The Atmosphere Chapter 15 Thermosphere (hot) Mesopause (cold) Mesosphere Stratopause a Stratosphere Tropopause (ozone layer) Troposphere Primary

Pollutants are emitted directly into the troposphere in potential harmful form. In the troposphere, some primary pollutants may react with one another or with the basic components of air to form new pollutants, called Secondary Pollutants. Government-mandated standards set maximum allowable atmospheric concentrations, or criteria, for Six Criteria or Conventional Air Pollutants commonly found in outdoor air. Air pollution known as Photochemical Smog forms when a mix of nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2, collectively called NO2) and volatile organic hydrocarbon compounds from natural and human sources react under the influence of UV radiation from the sun to produce a mixture of more than 100 primary and secondary pollutants. (brown-air smog) Industrial Smog is a mixture of sulfur dioxide, droplets of sulfuric acid, and suspended solid particles emitted by burning coal and oil. (grey-air smog) Under certain atmospheric conditions a layer of warm air can lie atop a layer of cooler air nearer the ground, creating a Temperature Inversion. Because the cooler air is denser than the warmer air above it, the air near the surface does not rise and mix with the air above it. Pollutants can concentrate in this stagnant layer of cool air near the ground. Acid Deposition is the falling of acids and acid-forming compounds from the atmosphere to the earth s surface. Acid deposition is commonly known as acid rain, a term that refers to the wet deposition of droplets of acids and acid-forming compounds. Prevention solutions to Acid Deposition are reducing air pollution by improving energy efficiency, reduce coal use, increase natural gas use, increase use of renewable energy resources, burn low-sulfur coal, remove SO2 particulates from smokestack gases, tax emissions of SO2. Air Pollution is the presence of chemicals in the atmosphere in concentrations high enough to harm organisms and materials and to alter climate.

Six Criteria Air Pollutants Carbon Monoxide (CO) Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) Ozone (O3) Lead

Cleaning Air Pollutants Rain and Snow Salty Sea Spray Winds Increase Outdoor Air Pollution Urban Buildings Hills and Mountains High Temperatures Grasshopper Effect

Effects of Acid Deposition Cause or Worsen Respiratory Disease Attack metallic and Stone Objects Decrease Atmospheric Visibility Kill Fish

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