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Baudrillard K Neg
Baudrillard K Neg.......................................................................................................................................................1
Baudrillard K Neg..........................................................................................................................1
Links – Policy Debate – Disneyland (1/2)..................................................................................................................5
Links – Policy Debate – Disneyland (1/2)....................................................................................5
Links – Policy Debate – Disneyland (2/2)..................................................................................................................6
Links – Policy Debate – Disneyland (2/2)....................................................................................6
Links – Policy Debate – Hyperreal Communication (1/2)..........................................................................................7
Links – Policy Debate – Hyperreal Communication (1/2).........................................................7
Links – Policy Debate – Hyperreal Communication (2/2)..........................................................................................8
Links – Policy Debate – Hyperreal Communication (2/2).........................................................8
Links – Leadership type Impacts – Saving Private Ryan (1/2).................................................................................10
Links – Leadership type Impacts – Saving Private Ryan (1/2)...............................................10
Links – Leadership type Impacts – Saving Private Ryan (2/2).................................................................................11
Links – Leadership type Impacts – Saving Private Ryan (2/2)...............................................11
Links – War Scenarios..............................................................................................................................................12
Links – War Scenarios.................................................................................................................12
Links – Preventing the “Real” War...........................................................................................................................13
Links – Preventing the “Real” War...........................................................................................13
Links – Rights/Revolution/Hippie Shit.....................................................................................................................14
Links – Rights/Revolution/Hippie Shit......................................................................................14
Links – Micropolitics................................................................................................................................................15
Links – Micropolitics...................................................................................................................15
Links – Leftist Politics..............................................................................................................................................16
Links – Leftist Politics.................................................................................................................16
Links – Alternative Energy – Tech/R&D.................................................................................................................17
Links – Alternative Energy – Tech/R&D..................................................................................17
Links – Alternative Energy – Nuclear Energy (1/2).................................................................................................18
Links – Alternative Energy – Nuclear Energy (1/2).................................................................18
Links – Alternative Energy – Nuclear Energy (1/2).................................................................................................19
Links – Alternative Energy – Nuclear Energy (1/2).................................................................19
Links – Preservation/Nature/Environment/Ecology (1/3)........................................................................................20
Links – Preservation/Nature/Environment/Ecology (1/3)........................................................20
Whitman College 85911615.doc 7/20/08
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Links – Preservation/Nature/Environment/Ecology (2/3)........................................................................................21
Links – Preservation/Nature/Environment/Ecology (2/3)........................................................21
Links – Preservation/Nature/Environment/Ecology (3/3)........................................................................................22
Links – Preservation/Nature/Environment/Ecology (3/3)........................................................22
Impacts – War (1/2)..................................................................................................................................................23
Impacts – War (1/2).....................................................................................................................23
Impacts – War (2/2)..................................................................................................................................................24
Impacts – War (2/2).....................................................................................................................24
Impacts – Fascism.....................................................................................................................................................25
Impacts – Fascism........................................................................................................................25
Impacts – Violence....................................................................................................................................................26
Impacts – Violence.......................................................................................................................26
Impacts – Annihilation of Difference Impact...........................................................................................................28
Impacts – Annihilation of Difference Impact............................................................................28
Impacts – Cuomo – Ecological Destruction..............................................................................................................29
Impacts – Cuomo – Ecological Destruction...............................................................................29
Alternative – Strategy of the Object – The Children................................................................................................30
Alternative – Strategy of the Object – The Children................................................................30
Alternative – Fatal Strategies Alternative.................................................................................................................31
Alternative – Fatal Strategies Alternative.................................................................................31
Alternative – Strategy of the Object Alternative.......................................................................................................32
Alternative – Strategy of the Object Alternative......................................................................32
A2 Perm – Ironic Strategies Can’t Include the Subject............................................................................................34
A2 Perm – Ironic Strategies Can’t Include the Subject...........................................................34
AT: Passivity Bad/Whatever Else the 2AC Says......................................................................................................35
AT: Passivity Bad/Whatever Else the 2AC Says.......................................................................35
A2 “You Deny the Reality of War”..........................................................................................................................36
A2 “You Deny the Reality of War”............................................................................................36
A2 “You Deny the Reality of War”..........................................................................................................................37
A2 “You Deny the Reality of War”............................................................................................37
Whitman College 85911615.doc 7/20/08
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A2 Sign production/Culture Crash Link Turn..........................................................................................................40
A2 Sign production/Culture Crash Link Turn.........................................................................40
A2 “The Case Impacts Still Happen”.......................................................................................................................41
A2 “The Case Impacts Still Happen”.........................................................................................41
Whitman College 85911615.doc 7/20/08
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While ecology and limitations on consumption are laudable goals insofar as they solve problems like the exhaustion of resources, this responsible stewardship is inherently bound up with an unpredictable and uncontrollable underside – the development of renewables is a liberation of the forces of energy that amounts to a limitless proliferation culminating in the devouring of the very agents of that energy. Technologized energy is a Pandora’s box that we can have no fantasies of control over – it exceeds and defies attempts at containment. Jean Baudrillard, Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School, 1993, The Transparency of Evil, p. 103-05
The dangers threatening the human species are thus less risks of default (exhaustion of natural resources, dilapidation of the environment, etc.) than risks of excess: runaway energy flows, chain reactions, or frenzied autonomous developments. This distinction is a vital one, for while risks of default can be addressed by a New Political Ecology, the basic assumptions of which are by now generally accepted (indeed, they are already written into the International Rights of the Species), there is absolutely nothing to counter this other immanent logic, this speeding-up of everything, which plays double or nothing with nature. In the first case, the restoration of equilibrium to our ecological niche is still possible, the energies in play could still be rebalanced; in the second case, however, we are confronted by a development that is irretrievably out of balance. In the first case ethical principles may be brought to bear: a teleology that transcends the material process involved — even if merely the goal of survival — may come into play; in the second case, however, a process whose only goal is limitless proliferation will inevitably absorb all transcendence and devour all agents thereof. A full-blown and planet-wide schizophrenia, therefore, now rules: even as all sorts of ecological measures are being taken, even as a strategy for the proper use of the world, for an ideal interaction with the world, is being deployed, there is a simultaneous proliferation of enterprises of destruction, a total unleashing of the performance principle. And the very same forces often contribute to both trends. Furthermore, though the end-point of the first tendency seems fairly clear — to wit, the saving of our species by means of ecological conviviality — we know absolutely nothing about the secret destination of the second. But surely this acceleration, this excentric motion, must
have an end, must imply a destiny for the human species, a different symbolic relationship with the world that is much more complex and ambiguous than a relationship of balance and interaction? This too would be a vital destination — but it would involve a total risk. If such a destination has indeed been chosen for us, it is obvious that ecology’s rational deities will be powerless against the throwing of technology and energy into the struggle for an unpredictable goal, in a sort of Great Game whose rules are unknown to us. Even now we have no protection against the perverse effects of security, control and crime-prevention measures. We already know to what dangerous extremities we are led by prophylaxis in every sphere: social, medical, economic or political. In the name of the highest possible degree of security, an endemic terror may well be instituted that is in every way as dangerous as the epidemic threat of catastrophe. One thing is certain: in view of the complexity of the initial conditions and the potential reversibility of all the effects, we should entertain no illusions about the effectiveness of any kind of rational intervention. In the face of a process which so far surpasses the ‘individual or collective will of the players, we have no choice but to accept that any distinction between good and evil (and by extension here any possibility of assessing the ‘right level’ of technological development) can have the slightest validity only within the tiny marginal sphere contributed by our rational model. Inside these bounds, ethical reflection and practical determinations are feasible; beyond them, at the level of the overall process
which we have ourselves set in motion, but which from now on marches on independently of us with the ineluctability of a natural catastrophe, there reigns — for better or worse — the inseparability of good and evil, and hence the impossibility of mobilizing the one without the other. This is, properly speaking, the theorem of the accursed share. There is no point whatsoever in wondering whether things ought to be thus: they simply are thus, and to fail to acknowledge it is to fall utterly prey to illusion. None of this invalidates whatever may be possible in
the ethical, ecological or economic sphere of our life — but it does totally relativize the impact of such efforts upon the symbolic level, which is the level of destiny.
<<Insert More Links Here, choose wisely based off of whether it is a more critical or a more policy oriented affirmative>>
The contrast with the absolute solitude of the parking lot. One parks outside and stand in line inside. This imaginary world is supposed to ensure the success of the operation. It is no longer a question of a false representation of reality (ideology) but of concealing the fact that the real is no longer real. The imaginary of Disneyland is neither true nor false. in the “real” world. the Future World. The only phantasmagoria in this imaginary world lies in the tenderness and warmth of the crowd. but belong to the hyperreal order and to the order of simulation. is drawn. unreal circulation. international politics is just as much of a game as debate. but this makes something else and this “ideological” blanket functions as a cover for a simulation of the third order: Disneyland exists in order to hide that it is the “real” country.that it is that of the adults themselves who come here to act the child in order to foster illusion as to their real childishness. one is altogether abandoned at the exit. But what attracts the crowds the most is without a doubt the social microcosm. The violence of the real world is sustained by policy simulation. which is no longer anything but an immense scenario and a perpetual pan shot. By an extraordinary coincidence (but this derives without a doubt from the enchantment inherent to this universe. childlike world is found to have been conceived and realize by a man who is himself now cryogenized: Walt Disney. panegyric of American values. who awaits his resurrection through an increase of 180 degrees centigrade. this city. in its banal omnipresence. Or. all of “real” America that is Disneyland (a bit like prisons are there to hide that it is the social in its entirety. as much as cinema studios. Whence the debility of this imaginary. and to conceal the fact that true childishness is everywhere. rather: inside. All its values are exalted by the miniature and the comic strip. Certainly. Policy hacks come to the imaginary realm of debate to convince themselves that all that stuff they hear on CNN is reality. without dimension. it is a deterrence machine set up in order to rejuvenate the fiction of the real in the opposite camp. is a fiction factory whose function is to reify the world outside. play of space]): digest of the American way of life. of its constraints and joys. the Frontier. and thus of saving the reality principle. Disneyland is not the only one. 12-14 Disneyland is a perfect model of all the entangled orders of simulacra. Disneyland is presented as imaginary in order to make us believe that the rest is real. Jean Baudrillard. idealized transposition of a contradictory reality. Debate. . jeux d’espace [Utopias.Whitman College 85911615. a whole panoply of gadgets magnetizes the crowd in directed flows outside. As much as electrical and atomic power stations. This world wants to be childish in order to make us believe that the adults are elsewhere. Embalmed and pacified. miniaturized pleasure of real America. the energy of the real to a city whose mystery is precisely that of no longer being anything but a network of incessant. everywhere in Disneyland the objective profile of America. and in the sufficient and excessive number of gadgets necessary to create the multitudinous effect. It is first of all a play of illusions and phantasms: the Pirates. Enchanted Village. Simulacra and Simulation. etc.a city of incredible proportions but without space. Marine World: Los Angeles is surrounded by these imaginary stations that feed reality. the religious. Magic Mountain. Whence the possibility of an ideological analysis of Disneyland (L. down to the morphology of individuals and of the crowd. like Disneyland. needs this old imaginary like a sympathetic nervous system made up of childhood signals and faked phantasms. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School.. whereas all of Los Angeles and the America that surrounds it are no longer real.is total. Thus. this frozen. In fact. 1981.doc 7/20/08 5 File Title Links – Policy Debate – Disneyland (1/2) Policy debate is about imagining the world of the plan.a veritable concentration camp. Marin did it very well in Utopiques. that is carceral). p. solitude is directed at a single gadget: the automobile. however. its infantile degeneration.
of energy crises and the critique of capital. or lost bodies. Disneyland is the prototype of this new function. the historical. a penury/simulacrum. People no longer look at each other. whose visible signs would be those of this strange obesity. is verified. fairylike. yoga. maybe a mental catastrophe. vanished savage naturalness: natural food.Whitman College 85911615. belonging to the same order. the phantasms. Everywhere one recycles lost faculties. Nevertheless. a mental implosion and involution without prececedent lies in wait for a system of the kink. but there are institutes for that. health food. or lost sociality. adds a final esoteric aureole to the triumph of an esoteric culture. and money. to the improbable luxurious materialization of life and to undiscoverable contradictions. etc. One reinvents penury. Everywhere today one must recycle waste. But all the sexual. On a mental level. legendary imaginary of children and adults is a waste product. but there is contactotherapy. somatic recycling institutes. but at a secondary level: here. which correspond to the improbable coalition of luxury. Marshall Sahlins’s idea that it is the economy of the market. or the lost taste for food. or the incredible coexistence of the most bizarre theories and practices. and even here. in the sophisticated confines of a triumphal market economy is reinvented a penury/sign. psychic. which proliferate in California. but they go jogging. and the dreams. They no longer walk. the first great toxic excrement of a hyperreal civilization. asceticism. heaven. in the guise of ecology. that secretes penury. They no longer touch each other.doc 7/20/08 6 File Title Links – Policy Debate – Disneyland (2/2) Disneyland: a space of the regeneration of the imaginary as waste-treatment plants are elsewhere. a simulated behavior of the underdeveloped (including the adoption of Marxist tenets) that. . and not of nature at all.
you are the event. in each one of us.tying news articles together to create the most accurate representation possible of the real world and then combine them into a coherent and logical story. as a lure— to which the force of myth is attached. Immense energies are deployed to hold this simulacrum at bay. And this is only the macroscopic extension of the implosion of meaning at the microscopic level of the sign. which is redistributed in all the interstices of the social—just as consensus would have it that material production. One does not ask oneself. very much on the contrary. or with an always enigmatic belief. Thus the media are producers not of socialization. despite its dysfunctions and irrationalities. our intense analysis of the world does not produce more understanding.. Thus.doc 7/20/08 7 File Title Links – Policy Debate – Hyperreal Communication (1/2) Policy debate is intricately tied to the workings of mass media. The third hypothesis is the most interesting but flies in the face of every commonly held opinion. The loss of meaning is directly linked to the dissolving. But one can believe that this belief is as ambiguous as that which was attached to myths in ancient societies. the pressure of information pursues an irresistible destructuration of the social. dissuasive action of information. faith in information attach themselves to this tautological proof that the system gives of itself by doubling the signs of an unlocatable reality. blackmail through speech: “You are concerned. . it is a circular process—that of simulation. not only communication but the social functions in a closed circuit. to short-circuit in advance any possibility of communication (precession of the model that calls an end to the real). It is useless to ask if it is the loss of communication that produces this escalation in the simulacrum. of the implosion of the social in the masses. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. Rather than producing meaning. This coherence and logic is the fundamental myth of modernity. a general consensus would have it that nevertheless. is never anything but the recycling in the negative of the traditional institution. and for this very reason: because where we think that information produces meaning. Whoever is underexposed to the media is dissocialized or virtually asocial. there is a rigorous and necessary correlation between the two. To this tautology of the system the masses respond with ambivalence. Moreover. Behind this exacerbated mise-en-scene of communication. Well. Rather than creating communication. It devours communication and the social. We are all complicitous in this myth.” More and more information is invaded by this kind of phantom content. the fact is that it is collapsing. One both believes and doesn’t. but. to the extent that information is directly destructive of meaning and signification. In fact. 1981. but one must guard against thinking that people believe in it: this is the trap of critical thinking that can only be exercised if it presupposes the naïveté and stupidity of the masses. without which the credibility of our social organization would collapse. Everywhere socialization is measured by the exposure to media messages. the opposite occurs. 1. the antitheater of communication. on the contrary. Information devours its own content. 2. participation at every level. A gigantic process of simulation that is very familiar. the integrated circuit of the negative. to total entropy. but still. More real than the real. that of the hyperreal. to avoid the brutal desimulation that would confront us in the face of the obvious reality of a radical loss of meaning. Myth exists. The hyperreality of communication and of meaning. opens onto an excess of wealth and social purpose. it exhausts itself in the staging of meaning. which means that you reproduce your harms Jean Baudrillard. to deterrence they respond with disaffection. The nondirective interview. this awakening dream of communication. which as one knows. and even if the waste is enormous. as a whole. and the mass media. 79-82 Or. etc. Thus information dissolves meaning and dissolves the social. this homeopathic grafting. And for two reasons. in a sort of nebulous state dedicated not to a surplus of innovation. Everywhere information is thought to produce an accelerated circulation of meaning. Simulacra and Simulation. the mass media. speech. this information ritual becomes encoded in the real. or that it neutralizes them. listeners who call in. A circular arrangement through which one stages the desire of the audience. but less. the media. a plus value of meaning homologous to the economic one that results from the accelerated rotation of capital Information is thought to create communication.Whitman College 85911615. It is the alpha and omega of our modernity. but of exactly the opposite. or whether it is the simulacrum that is there first for dissuasive ends. “I know very well. that is how the real is abolished. corresponds to this simulation of meaning and of communication in which this system encloses us. Useless to ask which is the first term. p.” A sort of inverse simulation in the masses. there is none. it exhausts itself in the act of staging communication. there be an excess of meaning. Belief.
revolutionary use value of the medium as such. Only the medium can make an event—whatever the contents. anti-media. one could still expect to manipulate the medium in its form and to transform the real by using the impact of the medium as form. the implosion of the medium and of the real in a sort of hyperreal nebula. the implosion of the medium itself in the real. .Whitman College 85911615. the medium is the message. pirate-radios. But there is something even more serious. in which even the definition and distinct action of the medium can no longer by determined. If all the content is wiped out. the consequences of which have yet to be exhausted. in the same movement. That means that all contents of meaning are absorbed in the only dominant form of the medium. That is—and this is where McLuhan’s formula leads.doc 7/20/08 8 File Title Links – Policy Debate – Hyperreal Communication (2/2) This implosion should be analyzed according to McLuhan’s formula. which McLuhan himself did not see. there is. A serious problem for all counter-information. pushed to its limit—there is not only an implosion of the message in the medium. there is perhaps still a subversive. whether they are conformist or subversive. Because beyond this neutralization of all content. etc.
Whitman College 85911615.doc 7/20/08 9 File Title .
a retro politics. it is for this reason that fascism can again become fascinating in its filtered cruelty. these death pangs of the real and of the rational that open onto an age of simulation. it is naïve to conclude that the evocation of fascism signals a current renewal of fascism (it is precisely because one is no longer there. this object is not just any object. .: all of this is logical. Whence the omnipresence of fascism and of war in retro—a coincidence. Anything serves to escape this void. more perverse. but precisely. it is naïve to conclude that the evocation of fascism and of war in retro—a coincidence. lived in the march of history. the cinema is fascinated by itself as a lost object as much as it (and we) are fascinated by the real as a lost referent. which is still less amusing. Hypotyposis and specularity. war. the period immediately following the war—the innumerable films that play on these themes for us have a closer. One can explain it by evoking the Freudian theory of fetishism (perhaps also a retro hypothesis). chased from the real by the violence of history. in the same retro fascination. 1981. retro fashions—no longer so much because people believe in them or still place some hope in the them. including the delirious use of its own technique) used to have a lively. Whereas so many generations. an affinity that is not at all political. The illusion would be to congratulate oneself on this “awareness of history on the part of the cinema. the pageantry of the belle époque. The cinema and the imaginary (the novelistic. Post-history has rendered power useless. at least there was violence (albeit fascist).” Same misunderstanding. the great trauma. Cinema plagiarizes itself. which is dubbed peaceful coexistence on a global level. ideologies. remakes its classics. The great event of this period. full dramatic relation. when at least life and death were at stake. it is a myth that invades cinema as imaginary content. It is unto this void that the phantasms of a past history recede. The affirmative simply recycles the signs of power. according to the same process that used to make lost myths live again. but simply to resurrect the period whet at least there was history. same mystification. with the air of a game and a field of adventure. It is by the virtue of this fact that it takes the place of myths on the screen. this kind of politics is like sexuality or permanent education (or like social security in its time). everything is equivalent and is mixed indiscriminately in the same morose and funereal exaltation.Whitman College 85911615. leaving behind it an indifferent nebula. traversed by currents. that all previous history is resurrected in bulk—a controlling idea no longer selects. it is often the last object perceived before the traumatic discovery.” as one congratulated oneself on the “entrance of politics into the university. that is. History is our lost referential. as serious. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. as profound. more confused essence). denser. remakes the silent film more perfectly than the original. 43-48. but emptied of references. as irreversible: the fetishization of an object intervenes to obscure this unbearable discovery. or the revolutionary struggles. Thus the fetishized history will preferably be the one immediately preceding our “irreferential” era. dialectical. is this decline of strong referentials. fascism. It is the golden age of despotic and legendary resurrections. only nostalgia endlessly accumulates: war. in the euphoric or catastrophic expectation of a revolution—today one has the impression that history has retreated. “Entering another round of Saving Private Ryan” is a perfect example of how neoconservative leadership impact authors write under the naïve hallucination of ideology and power. unreality. because one is in something else. recopies itself. Today. and pacified monotony on the quotidian level—this history exorcised by a slowly or brutally congealing society celebrates its resurrection in force on the screen. In a violent and contemporary period of history (let’s say between the two world wars and the cold war). says Freud. this hemorrhage of values—it is in proportion to this distress that all content can be evoked pell-mell. p. posthumous liberalization. Jean Baudrillard. Myth. cinema also approaches an absolute correspondence with itself—and this is not contradictory: it is the very definition of the hyperreal. that is to say our myth. etc. this leukemia of history and of politics. finds refuge in cinema. The politics that enter the university are those that come from history. There is however a privileging of the immediately preceding era (fascism. and particularly the last. emptied of substance and legalized in their superficial exercise. they just can’t get over it. aestheticized by retro)… Concurrently with this effort toward an absolute correspondence with the real. the panoply of events. This trauma (loss of referentials) is similar to the discovery of the difference between the sexes in children. the mythical. it is history itself that invades the cinema according to the same scenario—the historical stake chased from our lives by this sort of immense neutralization. retroactivates its original myths. and affinity that is not at all political.doc 7/20/08 10 File Title Links – Leadership type Impacts – Saving Private Ryan (1/2) It should be a measure of Khalizad’s argument that he depends on cinema to make it for him. Simulacra and Simulation.
and this is irreversible. if one can call it that. the mythical energy of an event or of a narrative. Today cinema can place all its talent. It is this fabulous character. and to the advent of the archive. It is a myth that at once subtended the possibility of an “objective” enchainment of events and causes and the possibility of a narrative enchainment of discourse. to a particular scene of the past or of the present. to the restitution of an absolute simulacrum of the past or the present. the asexual nuptials of two cold media that evolve in an asymptotic line toward each other: the cinema attempting to abolish itself in the cinematographic (or televised) hyperreal. that today seems to be increasingly lost. “objective form at the expense of the myths that once traversed it. negative relation: it results from the loss of specificity of one and of the other. Photography and cinema contributed in large part to the secularization of history. Because cinema itself contributed to the disappearance of history. The cold collage. the last great myth. The age of history. which was substituted for all other value—we are all complicitous in this. all its technology in the service of reanimating what it itself contributed to liquidating. Behind a performative and demonstrative logic: the obsession with real time or with the minute quotidianeity of Jeanne Hilmann doing the dishes). is also the age of the novel. perhaps. History is a strong myth. to fixing it in its visible. It only resurrects ghosts.doc 7/20/08 11 File Title Links – Leadership type Impacts – Saving Private Ryan (2/2) The relation that is being formed today between the cinema and the real is an inverse. . and it itself is lost therein. this negative and implacable fidelity to the materiality of the past. the cool promiscuity. along with the unconscious.Whitman College 85911615.
irrational in political terms: the Americans and the Vietnamese are already reconciled. And all of a sudden. No real distance. it is a dream. right after the end of the hostilities the Americans offered economic aid. but that of the film strictly speaking)? But there is no answer. distant signs. either about the war nr about cinema (at least the latter) if one has not grasped this lack of distinction that is no longer either an ideological or a moral one. One revisits everything through cinema and one begins again: the Molochian joy of filming. in the mind of the creator. but one of the reversibility of both destruction and production. test the impact of a cinema that has become an immeasurable machinery of special effects. they certainly won this one. 1981. the same monstrous candor… and the same success. perhaps waiting for nothing but consecration by a superfilm. he hits us with that.but one can always retrieve a tiny little idea that is not nasty. one of good and evil. it is bewildering. In this sense. The real war is waged by Coppola as it is by Westmoreland: without counting the inspired irony of having forests and Philippine villages napalmed to retrace the hell of South Vietnam. the sacrificial joy of so many millions spent. of so many misadventures. Simulacra and Simulation. they are immersed in the machinery. Coppola does nothing but that: test cinema’s power of intervention. and make him crush the Vietnamese village to the sound of Wagner’s music—those are not critical. the same excess of means. p. exactly as they are making their film today.doc 7/20/08 12 File Title Links – War Scenarios Like special effects in war cinema. exactly as if they had annihilated the jungle and the towns. 59-60. equal or superior to that of the Pentagon and of governments. Coppola makes his film like the Americans made war—in this sense. and the remarkable paranoia that from the beginning conceived of this film as a historical. as technological and psychedelic fantasy.. the film is not without interest: it retrospectively illuminates (not even retrospectively. Coppola can certainly deck out his helicopter captain in a ridiculous hat of the light cavalry. it is there. the pinnacle of this failed war. of the carpet of bombs in the strip of film… . the affirmative impact evidence traces out the mass destruction/mass spectacle of war-. the film becomes war. Cinematographic power equal and superior to that of the industrial and military complexes. Apocalypse Now is a global victory. the war in Vietnam would have been nothing other than what it is. This exercise in the simulated effects of war is indistinguishable from the means of war and the war itself.Whitman College 85911615. It reassures us that war is indeed an extension of politics by other means. excessive deployment of a power already filming itself as it unfolded. the war become film even before being filmed. which completes the mass-spectacle effect of this war. would not fundamentally have existed—and it is necessary for us to believe in this: the war in Vietnam “in itself” perhaps in fact never happened. the sacrificial. One has understood nothing. But there it is. the orgasmic sacrifice of industrial means. but that tells you the war in Vietnam and this film are cut from the same cloth. with the same retro megalomania. The war abolishes itself in its technological test. with the same clownish effect in overdrive. the war as a succession of special effects. Jean Baudrillard. that this film is part of the war—if the Americans (seemingly) lost the other one. a psychotropic dream that had the goal neither of a victory nor of a policy at stake. the two are joined by their common hemorrhage into technology. it is the best possible testimonial— with the same immoderation. a baroque dream of napalm and o the tropics. their power. in which. because the film is a phase of this war without end) what was already crazy about this war. a gigantic territory in which to test their arms. of such a holocaust of means. his film is really the extension of the war through other means. and for Americans it was primarily that: a test site. of the organic metabolism of all the technologies. global event. no critical sense. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. that is not a value judgment. and the same nonsignifying furor. but rather. no desire for “raising consciousness” in relation to the war: and in a sense this is the brutal quality of this film—not being rotten with the moral psychology of war. and he himself makes movies in the same way. of the immanence of a thing in its very revolution. that nothing separates them. and its apotheosis.the explosions. and one can say to oneself: how is such a horror possible (not that of the war. In fact. The war as entrenchment. there is no possible verdict. they are part of the special effect. the omnipresence of these reassurances is proof that modern warfare is simply an exercise in special effects. The war became film. their methods. and one can even rejoice in this monstrous trick (exactly as with Wagner).
this war is therefore interminable. the disappearance of the symbolic passage to the act. thus to a psychotic process. . 26-28 We are in neither a logic of war nor a logic of peace but in a logic of deterrence which has wound its way inexorably through forty years of cold war to a denouement in our current events. Moreover. they never die: at best they disappear. Even the military has lost the privilege of use value. the privilege of real war. the hostages are once again revealing. No more than the politicians. that of the right to war under the green light of the UN and with an abundance of precautions and concessions. It is the bellicose equivalent of safe sex: make war like love with a condom! On the Richter scale. of which television is the universal mirror. of an orbital war purged of all local and political peripeteias. a hegemony ultimately much more dangerous than real apocalypse. Jean Baudrillard. a logic of weak events. The most widespread belief is in a logical progression from virtual to actual. the asymptotic form which allows a brush with war but no encounter. into the virtual impossibility of war which translates into the paltry fantasia where adversaries compete in de-escalation. The passage to action suffers widespread infamy: it supposedly corresponds to a brutal lifting of repression. Peripeteias of an anorexic history or an anorexic war which can no longer devour the enemy because it is incapable of conceiving the enemy as worthy of being challenged or annihilated — and God knows Saddam Hussein is worthy of neither challenge nor annihilation — and thus devours itself. with every real violence. The build-up is unreal. to which belong those in Eastern Europe as well as the Gulf War. However. The Gulf War Did Not Take Place. this is an Aristotelian logic which is no longer our own.doc 7/20/08 13 File Title Links – Preventing the “Real” War The affirmative engages in an obsessive quest to limit the outbreak of real war – this buys into an outdated logic that believes the real emerges from the virtual. but the weak or phthisical [sic] degree. like every real event moreover. not their real death. We should have been suspicious about the disappearance of the declaration of war. the cosmetically treated spectre of its death. The obsession with the real only strengthens the passage to the virtual. We are no longer in a logic of the passage from virtual to actual but in a hyperrealist logic of the deterrence of the real by the virtual. to the catastrophe of the real. We prefer the exile of the virtual. as though the irruption or the event of war had become obscene and insupportable. They are pledged to the decoy of war as the others are to the decoy of power. Extracted like molecules in an experimental process. no longer sustainable. the Gulf War would not even reach two or three. There will never be a monument to the unknown hostage. with every real event. according to which no available weapon will not one day be used and such a concentration of force cannot but lead to conflict. By dint of dreaming of pure war. Deterrence has passed by that way and it spares no one. unlike the Aristotelian. we have fallen into soft war. It seems that this obsession with the passage to action today governs all our behaviour: obsession with every real. 1995. p. and we are confronted with a virtual apocalypse. deters any passage to action. their function of death and destruction. everyone is too ashamed of him: the collective shame which attaches to the hostage reflects the absolute degradation of real hostility (war) into virtual hospitality (Saddam Hussein’s “guests”). Against this obsession with the real we have created a gigantic apparatus of simulation which allows us to pass to the act “in vitro” (this is true even of procreation). That’s no longer the case in an age of simulation. then distilled one by one in the exchange. It is the de-intensified state of war. War has not escaped this virtualisation which is like a surgical operation. the transparent degree which allows war to be seen from the depths of the darkroom. Everything is therefore transposed into the virtual. with every pleasure which is too real. In this process. then of the distinction between winners and losers (the winner readily becomes the hostage of the loser: the Stockholm syndrome). then of operations themselves. Since it never began. it is their virtual death that is at issue. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School.Whitman College 85911615. the military personnel do not know what to make of their real function. It is neither the strong form nor the degree zero of war. the aim of which is to present a face-lifted war. Our virtual has definitively overtaken the actual and we must be content with this extreme virtuality which. which already presaged the disappearance of the end of hostilities. and its even more deceptive televisual subterfuge (as we saw at Timisoara). as though the fiction of an earthquake were created by manipulating the measuring instruments.
The fate of the things liberated is an incessant commutation. No true revolution of values can ever take place. children’s liberation. Rather than a mortal mode of disappearance. but not in the way we expected. the sexual.the very availability of all the signs. The fact is that the revolution has well and truly happened. The orgy in question was the moment when modernity exploded upon us. Instead. a fractal mode of dispersal. sexual liberation. all the forms. or as a result of the epidemic of simulation.doc 7/20/08 14 File Title Links – Rights/Revolution/Hippie Shit The Revolution –liberation in every sphere – has already happened. But that’s all they are – simulation. liberation of unconscious drives. a state in which we are obliged to replay all scenarios precisely because they have all taken place already. But since they have. the chips are down. accelerating. Nothing (not even God) now disappears by coming to an end. Nothing is truly reflected any more whether in a mirror or in the abyssal realm (which is merely the endless reduplication of consciousness). an internal metastasis or fevered endogenic virulence which creates a tendency for systems to explode beyond their own limits. 3-5 If I were asked to characterize the present state of affairs. Now everything has been liberated. We may pretend to carry on in the same direction. of development as of the crisis of development. so that it can go into orbit. The state of utopia realized. nourish the hope of realizing them. yet which we must continue to reproduce in a sort of inescapable indifference. therefore. signs. women’s liberation. Jean Baudrillard Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. ideologies and satisfactions. We have pursued every avenue in the production and effective overproduction of objects. the rational. and because what haunts and obsesses us is being thus ahead of all the results . But what can we do? This is the state of simulation. The logic of viral dispersal in networks is no longer a logic of value. we may say that the unavoidable goal of all liberation is to foster and provision circulatory networks. Political liberation. and we find ourselves faced collectively with the big question: WHAT DO WE DO NOW THE ORGY IS OVER? Now all we can do is simulate the orgy. A centripetal compulsion coexists with a decentredness of all systems. but in the sense of an increase in power. There is no longer any such thing as a revolution of values — merely a circumvention or involution of values. wherein paradoxically we must continue to live as though they had not been. This was a total orgy —an orgy of the real. and these things are thus subject to increasing indeterminacy. images and dreams which are now behind us. liberation of art. The Transparency of Evil: Essays on Extreme Phenomena. Everywhere what has been liberated has been liberated so that it can enter a state of pure circulation. a fantastic potentialization whereby their own very existence is put at risk. we can only ‘hyper-realize’ them through interminable simulation. therefore. We live amid the interminable reproduction of ideals. and since we can no longer. neither. things disappear through proliferation or contamination. The assumption of all models of representation. liberation of the forces of production. by dying. p. but in reality we are accelerating in a void. to override their own logic not in the sense of creating sheer redundancy.Whitman College 85911615. — — . to the principle of uncertainty. as of all models of anti-representation. simulate liberation. liberation of the forces of destruction. freedom and revolution are prime examples of the simulation of values continuing in endless cycles of reiteration. 1993. messages. the moment of liberation in every sphere. With the benefit of a little hindsight. of all utopias realized.. then. by becoming saturated or transparent. as a result of their transfer into the secondary existence of simulation. because of extenuation or extermination. whether actually or potentially. phantasies. is it a logic of equivalence. Your calls for liberation. I would describe it as ‘after the orgy’. of criticism as of anti-criticism. all the desires that we had been pursuing. because all the goals of liberation are already behind us.
art. Each category thus passes through a phase transition during which its essence is diluted in homeopathic doses. and art itself disappears. This paradoxical state of affairs. playing as it did upon difference. that are politicized as they enter the sphere of liberation. Everything is sexual. in politics. The Transparency of Evil: Essays on Extreme Phenomena. for metaphor still had its beauty. Today. media and communications. the transsexual. then nothing can be because there are no longer any referentials designating what the political even is. the media. every facial expression. by haphazard and senseless proliferation and metastasis. like the ‘memory of water’. it’s only inane babble. can hardly retain the features of a face. by virtue of their extension beyond their own bounds this state of affairs is epitomized by a single figure: the transpolitical. All these domains are affected by sport’s criteria of ‘excellence’. Economics becomes transeconomics. just like the aff. But they cannot exist where contamination is possible between any discipline and any other. is no longer located in sport as such. after all. science. the transaesthetic. All at once. the sphere of mass processes. Total metonymy. by the chain reaction we have been discussing. or the colour of someone’s eyes). The real loss of immunity concerns sex as a whole. Fundamentally. because for there to be metaphor. p. in fact. it was aesthetic. and occasioning a general commutability of terms has built its house upon the disillusion of metaphor. but instead in business. leaving a trace so small as to be indiscernible. even desire. for everything is affected simultaneously and under the same terms by the virulence in question. — — — . with the disappearance of sexual difference and hence of sexuality per se. in the general style of performance. knowledge everything is interpreted in terms of phantasies. nothing is political any more. nothing is beautiful or ugly any more. and the negation of that idea and that tendency. sex becomes transsexuality all converge in a transversal and universal process wherein no discourse may have a metaphorical relationship to another. rather as water ‘remembers’ molecules no matter how diluted. Pundits analyze every gesture. nothing is sexual any more. Likewise. aesthetics becomes transaesthetics. But that is the whole point: this is only a molecular memory. Perhaps we still have a memory of sex. When everything is aesthetic. 1993. meanwhile. anything can be an object of desire: power. Everything is aesthetic. and all kinds of activity in what is conventionally referred to as culture a sort of all-pervasive media.if everything is political. Everything is political. language. sport. The viral analogy is not an importation from biology. and sex loses its determinants. Likewise everything has become sexual. in terms of repression.doc 7/20/08 15 File Title Links – Micropolitics There is no political activism anymore. the perfect realization of the whole tendency of modernity. When everything is sexual. sex in advertising and porn. Sport itself. Thus every individual category is subject to contamination. When everything is political. everything is now aestheticized: politics is aestheticized in the spectacle. and not a memory of forms or singularities (water. so that it eventually loses all specificity and is reabsorbed by all the other categories. but elsewhere everywhere else. substitution is possible between any sphere and any other: there is a total confusion of types. affecting all disciplines as they lose their specificity and partake of a process of confusion and contagion — a viral loss of determinacy which is the prime event among all the new events that assail us. the word itself is meaningless. infinitesimal relative to the total solution. Everything has acquired a political meaning. It is in this diffraction of the sexual reality principle. as by its childish notion of self-transcendence. and it is not just everyday life but also madness. in sex. micrological and non-human level. but infects every sphere economics. especially since 1968. at the fractal. This is an aspect of a general tendency towards transsexuality which extends well beyond sex. effort and record-breaking.7-10 The possibility of metaphor is disappearing in every sphere. Perhaps our melancholy stems from this. and eventually manifested in the viral explosion of AIDS. which is simultaneously the complete actualization of an idea. then — viral by definition (or lack of definition). until it finally disappears. and upon the illusion of difference. Sex is no longer located in sex itself. Jean Baudrillard Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School.. The law that is imposed on us is the law of the confusion of categories. Politics is no longer restricted to the political sphere.. and sexual stereotypy reigns in every last corner. AIDS is the reflection not so much of an excess of sex or sexual pleasure as of sex’s — . their annihilation by virtue of their very success. metonymy replacing the whole as well as the components. too. the corpuscular memory of an earlier life.and advertising-led semiologization: ‘culture degree Xerox’. and every article of clothing until none of it has any meaning anymore. differential fields and distinct objects must exist. So what we are left with is the simple imprint of a faceless sexuality infinitely watered down in a broth of politics.Whitman College 85911615. that the essential confusion of the epidemic takes hold. Each category is generalized to the greatest possible extent.. its venting through all the trivial variants of sexual incantation.~ — — — decompensation through its general spread into all areas of life.
it is not so much the “revolutionary forces” that accelerate this process (often it is quite the opposite). denounce. It is always the goal of the ideological analysis to restore the objective process. Nixon. it is the system itself that deploys against its own structures this violence that annuls all substance and all finality.the traditional ethic that would obscure the “real” process of work and the “objective” process of exploitation—but of the scenario of work. or neurotics. Fresh blood.it reinjected a fiction of legitimacy. exposing it to its own lack of substance and reality. power has no other recourse but to artificially revive and hallucinate them. p. was nevertheless ritually put to death by Watergate. by demented people. 1981. of its fundamental irresponsibility.—a simulacral contrast through which power attempts to break the vicious circle of its nonexistence. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. Nixon has nevertheless arrived at the goal of which all power dreams: to be taken seriously enough. The Watergate scandal was in fact the greatest of windfalls for the power of the American presidency. like theory. but for how much longer? The deterioration of all power is irresistibly pursued-. These staged presidential assassinations are revealing because they signal the status of all negativity in the West political opposition. Rather than adopting the strategy of the affirmative and decrying the abuses of power. but of the scenario of power. Criticism and negativity alone still secrete a phantom of the reality of power.” critical discourse. crazy people. because this system that is dying from being dispossessed of its death expects nothing but that from us: that we give the system back its death. which infuriates him. he can only accumulate against himself the signs of reversion through murder. from primitive societies to the present. simulation corresponds to a short circuit of reality and to its duplication through signs. If they become weak for one reason or another. It is no longer a question of the ideology of work. End of revolutionary praxis. It is in this way that the Spanish executions still serve as a stimulant to Western liberal democracy. etc. chance.Whitman College 85911615. of savage rituals). Simulacra and Simulation. Ideology only corresponds to a corruption of reality through signs. One must not resist this process by trying to confront the system and destroy it. he is immunized by his impotence. this changes nothing: the leftist penchant for detecting a rightist conspiracy beneath this brings out a false problem—the function of bringing depth to. unbalanced person (and thought it is perhaps true that presidents are assassinated by unbalanced types. who nonetheless carry out a social function as fundamental as that of presidents).in fact.doc 7/20/08 16 File Title Links – Leftist Politics All that power asks of us is that we subject it to ideological analysis. This is why in the end power is so much in tune with ideological discourses and discourses on ideology.” Power floats like money. 24-25. who was not even found worthy of dying at the hands of the most insignificant. Ford doesn’t even have this opportunity anymore: a simulacrum of an already dead power. it is no longer a question of the ideology of power. the “Left.. But already impeachment is no longer assassination: it happens via the Constitution. even and especially if they are revolutionary. to a dying system of democratic values.that we take it seriously enough to oppose it. Jean Baudrillard. Curiously. we should instead let power work on us in mute silence. . Watergate is still a mechanism for the ritual murder of power (the American institution of the presidency is much more thrilling in this regard than the European: it surrounds itself with all the violence and vicissitudes of primitive powers. it is always a false problem to wish to restore the truth beneath the simulacrum. and liquidated. end of the dialectic. that we revive it through the negative. against power has always been fulfilled. etc. or the prophecy. to constitute a mortal enough danger to the group to be one day relieved of his duties. In the same way. a shimmering. that is they are discourses of truth. of its “suspension.always good for countering the mortal blows of simulation. like language. ephemeral vision of “good government”.
p. this is still the end of media Reason. but the world which is winning out over us. The Perfect Crime. and that what we have in return for the loss of illusion is the emergence of an objective irony of this world. but also as the universal form of the stratagem by which the world hides behind the radical illusion of technology. then. it seems. All our technologies might. Heidegger: ‘When we look into the ambiguous essence of technology. The opposite hypothesis is more subtle. we behold the constellation. be said to be the instrument of a world which we believe we rule. . carrying it beyond itself. that sacred presence has been reduced to a tiny ironic glimmer. The Japanese sense the presence of a divinity in every industrial object. whereas in fact the world is using this machinery to impose itself. and we are merely the operators. from this point on. in effect. behind which lurks the evil genius of technology which sees to it itself that the mystery of the world is well—guarded. for its part. But today. in fact. And would put in its place a conception of the gigantic objective irony of this whole process. bringing about our ruin. things have also reached a parodic one. none the less.Whitman College 85911615. An objective illusion. we labour under the subjective illusion of technology. but labors under the illusion that we can create new and better energy technology. Even if the two hypotheses are simultaneously valid. the end of political Reason. the stellar course of the mystery. and by which the mystery (of the continuation of the Nothing) conceals itself beneath the universal banality of information. of all our artificial productions. 71-73 At the peak of our technological performance. is it not the object which dupes us and mocks our objective pretensions to analyse it? Scientists themselves are not. it is the masses who definitively modify the exercise of power (or what sees itself as such). It is at the point where the political authorities think they are manipulating them that the masses impose their clandestine strategy of neutralization and destabilization. 1996. The illusion of technology makes us believe we’re in control and not the other way around. We very much labour under the illusion that the aim of technology is to be an extension of man and his power. therefore. We should instead adopt an ironic stance towards technology. Once we lived in the age of the lost object. but the object which thinks us. but because we are no longer in a position to see it: that. Can one advance the hypothesis that beyond the objective and critical phase there is an ironic phase of science. from the post-historical snobbery Kojeve spoke of. Through the most refined procedures we deploy to pin it down. It is the logic of the system which. that though the illusion of the world has been lost. now it is the object which is ‘losing’ us. For us. The naive illusion about the media is that the political authorities use them to manipulate or mystify the masses. the irony of the world. one might say what Canetti says of animals: that behind each of them there is a hidden someone thumbing his nose at us. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. from the retrospective nostalgia for being and from all unhappy critique in terms of alienation and disenchantment. ironically undecidable. Irony as universal form of disillusionment. The same hypothesis holds for the object of science. is altering its determinations. it is not we who are winning out over the world. a spiritual form. Though this is. At the same time as reaching a paroxystic stage. It seems. similar to the one that prevails in the media sphere. a nuance of play and distantiation. It is no longer we who think the object. It seems that technology has taken into itself all the illusion it has caused us to lose.doc 7/20/08 17 File Title Links – Alternative Energy – Tech/R&D The Affirmative opposes fossil fuels. Through the media. the irresistible impression remains that something eludes us — not because we seem to have lost it (the real?). has passed into things. The Evil Spirit keeps watch beneath artefacts and. Everything which will be done or said in the media sphere is. Jean Baudrillard. which would not be far from radical snobbery. an ironic phase of technology? A proposition which would deliver us from the Heideggerian vision of technology as the final phase of metaphysics. this operating principle is thwarted by its very extension. by the unbridled virtuality we see outrunning the laws of physics and metaphysics. far from admitting this.
The balance of terror is the terror of balance. for installing a universal security system. The most insignificant of our behaviors is regulated by neutralized. It is not the direct threat of atomic destruction that paralyzes our lives. in forms that are not threatening to the order of things. Pacification does not distinguish between the civil and the military: everywhere where irreversible apparatuses of control are elaborated. However. of anything that would be an event in the general system and upset its balance. like the Trojan War. The risk of nuclear annihilation only serves as a pretext. any more than floating capital has a real referent of production) that circulates in nuclear orbit suffices to control all the violence and potential conflicts around the world. Deterrence itself is the neutral.” threat. and the unknown is precisely that variable of simulation which makes of the atomic arsenal itself a hyperreal form. equivalent signs. The same goes for peaceful nuclear power stations. when one still confused the nuclear apparatus with conventional war) but. except without a doubt in the very initial stages of the cold war. No longer can nay revolt.Whitman College 85911615. everywhere where the notion of security becomes omnipotent. social. it circulates and is exchanged between nuclear protagonists exactly as is international capital in the orbital zone of monetary speculation whose fluctuations suffice to control all global exchanges. at the much greater probability of any real event. and political desert. rather. of the violence without consequences that reigns throughout the world. Thus the money of destruction (without any reference to real destruction. A gigantic involution that makes every conflict. Nuclear suspension only serves to seal the trivialized system of deterrence that is at the heart of the media. What is hatched in the shadow of this mechanism with the pretext of a maximal. is the perfection of the best system of control that has ever existed. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. Deterrence is not a strategy. revolutions and political subjectivity is no longer possible. p. a universal lockup and control system whose deterrent effect is not at all aimed at an atomic clash (which was never in question. politics. The apotheosis of simulation: the nuclear.not even into a life insurance policy: into a policy that already has no value). and around it grows the historical. Deterrence precludes war—the archaic violence of expanding systems. but it is precisely at this level that there are no strategic stakes. and thanks to Damocles’ nuclear sword. every finality. a simulacrum that dominates everything and reduces all “ground-level” events to being nothing but ephemeral scenarios. the balance of terror is never anything but the spectacular slope of a system of deterrence that has insinuated itself from the inside into all the cracks of daily life. 1981. Atomic war. “objective. 32-35. will not take place. neutralizes. and escalation is only a puerile game given over to the military. And this deterrence comes from the fact that even the real atomic clash is precluded—precluded like the eventuality of the real in a system of signs. the gravity of their exercise and the discourse of their “strategy” are at stake). it is the system of deterrence that grows. implosive violence of metastable systems or systems in involution. Simulacra and Simulation. Jean Baudrillard. No strategy is possible any longer.doc 7/20/08 18 File Title Links – Alternative Energy – Nuclear Energy (1/2) Nuclear energy cements a system of deterrence. The whole world pretends to believe in the reality of this threat (this is understandable on the part of the military. transforming the life left us into survival. and violence remain. nor an adversary nor a strategy—it is a planetary structure of the annihilation of stakes. . of the aleatory apparatus of all the choices that are made for us. Massive war. Everything freezes under the lack of possibility engendered by the civilian and military nuclear umbrella. it is deterrence that gives them leukemia. Only the signs of power. everywhere where the norm replaces the old arsenal of laws and violence (including war). And the progressive satellization of the whole planet through this hypermodel of security. The whole originality of the situation lies in the improbability of destruction. every confrontation contract in proportion to this blackmail that interrupts. indifferent. only simulacra of conflicts and carefully circumscribed stakes remain. through the sophistication of weapons (a sophistication that surpasses any possible objective to such an extent that it is itself a symptom of nullity). any story be deployed according to its own logic because it risks annihilation. There is no longer a subject of deterrence. into a stake without stakes. The political stake is dead. freezes them all. by zero-sum signs like those that regulate the “strategy of games” (but the true equation is elsewhere.
energy. which began centuries ago. of satellization of which the lunar module is the perfect embryo? Programmed microcosm. where nothing can be left to chance. doomed to the descriptive transparency of mechanisms of information. rather. environment—nothing can be left to contingencies. Now. of the launching of satellites if not the institution of a model of universal gravitation. One no longer fantasizes about the minutiae of a program. This is why the space program was so easily able to replace it in the 1960s (Kennedy/Khrushchev). or complexity in a sociality illuminated by the norm. still taps a perverse imaginary. but which has now entered its accelerated phase. A universe purged of all threat of meaning. and makes every imaginary involute.Whitman College 85911615. of finality. of contradiction. Because if the law. ultimately. it is the same model of programmatic infallibility. by the immanent wonder of the programmed unfolding of events. irreversible process: the generalized deterrence of chance. Trajectory. fascinates. moreover this is the essence of socialization. the norm fixes. of transversality. In fact. is the function of the space program. The exaltation of the crowds was not a response to the event of landing on the moon or of sending a man into space (this would be. with its aura of transgression. . if order. nothing will be left to chance. or to develop concurrently as a form of “peaceful coexistence. toward a limit that one believed would be explosive (revolution). The vertigo of a world without flaws. we are dumbfounded by the perfection of the programming and the technical manipulation. There lies the true nuclear fallout: the meticulous operation of the social. but which for the moment is translated by an inverse. rather. with its aura of violence.” Because what. Here as well. physiology. Fascination with the maximal norm and the mastery of probability: Vertigo of the model. rupture. in a state of asepsis and weightlessness—it is this very perfection that is fascinating. nor military and strategic superiority. this is the total universe of the norm—the Law no longer exists. which unites with the model of death. but without fear or drive.doc 7/20/08 19 File Title Links – Alternative Energy – Nuclear Energy (1/2) The “space race” played exactly the same role as nuclear escalation. stupefies. the spatial and nuclear models do not have their own ends: neither the discovery of the moon. it is the operational immanence of every detail that is law. the model vectors of a system of planetary control (where even the superpowers of this scenario are not free—the whole world is satellized). of accident. implosive. Just watching it produces vertigo. the fulfillment of an earlier dream). calculation. of the conquest of the moon. of maximum security and deterrence that today controls the spread of the social. Their truth is to be the models of simulation. psychology.
We have all become living specimens in the spectral light of ethnology. like Eurydice. Castaneda. in a world of simulation. living metallurgic zones. lost to science. where they had lived for eight centuries without any contact with the rest of the species. in the glass coffin of the virgin forest. that of the simulacrum. as “historical” witnesses of their period entire working-class neighborhoods. rather than circumscribing itself as an objective science. again becomes the model of simulation of all the possible Indians from before ethnology. like a dimension of life. In any case.” It is not a question of sacrifice (science never sacrifices itself. science can’t help but die contaminated by the death of this object that is its inverse mirror.doc 7/20/08 20 File Title Links – Preservation/Nature/Environment/Ecology (1/3) Your attempt to preserve nature only models the environment after a simulation of how we believe it once was. tourists. what a triumph for this science that seemed dedicated to their destruction! Of course. will provide a perfect alibi. by dying. noblesse oblige. Indians who have again become what they were. which is nothing but the pure form of triumphal ethnology. and. under the sign of dead differences.a murder of which the Savages. 7-11. like and omnipresent fourth dimension. Clastres are various witnesses. The Indian thus returned to the ghetto. Science loses precious capital there.gestures. is everywhere now. It is against this hell of the paradox that the ethnologists wished to protect themselves by cordoning off the Tasaday with virgin forest. the secret that kills it (and which the Savages knew better than it did): the vengeance of the dead. cryogenized. men women. This at the suggestion of the anthropologists themselves. languages. of the murder of every symbolic form and of its hysterical. but that for a long time has extended to all Western societies.Whitman College 85911615. and o the resurrection of differences. and by the pitiless reversal that the dead object exerts on it? Like Orpheus. and children included. but the object will be safe. It is thus very naïve to look for ethnology in the Savages or in some Third World. This model thus grants itself the luxury to incarnate itself beyond itself in the “brute” reality of these Indians it has entirely reinvented. in the White community. everywhere. Simulacra and Simulation. they have become referential simulacra. and science itself has become pure simulation. sterilized. frozen in their natural element. customs fossilized alive as in a snapshot. all so that we may all believe again that things are as they should be. be applied to all living things and make itself invisible.simulacral Indians who at last proclaim the universal truth of ethnology. No one can touch them anymore: as in a mine the vein is closed down. the logical evolution of a science is to distance itself increasingly from its object. an entire culture. It erases the memory of environmental destruction and replaces it with a museum-theme park version of nature. The Tasaday. The confinement of the scientific object is equal to the confinement of the mad and the dead. an eternal guarantee. Ethnology brushed up against its paradoxical death in 1971. these savages are posthumous: frozen. its object must die. Here begins an antiethnology that will never end and to which Jaulin. in the metropolises. 1981. And just as all of society is irremediably contaminated by this mirror of madness that it has held up to itself. to their primitive state. of the blackmail of the real. Doesn’t all science live on this paradoxical slope to which it is doomed by the evanescence of its object in its very apprehensions. Thus ethnology. or of antiethnology. Jean Baudrillard. historical retrospection. The museum. it always turns around too soon. instead of being circumscribed as a geometric site. protected to death. at the level of the “open” museum where one museumified in situ. Preserving the idea of an ideal nature will only expose the preserved object to a slowed down purification and a sterilized death.it attains its pure form.it is here. until it dispenses with it entirely: its autonomy is only rendered even more fantastic. The same holds true at Cruesot. liberated from its object. p. and ethnologists. but intact in its “virginity. But in the same breath ethnology grants us its only and final lesson. . the object takes its revenge for being “discovered” and with its death defies the science that wants to grasp it. the day when the Philippine government decided to return the few dozen Tasaday who had just been discovered in the depths of the jungle. then artificially resurrected under the auspices of the real. We are all Tasadays.Savages who are indebted to ethnology for still being Savages: what a turn of events. like mummies in the open air. of the hallucination of truth. in a world completely cataloged and analyzed. will today. but of the simulated sacrifice of its object in order to save its reality principle. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. who were seeing the indigenous people disintegrate immediately upon contact. its object falls back into Hades. In order for ethnology to live. out of the reach of colonizers. it is always murderous). were the first victims.
To this end they must be exhumed and given military honors. to an order of history. The West is seized with panic at the thought of not being able to save what the symbolic order had been able to conserve for forty centuries. . and museums. according to an unconscious reversion. which is devastated by difference and by death. We are fascinated by Ramses as Renaissance Christians were by the American Indians. if the Cloisters in New York are an artificial mosaic of all cultures (following a logic of the capitalist centralization of value). which no longer masters anything.” And everyone is supposed to applaud this restitution (as they did “the experimental campaign to take back the sidewalks” on the Champs Elysees!). In general. Why Because Ramses was a great despotic and military figure? Certainly. which at least fooled no one. In the same way science and technology were recently mobilized to save the mummy of Ramses II. Our entire linear and accumulative culture collapses if we cannot stockpile the past in plain view. Only absolute secrecy assured them this millennial power. which would suffice to slowly exterminate them. In the same way. demuseumification is nothing but another spiral in artificiality. There were two possible responses: either admit that this Law was not universal. Well. but out of sight and far from the light of day. one contented oneself with converting them. But mostly because our culture dreams.doc 7/20/08 21 File Title Links – Preservation/Nature/Environment/Ecology (2/3) It is science that masters the objects.” The form produced by confinement is followed by an innumerable. only the mummy is of an inestimable worth because it is what guarantees that accumulation has meaning. Nothing changes when society breaks the mirror of madness (abolishes the asylums. behind this defunct power that it tries to annex. our order. the violence of a civilization without secrets.the mastery over putrefaction that signified the mastery of the complete cycle of exchanged with death. slowed-down mechanism. which plays at extricating itself from its object to better secure itself in its pure form.) and to bend down before the “differences. to conceal that it is this world. which reassures us about our end. a visible myth of origin. ours. And just as with ethnology. with the pretext of saving the original. the Savage fiction everywhere. which only gives a dead and circular response to a dead and circular interrogation. master over putrefaction and death. that is to say restoring a visible order. but it s the objects that invest it with depth. Thus at the beginning of colonization. etc. Because mummies don’t rot from worms: they die from being transplanted from a slow order of the symbolic. diffracted. hatred of a whole civilization for its own foundation. and then one visits the reconstituted whole). Ramses does not signify anything for us. whereas embalming was a mythical effort that strove to immortalize a hidden dimension. Irreparable violence toward all secrets. and it dreams of it because it exterminated it by exhuming it as its own past. etc. or even simply discovering them. that is to say.Whitman College 85911615. Witness the cloister of Saint-Michel de Cuxa. gives speech back to the insane. their reimportation to the original site is even more artificial: it is a total simulacrum that links up with “reality” through a complete circumvolution. if the exportation of the cornices was in effect an arbitrary at. but an exact replica was constructed five hundred meters from it. after it was left to rot for several dozen years in the depths of a museum. To this end the pharaohs must be brought out of their tomb and the mummies out of their silence. As ethnology collapses in its classical institution. science. or exterminate the Indians to efface the evidence. They are prey to both science and worms. Because finally we have never believed in them. as in Castaneda. The cloister should have stayed in New York in its simulated environment. so that everyone could see them (one glances through a peephole at the authentic cave. It is possible that the memory of the original grottoes is itself stamped in the minds of future generations. which has again become savage in its way.) nor when science seems to break the mirror of its objectivity (effacing itself before its object. Whence this historic scene of the reception of the mummy at the Orly airport. there was a moment of stupor and bewilderment before the very possibility of escaping the universal law of the Gospel. a visible continuum. We only know how a place our science in service of repairing the mummy. it survives in an antiethnology whose task it is to reinject the difference fiction. We require a visible past. one forbade visitors to enter the Lascaux caves. which one will repatriate at great cost from the Cloisters in New York to reinstall it in “its original site. but from now on there is no longer any difference the duplication suffices to render both artificial. which only knows how to condemn what preceded it to decay and death and subsequently to try to revive it with science. of an order that would have had nothing to do with it. Thus it would have been enough to exhume Ramses to ensure his extermination by museumification. those (human?) beings who had never known the word of Christ.
rests on the limitation of the group and the refusal of any “unlimited” increase. In the same way.things are doubled by their own scenario. In this way. more authentic. their demographic “promotion is just another step toward symbolic extermination. They even flatter themselves for doing better. .doc 7/20/08 22 File Title Links – Preservation/Nature/Environment/Ecology (3/3) Repatriating it is nothing but a supplementary subterfuge. for exceeding the original number. Americans flatter themselves for having brought the population of Indians back to pre-Conquest levels. This is presented as proof of the superiority of civilization it will produce more Indians that they themselves were able to do. acting as if nothing had happened and indulging in retrospective hallucination. and better than when they were alive. this overproduction is again a means of destroying them: for Indian culture.Whitman College 85911615. like the faces in funeral homes.) Everywhere we live in a universe strangely similar to the original. as it did traditionally. the imminence of their death. in the light of their model. (With sinister derision. But this doubling does not signify. One effaces everything and starts over. more cheerful. as can be seen in Ishi’s case. like all tribal culture.they are already purged of their death.
nothing was objectively at stake but the verisimilitude of the final montage. of language. so ferocious. Same scenario in the Algerian war. Jean Baudrillard. but whose objective outcome in war. And the war ended “spontaneously” when this objective was achieved. Nothing of the sort occurred. it could be trusted. What meaning did this war have. so hard. never spoken. which is played out as such (or else one could never send people to get themselves killed in this kind of thing). of course. so long. because it took place at the intersection of a maximum historical and “revolutionary” stake. despite this deterrence by the orbital power—the nuclear or molecular code—events continue at ground level. the shift from a global strategy of revolution to one of shared forces and empires. they are no longer anything but the duplex effect of simulation at the summit. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. even a Communist one. behind this simulacrum of fighting to the earth and of ruthless global stakes.and war itself. misfortunes are even more numerous. of symbolic organization. remained unliquidated. vanish from one day to the net as if by magic? Why did this American defeat (the largest reversal in the history of the USA) have no internal repercussions in America? If it had really signified the failure of the planetary strategy of the United States.Whitman College 85911615. This war. is nothing but the medium of this process of the terrorist rationalization of the social—the murder on which sociality will be founded. When at last the war had passed into the hands of regular troops in the North and escaped that of the resistance. What no longer exists is the adversity of the adversaries. took place. The war lasted as long as elements irreducible to a healthy politics and discipline of power. . As soon as the Vietnamese had proved that they were no longer the carriers of an unpredictable subversion. That is why it was deescalated. just like that of the charting of territories and disciplinary sociality. Tribal. 1981. the two adversaries are fundamentally in solidarity against something else. the reality of antagonistic causes. Total complicity. then. 36-39. “The North Vietnamese were advised to countenance a scenario for liquidating the American presence in the course of which. or division of labor between two adversaries (who may even consent to enormous sacrifices for it) for the very end of reshaping and domesticating social relations. China’s apprenticeship to a global modus Vivendi. That theirs is a Communist order is not serious in the end: it had proved itself. the transition from a radical alternative to political alternation in a system now essentially regulated (the normalization of Peking-Washington relations): this was what was at stake in the war in Vietnam. and in this sense. was nothing but a crucial episode of peaceful coexistence. the murderous antagonism of the adversaries—which seems a matter of life and death. and of the installation of this deterrent authority. Their untenable character must not conceal the fact that they were nothing but a simulacrum to enable the Vietnamese to seem to countenance a compromise and for Nixon to make the Americans swallow the withdrawal of their troops. It is even more effective than capitalism in the liquidation of “savage” and archaic precapitalist structures. war exists in order to reassure us of the existence of ideological stakes. and wasn’t its unfolding a means of sealing the end of history in the decisive and culminating historic event of our era? Why did this war. Communist r capitalist. the war could stop: it had attained its objective. communitarian.” This scenario: the extremely harsh bombardments of Hanoi. p. But. whatever its allegiance. It marked the arrival of China to peaceful coexistence. they no longer have any meaning. This same reduction of forces can be seen on the field. that is what must be abolished. unnamed. demobilized so easily. spectacular death apparatus. The moralists of war. every form of exchange. with the equal complicity of the two adversaries. it would necessarily have completely disrupted its internal balance and the American political system. the USA pulled out of Vietnam but won the war. precapitalist structures. subtly. given the global process of the contiguity and simultaneity of data. the holders of high wartime values should not be too discouraged: the war is no less atrocious for being only a simulacrum—the flesh suffers just the same. and to annihilate the presence of anything that would disrupt the global system of deterrence. and the dead and former combatants are worth the same as in other wars. The other aspect of this war and of all wars today: behind the armed violence. The nonintervention of China obtained and secured after many years. is total liquidation. The best example can only be that of the war in Vietnam. one must save face. Yet.doc 7/20/08 23 File Title Impacts – War (1/2) War no longer has an ideological purpose. at bottom. This objective is always fulfilled. The game was already won. the ideological seriousness of war. one could let them take over. Something else. The stake is thus that of a political relay. that is the object of murder in war-. in its immense. Simulacra and Simulation. Rather.
it is that at every moment war and peace are equivalent. ersatz. that they long ago exhausted their meaning and only live from an artificial effervescence of signs. For us the trick has been played. or one becomes aware (as with the Communists “in power” in Italy.Whitman College 85911615. who has the right like everything else to his revival. the last gasp of an ideality of the body. in a profound indifference to their consequences (but this is because there are none: they exhaust themselves in their spectacular promotion)—all “newsreel” footage thus gives the sinister impression of kitsch.doc 7/20/08 24 File Title Impacts – War (2/2) And also the reality of victory or defeat.) never started. that there was an end to war at the heart of war itself. in the cold light of deterrence (including Artaud. posthumous rediscovery of the gulags and Soviet dissidents like the almost contemporary discovery. “War is peace. that all these events succeed each other without logic. and as artifacts of history. by a moribund ethnology. the pacification (or the deterrence) that dominates us today is beyond war and peace. never existed. All the events are to be read backward. of the lost “difference” of Savages) that all these things arrived too late. complete equivalence. The reality of simulation is unbearable—crueler than Artaud’s Theater of Cruelty. of blood. in the most contradictory. There also. Thus one can completely miss the truth of a war: namely. Everything still unfolds around us. and that perhaps it never started. war being a process that triumphs well beyond these appearances. and no one really accepts it. etc. and even all real writing of cruelty has disappeared. All dramaturgy. to the phantom. the retro. of retro and porno at the same time—doubtless everyone knows this. toward a reabsorption of all the stakes without a trace of blood. Simulation is the master.” said Orwell. with a history of delay. a spiral of delay. catastrophes and crises destined to maintain a historical investment under hypnosis. and we only have a right to the retro. that it was finished well before it started. to a second existence as the referential of cruelty). In any case. The media and the official news service are only there to maintain the illusion of an actuality. which was still an attempt to create a dramaturgy of life. of the reality of the stakes. . the two differential poles implode into each other. of violence in a system that was already taking it away. or recycle one another—a simultaneity of contradictions that is at once the parody and the end of every dialectic. parodic rehabilitation of all lost referentials. of the objectivity of facts. except as artificial occurrences—abstract. Many other events (the oil crisis.
of a “political aesthetic of death” at a time when the processes of the disenchantment of value and of collective values. Who will unravel this imbroglio? The Gordian knot can at least be cut. the reinjection of death. Not so long ago. it would not have tapped into this massive energy if it hadn’t been a resistance to something much worse. can already be interpreted as the “irrational” excess of mythic and political referentials. of the operationalization of all social and individual life already makes itself strongly felt in the West. the infinity of capital folded back on its own surface: transfinite? And is it not the same for desire and the libidinal space? Conjunction of desire and the law. p. The Mobius strip. race. Overwhelming versatility of desire in Deleuze.” to desire its own repression and to invest in paranoid and fascist systems? A malign torsion that returns this revolution of desire to the same fundamental ambiguity as the other. an enigmatic reversal that brings desire “revolutionary in itself. when such collusions admirably knot themselves together without the knowledge of their authors? Conjunction of the system and of is extreme alternative like the two sides of a curved mirror. Fascism is a resistance to this. the mystery of its appearance and of its collective energy. the masses may turn to the extreme valorization of race. Hell of simulation. etc. Jean Baudrillard. its terror is on the level of this other terror that is the confusion of the real and the rational. which is no longer one of torture. everything seems to escape this catastrophe of value. before thinking that we now take pleasure in capital. demented resistance. 18. and it is a response to that.in a world without value or political referentials. sex and work were fiercely opposed terms. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. which deepened in the West. Fascism’s cruelty. Formerly the discourse on history derived its power from violently opposing itself to that of nature. irrational. circularized. nationality. said Lyotard. . a torsion that is like that of the evil spirit of commutation. today both are dissolved in the same type of demand. the mad intensification of collective value (blood. etc. the historical revolution. the discourse of desire to that of power. Mobian compulsion. 1981. Fascism is the logical result of hyperreality. 1981. results in a supplementary spiral without the reversibility of surfaces being resolved (here the reversible continuity of hypotheses). eventually benefitting all ideological positions.Whitman College 85911615. reversibilized from the right to the left. with which no interpretation has been able to come to grips (neither the Marxist one of political manipulation by dominant classes. including paranoid reactionaries Jean Baudrillard. Simulacra and Simulation. and as if involuntarily wanting what it wants.doc 7/20/08 25 File Title Impacts – Fascism Political subjectivity circles around. p. of the whole system. people. if one divides it. 48 Fascism itself. which seizes the occasion to regenerate its own flagging humanism and whose indignant protest in turn consolidates Franco’s regime by uniting the Spanish masses against this foreign intervention? Where is the truth of all that. of the rational secularization and unidimensionalization of all life. elusive twisting o meaning—where even the condemned at Burgos are still a gift from Franco to Western democracy.today they exchange their signifiers and their scenarios. even if it is a profound. maleficent. the final pleasure as the metamorphosis of the law (which is why it is so widely the order of the day): only capital takes pleasure. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. nor the Reichian one of the sexual repression of the masses.). Yet again. All the referentials combine their discourses in a circular. Simulacra and Simulation. a “vicious” curvature of a political space that is henceforth magnetized. nor the Deleuzian one of despotic paranoia). this neutralization and pacification of life. but of the subtle.
The violence of the real is reinjected everywhere into a society that cannot accept appearances at face value. because if it is practically impossible to isolate the process of simulation. beyond rational distinctions upon which the whole of the social and power depend.” in order to test the reaction of the apparatus to a perfect simulacrum. Indeed. the right to property. 19-23. and that is the most serious crime. The established order can do nothing against it. to the established order itself. on causes and ends. you will immediately find yourself once again. because the law is a simulacrum of the second order. and make it so that the operation creates as much commotion as possible. In short. etc. whereas simulation is of the third order. 1981. remain close to the “truth. When in doubt. Because the latter does nothing but disturb the order of things. beyond true and false. as such it is as serious as the simulation of crime. above and beyond its object. a referential order that can only reign over the referential. But the difficulty is proportional to the danger. the signs do not lean to one side or another. anticipated in their presentation and their possible consequences. airplane hijackings. whereas the former attacks the reality principle itself. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. against this nebula whose weight no longer obeys the laws of gravitation of the real. or to prove the real. Jean Baudrillard. Demand a ransom. a client of the bank will faint and die of a heart attack.in short. crises. it is the threat of simulation that inspires violence. Simulation is infinitely more dangerous because it always leaves open to supposition that. On the contrary. the opposite is also true (and this reversibility itself is part of the apparatus of simulation and the impotence of power): namely. The challenge of simulation is never admitted by power. but that cannot do anything against this indefinite recurrence of simulation. beyond equivalences. How to feign a violation and put it to the test? Simulate a robbery in a large store: how to persuade security that it is a simulated robbery? There is no “objective” difference: the gestures. How can the simulation of virtue be punished? However. For example: it would be interesting to see whether the repressive apparatus would not react more violently to a simulated holdup than to a real holdup. it is in this sense that they cannot be controlled by an order that can only exert itself on the real and the rational. To the established order they are always of the order of the real. it is now impossible to isolate the process of the real. one will actually pay you the phony ransom). But this does not make them harmless. Thus. where they function as a group of signs dedicated exclusively to their recurrence as signs. etc. it is as hyperreal events.doc 7/20/08 26 File Title Impacts – Violence Just because everything is a simulation doesn’t mean that violence doesn’t happen. to reduce very thing to the real—that is. the signs are the same as for a real robbery. because it cancels out the difference upon which the law is based. power itself ends by being .Whitman College 85911615. Illusion is no longer possible. without wishing it. law and order themselves might be nothing but simulation. in short. This is certainly why order always opts for the real. because the real is no longer possible. and no longer at all to their “real” end. but indefinitely refracted by each other (just like so-called historical events: strikes. if it is established as such. one of whose functions is precisely to devour any attempt at simulation. But this becomes more and more difficult. through the force of inertia of the real that surrounds us. The simulation of an offense. will before institutions and justice come into play. no longer with a specific content or end. Simulacra and Simulation. demonstrations. Verify that your weapons are harmless. a determined power that can only reign over a determined world. Organize a fake holdup. p. are now in some sense simulation holdups in that they are already inscribed in the decoding and orchestration rituals of the media. and hence no repression either. so that no human life will be in danger (or one lapses into the criminal). because it cannot function anywhere else. Transgression and violence are less serious because they only contest the distribution of the real. The impossibility of rediscovering an absolute level of the real is of the same order as the impossibility of staging illusion. it is there that we must aim at order. of hypersimulation or offensive simulation that is posed here. You won’t be able to do it: the network of artificial signs will become inextricably mixed up with real elements (a policeman will really fire on sight. it always prefers this hypothesis (as in the army one prefers to take the simulator for a real madman). will either be punished less severely (because it has no “consequences”) or punished as an offense against the judicial system (for example if one sets in motion a police operation “for nothing”)—but never as simulation since it is precisely as such that no equivalence with the real is possible. It is necessary to see in this impossibility of isolating the process of simulation the weight of an order that cannot see and conceive of anything but the real. in the real. This is how all the holdups. It is the whole political problem of parody. lacking the real. and take the most trustworthy hostage.). Parody renders submission and transgression equivalent.
And at the same time. all real equivalence of the states and the omnipotence of manipulation. that shattered every ideal distinction between true and false. power plays at the real. the reality principle. but it is not longer anything but its scaled-down refraction (thus hyperrealists fix a real from which all meaning and charm. When it has totally disappeared. and to overproduce. One remains among principles. To this end it prefers the discourse of crisis.. For power. it does nothing but multiply the signs and accelerate the play of simulation. . As long as the historical threat came at it from the real. Power itself has for a long time produced nothing but the signs of its resemblance. plays at remanufacturing artificial. plays at crisis. And as soon as it wishes to combat this disastrous spiral by secreting as last glimmer of reality. That is why today this “material” production is that of the hyperreal itself. What every society looks for in continuing to produce. Whence the characteristic hysteria of our times: that of the production and reproduction of the real. throughout its history it was capital that first fed on the destructuration of every referential. everyone unloads it on everyone else) and the panicked nostalgia over its loss. it is a question of life and death. that overdose of a strong referential in a society that cannot terminate its mourning. The other production. etc. And in the end the game of power becomes nothing but the critical obsession with power—obsession with its death. on which to establish a last glimmer of power. economic. disintegrating all the contradictions by dint of producing equivalent signs. in order to establish a radical law of equivalence and exchange. all depth and energy of representation have vanished in a hallucinatory resemblance). they turn against power the deterrent that it used so well for such a long time. Thus everywhere the hyperrealism of simulation is translated by the hallucinatory resemblance of the real to itself. that of values and commodities. Today when the danger comes at it from simulation (that of being dissolved in the play of signs). the iron law of its power. today it is this same logic that is even more set against capital. Hyperreality and simulation are deterrents of every principle and every objective.Whitman College 85911615. and political stakes. The melancholy of societies without power this has already stirred up fascism. is to restore the real that escapes it. why not? That of desire. “Take your desires for reality!” can be understood as the ultimate slogan of power since in a nonreferential world. but also.a whole world adheres to it more or less in terror of the collapse of the political. and if it is the one that fostered reality. we will logically be under the total hallucination of power—a haunting memory that is already rid of it (no one wants it anymore. of every human objective. to persuade us to f the reality of the social. abstraction. power played at deterrence and simulation. that of the belle époque of political economy. But it is too late. its only strategy against this defection is to reinject the real and the referential everywhere. another figure of power comes into play: that of a collective demand for signs of power. Because in the end. disconnection.doc 7/20/08 27 File Title dismantled in this space and becoming a simulation of power (disconnected from its ends and its objectives. Capital was the first to play at deterrence. it was also the first to liquidate it by exterminating all use value. deterritorialization. has for a long time had no specific meaning. social. Well. good and evil. obsession with its survival. and among those power is always in the right. which increases as it disappears. even the confusion of the reality principle and the principle of desire is less dangerous than contagious hyperreality. The only weapon of power. the whole discourse of traditional production. and dedicated to the effects of power and mass simulation). of the gravity of the economy and the finalities of production. It retains all the features.
strangeness). there are two apparently synonymous terms with a very significant distinction between them. This had escaped us. to lose all otherness. This paradigm of the subject without object. ‘Entfremdung’. 1996. time without memory. Being deprived of the other is worse than alienation: a lethal change. can be seen in all that has lost its shadow and become transparent to itself. but perfectly coherent effect — released an intense viral pathology. No longer threatened by them. Jean Baudrillard. a species we attempt at all costs to immortalize and wrest away from death — as we do with all our replacement technologies for the body’s organs — is doomed to disappear. that of the subject without object. rather. By eliminating the work of the negative. Now. as had the metamorphoses of evil which follow the advances of reason about like a shadow. becoming estranged from oneself— alienation in the literal sense. we have at the same time — by a perverse. The two are conjoined today in the modern form of voluntary servitude: enslavement to data systems and calculation systems – total efficiency. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. and it is this strategy we are applying to ourselves. thus causing him to lose all his defences.doc 7/20/08 28 File Title Impacts – Annihilation of Difference Impact The quest to obliterate all that differs and replace it with the image of the same leads uncontestably to the destruction of everything. wars without enemy. not to mention racial and linguistic differences. By setting off the chain reaction of the positive. the finality of that mastery. p. of the subject without other. The best strategy for bringing about someone’s ruin is to eliminate everything which threatens him. passions without object. it is much more serious to be dispossessed of the other than of oneself. By eliminating the other in all its forms (illness. of an ultrapositivity of which it is the lethal embodiment. far from being negative. it cannot but destroy itself (by ‘depredation’. Even in devitalized substances: in sugar without calories. we have unleashed positivity. masters without slaves. rooting out evil in all its forms. total performance. effects without causes. but the object of that mastery. For a virus. 112-14 In German. Death being the great natural predator. as it were). have disappeared.Whitman College 85911615. ‘Verfremdung’ means becoming other. The project of eliminating the external environment under the logic of calculation embodies this process. And of a slave without a master? He ends up exploiting himself. we are eliminating ourselves. by eliminating all singularities in order to radiate total positivity. An irrevocable destabilization. life without spice. no more exteriority. is the product. means to be dispossessed of the other. salt without sodium. We have become masters – at least virtual masters – of this world. The Perfect Crime. of the same without other — definitive stasis and metastasis of the Same. This is like wresting a species away from its natural predators. death. and that is what has become lethal today. violence. by liquidation of the dialectical opposition itself. by contrast. or the slaves without masters we have become. no more hostile environments — no environment at all any longer. . What becomes of a master without a slave? He ends up terrorizing himself. We have fought negativity and death. A tragic destiny for individuals and for our — self-programming and selfreferential — systems: no more adversaries. negativity.
The DOD acknowledges that these laws have never been shown to have interfered with specific military training.Whitman College 85911615. Military aircraft from DOD facilities also generate noise and air pollution. including the oppression of nature. Now. online I turn now to a discussion of the environmental effects of war. As evidence of the need to act now. Congress has approved legislation requested by the DOD amending the Migratory Bird Protection Act. “We don’t feel it’s wise to wait for that kind of train wreck to see if we are going to lose in litigation.4 million pounds of toxic chemicals that year. including aluminum. located 55 miles northeast of Reno. assistant professor of philosophy and women’s studies at the university of Cincinnati. the Sierra Army Depot. Though women are no more essentially connected to nature than any other organic beings. Compensation.C. and Liability Act (CER-CLA). Hypatia Special Issues: Women and Violence Volume 11 Number 4. In 1999. these flights emitted 75 tons of nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds. Joe Willging. Cuomo 1992.000 military flights contributed to the heavy air traffic over Washington. focus on the practical. . which generate smog. Plumwood 1993).” including the case at Eagle River Flats and the Navy’s 2002 temporary closure of its Farallon de Medinilla live-fire training range in the Pacific.” . D. the most recent year for which data are available. Cuomo. if women's oppression is connected to the unjustified destruction of nature. 1996. Others." and because it is so directly tied to other forms of ecological and social violence. Our job is to send soldiers. airmen. including Vandana Shiva and Maria Mies (1993). or material connections between environmental degradation and women's oppression.pubmedcentral. Because military ecological destruction occurs primarily "during peacetime. the DOD is seeking changes through the RRPI to certain hazardous waste laws—specifically. Warren 1990. King 1990. but says it can’t afford to wait until training is shut down before it acts. The base released some 5. In any case. RDX. Military training negatively affects the surrounding areas. the DOD points to a number of lawsuits and “close calls.nih. pg. both environmental and living Schmidt. and Marines into combat environments in the absolute best-prepared way we can. Charles W “The price of preparing for war” Environmental Health Perspectives http://www. according to the EPA Toxics Release Inventory. attention to the ecological impacts of war further illustrates the limitations of only thinking of war in terms of events. for instance. . As of this publication. an environmental lawyer with the DOD General Counsel’s office. a 34-square-mile multi-use training facility in Cape Cod.gov/articlerender. is slowly leaching solvents. feminists must be against oppression in any form. in 1996. The DOD argues that even the threat of interference by hazardous waste litigation justifies its aims. For instance. You can’t do that if you introduce artificialities into training. a drinking water source for up to 500. the Comprehensive Environmental Response. . jet fuel. says in reference to the Farallon de Medinilla closure. The Massachusetts Military Reservation. not on other considerations. and zinc fumes. the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). According to the Democratic Committee on Energy and Commerce. as Karen Warren argues. it is arguable that the ecological effects of war and militarism are feminist issues. was California’s leading air polluter. and the Marine Mammal Protection Act. or if.fcgi?artid=1253681 December 2004 Nearly 1 in 10 Americans live within 10 miles of a DOD Superfund site—a sometimes perilous proximity. cultural constructions associate women with nature and help justify the mistreatment of both. That closure followed a lawsuit filed by the Center for Biological Diversity alleging that bombing at the range was killing protected migratory birds.000 people at the height of tourist season. Many feminists and ecological feminists have discussed these problematic conceptual connections as created or fueled by the dichotomous thinking discussed above (Griffin 1989.doc 7/20/08 29 File Title Impacts – Cuomo – Ecological Destruction Treating war as an event ignores the environmental effects of this mentality and the continuation of military based ecological destruction Chris J. We want to maintain the ability to use those ranges in the optimum way based on military readiness considerations. sailors. more than 50. and the Clean Air Act (CAA). because I believe these effects to be significant to feminists for two basic reasons. and perchlorate into the area’s sole aquifer. copper. portions of the Endangered Species Act.
impact of all the object practices. emancipation. The child resists on all levels. like a mirror. total dependence. Children are simultaneously required to constitute themselves as autonomous subjects. and the constitution of a political subject are seen as valuable and subversive. that is to say. even more serious today. To the demand of being an object. do not see that they are going in the direction of the system. It is the strategy of the masses: it is equivalent to returning to the system its own logic by doubling it. . speaking. To choose the wrong strategy is a serious matter. and efficaciously. inert. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. a total claim to subjecthood. This strategy (if one can still speak of strategy) prevails today. to reflecting meaning. passivity. producing. it is no longer the strategic terrain: the current argument of the system is to maximize speech. of the group. because it was ushered in by that phase of the system which prevails. expressing ourselves at whatever cost. which is a form of refusal and of non-reception. emancipation. he opposes all the practices of disobedience. The subject-resistance is today unilaterally valorized and viewed as positive—just as in the political sphere only the practices of freedom. in short. 84-86 With one caution. hyperconformism. of liberating ourselves. playing the game—a form of blackmail and ultimatum just as serious as the other. just as obstinately. and without a doubt superior. that of constituting ourselves as subjects. free and conscious. exactly the opposite: childishness. and to constitute themselves as submissive. revolutionaries. and to a contradictory demand he responds with a double strategy. The liberating practices respond to one of the aspects of the system. To the demand of being a subject he opposes. expression. and even if w are still confronted with it. All the movements that only play on liberation. But this is to ignore the equal. participating. of emancipation. When all the revolutions have already taken place. It blackmails us into becoming policymakers. Neither strategy has ore objective value than the other. Thus the strategic resistance is that of the refusal of meaning and of the spoken word—or of the hyperconformist simulation of the very mechanisms of the system. the maximum production of meaning. 1981.Whitman College 85911615. of voting. etc. idiocy. conforming objects. obedient. on the resurrection of a subject of history. voters. of revolt. responsible. the strategic ground is to passively absorb appearances.doc 7/20/08 30 File Title Alternative – Strategy of the Object – The Children The system demands that we constitute ourselves as subjects. To a system whose argument is oppression and repression. deciding. refusing to continue on as living alibis for the violence of the real Jean Baudrillard. without absorbing it. whose imperative today is precisely the overproduction and regeneration of meaning and of speech. of the word based on “consciousness raising. Simulacra and Simulation. to the constant ultimatum we are given to constitute ourselves as pure objects. We are face to face with this system in a double situation and insoluble double bind— exactly like children faced with the demands of the adult world.” indeed a “raising of the unconscious” of subjects and of the masses. of the renunciation of the subject position and of meaning— precisely the practices of the masses—that we bury under the derisory terms of alienation and passivity. the strategic resistance is the liberating claim of subjecthood But this strategy is more reflective of the earlier phase of the system. p. an object’s resistance. but they do not respond at all to the other demand.
there is something stupid about our current situation. nothing of the otherworldly delirium of a subjectivity trapped and escaping headlong into a paroxysmal inventory. Everything is headed somewhere. it answers secretly to some enigma. the object mocks the laws we attach to it. Quite the contrary. The hypothesis of a fatal strategy must itself be fatal.doc 7/20/08 31 File Title Alternative – Fatal Strategies Alternative All of today’s critical radicality has ultimately proven useless. therefore. no one is capable of articulating a final process. in unravelling desire. and the one has never been able to erase the other. What’s the use of trying to establish chance as an objective process. Fatality. 184-85 188-191 if the object is fatal. The difference is that the irony of fatality is greater than the irony of chance. and on the side of its eccentric and precious effects. And if the Last Judgement consists. At the heart of banal strategies is the fiery desire of fatal strategies. Its failure today awakens passions that are much more subtle. too. a fatal strategy in that the subject thereby succumbs to the surpassing of its own objectives. and runs the risk of what it describes — but the risk is to be taken. From any object we hope for a blind response that hampers our projects. what can we do about it? After the art of survival. unravel those other strategies. At the end of all that. But it’s certain nevertheless that in disobeying laws. escalating the bidding on the strategic limits it will tolerate. the ironic art of disappearance? The subject has always dreamed of this. of its fickleness toward objective laws. as everyone knows. Basically. In any case. redoubling and escalating the stakes are spirited forms of denouement. But simply to delineate this other logic. in turn. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. subtler than man.Whitman College 85911615. 1990. and therefore the impossibility of deciphering a word that plays the game of meaning all too well). What remains but to pass on the side of the object. There’s something stupid in the raw event. leave the field open to objective irony. No one knows what a strategy is. If there be a morality. And. by which the object is taken in the very game that we wanted to make it play — doubling the ante somehow. another axiom: nothing mystical in this. Today. and now that the critical spirit has found its summer home in socialism. What is more. but a moral ecstasy. We invent all these strategies in the hope of having them result in the unexpected event. a dream inverse to its dream of totalization. p. But the rules of its game. and leave it to the equations to verify themselves. history itself has withdrawn. Even predestination is a form of ironic subversion of fatality. I fall on the joke. just as everything was caught from the start in an original subversion. must be no longer a moral stasis. a strategy precisely with no object. which just makes it more tragic and more seductive. From seduction we look for surprise. The discovery of a hidden rule of the game is dazzling. of its fatal effects (fatality is only the absolute liberty of effects )? Semiorrhage. in saving and eternalizing a moment of our lives. no objective. if the object is ingenious. at the knotting of the intrigue and its denouement). Everything is expiated in one way or another. now that all negativity seems resolved in a world that pretends to realize itself. Today it’s man that poses to the Sphinx — the inhuman — the question of the inhuman. could not be insensible. The real we invent wholly in the hope of seeing it result in a prodigious artifice. if it exists. There are not enough means in the world for us to be able to dispose of ends. Everywhere. of the fatal. The interesting thing about this is the inexorable logical process that is visible here. is seductive. The object (the Sphinx). must itself be a special effect. And of course fatality exists too. but against all science. must itself be hyper-moral. It’s true that this is a difficult and obscure route: to side with the object. it too must be engaged in the eccentric cycle of its effects. in the irony of the aleatory. and compensates us in advance for the cruelest losses. like the real is hyper-real. no final process. It’s the object. and even at the molecular level. like the discovery of a hidden rule. and one only. with whom do we share this ironic end? . the conjunction of these two terms is paradoxical: how could there be fatality if there is strategy? That’s just the point: the enigma is that fatality is at the heart of every strategy. if it is an ironic one? Of course it exists. even less a strategy. the question Oedipus thought he answered. simultaneously — there’s no paradox involved in this. irony (of the Witz*) is the objective form of this denouement. says Canetti. whose fatality would be a strategy —something like the rule of another game. That also is a challenge — eventually it threatens absurdity. Truth only complicates things. of the indifference of the world toward our affairs. hardly answers. If I look for a fatal connection in language. To find another rule. for each of us. Fatal Strategies. Nothing can guarantee us a fatality. as in the Witz. to which destiny. that we all thought we answered. Levi-Strauss claimed that the symbolic order had left us. What remains but to side with this enigma? Everything can be summed up in this: let’s believe for a single instant the hypothesis that there is a fatal and enigmatic bias in the order of things. Today. it would rather figure in our calculations as a sarcastic variable. From strategy we expect control. Chance is also one. Seduction is fatal. We are accomplices in this excess of finality that is there in the object (this can be the excess of meaning. The only way out is the fatal strategy of the object. Likewise with the joke. and they can change without notice. It’s what peeks through the heart of more banal strategies. Everything must unfold in a fatal and ingenious way. which is itself the denouement of language immanent to language (that is the fatal: the same sign presiding over a life’s crystallization and its resolution. the conditions according to which it accepts playing? No one knows them. There’s something stupid in the current forms of truth and objectivity that a superior irony could spare us. In language become pure object. It’s the effect of a sovereign object that recreates in you an original confusion and seeks to surprise you. installing thereby a strategy that doesn’t have its own ends: a “playful” strategy that stills the play of the subject. The strategy of the object allows everything to unfold to it in a fatal and ingenious way Jean Baudrillard. now that all critical radicality has become useless. God himself is forced to employ a trial-and-error method. to take up the cause of the object. and the effects of desire are largely depleted — what remains but to bring things back to their enigmatic ground zero? Now the enigma is inverted: once it was the Sphinx that posed men the question of man. yielding to history.
Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. But. But I like to bring these two terms together all the same to create a clash between them.doc 7/20/08 32 File Title Alternative – Strategy of the Object Alternative Fatal strategies demand that we abandon the subject as an agent of politics. and this is. to be sure! How could an object have a strategy? It would be absurd. at the same time. we do not have it. It is a nice term. it speaks to the imaginary. as discourse itself is so grounded in subjectivity in this sense. and yet it is used in such a way that subjectivity is undermined. someone who has a will. it is a secret. We witness the loss of subjectivity on the one hand. But I am not the one who is going to say that. there is only a strategy of the subject. Thus. a process in which there is certainly no more subject. a reversibility that is in the order of things.com/2002_Volume_15/15_3/Article_4. It has a form of mastery and. or placed in a context where it is made volatile or fragile. effectively. for there to be a strategy. properly speaking. the fact of speaking of the strategy of objects is a paradox. if it is contrary to a truth principle. at the moment. accessed March 5. there I agree with you. strategy being originally a military metaphor. at least a rule of the game. .montrealserai. but it has certainly lost its military reference. there has to be a subject of the strategy. a kind of metaphorical transfer of things. Regardless. But it no longer means anything great in my opinion. truly delirious. and there is there. But somewhere there is a logic in the unfolding of things. we do not have an objective discourse available in the sense I intend it. I think that there is a rule. it is clear that it no longer has any finality in itself. but which would be the discourse of the object. Which means nothing. cannot be based on objectivity. Let us call it strategy. Why not! It is. If the strategy has to become logistically chancy. Summer 2002. which has nothing to do with scientificity. The term strategy represents an opportunity because it is apt. all the same. I also speak of objective illusion. but we are nevertheless a vectorial element of the thing. When I use it in the expression "fatal strategies". one can still use this term in a metaphorical sense perhaps. though not in the sense of subjects. At this point it has to be said that this supposes such relativity in the subject-object relation that it is that which becomes fatal. But all the same. if not a strategy. There will not be any objectivity there in the scientific sense of the term. It is truly unreadable. It has form. It is a type of fatal process. fatal. That is not possible.Whitman College 85911615. the flow of the world itself. even if it is a crazy logic. 2005 CTHEORY: How is the concept of strategy used? It is implicit that it connotes a form of subjectivity. And the fact that it is no longer the subject that possesses things when. Moreover. no more subjectivity. Fatal strategy for me is a strategy of the object. and adopt the seemingly paradoxical strategy of the object Jean Baudrillard. and the intervention of the object itself in the game in a fatal. it is deployed within space. We are all inside it. the way that the discourse of sense tries to describe non-sense. because. an expression which describes a process. online: http://www. decisive and determinant way. it is no longer a strategy properly speaking. Well. Thus fatal strategy is. What we have is the event itself. a representation of the outcome. I like to apply things that are paradoxical. one will always remain between the two. to what extent does it retain today martial connotations which complicate its sense even more? JEAN BAUDRILLARD: Yes. and perhaps even its reference to a finality.htm. But clearly. Illusion. There has to be a finality.
not in the hold of representation. this derision. to be commuted into spectacle. This is the only solution to the problem of “voluntary servitude. 1990. I’m speaking also of people and their inhuman strategies. Another form of fundamental cynicism: this will to spectacle and illusion. instead they want to find a fatal distraction. but it isn’t perhaps indifferent to the fact of making a spectacle of itself in natural disasters. All forms that tend to project a dazzling and miraculous liberty are only revolutionary homilies. and it certainly is to the passions and enterprises of [hu]man. a human being can find in a vacation a greater boredom than in everyday life — a redoubled boredom. it haunts nonetheless the process of events. This is something of a parable. Liberating logic is basically understood only by a few. in a distant echo of original sin. only a fatal logic wins its battle with power precisely because it’s not a battle but a radical passivity. that is to say. There is. To occur is necessary. . We think of nature as indifferent. which is a grand act of self-surpassing. I’m not joking: people are not looking for amusement. this production which is not at all a representation. and particularly in the effects of their disappearance. they’ll make a destiny out of it: intensify it while seeming to do the opposite. Prodigious form that moralists have always condemned. because it is made up of all the elements of happiness and distraction. to be in ecstasy is absolutely vital. The important point is the predestination of vacations to boredom. the will to disdain their causes and to lose ourselves in their effects. p. then one understands nothing of this collective brutishness. seal the monotony of it with an even greater monotony. It could mean the ecstatic deepening of anything. essentially it is fatal logic that wins out. Jean Baudrillard. the most secret facts and thoughts. This hyper-banality is the equivalent of fatality. as it were. How could we suppose that people were going to disavow their daily life and look for an alternative to it? On the contrary. that means that things are meaningless unless transfigured by this illusion. seductive passion.doc 7/20/08 33 File Title A2 Perm The strategy of the object is our fatal strategy. to attain ecstasy in a scene instead of being produced as something really happening. Fatal Strategies. subversive passion. deep in man’s heart. For example. even the increase of oppression and abjection that works like the liberating ecstasy of abjection — just as the absolute commodity works like the liberating form of the commodity. objective information. increase is salvation and ecstasy. but it’s here only to signify this passion of passions.Whitman College 85911615. Boredom is not the problem — the essential point is the increase of boredom. if one doesn’t understand this. 184-85 gender modified When I speak of the object and its fatal strategies. Things can only happen in this excessive manner. All strategies that promise liberation from anything are illusions. for here is where things cynically subvert themselves from their beginnings and their ends. opposed to all will for knowledge and power: tenacious.” Furthermore there is no liberation but this one: in the deepening of negative conditions. plunge into it to the point of ecstasy. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. simulating passion. but their prodigious and eccentric form. the only fatal strategy. the bitter and triumphal foreboding that there’s no escaping this. a drive for pure event. but in the magic of their effect — there only they appear great and do themselves the luxury of existing.
but it is no longer ours to exercise.doc 7/20/08 34 File Title A2 Perm – Ironic Strategies Can’t Include the Subject Stances of irony are purely stances of the object. through the spectrum of the sign and the commodity. Jean Baudrillard. but the operator of the objective irony of the world. a trickster who has absorbed the drollery of the commodity and its mise en scene.” We should abandon all hopes of finding any meaning at all in these systems of signs – only doing that allows the strategy of the object. and the irony of that incorporated double shines out at every moment in every fragment of our signs. The critical function of the subject has given way to the ironic function of the object. henceforth. as the Surrealists did: things move to shed an ironic light on themselves all on their own. This is all part of their visible. There is something of revenge in this: the object becomes a strange attractor. all too visible sequencing. which of itself creates a parody effect. This is exemplified by the 1AC – they criticize the given meanings of SUVs and expose them as false. 1996. The aura of our world is no longer sacred. but that of the absolute commodity. No longer any need to confront objects with the absurdity of their functions. taken out of the orbit of the subject — it is then that it becomes a pure object. Its essence is promotional. which can’t be combined with the affirmative. exorbitated — i. of our objects. stripped of all connotation of meaning and value. objects. object world which surrounds us. perform an artificial and ironic function. We no longer have the sacred horizon of appearances. The Perfect Crime. it is an objective function. It is. although they will try to claim otherwise.e. All metaphysics is swept away by this turnabout in which the subject is no longer the master of representation (‘I’ll be your mirror’). thus positively identifying their meanings as “not the given ones. which has annihilated all others. Once they have passed through the medium or through the image. Our strategies are incompatible fundamentally because the affirmative. It alone is the guardian of the mystery. still believes in identifiable meanings of particular signs. that of the artificial. 73-74 Irony is the only spiritual form in the modern world. At the heart of our universe of signs there is an evil genius of advertising. It is the power of the object which cuts a swathe through the very artifice we have imposed on it. Stripped of all illusion by technology.Whitman College 85911615. they discard their meanings effortlessly. No longer any need for a critical consciousness to hold up the mirror of its double to the world: our modern world swallowed its double when it lost its shadow. . in which the absence and transparency of the subject is reflected. superconductive of illusion and non-meaning. in a poetic unreality. p. the object which refracts the subject and imposes upon it its presence and its random form. its stereophony and its artificial instantaneity. A scriptwriter of genius (capital itself?) has dragged the world into a phantasmagoria of which we are all the fascinated victims. For it is no longer a function of the subject. its discontinuity its fragmentation. by their very existence. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. of our models.
p. ironic challenge. Our unconscious might not be composed of desires properly sworn to the sad destiny of repression. alienated way. the status of these “privileged” classes. whose will would have been diverted. Fatal Strategies. sovereign lack of will. wills. Upon our entire philosophy lies the heavy weight of these sad correlations. If only for the sake of change. and then to reward them with the spectacle of it. Vicarious*. Jean Baudrillard. non-knowledge. since these masses coexist in us with the intelligent and voluntary being who condemns and scorns them. absorption then expulsion of all powers. We always had a sad vision of the masses (alienated). toward the secret finalities of the very masses they despise. .Whitman College 85911615. allusive strategy. It might not even be repressed at all. All mediators (political. to recall Veblen’s concept. they act like Brummel and sovereignly delegate the faculty of choice to someone else. The assumption of the alienated masses is something made by the affirmative. a strategy that eludes capture by power. in a sort of game of irresponsibility. illusive. 1990. without their realizing it. to relieve the masses of this transendence for their greater pleasure. or secret ruse. joyous and seductive. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. and they don’t want power. intellectual. We live all of this. a sad vision of the unconscious (repressed). not us – we affirm the masses’ passivity and lack of choice as a joyous. as possessing a delusive. heirs to the philosophers of the Enlightenment in their contempt of the masses) are only good basically for this: to administer by delegation. because of an insistance which is thereby bathed in the light of a ridiculous looking halo. 98-99 The masses know that they know nothing and they have no desire to know. this tedious business of power and will. liberatory gesture. the object-masses.doc 7/20/08 35 File Title AT: Passivity Bad/Whatever Else the 2AC Says Their arguments assume we embrace the masses’ passivity in a sad. corresponding to an unconscious that is finally ironic. in a paradoxical mode. by proxy. That couldn’t be further from the truth. We reproach them vigorously for these signs of stupidity and passivity. subjectively. The masses know they are powerless. of all enlightenment and depths of meaning. of non-desire. it would be interesting to conceive of the masses. silence. But they’re not that at all: the masses are very snobbish. It would instead be made up out of what’s left after this joyous expulsion of all encumbering superstructures of being and will. But perhaps our true unconscious is in this ironic power of withdrawal. No one knows what the true opposite of consciousness is — unless it be this unconscious of repression that psychoanalysis has imposed upon us.
The final irony of the whole episode is that. 1995. Norris points to the figure of Chomsky as someone who is both a defender of Enlightenment ideals in morality and the philosophy of language.doc 7/20/08 36 File Title A2 “You Deny the Reality of War” Our argument is not that nothing happened in the Gulf. it is because they are in conflict with third world forces who do not recognise that the rules of the game have changed. it was no longer clear what had been gained by the sacrifice of so many lives. However. From a political point of view. Baudrillard argues. and its army permitted to crush the Kurdish and Shiite rebellions. All that is singular and irreducible must be reduced and absorbed. Paul Patton. p. it involves two sides in combat. The imbalance of military means was such that this was not a conflict in which the survival of both sides was in play. This is the law of democracy and the New World Order. methods and military technology of the two sides was so great that what occurred cannot be considered an adversarial encounter.. what took place was not a war in any traditional logic. it is as though it never happened. lobotomised. and it is this failure of communication which leads to the use of force. the Gulf War did not take place. and a staunch critic of US foreign policy. The image of a just war fought between the forces of freedom and those of tyranny dissolved in the moral ambiguities of the postconflict period. . The crucial stake in the Gulf affair. The Iraqi regime was allowed to remain intact. shooting at each other. like Saddam Hussein. located for the most part in a political and military third world.(71) In short. The disparity between US and Iraqi forces with regard to method and military technology was so great that direct engagement rarely took place. That did not happen in the Gulf. an exercise in domination rather than an act of war. Whereas Iraq was disposed to fight in the manner of its previous war with Iran. Rather.”20 He goes on to describe the successive phases of the conflict as involving varieties of state terrorism practised on both sides. They are police operations rather than wars. the US and its allies sought a rapid conflict based upon airpower. high-technology intelligence and weapons systems.. 1720 Does the refusal of the critical strategy which seeks to re-establish the truth of what happened commit Baudrillard to the irrationalist denial that any military engagement took place? Alternatively. a dual relation between warring parties. Yet Chomsky has also questioned whether what took place in the Gulf in 1990-1 was a war.. in the case of the Gulf conflict. In the past. operate according to different rules. They are the consequences of a law of uneven development.. but in exchange for the rights of minorities in Iraq. and even if it were. but rather that what took place was not a war. war has always involved an antagonistic and destructive confrontation between adversaries. and the fate of their technologically inferior tanks. A perfect semblance of victory for the Americans was exchanged for the perfect semblance of defeat for Iraq. and the extensive use of electronic warfare. that it was a hoax like the moon landing or something. like the persistence of sweatshops alongside fully automated production facilities. which means it defies the logic of their criticism. Baudrillard’s argument in “The Gulf War did not take place” is not that nothing took place. testify to the one-sided nature of the conflict: “it is as though the Iraqis were electrocuted. a lever of last resort employed only to the extent that is necessary to bring the recalcitrant party into line.Whitman College 85911615. and the short-Lived political and economic benefits at home. The rights of Kuwait may have been restored. and a form of slaughter practised by US and UK air and ground forces upon Iraqi soldiers and civilians. The almost complete absence of any engagement by Iraqi planes. a model of the liberal and critical intellectual. The Gulf War Did Not Take Place. the use of force remains carefully circumscribed. and when it did the outcome was entirely predictable. say. running towards the television journalists in order to surrender or immobilised beside their tanks . and prepared to tolerate the massive casualties which would result from a ground-based war of attrition. was the subordination of Islam to the global order: “Our wars thus have less to do with the confrontation of warriors than with the domestication of the refractory forces on the planet . Lecturer in Philosophy at the University of Sydney. can this be called a war?” (6 7—8) In his defence of the rationalist outlook which rejects the postmodern reduction of truth to consensus belief. does the fact of military conflict constitute a refutation of the hypothesis that there was no Gulf War? It does only if we accept that what did take place out there in the desert beyond the reach of the TV cameras was in fact a war. this was not the case in the Gulf conflict. But these are secondary phenomena. but an entirely asymmetrical operation. or who.” (86) This is not war. The claim that war itself has become virtual does not mean that military conflicts do not occur: they do and with increasing frequency and savagery in the New World Order. In several respects. In these cases. deterrence breaks down for lack of any common ground. very little changed as a result of the military conflict. apart from the massive damage and suffering inflicted upon Iraq. Other commentators have argued that the disparity between the aims. Where they do involve first world powers such as the US or UK. He writes: “As I understand the concept ‘war’. The same Americans who had systematically destroyed Iraq’s power grid and transport infrastructure now refused to enforce the law of democracy and the New World Order where this would entail intervening in the internal affairs of a sovereign state.
Crisis-driven attention to declarations of war might actually keep resisters complacent about and complicitous in the general presence of global militarism. crisis-based ethics and politics are problematic because they distract attention from the need for sustained resistance to the enmeshed. to maintain this false belief. Hypatia Special Issues: Women and Violence Volume 11 Number 4.doc 7/20/08 37 File Title A2 “You Deny the Reality of War” Treating war as an event disables challenges to state sponsored violence and militarism Chris J. Seeing war as necessarily embedded in constant military presence draws attention to the fact that horrific. all of the time. Cuomo. The belief that militarism is an ethical. 1996. the polar opposite of war. Neglecting the omnipresence of militarism allows the false belief that the absence of declared armed conflicts is peace.Whitman College 85911615. state-sponsored violence is happening nearly all over. For any feminism that aims to resist oppression and create alternative social and political options. creates forms of resistance to militarism that are merely exercises in crisis control. omnipresent systems of domination and oppression that so often function as givens in most people's lives. assistant professor of philosophy and women’s studies at the university of Cincinnati. and who do not regularly encounter the realities of militarism. and that it is perpetrated by military institutions and other militaristic agents of the state. pg. or when the stability of privilege is directly threatened. and at that point it is difficult not to respond in ways that make resisters drop all other political priorities. It is particularly easy for those whose lives are shaped by the safety of privilege. political concern only regarding armed conflict. Antiwar resistance is then mobilized when the "real" violence finally occurs. online Ethical approaches that do not attend to the ways in which warfare and military practices are woven into the very fabric of life in twenty-first century technological states lead to crisis-based politics and analyses. .
This kind of activity provides the perfect example of interpassivity2: of doing things not to achieve something. but also in our megalopolises. and.they are tolerated and supported as long as they do not get too close to a certain limit. the effectively hegemonic attitude is not patriarchal repression. the gap between the First and the Third World. provocations in the style of the notorious "Sensation" exhibitions ARE the norm. violations of human rights. homophobia.the new opacity.com/replenin. any serious attempt to imagine a society whose socio-political order would be different. The problem is that all this occurs against the background of a fundamental Denkverbot. sexism.doc 7/20/08 38 File Title A2 Reformism Particularized demands for change. In sex. professor of philosophy at the university of Ljubljana. one should be especially careful not to confuse the ruling ideology with ideology which SEEMS to dominate. One is therefore tempted to turn around Marx's thesis 11: the first task today is precisely NOT to succumb to the temptation to act. activity fits the formula of "Let's go on changing something all the time so that. the reduction of freedom is presented to us as the arrival of new freedoms. More then ever. today.htm. antifeminism. So everything is allowed. state or corporate funds for a multidisciplinary research into how to fight the new forms of ethnic. the problem resides in the implicit qualifications which can be easily discerned by the "concrete analysis of the concrete situation.. things will remain the same!" . If. which precludes any serious questioning of how this liberal-democratic order is complicit in the phenomena it officially condemns.one should also ask how it effectively functions IN these very struggles..it will be an act WITHIN the hegemonic ideological coordinates: those who "really want to do something to help people" get involved in (undoubtedly honorable) exploits like Medecins sans frontiere. our daily experience is mystifying: modernization generates new obscurantisms. one should bear in mind Walter Benjamin's reminder that it is not enough to ask how a certain theory (or art) declares itself to stay with regard to social struggles . the answer is immediately: "Benevolent as it is. religious or sexist violence. accessed January 28. it means: say and write whatever you want . 2004 What are we to say to this? Again. but to question the hegemonic ideological coordinates. feminist and anti-racist campaigns. gulag and the more recent Third World catastrophes is thus to serve as the support of this Denkverbot by constantly reminding us how things may have been much worse: "Just look around and see for yourself what will happen if we follow your radical notions!" And it is exactly the same thing that the demand for "scientific objectivity" means: the moment one seriously questions the existing liberal consensus. one follows a direct call to act. etc.1 More than ever." as Lenin himself would have put it.or it means nothing.. as a critical topic: the prospects of a global ecological catastrophe. the example of the art fully integrated into the establishment. the shattering impact of the digitalization of our daily lives. no matter how radical. “Repeating Lenin. this will necessarily end in a new Gulag!" The ideological function of the constant reference to the holocaust. the actual freedom of thought means the freedom to question the predominant liberal-democratic "postideological" consensus . to directly intervene and change things (which then inevitably ends in a cul de sac of debilitating impossibility: "what can one do against the global capital?"). globally. between the rich and the poor.on condition that what you do does not effectively question or disturb the predominant political consensus. which are all not only tolerated. solicited even. there is nothing easier today than to get international. but free promiscuity. In short.the moment one shows a minimal sign of engaging in political projects that aim to seriously challenge the existing order. the growing violence not only in the far-away countries. but to PREVENT from something really happening. one is accused of abandoning scientific objectivity for the outdated ideological positions. but even supported by the media. "Fidelity to the democratic consensus" means the acceptance of the present liberal-parlamentary consensus. in art. the prohibition to think.Whitman College 85911615. Habermas designated the present era as that of the neue Undurchsichtlichkeit . In these circumstances. 2001. Greenpeace.” http://lacan. denouncing and boycotting companies which do not respect ecological conditions or which use child labor) . This is the point on which one cannot and should not concede: today. are performed against the backdrop of the neoliberal-democratic order and are tolerated as long as they fail to fundamentally change hegemonic ideology. really changing. All the frenetic humanitarian. Today's liberal-democratic hegemony is sustained by a kind of unwritten Denkverbot similar to the infamous Berufsverbot in Germany of the late 60s . Slavoj Zizek. this act will not be performed in an empty space . politically correct. even if they seemingly enter the economic territory (say. of course.
Political reality is now purely operational. produced from the radiating synthesis of combinatory models in a hyperspace without atmosphere. that no longer even gives the event of death a chance. It is no longer anything but operational. whose vestiges persist here and there in the deserts that are no longer those of the Empire. it is no longer really the real. 1-3 If once we were able to view the Borges fable in which the cartographers of the Empire draw up a map so detailed that it ends up covering the territory exactly(the decline of the Empire witnesses the fraying of this map. nor even parody. The real is produced from miniaturized cells. Simulacra and Simulation. Something has disappeared: the sovereign difference. nor that of truth. perhaps. in that tit lends itself to all systems of equivalences. remains. Never again will the real have the chance to produce itself. because it not longer measures itself against either an ideal or negative instance. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. even inverted. Only the allegory of the Empire.as the most beautiful allegory of simulation. that is to say of an operation of deterring every real process via its operational double. A hyperreal henceforth sheltered from the imaginary. to all binary oppositions.the metaphysical beauty of this ruined abstraction testifying to a pride equal to the Empire and rotting like a carcass. because no imaginary envelops it anymore. and possesses nothing but the discrete charm of second-order simulacra. all of the real. the mirror. leaving room only for the orbital recurrence of models and for the simulated generation of differences. Simulation is no longer that of a territory. a programmatic. This imaginary of representation. It is all of metaphysics that is lost. By crossing into a space whose curvature is no longer that of the real. today it is the territory whose shreds slowly rot across the extent of the map. perfectly descriptive machine that offers all the signs of the real and short-circuits all its vicissitudes. now we live in a hyper-pluralist stasis. matrices. returning to the substance of the soil. It no longer needs to be rational. this fable has now come full circle for us. a material more malleable that meaning. Today abstraction is no longer that of the map.precession of simulacra. Because it is with this same imperialism that present-day simulators attempt to make the real. and interest groups.worse: with their artificial resurrection in the systems of signs.doc 7/20/08 39 File Title A2 Reformism Reform doesn’t exist anymore. and not the map. metastable.such is the vital function of the model in a system of death. which simultaneously culminates in and is engulfed by the cartographer’s mad project of the ideal coextensivity of map and territory. It is the generation by models of a real without origin or reality: a hyperreal. though some shreds are still discernible in the deserts. It is a question of substituting the signs of the real for the real. demographics. p. Jean Baudrillard. disappears in the simulation whose operation is nuclear and genetic. from countless PACs. It is produced from cable television pundits. Borge’s fable is unusable. the era of simulation is inaugurated by a liquidation of all referentials. that constituted the charm of abstraction. between one and the other. It is a hyperreal. lobbyists. coincide with their models of simulation. In fact. 1981. The desert of the real itself. The territory no longer precedes the map. models of control. It is the real. the double. a bit as the double ends by being confused with the real through aging). nor duplication. and memory banks. It is no longer a question of imitation. No more imaginary coextensivity: it is genetic miniaturization that is the dimension of simulation. But it is no longer a question of either maps o territories. . or a substance. the magic of the concept and the charm of the real. In fact. a referential being.that engenders the territory. to all combinatory algebra. but ours. It is nevertheless the map that precedes the territory. and from any distinction between the real and the imaginary. All the revolutions and reforms have already happenedthen the neo-conservatives pushed back. Because it is difference that constitutes the poetry of the map and the charm of the territory. or rather of anticipated resurrection. nor does it survive it. and if one must return to the fable.and it can be reproduced an indefinite number of times from these.Whitman College 85911615. No more mirror of being and appearances. little by little. no longer at all spectacular or discursive. of the real and its concept. and its fall into ruins. or the concept. on massive servers.
saturated. down to the smallest details. Gigantic hologram in three dimensions. brought to light with a transparent precision. hyperrealized. leaving no room for the imaginary—it is not exactly because of this that the exploratory universe (technical. There is no relationship of cause and effect there: it is not because terrestrial space today is virtually coded. or to transferring it into a hyperreal of simulation. emptied of meaning.the satellization of the real in the transcendence of space—it is the end of metaphysics. There is a hemorrhaging of reality as in internal coherence of a limited universe. The conquest of space that follows that of the planet is equal to derealizing (dematerializing) human space. the sort of pantographic excess that constituted the charm of science fiction are all impossible.Whitman College 85911615. rather. The proliferation of signs leads to the hallucination and revisiting of impacts in their hyperrealized forms. We can no longer imagine any other universe: the grace of transcendence was taken away from us in that respect too. reconstituted as an animal or vegetal reserve. models of simulation in place and to contrive to give them the feeling of the real. p. Hallucination of the real. mapped. Witness this two bedroom/kitchen/shower put into orbit. From then onward. something like the principle of reality disappears. the events. the end of science fiction—the era of hyperreality begins. It is no longer possible to fabricate the unreal from the real. Thus in Simulacra by Philip K. of their original process. once the limits of this universe recede into infinity. can only try to reconstruct invitro. The process will. besides it forged its path in the narratives of spatial exploration. precisely because it has disappeared from our life. of the quotidian. in its artificial resurrection of “historical” worlds. 123-124 Perhaps science fiction from the cybernetic and hyperreal era can only exhaust itself.doc 7/20/08 40 File Title A2 Sign production/Culture Crash Link Turn Just because you accelerate the process of sign creation doesn’t mean that you collapse signification itself. . Simulacra and Simulation. Jean Baudrillard. the end of the phantasm. but of values. Dick. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. cosmic) of science fiction has ceased to function. in the imaginary as well. mental. Until now we have always had a reserve of the imaginary—now the coefficient of reality is proportional to the reserve of the imaginary that gives it its specific weight. hypostatized in space. This is also true of geographic and spatial exploration: when there is no longer any virgin territory. registered. sometimes down to disquietingly strange details. has thus in a sense closed up again in universalizing itself—a universal market. but reconstituted. Classical science fiction was that of an expanding universe. but hallucinatory with retrospective truth. 1981. But the two are narrowly linked. of lived experience. a reversal is produced— something else takes place. in which fiction will never again be a mirror held toward the future. not only of merchandise. derealized in advance. The everydayness of the terrestrial habitat itself elevated to the rank of cosmic value. the war of Secession. models. to reinvent the real as fiction. When a system reaches its own limits and becomes saturated. counterparts to the more terrestrial forms of exploration and colonization of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. the conquest of space constitutes an irreversible crossing toward the loss of the terrestrial referential. be the opposite: it will be to put decentered situations. the people. In this way. when the map covers the whole territory. something must change: the projection. of lived experience. the perimeters of a prior world. the extrapolation. signs. the imaginary from the givens of the real. but a desperate rehallucination of the past. raised to a spatial power (one could say) with the most recent lunar module. and thus one available to the imaginary. and they are two versions of the same general process of implosion that follows the gigantic process of explosion and expansion characteristic of past centuries. of the banal. the ideologies of the past. but without substance.
Energies freeze in their own fire.doc 7/20/08 41 File Title A2 “The Case Impacts Still Happen” Deterrence makes your massive impacts impossible Jean Baudrillard. so prettily named. what subject would exist behind this enclosure. of a reversion of energies toward a minimal threshold). This was already the aporia of the modern revolution.  The nuclear is at once the culminating point of available energy and the maximization of energy control systems. will buy the virus of deterrence. It is still the absolute paradox of the nuclear. In this sense. it absorbs all living energy. Thus the very possibility of paralyzing a whole country by flicking a switch makes it so that the electrical engineers will never use this weapon: the whole myth of the total and revolutionary strike crumbles at the very moment when the means are available—but alas precisely because those means are available. unintelligible. unusable. p. . Therein lies the whole process of deterrence. Lockdown and control increase in direct proportion to (and undoubtedly even faster than) liberating potentialities. Entry into the atomic club. of an implosion where all these energies would be abolished in a catastrophic process (in the literal sense. control. The “little” powers. weapons. the nuclear everywhere inaugurates an accelerated process of implosion. It is thus perfectly probable that one day we will see nuclear powers export atomic reactors. Responsibility. what power. all of those who have acquired it since will be deterred from using by the very fact of possessing it). Simulacra and Simulation. they deter themselves. censure. 1981. very quickly effaces (as unionization does in the working world) any inclination toward violent intervention. 39-40 This is why nuclear proliferation does not increase the risk of either an atomic clash or an accident— save in the interval when the “young” powers could be tempted to make a nondeterrant. Control by the threat will be replaced by the more effective strategy of pacification through the bomb and through the possession of the bomb. believing that they are buying their independent striking force. it freezes everything around it. self-deterrence always grow more rapidly than the forces or the weapons at our disposal: this is the secret of the social order.Whitman College 85911615. now neutralized. “real” use of it (as the Americans did in Hiroshima—but precisely only they had the right to this “use value” of the bomb. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. One can no longer imagine what project. The same goes for the atomic reactors that we have already sent them. all risk of explosion. nonexplosive—except for the possibility of an explosion toward the center. of their own deterrence. that is to say in the sense of a reversion of the whole cycle toward a minimal point. and bombs to ever latitude. so many neutron bombs knocking out all historic virulence. what strategy. this vast saturation of a system by its own forces.