically or syndetically; in the latter case pick out the connectives. Translate the sentences. 1. You must do whatever your conscience tells you to be right, Dr. Gumming. (Berkeley). 2. What Miss Fulton did, Bertha didnt know. (Mansfield). 3. What is to guarantee that my orders are not changed? (Hemingway). 4. She found that I listened to what she said. 5. I do not blame the dog because I take it that it is his nature. (Jerome). 6. I only want you to re - member what you have seen, he said ... (Greene). 7. I couldnt tell who the speakers were. (Greene). 8. One can allways tell from a womans bonnet whether she has got a memory or - not. (Wilde). 9. I hope I shall remember that. (Wilde). 10. I think there must have been thunder in the air (Wilde). 11. Nella inquired where the Baroness meant to take lunch. (Bennett). 12. I dont see why a man should think he is pleasing a woman enormously when he says to her a whole heap of things that he doesnt mean. (Wilde). 13. I see how it is. 14. I was horribly afraid lest some one might walk up Salisbury Lane ... (Bennett). 15. I wondered if the bishops wife saw the flush on my face ... (Du Maurier). 16. Andrew, I am exceedingly sorry I allowed you to call on us. (Shaw). 17. Dinny felt suddenly that she was on very thin ice. (Galsworthy). 18. Im terribly glad Ive met you at last. (Galsworthy). Find in an English text some complex sentences containing an object clause. 60. A. Join the following simple sentences into one complex sentence

containing a subject, an object, or a predicative clause. 1. What kind of books are you fond of? I should like to know it. 2. He told us many things about his journey. We are greatly interested in it. 3. His children should be decent and educated people. He dreams about it. 4. What was going on in the street? I wondered at it. 5. Travelling by land is more interesting than travelling by sea. I dont think so. 6. He will keep his word. You may rely on it. B. Complete the following sentences supplying subject, object, or predicative clauses. 1. He has made up his mind ... 2. 1 didnt hear ... 3. A little bit of pluck is 4 The trainers instructions to the sportsman were 5. It was of vital importance 6. The trainer explained to them ... 7. Ill do just 8. His aim was ... 9. I take it ... 10. It is a pity ... 11. Do you understand...? 12. He felt ... 13. See to it 14. ... I really cannot imagine. ATTRIBUTIVE CLAUSES 61. Define the kinds of attributive clauses; translate the sentences. 1. It was the hour of rest in the immense courtyard which lay open to the sky. (Greene). 2. The procession of cars was well ahead of us by the time we started. (Greene). 3. Then Harris, who was sitting next the window, drew aside the curtain and looked out upon the street. (J. K. Jerome). 4. There is no doubt that my wife was bitterly jealous. (Conan Doyle). 5. There are times when all of us are afraid of him. (Conan Doyle). 6 I have no distinct remembrance whether it pleased or frightened me. (Dickens). 7. I had a strong impression that my company was not wanted. (Greene). 8. We were expected to work all the time, which appears reasonable enough. 9. She was very much afraid of her husband, who treated her with a harshness for which I frequently reproached him. (Conan Doyle). 10. In the distance lay the park, where the trees were weighted with snow. (Joyce). 11. A similar revolver she concealed in Miss Dunbars wardrobe after discharging one barrel, which she could easily do in the woods without attracting attention. (Conan Doyle). 62. Pick out the attributive clauses; point out the words the clauses refer to; say whether the clauses are introduced a) asyndetically, b) syndetically define the connectives. 1. Perhaps he was just killed by someone who wanted his money. (Greene). 2 Gabriel went away to a remote corner of the room where Freddys mother was sitting. (Joyce). 3. She has an opportunity which is offered to very few of us. (Maugham). 4. Ben ... was having trouble with the valve that supplied the right amount of air. (Aldridge). 5. That was the knife he had had no time to use. 6. Those were the days when there was something like singing to be heard in Dublin. (Joyce). 7. He wanted to explain all he had felt and thought. 8. She belonged to a world about which he knew nothing at all. (Greene). 9. They had agreed that during the first evening they would avoid asking questions about how and why Emil had left Vienna. (Warner). 10. The only person in the household with whom he seemed to feel at ease was Hannah. (Warner). 11. I felt the same walking down Piccadilly after the war as I did as a youngster back from India. (Galsworthy).

63. A. Insert: who, whose, whom, which, that. 1. When he reached Andrew, _________ he had seen from halfway down the street, he gave a theatrical start of recognition, (Cronin) 2. The most- markedly transverse river in Wales is the Wye, __________ general direction is south eastward. (Mackinder). 3.This marriage __________ for obvious reasons must inevitably take place ... will not give me a name ___________ will be really, rightly mine to bear. (Wilde). 4.Cam bridge is one of the great architectural glories of England. Those ____________ claim that it is more beautiful than Oxford were educated locally. (Britain). B. Translate: 1. He is not such a timid person as you think him to be. 2. In the picture gallery there -were such pictures as we had never seen before. 3. Your son is fond of such books as I liked in my childhood. 64. A. Omit the relative pronouns or adverbs where possible.

1. Tell me the title of the book that you have just mentioned. 2. I did not notice the person who has left the purse - here. 3. The person whose purse we have found will be informed about it. 4. You will like the place where we are going to. 5. A dog that barks never bites. 6. I am still under the impression of the concert which took place yesterday. B. Find in an English text: 1. some sentences containing attributive relative restrictive clauses; 2. some sentences containing attributive relative non-restrictive clauses; 3. some sentences containing attributive non-restrictive continuative clauses which refer to the whole of the principal clause; 4. some sentences containing appositive clauses. 65. Join the following simple sentences into a complex one, using suitable connectives or asyndetically. 1. The long struggle in England between the dynasties of Lancaster and York lasted for 30 years. This struggle is known as the Wars of the Roses. 2. The only Roman theatre in Britain is on the outskirts of the town of St. Albans. There in the 1st century of our era stood the Roman town of Verulamium. 3. The City Walls have encircled the city of York since the 14th century. Along the top of the City Walls there runs a footpath. 4. King Harold was killed in the battle. His Anglo-Saxon troops were defeated by the Normans in the battle at Hastings in 1066. 5. The Norman kings ruled with the help of Norman nobles. They formed a governing body. 66. A. Complete the following sentences supplying attributive clauses. 1. He bought a collection of stamps in the shop ... 2. 1 shall never forget the day 3. I do not know the stamp ... 4. A person ... must know geography well. 5. The stamp ... has been sent to me by a friend of mine. 6. The boy ... will gladly show his collection to you.

B. Insert appositive clauses using the conjunctions that, whether or the adverbs how, why. 1. Their proposal ... cannot be realized. 2. I dont like the idea... 3. Ive got rid of the horrible fear 4. The news ... cheered us greatly. 5. His illness was the reason ... 6. The question ... seemed very important. 7. He expressed his doubt ADVERBIAL CLAUSES 67. A. Define the kinds of adverbial clauses. I. They stood waiting where they were. (Maugham). 2. When they knocked at her door Mrs. Davidson came out. 3 I did as she asked ... (Conan Doyle). 4. I cannot be at ease ... if someone else is in pain ... (Greene). 5. Eulalia was so moved that she could only weep again. (Coppard). 6. Lunch passed off better than I had dared to hope. (Du Maurier). 7. Though she had only twice seen Ferse, she recognised him at once. 8. He was furious with Mrs. Davidson and his wife because they made no effort to help. 9. I turned away, so that Frith should not see my face. (Du Manner). 10. They liked to criticise my looks ..., they liked to watch how Maxim and I behaved to each other ..., so that they could go back afterwards and discuss us ... (Du Maurier). B. Find in an English text some complex sentences containing all kinds of adverbial clauses. 68. Point out the adverbial clauses of time and place; isolate the connectives by which they are introduced. 1. He woke even before the bugle sounded. (Lawrence). 2. It was raining when we left London. (Du Maurier). 3. But why shouldnt they live here until things are settled? said Lady Cherrell. (Galsworthy). 4. Adrian left as soon as he had drunk his coffee. (Galsworthy). 5. I was back where I had been before. (Du Manner). 6. She turned to where a few yards along the pavement a long bald man impatiently awaited her. (Cronin). 7. Now that Brodie had commenced to eat it was permissible for the others to begin ... (Cronin). 8. I was now free to live and work wherever I liked. (Moore). 9. I can cut his hair while Im talking to him. (Galsworthy). 10. A sergeant was changing the sentries he came down the trench. (Aldington). 11. Come and put up with me till we get things straightened out. (Galsworthy). 12. The room was spacious ... The moment he entered it he felt that his premonition was correct. (Cronin). 13. It has not occurred to me to mention Peggotty since I ran away. (Dickens). 14. 1 shall always think so, as long as I live. (Dickens). 15. Hardly had she brought one gentleman into the little pantry behind the office ... then the wheezy hall-door bell clanged again. (Joyce). 16. Ill come anywhere you like, said Ann. 69. Point out the adverbial clauses of manner, comparison, degree and result; isolate the conjunctions by which they are introduced.

1. Once I shivered as Pyle had done. (Greene). 2 The weather was wet and cold for quite a week, as it often can be in the vest country in early summer ... (Du Maurier). 3.... I love her more than I have ever told you, far more. (Wilde). 4. The doctor put the case as reasonably as he could ... (Maugham). 5. The change was so sudden that I was shocked and a little scared. 6. He always treated boys as if they were his equals. (Moore). 7. He went into the house by the back door ... as though he had something to hide. (Maugham). 8. Lily seldom made a mistake in the orders, so that she got on well with her three mistresses. (Joyce). 9. The little fellow ... gave such a lusty shout, that the sound of it made him bashful, and he buried his face in her skirts. 70. Point out the adverbial clauses of condition and concession; isolate the connectives by which they are introduced. 1. You gave her the wounds she died of. There is the truth for your comfort, however you like it. 2. I am devoted to Maxim .., though we always bicker like cat and dog when we meet. 3. Although she said nothing I felt guilty. 4. Unless I receive this requisition in full within an hour, I shall inform the Government that I cannot continue to hold my post if you remain in yours. 5. Whatever we do we must think of him as well as of ourselves. (Galsworthy). 6. I liked his loyalty to Harding - whoever Harding was. 7. Really, it is as simple to buy a hotel or a railroad as it is to buy a watch, provided one is equal to the transaction. 8. Old as they were, her aunts also did their share. (Joyce). 71. Point out the adverbial clauses of cause and purpose; isolate the connectives by which they are introduced. 1. I called him Frank because Maxim did. (Du Maurier). 2. She asked me to leave the answer on the sundial in the garden as she desired no one to be in our confidence. (Conan Doyle). 3. I informed myself of the hour at which she left of an evening, in order that our visit might be timed accordingly. (Dickens). 4. Instinctively he turned his back more to the light lest she might see the shame that burned upon his forehead. 5. Since he seemed nervous even at the dress rehearsal, Isabel agreed not to go. (Bates). 6. Then I told her to hush, and not stir, for fear she should make him angry. (F. Bronte). 7. Ill change the ticket so that you may be able to go with the evening train. B. Make a list of the connectives used to introduce subordinate clauses of a) time, b) place, c) manner, d) comparison, e) degree, f) result, g) condition, h) concession, i) cause, j) purpose in the sentences given above. 72. Insert the appropriate conjunctions introducing adverbial clauses of time. I. We have never seen him ................. he left for the Crimea. 2. Send me a telegram ... you come. 3. .. he said it he felt it was wrong. 4. I made his acquaintance .. he had graduated from the University. 5. It had happened .. the experiment was completed. 6. Make hay ... the sun is shining. 7. Ill be glad to see you .... you come. 8. She was standing on the shore ........................ the ship was lost sight of. 9. ... had I knocked at the door ... .it swung open. 10. Stay here .... you can. 11. .. the sky began to clear up, the air grew cooler. 12. .... had I opened the gate .. the dogs began to bark.

73. A. Define the kinds of clauses introduced by where and when. 1. I like the country place where we lived last year. 2. Let us meet where we used to walk in summer. 3. It is of importance where they will spend their vacation. 4. I wondered where they intended to go. 5. The question is where they will spend their summer vacation. 6. Do you know the time when he will come? 7. Everybody was glad when he came at last. 8. I have no idea when he will come. 9. Its very important when we must start. 10. The difficulty is when we shall be able to do it. Find in an English text some sentences with where and when introducing: a) a subject clause, b) a predicative clause, c) an object clause, d) an attributive relative clause, e) an adverbial clause of place. 74. Complete the following sentences. 1. We are very fond of the little cottage where ... 2. Dont you know where ... 3. Where ... is of no importance. 4. It happened where 5. The problem to settle is where ... 6. She doesnt tell me where 7. They are quite happy where ... 8. For the last time she had a look at the house where ... 9. Where ... isnt known to a single person. 10. That is where ... 11. I should like to find such a place where 12. No plant can grow where ... 13. The day when ... was one of the happiest in my life. 14. I cant work when ... 15. Nobody knows when ... 16. When ... is not settled yet. 17. The thing to decide is when ... 18. I felt tired when ... 19. I am interested to know when 20. When ... interests me greatly. 21. The hour when has not been changed. 22. The most important thing for us is when ... 23. Dont you remember when ... 24. I shall never forget the moment when 75. State what kind of clauses are introduced by as. 1. As she was descending the dark kitchen steps she heard Amy voice ... (Bennett). 2. As Gabriel never ate sweets, the celery had been left for him. (Joyce). 3. Ill do as I like. 4. It is not so hot today as it was yesterday. 5. Women should think in moderation, as they should do all things in moderation. (Wilde). 6. Try as he might to reconstruct his changing ideas, Denny seemed fated to demolish them. (Cronin). 7. As she said those words she suddenly let fall her brush. (Mansfield). 8. She was at the station after all, standing just as he had imagined, apart from the others ... (Mansfield). 9. Gerald, come near to me. Quite close to me, as you used to do when you were a little boy ... (Wilde). 10. I went through the long drawing- room, as he had directed ... (Du Maurier). 11. But this writing- table, beautiful as it was, was no pretty toy ... (Du Maurier). 76. A. Complete the sentences supplying the principal clause in each of them. 1. Young as she is ... 2. As they were going along the road 3. As a lot of people have a liking for this health resort 4. As the wind was wrong and the waves were rather high 5. As you usually do

6. Early as it was B. Supply adverbial clauses of time, manner, cause, comparison, concession, or an attributive clause introduced by as. 1. ... the passengers began to wave their hands greeting their friends. 2. He held the oars 3. ... the sailing-boat was moving rather slowly. 4. He likes swimming almost as much 5. ... he could not move the boat against the current. 6. To steer a canoe you must-have such an oar 77. Complete the following sentences so that they should contain a subordinate clause introduced by that (so that) a) Subject clause It is necessary that . . .; It is of great importance that: b) Object clause Ive read that . . .; Everybody knows that c) Attributive relative clause: Where is the puppy that . . .; Of all the pictures I like the one that d) Appositive attributive clause: He expressed his hope that I dont quite like the idea that e) Adverbial clause of purpose: She did it that . . .; Let them know about it that f) Adverbial clause of degree It was oppressively hot that 78. Comment on the use of so that and so... that. Define the kind of clauses. Translate. 1. Was I breathing so loudly that you could hear me? (Bennett). 2. It may be that I am too bound to him already who, robbing me, yet left me richer, so that in the mire of my life I found the pearl of price. 3. At first I was so rattled and taken aback that I was ready to think she has been led away in some extraordinary fashion. 4. A long inscription in bad Latin ... followed the course of this staircase, so that the climber read it word by word as he mounted step by step ... (Moore). 5. That bloody concrete

barrack I live in now its so clean and streamlined that I wouldnt be at all surprised if it took to flight. 6. ... and boats are drawing near and passing away, so that the sunny river ... is dotted and decked with yellow, and blue, and orange ... (Jerome). 7. I wondered if it would be possible to hide ..., so that Frith ... would say Madam must have gone out. (Du Maurier) 8. At last it [the argument] grew so heated that the cook ... was called from the kitchen to be interpreter. (Lessing). 79. Complete the following sentences. 1. The more you ask him about it, the less 2. The longer you wait, the slower 3. The more rain falls, the better 4. The more he thought, the more 5. The harder one works, the better 6. The fewer questions you ask, the better 7. The longer one lives, the more 8. The taller the basket-ball player is, the easier 9. The tougher the meat is, the longer 10. The brighter the sun shines, the better 11. The nearer you come to the sea, the fresher 12. The talk will be the more unpleasant, the longer 80. Complete the following sentences supplying adverbial clauses of: a) place 1. Their cottage stands where ... 2. Fetch it from where ... 3. Id like to speak with you wherever b) time 1. We have not met since ... 2. Ill do it while ... 3. Write to me as soon as ... 4. Dont linger after ... 5. He will let you know when 6. You can have a rest as long as ... 7. They went on talking until ... 8. The moment ... they rushed downstairs. c) cause 1. I cant give my consent because ... 2. Since ... Ill not speak about it. 3. As ... it is difficult to find him at home. 4. He is very suspicious for fear that 5. Seeing that ... he left their house. d) purpose 1. We occupied the seat in the first row in order that ... 2. Put on your warm coat lest ... 3. We climbed up the hill so that e) condition 1. If ... we shall see him to-morrow. 2. They will certainly be there in time provided ... 3. Should you ... tell him about his sisters illness. 4. What will you write to him supposing ... 5. You wont have the book unless ... 6. I promise you to do it on condition f) concession 1. Tired as ... he went on working. 2. Though ... the patient felt better. 3. Whoever ... you must see him again. h) comparison 1. He felt better than .... 2. He looked tired as if ... 3. It was not so hot as ... 4. The young girl looked as beautiful as ... 5. She remembered every corner in

the garden as though 81. Convert the following simple sentences in complex ones by introducing adverbial clauses (of time, manner, cause, condition, purpose, concession). 1. In the 8th century the Anglo-Saxons suffered much because of the frequent raids of the Danish tribes. 2. In spite of the strong resistance, the Danes seized the North Western part of the country. 3. During the reign of the Wessex king Alfred the fight of the Anglo-Saxons against the Danes was the hardest. 4. Alfred gathered his troops of free yeomen and knights to fight with the Danes. 5. Alfred stopped the advance of the Danes by paying them tribute. 6. He also built a fleet of 100 ships in order to be able to fight with the enemy on the sea. ANALYSIS OF THE COMPLEX SENTENCE 82. Analyse the following sentences. 1. Rather more than hall-way across from Denmark to England is a broad shoal known as the Dogger Bank, whose north-western margin has the appearance of a submerged escarpment sinking to deeper waters than those which lie south of the bank. 2. The southern end of the range in Derbyshire consists of a number of hills and dales so thinly covered with grass and small wild plants, that the bare limestone rock may often be seen. (Wide World Reader). 3 In consideration of the day and hour of my birth, it was declared by the nurse, and by some sage women in the neighbourhood who had taken a lively interest in me several months before there was any possibility of our becoming personally acquainted, first, that I was destined to be unlucky in life; and secondly, that I was privileged to see ghosts and spirits; both these gifts inevitably attaching, as they believed, to all unlucky infants of either gender, born towards the small hours on a Friday night. (Dickens). 4 I have come to the conclusion that the real reason for the author who exceeds the common span of man is that intelligent people after the age of thirty read nothing at all. (Maugham). THE COMPOUND - COMPLEX SENTENCE 83. Analyse the following sentences. 1. The place where the Roman wall ended, near the north bank of the Tyne, is called Walls-end, and from that spot much of the best coal which is sold in London takes its name. (Wide World Read ). 2. The slope of the sea-bed, which is the true, though submerged, edge of the Continent, follows the coast of Norway seaward from the North Cape, then, crossing the mouth of the North Sea, it passes outside the Shetland Islands and the Hebrides to a point some distance westward of Ireland, where it makes an inward bend. (Mackinder). 3. At Stoneleigh the Avon enters a wide and beautiful park and is joined by the River Sowe coming past Coventry only three miles to the north, but there is not a sign in this lovely wooded estate that a great industrial city lies so close. 4. A few miles farther downstream one can see Guys Cliff on which a house stands high above the gently flowing Avon, its foundations being hewn out of the solid rock,

and there are innumerable excavations around the courtyard which undoubtedly served as out-houses in days gone by. 5. The Avon at Warwick is a broad and placid stream, but it would not be so if it were not for weirs which at regular intervals frequently broaden the stream out into a much wider river than it would otherwise be. 6. The weirs were built so that they should produce a head of water to operate the many mills, but the Avon was also navigable to points above Stratford, until the building of the Great Western Railway put it out of business as a means of communication. 7. It is a fact that Warwick Castle has never been a ruin, like so many of old castles, but has continually been a place of residence, therefore it is just here that one can visualize something of what England in the Middle Ages must have been like. 8. The oldest part of the castle is Caesars Tower, which was built a few years after the Norman Conquest, while other parts have been added at various times, but always in exactly the right style, so that the castle has always retained its original character. (Geographical Magazine). SEQUENCE OF TENSES 84. Comment on the use of tenses in the subordinate clauses. 1. Mary wired back that she would arrive on the following day. (Cronin). 2. All that day she did as she had told Parker she would. (Bates). 3. I wanted to know, I said, trembling, if you would buy a jacket. (Dickens). 4. Maxim rang up the next morning to say he would be back about seven. (Du Maurier). 5. Dont forget the old lady is nearly blind, said Beatrice, ...I telephoned to the nurse that we were coming so everything will be right. (Du Maurier). 6. He did not know what he was talking about. (Du Maurier). 7. And I added that I hoped she understood that it had nothing to do with me; she said that she was sure of that, but that she would speak to Tom about it when he came back (Jerome). 8. At last, Sophie. I thought you were never coming. (Huxley). 9. He could see nothing below surface at all; and ... he wondered what would happen if his father didnt come up again. 10. I rose and said to Alice that I was going. (Braine). 11. I knew it would happen one day, said Maxim. (Du Maurier) 85. Turn the verbs in italics into the Past making all the other necessary changes. 1. She cant remember what I told her. 2. Tom believes that you are right. 3. You have said that she knows you. 4. The children hope that Santa Claus will bring them many toys. 5. Jane regrets that she cant give us more details about this accident. 6. I wonder what she is going to tell us this time. 7. Fred thinks that all his friends viii come to his birthday party. 8. I dont recall what they have said. 9. We cant anticipate what he will do now. 10. I remember that I saw him somewhere. 86. Select the correct form of the verbs given in brackets: 1. Harris thought he (would buy; will buy) a new house soon. 2. Our friends asked us why the train (has not arrived; had not arrived) yet. 3. Fred admits that he still (has; had) little experience in this field now. 4.She had to promise him that she (will help;

would help) them. 5. The engineer claimed that he (agrees; agreed) with the others. 6. John didnt remember what he (told; had told) me the day before. 7. I didnt know that she (must; had to) leave at 5 oclock. 8. We guess father (hasnt heard; hadnt heard) this news yet. 9. Did Jane tell you that she (is going; was going) to move to a new house? l0. We were sure that they (will come ; would come) by the evening train. 11. The pupils already knew that the teacher (has corrected; had corrected) their papers. 12. I promised her that I (will lend; would lend) her the book after I (finished; had finished) it. 13. I am sure that Thomas (will come; would come) here when he (feels; will feel) better. 14. I wish I (know; knew) what the boys (are doing; were doing) there at the moment. 15. When I (leave; will leave) school next year, I (will learn; will have learnt) here for seven years. 16. When (did you see; have you seen) him last? 17. This time yesterday you (told were telling) me how busy you (are; were) and what your plans for the future (are; were). 18. I explained that she (will be playing; would be playing) the piano at that time. 87. Use the appropriate form of the verb. 1. He told me that in all his years he never ___ so much blossom (saw, had seen). (Moore). 2. I replied that I very well, and that I she the same (am, was; hope, hoped; is, was). (Dickens). 3. In the morning Miss Murdstone ... told me I going to school (am, was). (Dickens). 4. Miss Murdstone was good enough to say on the way that she I , before I to a bad end (hopes, hoped; will repent, would repent; come, came). (Dickens). 5. I wondered what I with my day (shall do, should do). (Du Maurier). 6. I wrote and said I , replied Mary (am coming, was coming). (Cronin). 7. Joe told me you to the Legation. I thought it ____easier to talk here (have been, had been; will be, would be). (Greene). 8. I answered that I he never again (think, thought; will smile, would smile). (Jerome). 9. I thought I you (know, knew). (Jerome). 10. It unnerved him to think that she at the supper- table, looking up at him while he with her critical eyes (will be, would be; speaks, spoke). (Joyce). 88. Supply the correct tense (Present; Past Tense; Present Perfect; Past Perfect; Future) A. 1. Arnold (to be) _________________ born in a village and he (to spend) ______________ his childhood there. He (to move) ______________ to Leeds when he (to be)____________ fifteen years old and he (to live) ___________there since his sister (to get) ___________ married. 2. At present, he (to work) ___________in an office but he (to use) _____________ to work at a bank before. 3. Next year he (to go) ____________ to London to study at the University, but only after he (to finish) ______________ writing the novel he (to work) _________________ at now. 4. I (to write) _____________ to him a long letter several days ago and (to ask) ________________ him how many chapters he already (to write)____________. 5. Arnolds daughter hopes that her father (to finish) _______________ his book by the end of August. 6. I (to see) ____________her yesterday while she (to cross) _____________ the street. 7. When I (to talk) __________ to her, she (to tell) ________________ me that she (to be) ______________ very tired because she (to type) _____________ all the morning. B. 1. As soon as she (to see) ______________us, he (to stop) ____________singing. 2. The tailor (to promise) ____________ me then that my suit (to be) _____________ ready in a weeks time, 3. Why didnt you explain to them when you (to be) ______________ able to

give them the money back? 4. I wondered where he (to study) _______________ and how many years before he (to take) ______________ his degree. 5. Before paper (to be) _______________ invented, people (to write) ______________ their thoughts upon various other materials. 6. History (to be) ____________ engraved on stone monuments and our knowledge of what ancient people (to do) ______________, (to be) ________________ chiefly taken from the stone tables and buildings which they (to erect) _______________. 90. Fill in the blanks with an appropriate verb in the correct tease: 1. The Chinese are said to be so clever that they ... gunpowder long before it ... known in Europe. 2. Galileo Galilei was persecuted because he ... that the earth ... around the sun, 3. As soon as she ... the letter, the will read it to us, too. 4. I asked the old man who ... on the bench if he ... hungry. 5. When Christopher Columbus ... America, he thought that the country which ... discovered India, and he accordingly ... it the name of the West Indies. 6. 1 will not go to bed until father ... home from the factory. 7. Last year you played tennis much better than your brother ... now. 8. Its high time you these questions. 9. I dont know precisely whether I ... on this trip next week. 10. Tom was promised that everything ... ready in due time. 11. When I ... young, I ... fishing every Sunday. 12. Ill let them know that we ... a new car soon. 13. Did you know that Mary ... two sons? 14. Your sister spoke English as if she ... in England for several years. 15. This is the dress which Mary ... last week and which she ... still now. 16. I wish my brother ... here now to help me. 17. I promised the little child that I a new toy the next day. 18. When I ... to the bookshop two days ago, I ... a book which my sister .., now. 19. I would rather you ... them my secret. 20, When I ... the window, I saw that my daughter ... with the doll, while my son ... after a cat. 21. I am sure our friend ... this text after she ... the new words. 22. That morning Jane ... to school only after she ... a big glass of milk. 23. 1 no sooner ... his face than I ... his name, too. 24. We ... anything about her since she ... to London. 25. Only then she ... that I right! 26. This time tomorrow, we TV while you ... for your exam. 27. Last week I ... three ice creams, but this week I ... only one. 28. When Bob ... little, he ... with his toys for hours. 29. You already ... all the exercises? 30. Nothing annoyed me so much as the discovery that my best friend ... to me. INDIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT STATEMENTS 91. Convert into indirect speech. 1. Nobody will ever know, on this line, we said, what you are, or where youre going ... Well, I dont know, gents, replied the noble fellow, but I suppose some trains got to go to Kingston. (Jerome). 2. The map may be all right enough, said one of the party, if you know whereabouts in it we are now. (Jerome). 3. We met your niece on the road, said Ashurst... (Galsworthy). 4. ... I dont hunt, I confessed, I learned to ride, as a child, but I dont remember much about it. (Du Maurier). 5. You know Mr. Davidson very little if you think the fear of personal danger can stop him in the performance of his duty, said his wife. (Maugham). 6. I said, Ive ordered dinner for all of you. (Greene). 7. When I met you first you had a certain expression on your face, he said slowly, and you have it still (Du Maurier). 8. Mrs. de Winter says we shant know her, said Frank. (Du Maurier).

92. Report the following statements that you heard at 7 a.m. this morning. Do you need to change the tense? 1. Women live longer than men." I heard that... 2. "I'm hungry." Claire said that... 3. "Our galaxy contains several thousand million stars." An astronomer announced that... 4. "The 2012 Olympics will be organised in Africa." A sports expert said that... 5. "This coffee is too hot." Jonathan complained that ... 93. Insert the verbs to say or to tell in the appropriate form. 1. Harris them they could follow him if they liked ... They it was very kind of him ... (Jerome). 2. When Megan brought his tea he Whats the gipsy bogle, Megan? (Galsworthy). 3. Gretta thinks it very funny because she the word reminds her of Christy Minstrels. (Joyce). 4. me what shes trying to, he ... Cyril only wanted to you, father dear, that his father is still very fond of meringues. (Mansfield). 5. I ... Id rather hear what you were going first, said Constantia. (Mansfield). 6. Johnny her of the grand tea they had had. And while he was also her about the quarrel Mr. Sulky came tripping down the stairs. (Coppard). 7. Go and him, you go and him. (Bates). 8. Of course, I myself, he might have been detained for some reason at the American Legation ... (Greene). 9. You know all I can you about Pyle (Greene). 10. Vigotwearily, ... Hell have a terrible lot to me. (Greene). 11. He, But thats just what I him, but he always pretends not to understand French. (Greene). 12. As a friend, Vigot is there nothing you could me in confidence? (Greene). 94. Complete the following sentences. 1. I hoped (that) 2. He reminded me (that) the programme 3. They declared (that) she 4. They informed us (that) the time-table 5. She replied (that) 6. They supposed (that) 7. He imagined (that) 8. Everybody thought (that) INDIRECT QUESTIONS 95. Convert into indirect speech. 1. He ... said: Can you tell us if theres a farm near here where we could stay the

night? Ive got lame. (Galsworthy); 2. Ashurst said idly: Where were you standing when you saw the gipsy bogle, Jim? (Galsworthy). 3. Good morning, she called. Is Mr. David son better this morning? (Maugham). 4. Dont you think we ought to make Mr. Horn turn her out of here? asked Mrs. Davidson. (Maugham). 5. Does anybody ever come here? Davy asked. him. Aldridge). 6. Did you find something to drink? he asked Davy. 7. Tell me, Lily, he said in a friendly tone, do you still go to school? (Joyce). 8. Why have you a piece of pencil in your ear? he asked. (Lawrence). 9. I said to Vigot, What hours are you interested in? (Greene). 10. How old is your father? Miss Hei asked with gluttony. (Greene). 11. What is Giles going to wear tonight? I asked, or is it a dead secret? (Du Maurier). 12. How long will it take me to paint my face? asked Giles. (Du Maurier). 13. Whats the time? I said carelessly ... (Du Maurier). 14. What are you standing there for? he said, his voice harsh and queer. Didnt you hear what I said? (Du Maurier). 96. Complete the following sentences. 1. She asked if 2. She was interested to know how 3. She wondered when 4. She wanted to know where 5. She asked in wonder what 6. She wanted to find out by whom 7. They asked me why 8. She inquired what kind of 9. She would like to know on what condition 97. Convert the following into indirect speech; use different introductory verbs. Model: Do you ever work in the garden? She asked me if I ever worked in the garden. 1. What sort of flowers do you like? 2. Why have these flowers opened so soon? 3. Where will you plant those lovely poppies? 4. Have you ever seen a cherry orchard in blossom? 5. Do you water the flowers in the morning or in the evening? 6. Are tulips shade-loving flowers? 7. Who has broken the boughs of the lime-tree? 8. When do you usually sow peas? 9. Must these black currant bushes be transplanted this year?

98. Complete the following sentences supplying object clauses by arranging the given words in the proper order. 1. She, asked, dinner, I, me, if, had, my, had. 2. . I, had, where, had, lunch. 3. got up, oclock, I, at, usually, what. 4. fish, I, eat, why, not, did. 5. exhibition, we, to go, intended, when, to, the. 6. was, what, such kind of, price, shirt, the, of. 7. on, night, people, had been, previous, party, the, present, how many, the, at. 8. I that, it, how long, him, to reach, would, country place, take. 9. health-resort, them, that, ever, to, whether, had been, they, to. 10. my, bought, I, where, had, dictionary. INDIRECT ORDERS AND REQUESTS 99. Convert into indirect speech. I. Ask Miss Thompson when it would be convenient for me to see her, he said. (Maugham). 2. Sit up, he told Davy, if you want to see how to approach. Aldridge). 3. Bring me the two green, bags from the floor, he said, and keep your head covered against the sun... 4. And dont throw any stones in the water, his father said ... It frightens everything in sight. Even the sharks (Aldridge 5. And dont worry about me, he ordered the boy. (Aldridge). 6. Come along, Pyle, I said. Leave them to changer. 7. Ill come down when I am ready, I called. Go on down ... Dont wait for me. Tell Maxim he cant come in. (Du Mau rier). 8. Go and change, he said, it does not matter what you put on. Find an ordinary evening frock, anything will do. Go now before anybody comes. (Du Maurier). 9. Dont let the others see you like that, I said. Go to your bedroom and do something to your face. 10. ... Sit down for a few minutes and youll be all right, she said, wait, Ill give you a glass of water. (Du Maurier). MIXED EXERCISES ON INDIRECT SPEECH 100. Convert into direct speech. 1. He said he was very fond of travelling. 2. He said he was looking forward to visiting the place where the great Scottish poet Robert Burns had spent his early life. 3. He declared he would never forget the lovely and romantic scenes of Scotland he had seen during his visit to Britain. 4. He assured me he had been dreaming to visit all these spots of interest since he read Walter Scotts novels for the first time. He informed me that it was possible for everyone to get acquaint with all the loveliest spots of those parts. 16. He warned me against my coming, as he would be developing his films at that time. 7. She declared that mountaineering was her favourite kind of sport. 8. He tried to persuade me that long walks would do me a world of good. 9. He said he was surprised I had not been training since morning. 10. She asked me what kind of sport I went in for. 11. She was interested to know if we should take part in the

running race. 12. They wondered which of the teams had a better chance of success. 13. 1 asked the t to tell me if he thought I could take part in the match. 15. I inquired of him if a stroke in cricket required great strength of the player. 16. The boy was eager to know if I had ever seen a parachutist jump from an aeroplane. 17. He asked me to tell him who was playing tennis on the court. 18. My brother wanted to find out who had lost his tennis balls.19. He asked me when I had last been to a football match. 20. He wondered whether the goal had been scored before the final whistle was given. 21. I asked her if she liked the new opera she had heard the day before.22. I wondered when she had been at the concert last. 23. Everybody wondered if the young man would agree to act the leading part in the play. 24. The young actor inquired eagerly whether we liked his acting. 25. My sister always asks me not to economize by taking cheap tickets in the last row. 26. She begged me not to be late for the concert. 27. My friend advised me to read King Lear in the original before going to see the performance of the tragedy. 28. At the theatre I was obliged to tell my neighbours not to talk during the performance. 29. I persuaded thy friend to let her daughter go to the concert as she was very fond of music. 30. A friend of mine suggested that we should take season tickets to the State Opera House. 31. The father forbade his son to go to the cinema because lie had not prepared his lessons for the next day. 32. The young man asked his parents not to worry about him saying that he might return home rather late as he had been invited to a house-warming party that night. 33. He asked me to speak more distinctly. 34. All the listeners urged the actor to recite another poem saying that they had never heard poetry recited so well. A. Convert into indirect speech. On entering the old ladys room he said, I hope I havent interrupted your work! Of course not. Sit down, please. Have a cup of tea? Thanks, Ive had my tea. She said, I havent seen you for ages. How is your wife? She is all right now! he answered. Dont you want to come and see our baby? My wife says she is a darling. Dont you think so? Of course, I do. But I think Ill love her more when she grows up, he added. The old lady smiled, Thats a tender father! B. Find in an English text four sentences with an object clause expressing 1) indirect statements; 2) in direct questions introduced by a) the conjunction if or whether, b) a conjunctive pronoun or adverb; 3) Indirect commands or requests a) in the affirmative form, b) in the negative form. 101. Match the sentences with appropriate reporting verbs from the list. Then write the reported sentences. admit, boast, forbid, inquire, invite, order, suggest, threaten 1. We'll close credit lines if you don't reduce carbon dioxide emission. 2. OK, you're right, some poisonous chemicals did escape into the atmosphere. 3. Why don't you drop in tonight?

4. Stand up immediately! 5. I'm the best student in this school! 6. You can't use your dictionaries during the test. 7 Shall we have a cup of tea? 8. Is the bus service running according to the timetable today? 102. Use the following verbs to report the two dialogues. a) admit, advise, promise, warn Tom: I don't think you should play the game today, John. John: You're right. I'm still a little bit ill, but I promise I won't overdo it. Tom: Be careful, if you run around too much in this weather you may get another attack of flu. b) accuse, beg, complain, deny, explain, refuse Daughter: Mum, please, will you buy me this CD? I've always wanted it. Mother: Sarah, you know I can't afford it. Why do you always ask me to buy you expensive things? Daughter: That's not true. You just never buy me things that I want only those that you like!