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# Galilean transformation

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Jump to: navigation, search The Galilean transformation is used to transform between the coordinates of two reference frames which differ only by constant relative motion within the constructs of Newtonian physics. This is the passive transformation point of view. The equations below, although apparently obvious, break down at speeds that approach the speed of light due to physics described by Einstein's theory of relativity. Galileo formulated these concepts in his description of uniform motion [1] The topic was motivated by Galileo's description of the motion of a ball rolling down a ramp, by which he measured the numerical value for the acceleration of gravity, at the surface of the Earth. The descriptions below are another mathematical notation for this concept.

Contents

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1 Translation 2 Galilean transformations 3 Central extension of the Galilean group 4 Notes 5 See also

[edit] Translation

Standard configuration of coordinate systems for Galilean transformations.

t) and (x′. as measured in two coordinate systems S and S'.z.z′. in uniform relative motion (velocity v) in their common x and x’ directions. The small dots are arbitrary events in spacetime. The slope of the world line (deviation from being vertical) gives the relative velocity to the observer.t′) of a single arbitrary event. Note how the view of spacetime shears when the observer accelerates. The notation below describes the relationship under the Galilean transformation between the coordinates (x.y. Upper half shows future events. Views of spacetime along the world line of an accelerating observer. the Galilean transformations embody the intuitive notion of addition and subtraction of velocities. Vertical direction indicates time. Horizontal indicates distance. Under the Erlangen program. The lower half of the diagram shows events in the past. with their spatial origins coinciding at time t=t'=0: [2] [3] [4] [5] Note that the last equation expresses the assumption of a universal time independent of the relative motion of different observers. the space-time (no longer spacetime) of nonrelativistic physics is described by the symmetry group generated by Galilean transformations. The assumption that time can be treated as absolute is at the heart of the Galilean transformations. This assumption is abandoned in the Lorentz transformations.y′. whilst the Galilean transformation can be regarded as a low-velocity approximation to the Lorentz transformation. . These relativistic transformations are deemed applicable to all velocities. [edit] Galilean transformations Diagram 1. the dashed line is the spacetime trajectory of the observer.In essence. spatial and time translations and rotations.

Ci and Lij (antisymmetric tensor) subject to commutators.The Galilean symmetries (interpreted as active transformations): Spatial translations: Time translations: Shear mappings: Rotations and Reflections: where R is an orthogonal matrix. Ci is generator of Galileian boosts and Lij stands for a generator of rotations (angular momentum operator). M such that M commutes with everything (i. It's easy to extend the results to the Lie group. where H is generator of time translations (Hamiltonian). L'ij (antisymmetric tensor). lies in the center. The Lie algebra of L is spanned by H. C'i. [edit] Central extension of the Galilean group The Galilean group: Here. We can now give it a central extension into the Lie algebra spanned by H'. Pi. P'i. Pi is generator of translations (momentum operator). that's why it's called a central extension) and .e. we will only look at its Lie algebra.