Whitman College 85911615.

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Baudrillard K Neg
Baudrillard K Neg.......................................................................................................................................................1

Baudrillard K Neg..........................................................................................................................1
1NC (1/1)....................................................................................................................................................................4

1NC (1/1).........................................................................................................................................4
Links – Policy Debate – Disneyland (1/2)..................................................................................................................5

Links – Policy Debate – Disneyland (1/2)....................................................................................5
Links – Policy Debate – Disneyland (2/2)..................................................................................................................6

Links – Policy Debate – Disneyland (2/2)....................................................................................6
Links – Policy Debate – Hyperreal Communication (1/2)..........................................................................................7

Links – Policy Debate – Hyperreal Communication (1/2).........................................................7
Links – Policy Debate – Hyperreal Communication (2/2)..........................................................................................8

Links – Policy Debate – Hyperreal Communication (2/2).........................................................8
Links – Leadership type Impacts – Saving Private Ryan (1/2).................................................................................10

Links – Leadership type Impacts – Saving Private Ryan (1/2)...............................................10
Links – Leadership type Impacts – Saving Private Ryan (2/2).................................................................................11

Links – Leadership type Impacts – Saving Private Ryan (2/2)...............................................11
Links – War Scenarios..............................................................................................................................................12

Links – War Scenarios.................................................................................................................12
Links – Preventing the “Real” War...........................................................................................................................13

Links – Preventing the “Real” War...........................................................................................13
Links – Rights/Revolution/Hippie Shit.....................................................................................................................14

Links – Rights/Revolution/Hippie Shit......................................................................................14
Links – Micropolitics................................................................................................................................................15

Links – Micropolitics...................................................................................................................15
Links – Leftist Politics..............................................................................................................................................16

Links – Leftist Politics.................................................................................................................16
Links – Alternative Energy – Tech/R&D.................................................................................................................17

Links – Alternative Energy – Tech/R&D..................................................................................17
Links – Alternative Energy – Nuclear Energy (1/2).................................................................................................18

Links – Alternative Energy – Nuclear Energy (1/2).................................................................18
Links – Alternative Energy – Nuclear Energy (1/2).................................................................................................19

Links – Alternative Energy – Nuclear Energy (1/2).................................................................19
Links – Preservation/Nature/Environment/Ecology (1/3)........................................................................................20

Links – Preservation/Nature/Environment/Ecology (1/3)........................................................20

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Links – Preservation/Nature/Environment/Ecology (2/3)........................................................................................21

Links – Preservation/Nature/Environment/Ecology (2/3)........................................................21
Links – Preservation/Nature/Environment/Ecology (3/3)........................................................................................22

Links – Preservation/Nature/Environment/Ecology (3/3)........................................................22
Impacts – War (1/2)..................................................................................................................................................23

Impacts – War (1/2).....................................................................................................................23
Impacts – War (2/2)..................................................................................................................................................24

Impacts – War (2/2).....................................................................................................................24
Impacts – Fascism.....................................................................................................................................................25

Impacts – Fascism........................................................................................................................25
Impacts – Violence....................................................................................................................................................26

Impacts – Violence.......................................................................................................................26
Impacts – Annihilation of Difference Impact...........................................................................................................28

Impacts – Annihilation of Difference Impact............................................................................28
Impacts – Cuomo – Ecological Destruction..............................................................................................................29

Impacts – Cuomo – Ecological Destruction...............................................................................29
Alternative – Strategy of the Object – The Children................................................................................................30

Alternative – Strategy of the Object – The Children................................................................30
Alternative – Fatal Strategies Alternative.................................................................................................................31

Alternative – Fatal Strategies Alternative.................................................................................31
Alternative – Strategy of the Object Alternative.......................................................................................................32

Alternative – Strategy of the Object Alternative......................................................................32
A2 Perm....................................................................................................................................................................33

A2 Perm........................................................................................................................................33
A2 Perm – Ironic Strategies Can’t Include the Subject............................................................................................34

A2 Perm – Ironic Strategies Can’t Include the Subject...........................................................34
AT: Passivity Bad/Whatever Else the 2AC Says......................................................................................................35

AT: Passivity Bad/Whatever Else the 2AC Says.......................................................................35
A2 “You Deny the Reality of War”..........................................................................................................................36

A2 “You Deny the Reality of War”............................................................................................36
A2 “You Deny the Reality of War”..........................................................................................................................37

A2 “You Deny the Reality of War”............................................................................................37
A2 Reformism...........................................................................................................................................................38

A2 Reformism...............................................................................................................................38
A2 Reformism...........................................................................................................................................................39

A2 Reformism...............................................................................................................................39

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A2 Sign production/Culture Crash Link Turn..........................................................................................................40

A2 Sign production/Culture Crash Link Turn.........................................................................40
A2 “The Case Impacts Still Happen”.......................................................................................................................41

A2 “The Case Impacts Still Happen”.........................................................................................41

Whitman College 85911615.doc 7/20/08

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1NC (1/1)
While ecology and limitations on consumption are laudable goals insofar as they solve problems like the exhaustion of resources, this responsible stewardship is inherently bound up with an unpredictable and uncontrollable underside – the development of renewables is a liberation of the forces of energy that amounts to a limitless proliferation culminating in the devouring of the very agents of that energy. Technologized energy is a Pandora’s box that we can have no fantasies of control over – it exceeds and defies attempts at containment. Jean Baudrillard, Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School, 1993, The Transparency of Evil, p. 103-05
The dangers threatening the human species are thus less risks of default (exhaustion of natural resources, dilapidation of the environment, etc.) than risks of excess: runaway energy flows, chain reactions, or frenzied autonomous developments. This distinction is a vital one, for while risks of default can be addressed by a New Political Ecology, the basic assumptions of which are by now generally accepted (indeed, they are already written into the International Rights of the Species), there is absolutely nothing to counter this other immanent logic, this speeding-up of everything, which plays double or nothing with nature. In the first case, the restoration of equilibrium to our ecological niche is still possible, the energies in play could still be rebalanced; in the second case, however, we are confronted by a development that is irretrievably out of balance. In the first case ethical principles may be brought to bear: a teleology that transcends the material process involved — even if merely the goal of survival — may come into play; in the second case, however, a process whose only goal is limitless proliferation will inevitably absorb all transcendence and devour all agents thereof. A full-blown and planet-wide schizophrenia, therefore, now rules: even as all sorts of ecological measures are being taken, even as a strategy for the proper use of the world, for an ideal interaction with the world, is being deployed, there is a simultaneous proliferation of enterprises of destruction, a total unleashing of the performance principle. And the very same forces often contribute to both trends. Furthermore, though the end-point of the first tendency seems fairly clear — to wit, the saving of our species by means of ecological conviviality — we know absolutely nothing about the secret destination of the second. But surely this acceleration, this excentric motion, must
have an end, must imply a destiny for the human species, a different symbolic relationship with the world that is much more complex and ambiguous than a relationship of balance and interaction? This too would be a vital destination — but it would involve a total risk. If such a destination has indeed been chosen for us, it is obvious that ecology’s rational deities will be powerless against the throwing of technology and energy into the struggle for an unpredictable goal, in a sort of Great Game whose rules are unknown to us. Even now we have no protection against the perverse effects of security, control and crime-prevention measures. We already know to what dangerous extremities we are led by prophylaxis in every sphere: social, medical, economic or political. In the name of the highest possible degree of security, an endemic terror may well be instituted that is in every way as dangerous as the epidemic threat of catastrophe. One thing is certain: in view of the complexity of the initial conditions and the potential reversibility of all the effects, we should entertain no illusions about the effectiveness of any kind of rational intervention. In the face of a process which so far surpasses the ‘individual or collective will of the players, we have no choice but to accept that any distinction between good and evil (and by extension here any possibility of assessing the ‘right level’ of technological development) can have the slightest validity only within the tiny marginal sphere contributed by our rational model. Inside these bounds, ethical reflection and practical determinations are feasible; beyond them, at the level of the overall process

which we have ourselves set in motion, but which from now on marches on independently of us with the ineluctability of a natural catastrophe, there reigns — for better or worse — the inseparability of good and evil, and hence the impossibility of mobilizing the one without the other. This is, properly speaking, the theorem of the accursed share. There is no point whatsoever in wondering whether things ought to be thus: they simply are thus, and to fail to acknowledge it is to fall utterly prey to illusion. None of this invalidates whatever may be possible in
the ethical, ecological or economic sphere of our life — but it does totally relativize the impact of such efforts upon the symbolic level, which is the level of destiny.

<<Insert More Links Here, choose wisely based off of whether it is a more critical or a more policy oriented affirmative>>

This imaginary world is supposed to ensure the success of the operation. this city. childlike world is found to have been conceived and realize by a man who is himself now cryogenized: Walt Disney. Marin did it very well in Utopiques. Enchanted Village. panegyric of American values. international politics is just as much of a game as debate. Simulacra and Simulation. solitude is directed at a single gadget: the automobile. jeux d’espace [Utopias.doc 7/20/08 5 File Title Links – Policy Debate – Disneyland (1/2) Policy debate is about imagining the world of the plan. whereas all of Los Angeles and the America that surrounds it are no longer real. Jean Baudrillard. needs this old imaginary like a sympathetic nervous system made up of childhood signals and faked phantasms. is drawn.is total. p. the religious.a veritable concentration camp. The violence of the real world is sustained by policy simulation. The imaginary of Disneyland is neither true nor false. everywhere in Disneyland the objective profile of America. all of “real” America that is Disneyland (a bit like prisons are there to hide that it is the social in its entirety. without dimension. however. in the “real” world. All its values are exalted by the miniature and the comic strip. play of space]): digest of the American way of life. Certainly. down to the morphology of individuals and of the crowd. It is first of all a play of illusions and phantasms: the Pirates. 12-14 Disneyland is a perfect model of all the entangled orders of simulacra. But what attracts the crowds the most is without a doubt the social microcosm. miniaturized pleasure of real America. the Future World. Debate. who awaits his resurrection through an increase of 180 degrees centigrade. idealized transposition of a contradictory reality.Whitman College 85911615. Embalmed and pacified. like Disneyland. unreal circulation. Whence the debility of this imaginary. the energy of the real to a city whose mystery is precisely that of no longer being anything but a network of incessant. and in the sufficient and excessive number of gadgets necessary to create the multitudinous effect. as much as cinema studios. but belong to the hyperreal order and to the order of simulation. Or. is a fiction factory whose function is to reify the world outside. the Frontier. its infantile degeneration.. Marine World: Los Angeles is surrounded by these imaginary stations that feed reality. in its banal omnipresence. The contrast with the absolute solitude of the parking lot. etc. Magic Mountain. and thus of saving the reality principle. 1981. Disneyland is presented as imaginary in order to make us believe that the rest is real. this frozen. which is no longer anything but an immense scenario and a perpetual pan shot.that it is that of the adults themselves who come here to act the child in order to foster illusion as to their real childishness. The only phantasmagoria in this imaginary world lies in the tenderness and warmth of the crowd. This world wants to be childish in order to make us believe that the adults are elsewhere. By an extraordinary coincidence (but this derives without a doubt from the enchantment inherent to this universe. Whence the possibility of an ideological analysis of Disneyland (L. As much as electrical and atomic power stations. one is altogether abandoned at the exit. One parks outside and stand in line inside.a city of incredible proportions but without space. rather: inside. it is a deterrence machine set up in order to rejuvenate the fiction of the real in the opposite camp. that is carceral). Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. but this makes something else and this “ideological” blanket functions as a cover for a simulation of the third order: Disneyland exists in order to hide that it is the “real” country. In fact. Policy hacks come to the imaginary realm of debate to convince themselves that all that stuff they hear on CNN is reality. of its constraints and joys. a whole panoply of gadgets magnetizes the crowd in directed flows outside. It is no longer a question of a false representation of reality (ideology) but of concealing the fact that the real is no longer real. and to conceal the fact that true childishness is everywhere. . Thus. Disneyland is not the only one.

Whitman College 85911615. They no longer walk. health food. the historical.doc 7/20/08 6 File Title Links – Policy Debate – Disneyland (2/2) Disneyland: a space of the regeneration of the imaginary as waste-treatment plants are elsewhere. but at a secondary level: here. On a mental level. Everywhere one recycles lost faculties. Disneyland is the prototype of this new function. which correspond to the improbable coalition of luxury. whose visible signs would be those of this strange obesity. but they go jogging. They no longer touch each other. psychic. maybe a mental catastrophe. a simulated behavior of the underdeveloped (including the adoption of Marxist tenets) that. . legendary imaginary of children and adults is a waste product. a penury/simulacrum. adds a final esoteric aureole to the triumph of an esoteric culture. etc. But all the sexual. yoga. in the guise of ecology. and not of nature at all. is verified. Marshall Sahlins’s idea that it is the economy of the market. fairylike. the first great toxic excrement of a hyperreal civilization. and money. Everywhere today one must recycle waste. but there is contactotherapy. People no longer look at each other. a mental implosion and involution without prececedent lies in wait for a system of the kink. in the sophisticated confines of a triumphal market economy is reinvented a penury/sign. and even here. which proliferate in California. or the incredible coexistence of the most bizarre theories and practices. or lost sociality. of energy crises and the critique of capital. the phantasms. Nevertheless. One reinvents penury. somatic recycling institutes. vanished savage naturalness: natural food. asceticism. that secretes penury. and the dreams. heaven. or the lost taste for food. belonging to the same order. or lost bodies. but there are institutes for that. to the improbable luxurious materialization of life and to undiscoverable contradictions.

Simulacra and Simulation. faith in information attach themselves to this tautological proof that the system gives of itself by doubling the signs of an unlocatable reality. or whether it is the simulacrum that is there first for dissuasive ends. speech. We are all complicitous in this myth. The hyperreality of communication and of meaning. the media. despite its dysfunctions and irrationalities. the mass media. the fact is that it is collapsing. this awakening dream of communication. The nondirective interview. Well. Myth exists. participation at every level. 1981. the antitheater of communication. a plus value of meaning homologous to the economic one that results from the accelerated rotation of capital Information is thought to create communication. in a sort of nebulous state dedicated not to a surplus of innovation. corresponds to this simulation of meaning and of communication in which this system encloses us.” More and more information is invaded by this kind of phantom content. our intense analysis of the world does not produce more understanding. and the mass media. it exhausts itself in the act of staging communication. not only communication but the social functions in a closed circuit. And for two reasons. And this is only the macroscopic extension of the implosion of meaning at the microscopic level of the sign. dissuasive action of information. the pressure of information pursues an irresistible destructuration of the social. listeners who call in. . Immense energies are deployed to hold this simulacrum at bay. 79-82 Or.doc 7/20/08 7 File Title Links – Policy Debate – Hyperreal Communication (1/2) Policy debate is intricately tied to the workings of mass media. Thus the media are producers not of socialization. this information ritual becomes encoded in the real. which is redistributed in all the interstices of the social—just as consensus would have it that material production. a general consensus would have it that nevertheless. opens onto an excess of wealth and social purpose. More real than the real. the opposite occurs. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. there is a rigorous and necessary correlation between the two. 2. is never anything but the recycling in the negative of the traditional institution. you are the event. on the contrary. of the implosion of the social in the masses. there be an excess of meaning. to avoid the brutal desimulation that would confront us in the face of the obvious reality of a radical loss of meaning. Rather than producing meaning. The third hypothesis is the most interesting but flies in the face of every commonly held opinion. blackmail through speech: “You are concerned. it exhausts itself in the staging of meaning. Everywhere socialization is measured by the exposure to media messages. Belief.tying news articles together to create the most accurate representation possible of the real world and then combine them into a coherent and logical story. Rather than creating communication. or that it neutralizes them. without which the credibility of our social organization would collapse. p. the integrated circuit of the negative. but one must guard against thinking that people believe in it: this is the trap of critical thinking that can only be exercised if it presupposes the naïveté and stupidity of the masses. It is useless to ask if it is the loss of communication that produces this escalation in the simulacrum. that is how the real is abolished. Useless to ask which is the first term. and even if the waste is enormous. A circular arrangement through which one stages the desire of the audience. But one can believe that this belief is as ambiguous as that which was attached to myths in ancient societies.. Behind this exacerbated mise-en-scene of communication. Moreover. to short-circuit in advance any possibility of communication (precession of the model that calls an end to the real). 1. which means that you reproduce your harms Jean Baudrillard. etc. Thus. In fact. This coherence and logic is the fundamental myth of modernity. To this tautology of the system the masses respond with ambivalence. Everywhere information is thought to produce an accelerated circulation of meaning. It devours communication and the social. as a whole. this homeopathic grafting.” A sort of inverse simulation in the masses. to deterrence they respond with disaffection. as a lure— to which the force of myth is attached. Thus information dissolves meaning and dissolves the social. that of the hyperreal. Information devours its own content. to the extent that information is directly destructive of meaning and signification. One both believes and doesn’t. there is none. which as one knows. but of exactly the opposite. it is a circular process—that of simulation. in each one of us. or with an always enigmatic belief. to total entropy. but. Whoever is underexposed to the media is dissocialized or virtually asocial. “I know very well. but less. A gigantic process of simulation that is very familiar. but still.Whitman College 85911615. It is the alpha and omega of our modernity. and for this very reason: because where we think that information produces meaning. One does not ask oneself. very much on the contrary. The loss of meaning is directly linked to the dissolving.

etc. in the same movement.Whitman College 85911615. pushed to its limit—there is not only an implosion of the message in the medium. That means that all contents of meaning are absorbed in the only dominant form of the medium. pirate-radios. But there is something even more serious. the consequences of which have yet to be exhausted.doc 7/20/08 8 File Title Links – Policy Debate – Hyperreal Communication (2/2) This implosion should be analyzed according to McLuhan’s formula. anti-media. the implosion of the medium itself in the real. That is—and this is where McLuhan’s formula leads. revolutionary use value of the medium as such. which McLuhan himself did not see. the medium is the message. Because beyond this neutralization of all content. there is. . whether they are conformist or subversive. one could still expect to manipulate the medium in its form and to transform the real by using the impact of the medium as form. If all the content is wiped out. A serious problem for all counter-information. in which even the definition and distinct action of the medium can no longer by determined. there is perhaps still a subversive. Only the medium can make an event—whatever the contents. the implosion of the medium and of the real in a sort of hyperreal nebula.

Whitman College 85911615.doc 7/20/08 9 File Title .

p. This trauma (loss of referentials) is similar to the discovery of the difference between the sexes in children. retro fashions—no longer so much because people believe in them or still place some hope in the them. It is the golden age of despotic and legendary resurrections. There is however a privileging of the immediately preceding era (fascism. The politics that enter the university are those that come from history. finds refuge in cinema. and pacified monotony on the quotidian level—this history exorcised by a slowly or brutally congealing society celebrates its resurrection in force on the screen.doc 7/20/08 10 File Title Links – Leadership type Impacts – Saving Private Ryan (1/2) It should be a measure of Khalizad’s argument that he depends on cinema to make it for him. Whence the omnipresence of fascism and of war in retro—a coincidence. everything is equivalent and is mixed indiscriminately in the same morose and funereal exaltation. the period immediately following the war—the innumerable films that play on these themes for us have a closer. more perverse. Thus the fetishized history will preferably be the one immediately preceding our “irreferential” era. only nostalgia endlessly accumulates: war. with the air of a game and a field of adventure. dialectical. The great event of this period. emptied of substance and legalized in their superficial exercise. the mythical. which is dubbed peaceful coexistence on a global level. In a violent and contemporary period of history (let’s say between the two world wars and the cold war). this kind of politics is like sexuality or permanent education (or like social security in its time). posthumous liberalization. . an affinity that is not at all political. History is our lost referential. it is naïve to conclude that the evocation of fascism and of war in retro—a coincidence. when at least life and death were at stake. but emptied of references. that is to say our myth. war. they just can’t get over it. Post-history has rendered power useless. The illusion would be to congratulate oneself on this “awareness of history on the part of the cinema. this leukemia of history and of politics. One can explain it by evoking the Freudian theory of fetishism (perhaps also a retro hypothesis). or the revolutionary struggles. Whereas so many generations. that is. recopies itself.: all of this is logical. because one is in something else. Simulacra and Simulation. unreality. traversed by currents. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. cinema also approaches an absolute correspondence with itself—and this is not contradictory: it is the very definition of the hyperreal. etc. Myth. as profound. lived in the march of history. it is history itself that invades the cinema according to the same scenario—the historical stake chased from our lives by this sort of immense neutralization. leaving behind it an indifferent nebula. aestheticized by retro)… Concurrently with this effort toward an absolute correspondence with the real. it is a myth that invades cinema as imaginary content. denser. it is naïve to conclude that the evocation of fascism signals a current renewal of fascism (it is precisely because one is no longer there. It is unto this void that the phantasms of a past history recede. The cinema and the imaginary (the novelistic. Anything serves to escape this void. 1981. as serious. at least there was violence (albeit fascist). 43-48. these death pangs of the real and of the rational that open onto an age of simulation. according to the same process that used to make lost myths live again. including the delirious use of its own technique) used to have a lively. remakes its classics. this hemorrhage of values—it is in proportion to this distress that all content can be evoked pell-mell. it is for this reason that fascism can again become fascinating in its filtered cruelty. a retro politics. but simply to resurrect the period whet at least there was history. ideologies. is this decline of strong referentials. It is by the virtue of this fact that it takes the place of myths on the screen. chased from the real by the violence of history.” as one congratulated oneself on the “entrance of politics into the university. more confused essence). and affinity that is not at all political. retroactivates its original myths. the panoply of events. but precisely. this object is not just any object. which is still less amusing. The affirmative simply recycles the signs of power. full dramatic relation. the cinema is fascinated by itself as a lost object as much as it (and we) are fascinated by the real as a lost referent. Cinema plagiarizes itself.” Same misunderstanding. the pageantry of the belle époque. says Freud. “Entering another round of Saving Private Ryan” is a perfect example of how neoconservative leadership impact authors write under the naïve hallucination of ideology and power. Jean Baudrillard. it is often the last object perceived before the traumatic discovery. same mystification. that all previous history is resurrected in bulk—a controlling idea no longer selects. in the same retro fascination. Hypotyposis and specularity. the great trauma. as irreversible: the fetishization of an object intervenes to obscure this unbearable discovery. fascism. in the euphoric or catastrophic expectation of a revolution—today one has the impression that history has retreated. and particularly the last.Whitman College 85911615. remakes the silent film more perfectly than the original. Today.

Today cinema can place all its talent. to the restitution of an absolute simulacrum of the past or the present. the asexual nuptials of two cold media that evolve in an asymptotic line toward each other: the cinema attempting to abolish itself in the cinematographic (or televised) hyperreal. History is a strong myth. the mythical energy of an event or of a narrative. to fixing it in its visible. It only resurrects ghosts. Because cinema itself contributed to the disappearance of history. . along with the unconscious. negative relation: it results from the loss of specificity of one and of the other. perhaps. this negative and implacable fidelity to the materiality of the past. The cold collage. Behind a performative and demonstrative logic: the obsession with real time or with the minute quotidianeity of Jeanne Hilmann doing the dishes). the cool promiscuity. that today seems to be increasingly lost. if one can call it that. It is a myth that at once subtended the possibility of an “objective” enchainment of events and causes and the possibility of a narrative enchainment of discourse. all its technology in the service of reanimating what it itself contributed to liquidating. which was substituted for all other value—we are all complicitous in this. is also the age of the novel. and it itself is lost therein. It is this fabulous character. the last great myth. and this is irreversible. and to the advent of the archive.Whitman College 85911615. Photography and cinema contributed in large part to the secularization of history. “objective form at the expense of the myths that once traversed it.doc 7/20/08 11 File Title Links – Leadership type Impacts – Saving Private Ryan (2/2) The relation that is being formed today between the cinema and the real is an inverse. to a particular scene of the past or of the present. The age of history.

would not fundamentally have existed—and it is necessary for us to believe in this: the war in Vietnam “in itself” perhaps in fact never happened. the war in Vietnam would have been nothing other than what it is. the same excess of means. the sacrificial. test the impact of a cinema that has become an immeasurable machinery of special effects. they are part of the special effect. And all of a sudden. The real war is waged by Coppola as it is by Westmoreland: without counting the inspired irony of having forests and Philippine villages napalmed to retrace the hell of South Vietnam. Coppola makes his film like the Americans made war—in this sense. a psychotropic dream that had the goal neither of a victory nor of a policy at stake. a gigantic territory in which to test their arms. they are immersed in the machinery. The war abolishes itself in its technological test. because the film is a phase of this war without end) what was already crazy about this war. Simulacra and Simulation. the pinnacle of this failed war. he hits us with that. that this film is part of the war—if the Americans (seemingly) lost the other one. of so many misadventures. The war as entrenchment. his film is really the extension of the war through other means. of such a holocaust of means. But there it is. in the mind of the creator. right after the end of the hostilities the Americans offered economic aid. the omnipresence of these reassurances is proof that modern warfare is simply an exercise in special effects. One has understood nothing. and for Americans it was primarily that: a test site. and its apotheosis. p. with the same retro megalomania. of the organic metabolism of all the technologies.the explosions. the two are joined by their common hemorrhage into technology. but one of the reversibility of both destruction and production. the film is not without interest: it retrospectively illuminates (not even retrospectively. Coppola does nothing but that: test cinema’s power of intervention. It reassures us that war is indeed an extension of politics by other means. and he himself makes movies in the same way. it is the best possible testimonial— with the same immoderation. of the carpet of bombs in the strip of film… . there is no possible verdict. and one can say to oneself: how is such a horror possible (not that of the war. irrational in political terms: the Americans and the Vietnamese are already reconciled. equal or superior to that of the Pentagon and of governments. the sacrificial joy of so many millions spent. global event. with the same clownish effect in overdrive. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. This exercise in the simulated effects of war is indistinguishable from the means of war and the war itself. as technological and psychedelic fantasy. Coppola can certainly deck out his helicopter captain in a ridiculous hat of the light cavalry. it is a dream. either about the war nr about cinema (at least the latter) if one has not grasped this lack of distinction that is no longer either an ideological or a moral one. The war became film. the affirmative impact evidence traces out the mass destruction/mass spectacle of war-. it is there. one of good and evil. the war become film even before being filmed. but that tells you the war in Vietnam and this film are cut from the same cloth. which completes the mass-spectacle effect of this war. their power. that nothing separates them. Apocalypse Now is a global victory. In this sense. excessive deployment of a power already filming itself as it unfolded. their methods. the orgasmic sacrifice of industrial means.but one can always retrieve a tiny little idea that is not nasty. 59-60.doc 7/20/08 12 File Title Links – War Scenarios Like special effects in war cinema.. but rather. they certainly won this one. it is bewildering. 1981. a baroque dream of napalm and o the tropics. No real distance. in which. and one can even rejoice in this monstrous trick (exactly as with Wagner).Whitman College 85911615. the same monstrous candor… and the same success. In fact. of the immanence of a thing in its very revolution. and the remarkable paranoia that from the beginning conceived of this film as a historical. perhaps waiting for nothing but consecration by a superfilm. the film becomes war. and make him crush the Vietnamese village to the sound of Wagner’s music—those are not critical. One revisits everything through cinema and one begins again: the Molochian joy of filming. no critical sense. exactly as if they had annihilated the jungle and the towns. Cinematographic power equal and superior to that of the industrial and military complexes. Jean Baudrillard. exactly as they are making their film today. but that of the film strictly speaking)? But there is no answer. no desire for “raising consciousness” in relation to the war: and in a sense this is the brutal quality of this film—not being rotten with the moral psychology of war. that is not a value judgment. distant signs. the war as a succession of special effects. and the same nonsignifying furor.

like every real event moreover. The build-up is unreal. Moreover. no longer sustainable. with every real event. We are no longer in a logic of the passage from virtual to actual but in a hyperrealist logic of the deterrence of the real by the virtual. with every real violence. with every pleasure which is too real. this is an Aristotelian logic which is no longer our own. 26-28 We are in neither a logic of war nor a logic of peace but in a logic of deterrence which has wound its way inexorably through forty years of cold war to a denouement in our current events. but the weak or phthisical [sic] degree. the Gulf War would not even reach two or three. everyone is too ashamed of him: the collective shame which attaches to the hostage reflects the absolute degradation of real hostility (war) into virtual hospitality (Saddam Hussein’s “guests”). the transparent degree which allows war to be seen from the depths of the darkroom. Jean Baudrillard. We prefer the exile of the virtual. Our virtual has definitively overtaken the actual and we must be content with this extreme virtuality which. Extracted like molecules in an experimental process. and we are confronted with a virtual apocalypse. they never die: at best they disappear. The Gulf War Did Not Take Place. It is neither the strong form nor the degree zero of war. into the virtual impossibility of war which translates into the paltry fantasia where adversaries compete in de-escalation. It seems that this obsession with the passage to action today governs all our behaviour: obsession with every real. deters any passage to action. to the catastrophe of the real. the hostages are once again revealing. That’s no longer the case in an age of simulation. a logic of weak events. Peripeteias of an anorexic history or an anorexic war which can no longer devour the enemy because it is incapable of conceiving the enemy as worthy of being challenged or annihilated — and God knows Saddam Hussein is worthy of neither challenge nor annihilation — and thus devours itself. The most widespread belief is in a logical progression from virtual to actual. the asymptotic form which allows a brush with war but no encounter. the cosmetically treated spectre of its death. then of the distinction between winners and losers (the winner readily becomes the hostage of the loser: the Stockholm syndrome). By dint of dreaming of pure war. The obsession with the real only strengthens the passage to the virtual. No more than the politicians. not their real death. the privilege of real war. 1995. We should have been suspicious about the disappearance of the declaration of war. Everything is therefore transposed into the virtual. then distilled one by one in the exchange. and its even more deceptive televisual subterfuge (as we saw at Timisoara). this war is therefore interminable. They are pledged to the decoy of war as the others are to the decoy of power. that of the right to war under the green light of the UN and with an abundance of precautions and concessions. as though the fiction of an earthquake were created by manipulating the measuring instruments. p. the military personnel do not know what to make of their real function. it is their virtual death that is at issue. In this process. . Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. It is the bellicose equivalent of safe sex: make war like love with a condom! On the Richter scale. as though the irruption or the event of war had become obscene and insupportable. the disappearance of the symbolic passage to the act. a hegemony ultimately much more dangerous than real apocalypse. unlike the Aristotelian. Since it never began. to which belong those in Eastern Europe as well as the Gulf War. Deterrence has passed by that way and it spares no one. of an orbital war purged of all local and political peripeteias. The passage to action suffers widespread infamy: it supposedly corresponds to a brutal lifting of repression. the aim of which is to present a face-lifted war. which already presaged the disappearance of the end of hostilities. their function of death and destruction.Whitman College 85911615. However. War has not escaped this virtualisation which is like a surgical operation. then of operations themselves. There will never be a monument to the unknown hostage. Against this obsession with the real we have created a gigantic apparatus of simulation which allows us to pass to the act “in vitro” (this is true even of procreation). It is the de-intensified state of war.doc 7/20/08 13 File Title Links – Preventing the “Real” War The affirmative engages in an obsessive quest to limit the outbreak of real war – this buys into an outdated logic that believes the real emerges from the virtual. Even the military has lost the privilege of use value. we have fallen into soft war. of which television is the universal mirror. thus to a psychotic process. according to which no available weapon will not one day be used and such a concentration of force cannot but lead to conflict.

but not in the way we expected. We have pursued every avenue in the production and effective overproduction of objects. nourish the hope of realizing them. as a result of their transfer into the secondary existence of simulation. things disappear through proliferation or contamination. we can only ‘hyper-realize’ them through interminable simulation. Nothing (not even God) now disappears by coming to an end. an internal metastasis or fevered endogenic virulence which creates a tendency for systems to explode beyond their own limits. the rational. The fact is that the revolution has well and truly happened. all the forms. We may pretend to carry on in the same direction. a fantastic potentialization whereby their own very existence is put at risk. of development as of the crisis of development. and we find ourselves faced collectively with the big question: WHAT DO WE DO NOW THE ORGY IS OVER? Now all we can do is simulate the orgy. No true revolution of values can ever take place.. liberation of the forces of production. Everywhere what has been liberated has been liberated so that it can enter a state of pure circulation. p. all the desires that we had been pursuing. but in the sense of an increase in power. therefore. by becoming saturated or transparent. 1993. We live amid the interminable reproduction of ideals. Now everything has been liberated. With the benefit of a little hindsight. the chips are down. 3-5 If I were asked to characterize the present state of affairs. freedom and revolution are prime examples of the simulation of values continuing in endless cycles of reiteration. There is no longer any such thing as a revolution of values — merely a circumvention or involution of values. images and dreams which are now behind us. Rather than a mortal mode of disappearance.doc 7/20/08 14 File Title Links – Rights/Revolution/Hippie Shit The Revolution –liberation in every sphere – has already happened. or as a result of the epidemic of simulation. so that it can go into orbit. But what can we do? This is the state of simulation. sexual liberation. and because what haunts and obsesses us is being thus ahead of all the results . wherein paradoxically we must continue to live as though they had not been. then. A centripetal compulsion coexists with a decentredness of all systems. The state of utopia realized. whether actually or potentially. The orgy in question was the moment when modernity exploded upon us. Political liberation. accelerating. liberation of unconscious drives. messages. But that’s all they are – simulation. Instead. phantasies. and since we can no longer. This was a total orgy —an orgy of the real. liberation of art. because all the goals of liberation are already behind us. The logic of viral dispersal in networks is no longer a logic of value. but in reality we are accelerating in a void. we may say that the unavoidable goal of all liberation is to foster and provision circulatory networks. to the principle of uncertainty. because of extenuation or extermination. — — . women’s liberation. But since they have. yet which we must continue to reproduce in a sort of inescapable indifference. simulate liberation. Nothing is truly reflected any more whether in a mirror or in the abyssal realm (which is merely the endless reduplication of consciousness). of criticism as of anti-criticism. to override their own logic not in the sense of creating sheer redundancy. the moment of liberation in every sphere. signs. the sexual. and these things are thus subject to increasing indeterminacy. neither.the very availability of all the signs. The fate of the things liberated is an incessant commutation.Whitman College 85911615. is it a logic of equivalence. Jean Baudrillard Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. a state in which we are obliged to replay all scenarios precisely because they have all taken place already. The assumption of all models of representation. children’s liberation. The Transparency of Evil: Essays on Extreme Phenomena. as of all models of anti-representation. I would describe it as ‘after the orgy’. liberation of the forces of destruction. of all utopias realized. by dying. a fractal mode of dispersal. Your calls for liberation. therefore. ideologies and satisfactions.

like the ‘memory of water’. but infects every sphere economics. by the chain reaction we have been discussing. differential fields and distinct objects must exist. is no longer located in sport as such. knowledge everything is interpreted in terms of phantasies. Economics becomes transeconomics. Likewise. But they cannot exist where contamination is possible between any discipline and any other. or the colour of someone’s eyes). meanwhile. media and communications. after all. the transaesthetic. and all kinds of activity in what is conventionally referred to as culture a sort of all-pervasive media. Politics is no longer restricted to the political sphere. by virtue of their extension beyond their own bounds this state of affairs is epitomized by a single figure: the transpolitical. metonymy replacing the whole as well as the components... This is an aspect of a general tendency towards transsexuality which extends well beyond sex. that are politicized as they enter the sphere of liberation.doc 7/20/08 15 File Title Links – Micropolitics There is no political activism anymore. then — viral by definition (or lack of definition). All at once. nothing is beautiful or ugly any more. Sex is no longer located in sex itself. Likewise everything has become sexual. All these domains are affected by sport’s criteria of ‘excellence’. and sexual stereotypy reigns in every last corner. substitution is possible between any sphere and any other: there is a total confusion of types. Each category is generalized to the greatest possible extent. it’s only inane babble. Everything is political. infinitesimal relative to the total solution. but elsewhere everywhere else. the perfect realization of the whole tendency of modernity. affecting all disciplines as they lose their specificity and partake of a process of confusion and contagion — a viral loss of determinacy which is the prime event among all the new events that assail us. Perhaps our melancholy stems from this. sport. and art itself disappears. just like the aff. especially since 1968. their annihilation by virtue of their very success. and upon the illusion of difference. at the fractal. the transsexual. — — — . Today. for metaphor still had its beauty. rather as water ‘remembers’ molecules no matter how diluted. anything can be an object of desire: power. the word itself is meaningless. everything is now aestheticized: politics is aestheticized in the spectacle.and advertising-led semiologization: ‘culture degree Xerox’. The law that is imposed on us is the law of the confusion of categories.. in politics. It is in this diffraction of the sexual reality principle. even desire. Sport itself. its venting through all the trivial variants of sexual incantation. and not a memory of forms or singularities (water. too. in the general style of performance.7-10 The possibility of metaphor is disappearing in every sphere. and sex loses its determinants. as by its childish notion of self-transcendence. every facial expression. that the essential confusion of the epidemic takes hold. sex becomes transsexuality all converge in a transversal and universal process wherein no discourse may have a metaphorical relationship to another.~ — — — decompensation through its general spread into all areas of life. in fact. and it is not just everyday life but also madness. the corpuscular memory of an earlier life. nothing is political any more. so that it eventually loses all specificity and is reabsorbed by all the other categories. Pundits analyze every gesture. p. sex in advertising and porn. language. Everything has acquired a political meaning. leaving a trace so small as to be indiscernible.Whitman College 85911615. and eventually manifested in the viral explosion of AIDS. When everything is aesthetic. The real loss of immunity concerns sex as a whole. until it finally disappears. AIDS is the reflection not so much of an excess of sex or sexual pleasure as of sex’s — . for everything is affected simultaneously and under the same terms by the virulence in question. Everything is sexual. Total metonymy. playing as it did upon difference. When everything is sexual. by haphazard and senseless proliferation and metastasis. with the disappearance of sexual difference and hence of sexuality per se. Perhaps we still have a memory of sex. Each category thus passes through a phase transition during which its essence is diluted in homeopathic doses. art.if everything is political. but instead in business. Jean Baudrillard Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. and the negation of that idea and that tendency. Everything is aesthetic. the sphere of mass processes. nothing is sexual any more. Fundamentally. So what we are left with is the simple imprint of a faceless sexuality infinitely watered down in a broth of politics. can hardly retain the features of a face. Thus every individual category is subject to contamination. The Transparency of Evil: Essays on Extreme Phenomena. aesthetics becomes transaesthetics. The viral analogy is not an importation from biology. effort and record-breaking. micrological and non-human level. When everything is political. and occasioning a general commutability of terms has built its house upon the disillusion of metaphor. But that is the whole point: this is only a molecular memory. and every article of clothing until none of it has any meaning anymore. in terms of repression. This paradoxical state of affairs. science. the media. it was aesthetic. in sex. then nothing can be because there are no longer any referentials designating what the political even is. which is simultaneously the complete actualization of an idea. 1993. because for there to be metaphor.

that we revive it through the negative. etc.always good for countering the mortal blows of simulation. he is immunized by his impotence.it is not so much the “revolutionary forces” that accelerate this process (often it is quite the opposite). was nevertheless ritually put to death by Watergate. simulation corresponds to a short circuit of reality and to its duplication through signs. to constitute a mortal enough danger to the group to be one day relieved of his duties. it is always a false problem to wish to restore the truth beneath the simulacrum. Watergate is still a mechanism for the ritual murder of power (the American institution of the presidency is much more thrilling in this regard than the European: it surrounds itself with all the violence and vicissitudes of primitive powers. This is why in the end power is so much in tune with ideological discourses and discourses on ideology. Fresh blood. Criticism and negativity alone still secrete a phantom of the reality of power. p. that is they are discourses of truth. . 1981. the “Left. to a dying system of democratic values. Curiously. it is no longer a question of the ideology of power. even and especially if they are revolutionary.that we take it seriously enough to oppose it. or neurotics. Ford doesn’t even have this opportunity anymore: a simulacrum of an already dead power. power has no other recourse but to artificially revive and hallucinate them. who nonetheless carry out a social function as fundamental as that of presidents). it is the system itself that deploys against its own structures this violence that annuls all substance and all finality.. end of the dialectic. we should instead let power work on us in mute silence. chance. ephemeral vision of “good government”. from primitive societies to the present.doc 7/20/08 16 File Title Links – Leftist Politics All that power asks of us is that we subject it to ideological analysis. It is no longer a question of the ideology of work. One must not resist this process by trying to confront the system and destroy it.” critical discourse. Nixon.” Power floats like money. like language. If they become weak for one reason or another. The Watergate scandal was in fact the greatest of windfalls for the power of the American presidency. but for how much longer? The deterioration of all power is irresistibly pursued-. Jean Baudrillard. a shimmering. which infuriates him. and liquidated. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. by demented people.in fact. These staged presidential assassinations are revealing because they signal the status of all negativity in the West political opposition. he can only accumulate against himself the signs of reversion through murder. who was not even found worthy of dying at the hands of the most insignificant. of its fundamental irresponsibility.the traditional ethic that would obscure the “real” process of work and the “objective” process of exploitation—but of the scenario of work. Nixon has nevertheless arrived at the goal of which all power dreams: to be taken seriously enough. 24-25. against power has always been fulfilled. exposing it to its own lack of substance and reality. like theory. It is always the goal of the ideological analysis to restore the objective process. of its “suspension. but of the scenario of power. Ideology only corresponds to a corruption of reality through signs. unbalanced person (and thought it is perhaps true that presidents are assassinated by unbalanced types.it reinjected a fiction of legitimacy. But already impeachment is no longer assassination: it happens via the Constitution. In the same way.Whitman College 85911615. End of revolutionary praxis. denounce. this changes nothing: the leftist penchant for detecting a rightist conspiracy beneath this brings out a false problem—the function of bringing depth to. Rather than adopting the strategy of the affirmative and decrying the abuses of power. crazy people. Simulacra and Simulation. because this system that is dying from being dispossessed of its death expects nothing but that from us: that we give the system back its death. of savage rituals). It is in this way that the Spanish executions still serve as a stimulant to Western liberal democracy.—a simulacral contrast through which power attempts to break the vicious circle of its nonexistence. or the prophecy. etc.

in effect. and we are merely the operators. but also as the universal form of the stratagem by which the world hides behind the radical illusion of technology. the end of political Reason. but because we are no longer in a position to see it: that. it seems. We should instead adopt an ironic stance towards technology. but the object which thinks us. whereas in fact the world is using this machinery to impose itself. carrying it beyond itself. from the post-historical snobbery Kojeve spoke of. in fact. has passed into things. we behold the constellation. It seems. far from admitting this. none the less. It is the logic of the system which. this is still the end of media Reason. But today. Heidegger: ‘When we look into the ambiguous essence of technology. It is no longer we who think the object. 1996. this operating principle is thwarted by its very extension. Jean Baudrillard. And would put in its place a conception of the gigantic objective irony of this whole process. it is the masses who definitively modify the exercise of power (or what sees itself as such). is it not the object which dupes us and mocks our objective pretensions to analyse it? Scientists themselves are not. The illusion of technology makes us believe we’re in control and not the other way around.doc 7/20/08 17 File Title Links – Alternative Energy – Tech/R&D The Affirmative opposes fossil fuels. We very much labour under the illusion that the aim of technology is to be an extension of man and his power. The naive illusion about the media is that the political authorities use them to manipulate or mystify the masses. An objective illusion. but labors under the illusion that we can create new and better energy technology. but the world which is winning out over us. which would not be far from radical snobbery. of all our artificial productions. Once we lived in the age of the lost object. similar to the one that prevails in the media sphere. 71-73 At the peak of our technological performance. For us. Irony as universal form of disillusionment. now it is the object which is ‘losing’ us. for its part. It seems that technology has taken into itself all the illusion it has caused us to lose. The same hypothesis holds for the object of science. the irresistible impression remains that something eludes us — not because we seem to have lost it (the real?). an ironic phase of technology? A proposition which would deliver us from the Heideggerian vision of technology as the final phase of metaphysics. therefore. Through the most refined procedures we deploy to pin it down. be said to be the instrument of a world which we believe we rule. the irony of the world. and that what we have in return for the loss of illusion is the emergence of an objective irony of this world. Though this is. then. and by which the mystery (of the continuation of the Nothing) conceals itself beneath the universal banality of information. Can one advance the hypothesis that beyond the objective and critical phase there is an ironic phase of science. we labour under the subjective illusion of technology. is altering its determinations. things have also reached a parodic one. by the unbridled virtuality we see outrunning the laws of physics and metaphysics. The Perfect Crime. ironically undecidable. The Japanese sense the presence of a divinity in every industrial object. it is not we who are winning out over the world. All our technologies might. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. At the same time as reaching a paroxystic stage. a nuance of play and distantiation.Whitman College 85911615. one might say what Canetti says of animals: that behind each of them there is a hidden someone thumbing his nose at us. The opposite hypothesis is more subtle. that sacred presence has been reduced to a tiny ironic glimmer. p. that though the illusion of the world has been lost. from this point on. the stellar course of the mystery. bringing about our ruin. behind which lurks the evil genius of technology which sees to it itself that the mystery of the world is well—guarded. Everything which will be done or said in the media sphere is. . a spiritual form. Through the media. The Evil Spirit keeps watch beneath artefacts and. from the retrospective nostalgia for being and from all unhappy critique in terms of alienation and disenchantment. Even if the two hypotheses are simultaneously valid. It is at the point where the political authorities think they are manipulating them that the masses impose their clandestine strategy of neutralization and destabilization.

not even into a life insurance policy: into a policy that already has no value). Nuclear suspension only serves to seal the trivialized system of deterrence that is at the heart of the media. everywhere where the notion of security becomes omnipotent. social. is the perfection of the best system of control that has ever existed.doc 7/20/08 18 File Title Links – Alternative Energy – Nuclear Energy (1/2) Nuclear energy cements a system of deterrence.” threat. a universal lockup and control system whose deterrent effect is not at all aimed at an atomic clash (which was never in question. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. The same goes for peaceful nuclear power stations. and thanks to Damocles’ nuclear sword. No strategy is possible any longer. everywhere where the norm replaces the old arsenal of laws and violence (including war). Massive war. it is deterrence that gives them leukemia. the balance of terror is never anything but the spectacular slope of a system of deterrence that has insinuated itself from the inside into all the cracks of daily life. There is no longer a subject of deterrence. The whole originality of the situation lies in the improbability of destruction. politics. at the much greater probability of any real event. like the Trojan War. revolutions and political subjectivity is no longer possible. What is hatched in the shadow of this mechanism with the pretext of a maximal. 32-35. except without a doubt in the very initial stages of the cold war. Jean Baudrillard. and political desert. A gigantic involution that makes every conflict. Only the signs of power. and the unknown is precisely that variable of simulation which makes of the atomic arsenal itself a hyperreal form. rather. 1981. every finality. any more than floating capital has a real referent of production) that circulates in nuclear orbit suffices to control all the violence and potential conflicts around the world. of the aleatory apparatus of all the choices that are made for us. Deterrence is not a strategy. Thus the money of destruction (without any reference to real destruction. Atomic war. but it is precisely at this level that there are no strategic stakes. only simulacra of conflicts and carefully circumscribed stakes remain. into a stake without stakes. The apotheosis of simulation: the nuclear. every confrontation contract in proportion to this blackmail that interrupts. by zero-sum signs like those that regulate the “strategy of games” (but the true equation is elsewhere. transforming the life left us into survival. And this deterrence comes from the fact that even the real atomic clash is precluded—precluded like the eventuality of the real in a system of signs. through the sophistication of weapons (a sophistication that surpasses any possible objective to such an extent that it is itself a symptom of nullity). freezes them all. in forms that are not threatening to the order of things. and violence remain. “objective. will not take place. And the progressive satellization of the whole planet through this hypermodel of security. a simulacrum that dominates everything and reduces all “ground-level” events to being nothing but ephemeral scenarios. implosive violence of metastable systems or systems in involution. indifferent. Everything freezes under the lack of possibility engendered by the civilian and military nuclear umbrella. Deterrence itself is the neutral. Pacification does not distinguish between the civil and the military: everywhere where irreversible apparatuses of control are elaborated. Simulacra and Simulation. the gravity of their exercise and the discourse of their “strategy” are at stake).Whitman College 85911615. when one still confused the nuclear apparatus with conventional war) but. and around it grows the historical. for installing a universal security system. p. The political stake is dead. No longer can nay revolt. The most insignificant of our behaviors is regulated by neutralized. However. nor an adversary nor a strategy—it is a planetary structure of the annihilation of stakes. equivalent signs. it is the system of deterrence that grows. any story be deployed according to its own logic because it risks annihilation. it circulates and is exchanged between nuclear protagonists exactly as is international capital in the orbital zone of monetary speculation whose fluctuations suffice to control all global exchanges. The balance of terror is the terror of balance. neutralizes. Deterrence precludes war—the archaic violence of expanding systems. . of the violence without consequences that reigns throughout the world. It is not the direct threat of atomic destruction that paralyzes our lives. and escalation is only a puerile game given over to the military. of anything that would be an event in the general system and upset its balance. The whole world pretends to believe in the reality of this threat (this is understandable on the part of the military. The risk of nuclear annihilation only serves as a pretext.

the norm fixes. Fascination with the maximal norm and the mastery of probability: Vertigo of the model. nothing will be left to chance. rather. of the launching of satellites if not the institution of a model of universal gravitation. Trajectory. A universe purged of all threat of meaning. Just watching it produces vertigo. ultimately. of transversality. of the conquest of the moon. fascinates. psychology. of contradiction. rather. moreover this is the essence of socialization. Because if the law. we are dumbfounded by the perfection of the programming and the technical manipulation. The exaltation of the crowds was not a response to the event of landing on the moon or of sending a man into space (this would be. which began centuries ago. physiology.” Because what. There lies the true nuclear fallout: the meticulous operation of the social. the spatial and nuclear models do not have their own ends: neither the discovery of the moon. nor military and strategic superiority. but which for the moment is translated by an inverse. energy. is the function of the space program. toward a limit that one believed would be explosive (revolution). In fact. calculation. with its aura of transgression. or complexity in a sociality illuminated by the norm. by the immanent wonder of the programmed unfolding of events. and makes every imaginary involute. but which has now entered its accelerated phase. of maximum security and deterrence that today controls the spread of the social. or to develop concurrently as a form of “peaceful coexistence.Whitman College 85911615. Now. irreversible process: the generalized deterrence of chance. of finality. of satellization of which the lunar module is the perfect embryo? Programmed microcosm. which unites with the model of death. implosive. rupture. it is the operational immanence of every detail that is law. where nothing can be left to chance. doomed to the descriptive transparency of mechanisms of information. still taps a perverse imaginary. . of accident. the model vectors of a system of planetary control (where even the superpowers of this scenario are not free—the whole world is satellized). if order. Their truth is to be the models of simulation. the fulfillment of an earlier dream). environment—nothing can be left to contingencies. stupefies. in a state of asepsis and weightlessness—it is this very perfection that is fascinating. this is the total universe of the norm—the Law no longer exists.doc 7/20/08 19 File Title Links – Alternative Energy – Nuclear Energy (1/2) The “space race” played exactly the same role as nuclear escalation. One no longer fantasizes about the minutiae of a program. The vertigo of a world without flaws. Here as well. it is the same model of programmatic infallibility. with its aura of violence. This is why the space program was so easily able to replace it in the 1960s (Kennedy/Khrushchev). but without fear or drive.

of the blackmail of the real. The same holds true at Cruesot. The Indian thus returned to the ghetto. of the hallucination of truth. like Eurydice. We have all become living specimens in the spectral light of ethnology. Clastres are various witnesses.Savages who are indebted to ethnology for still being Savages: what a turn of events. No one can touch them anymore: as in a mine the vein is closed down. Simulacra and Simulation. will today. everywhere. be applied to all living things and make itself invisible. Indians who have again become what they were. protected to death. and o the resurrection of differences. The confinement of the scientific object is equal to the confinement of the mad and the dead. Jean Baudrillard. But in the same breath ethnology grants us its only and final lesson. until it dispenses with it entirely: its autonomy is only rendered even more fantastic. men women. the logical evolution of a science is to distance itself increasingly from its object. then artificially resurrected under the auspices of the real. and.it is here. they have become referential simulacra. in a world completely cataloged and analyzed. tourists. Science loses precious capital there. its object falls back into Hades. that of the simulacrum. p. who were seeing the indigenous people disintegrate immediately upon contact. the object takes its revenge for being “discovered” and with its death defies the science that wants to grasp it.a murder of which the Savages. an eternal guarantee. This model thus grants itself the luxury to incarnate itself beyond itself in the “brute” reality of these Indians it has entirely reinvented. liberated from its object. In order for ethnology to live. by dying. 1981. Ethnology brushed up against its paradoxical death in 1971. Thus ethnology. 7-11. science can’t help but die contaminated by the death of this object that is its inverse mirror.” It is not a question of sacrifice (science never sacrifices itself. at the level of the “open” museum where one museumified in situ. and children included. . under the sign of dead differences. but the object will be safe. and ethnologists. like and omnipresent fourth dimension. In any case. in the White community.simulacral Indians who at last proclaim the universal truth of ethnology. but of the simulated sacrifice of its object in order to save its reality principle. Doesn’t all science live on this paradoxical slope to which it is doomed by the evanescence of its object in its very apprehensions. the secret that kills it (and which the Savages knew better than it did): the vengeance of the dead. the day when the Philippine government decided to return the few dozen Tasaday who had just been discovered in the depths of the jungle. Preserving the idea of an ideal nature will only expose the preserved object to a slowed down purification and a sterilized death. frozen in their natural element. We are all Tasadays. and science itself has become pure simulation. what a triumph for this science that seemed dedicated to their destruction! Of course. of the murder of every symbolic form and of its hysterical. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. languages.Whitman College 85911615. Castaneda. but that for a long time has extended to all Western societies. Here begins an antiethnology that will never end and to which Jaulin. it always turns around too soon.it attains its pure form. all so that we may all believe again that things are as they should be. This at the suggestion of the anthropologists themselves. like mummies in the open air. And just as all of society is irremediably contaminated by this mirror of madness that it has held up to itself. cryogenized. which is nothing but the pure form of triumphal ethnology. where they had lived for eight centuries without any contact with the rest of the species. as “historical” witnesses of their period entire working-class neighborhoods. again becomes the model of simulation of all the possible Indians from before ethnology. to their primitive state. noblesse oblige. these savages are posthumous: frozen. sterilized. It is thus very naïve to look for ethnology in the Savages or in some Third World. in the glass coffin of the virgin forest. out of the reach of colonizers. but intact in its “virginity. an entire culture. customs fossilized alive as in a snapshot. it is always murderous). historical retrospection. It erases the memory of environmental destruction and replaces it with a museum-theme park version of nature. like a dimension of life. in a world of simulation. its object must die. It is against this hell of the paradox that the ethnologists wished to protect themselves by cordoning off the Tasaday with virgin forest.doc 7/20/08 20 File Title Links – Preservation/Nature/Environment/Ecology (1/3) Your attempt to preserve nature only models the environment after a simulation of how we believe it once was. instead of being circumscribed as a geometric site. lost to science. rather than circumscribing itself as an objective science. The Tasaday.gestures. is everywhere now. The museum. were the first victims. or of antiethnology. in the metropolises. and by the pitiless reversal that the dead object exerts on it? Like Orpheus. living metallurgic zones. will provide a perfect alibi.

a visible myth of origin. Thus it would have been enough to exhume Ramses to ensure his extermination by museumification. which plays at extricating itself from its object to better secure itself in its pure form. Our entire linear and accumulative culture collapses if we cannot stockpile the past in plain view. which at least fooled no one. which is devastated by difference and by death. Because finally we have never believed in them. The cloister should have stayed in New York in its simulated environment. a visible continuum. those (human?) beings who had never known the word of Christ. as in Castaneda. Whence this historic scene of the reception of the mummy at the Orly airport.” And everyone is supposed to applaud this restitution (as they did “the experimental campaign to take back the sidewalks” on the Champs Elysees!). but out of sight and far from the light of day. Irreparable violence toward all secrets. In the same way science and technology were recently mobilized to save the mummy of Ramses II. It is possible that the memory of the original grottoes is itself stamped in the minds of future generations. slowed-down mechanism. In general. In the same way. Because mummies don’t rot from worms: they die from being transplanted from a slow order of the symbolic. Well. which has again become savage in its way. the Savage fiction everywhere. Only absolute secrecy assured them this millennial power. which only gives a dead and circular response to a dead and circular interrogation. which no longer masters anything. behind this defunct power that it tries to annex. with the pretext of saving the original. To this end the pharaohs must be brought out of their tomb and the mummies out of their silence. and it dreams of it because it exterminated it by exhuming it as its own past. to an order of history. ours. which reassures us about our end. demuseumification is nothing but another spiral in artificiality. which would suffice to slowly exterminate them. We are fascinated by Ramses as Renaissance Christians were by the American Indians. one contented oneself with converting them. but an exact replica was constructed five hundred meters from it.Whitman College 85911615. there was a moment of stupor and bewilderment before the very possibility of escaping the universal law of the Gospel. or exterminate the Indians to efface the evidence. Witness the cloister of Saint-Michel de Cuxa. etc. The West is seized with panic at the thought of not being able to save what the symbolic order had been able to conserve for forty centuries. diffracted. one forbade visitors to enter the Lascaux caves.the mastery over putrefaction that signified the mastery of the complete cycle of exchanged with death. after it was left to rot for several dozen years in the depths of a museum. Thus at the beginning of colonization. that is to say. Why Because Ramses was a great despotic and military figure? Certainly. As ethnology collapses in its classical institution. and museums. To this end they must be exhumed and given military honors. the violence of a civilization without secrets. They are prey to both science and worms. according to an unconscious reversion. We require a visible past. it survives in an antiethnology whose task it is to reinject the difference fiction. their reimportation to the original site is even more artificial: it is a total simulacrum that links up with “reality” through a complete circumvolution. or even simply discovering them. Nothing changes when society breaks the mirror of madness (abolishes the asylums. whereas embalming was a mythical effort that strove to immortalize a hidden dimension. if the Cloisters in New York are an artificial mosaic of all cultures (following a logic of the capitalist centralization of value). hatred of a whole civilization for its own foundation.” The form produced by confinement is followed by an innumerable. and then one visits the reconstituted whole). to conceal that it is this world. There were two possible responses: either admit that this Law was not universal. . which only knows how to condemn what preceded it to decay and death and subsequently to try to revive it with science. our order. but from now on there is no longer any difference the duplication suffices to render both artificial. of an order that would have had nothing to do with it.doc 7/20/08 21 File Title Links – Preservation/Nature/Environment/Ecology (2/3) It is science that masters the objects. master over putrefaction and death. but it s the objects that invest it with depth. that is to say restoring a visible order. And just as with ethnology. only the mummy is of an inestimable worth because it is what guarantees that accumulation has meaning. But mostly because our culture dreams. if the exportation of the cornices was in effect an arbitrary at. Ramses does not signify anything for us. so that everyone could see them (one glances through a peephole at the authentic cave.) and to bend down before the “differences. We only know how a place our science in service of repairing the mummy. gives speech back to the insane. etc. science.) nor when science seems to break the mirror of its objectivity (effacing itself before its object. which one will repatriate at great cost from the Cloisters in New York to reinstall it in “its original site.

acting as if nothing had happened and indulging in retrospective hallucination.things are doubled by their own scenario. In this way. Americans flatter themselves for having brought the population of Indians back to pre-Conquest levels. for exceeding the original number. They even flatter themselves for doing better. One effaces everything and starts over. more authentic. this overproduction is again a means of destroying them: for Indian culture. the imminence of their death. . their demographic “promotion is just another step toward symbolic extermination.doc 7/20/08 22 File Title Links – Preservation/Nature/Environment/Ecology (3/3) Repatriating it is nothing but a supplementary subterfuge. (With sinister derision. rests on the limitation of the group and the refusal of any “unlimited” increase. more cheerful. as it did traditionally. In the same way. like all tribal culture. like the faces in funeral homes. as can be seen in Ishi’s case. This is presented as proof of the superiority of civilization it will produce more Indians that they themselves were able to do.) Everywhere we live in a universe strangely similar to the original.Whitman College 85911615. and better than when they were alive. in the light of their model.they are already purged of their death. But this doubling does not signify.

took place. What meaning did this war have. misfortunes are even more numerous. which is played out as such (or else one could never send people to get themselves killed in this kind of thing). It marked the arrival of China to peaceful coexistence. at bottom. subtly.Whitman College 85911615. The other aspect of this war and of all wars today: behind the armed violence. The game was already won. demobilized so easily. and in this sense.doc 7/20/08 23 File Title Impacts – War (1/2) War no longer has an ideological purpose. This war. of symbolic organization. so ferocious. they no longer have any meaning. the holders of high wartime values should not be too discouraged: the war is no less atrocious for being only a simulacrum—the flesh suffers just the same. and of the installation of this deterrent authority. one could let them take over. behind this simulacrum of fighting to the earth and of ruthless global stakes. is nothing but the medium of this process of the terrorist rationalization of the social—the murder on which sociality will be founded. despite this deterrence by the orbital power—the nuclear or molecular code—events continue at ground level. Simulacra and Simulation. And the war ended “spontaneously” when this objective was achieved. That theirs is a Communist order is not serious in the end: it had proved itself. The stake is thus that of a political relay. in its immense. or division of labor between two adversaries (who may even consent to enormous sacrifices for it) for the very end of reshaping and domesticating social relations. nothing was objectively at stake but the verisimilitude of the final montage. Their untenable character must not conceal the fact that they were nothing but a simulacrum to enable the Vietnamese to seem to countenance a compromise and for Nixon to make the Americans swallow the withdrawal of their troops. the war could stop: it had attained its objective. Jean Baudrillard. Tribal. vanish from one day to the net as if by magic? Why did this American defeat (the largest reversal in the history of the USA) have no internal repercussions in America? If it had really signified the failure of the planetary strategy of the United States.and war itself. that is what must be abolished. What no longer exists is the adversity of the adversaries. Communist r capitalist. whatever its allegiance. Nothing of the sort occurred. one must save face.” This scenario: the extremely harsh bombardments of Hanoi. never spoken. “The North Vietnamese were advised to countenance a scenario for liquidating the American presence in the course of which. The moralists of war. they are no longer anything but the duplex effect of simulation at the summit. the shift from a global strategy of revolution to one of shared forces and empires. The nonintervention of China obtained and secured after many years. p. This objective is always fulfilled. remained unliquidated. 36-39. it could be trusted. It is even more effective than capitalism in the liquidation of “savage” and archaic precapitalist structures. every form of exchange. the ideological seriousness of war. Same scenario in the Algerian war. precapitalist structures. As soon as the Vietnamese had proved that they were no longer the carriers of an unpredictable subversion. unnamed. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. given the global process of the contiguity and simultaneity of data. and to annihilate the presence of anything that would disrupt the global system of deterrence. is total liquidation. and wasn’t its unfolding a means of sealing the end of history in the decisive and culminating historic event of our era? Why did this war. Yet. the two adversaries are fundamentally in solidarity against something else. because it took place at the intersection of a maximum historical and “revolutionary” stake. so hard. This same reduction of forces can be seen on the field. Rather. even a Communist one. That is why it was deescalated. The best example can only be that of the war in Vietnam. spectacular death apparatus. that is the object of murder in war-. 1981. of course. communitarian. just like that of the charting of territories and disciplinary sociality. the murderous antagonism of the adversaries—which seems a matter of life and death. was nothing but a crucial episode of peaceful coexistence. the reality of antagonistic causes. but whose objective outcome in war. then. of language. with the equal complicity of the two adversaries. But. Something else. war exists in order to reassure us of the existence of ideological stakes. and the dead and former combatants are worth the same as in other wars. Total complicity. When at last the war had passed into the hands of regular troops in the North and escaped that of the resistance. China’s apprenticeship to a global modus Vivendi. . the USA pulled out of Vietnam but won the war. so long. the transition from a radical alternative to political alternation in a system now essentially regulated (the normalization of Peking-Washington relations): this was what was at stake in the war in Vietnam. it would necessarily have completely disrupted its internal balance and the American political system. The war lasted as long as elements irreducible to a healthy politics and discipline of power.

and even all real writing of cruelty has disappeared. the two differential poles implode into each other.Whitman College 85911615. . Simulation is the master. of the objectivity of facts. the last gasp of an ideality of the body. in the most contradictory. never existed. etc. Many other events (the oil crisis. by a moribund ethnology. ersatz. the pacification (or the deterrence) that dominates us today is beyond war and peace. posthumous rediscovery of the gulags and Soviet dissidents like the almost contemporary discovery. There also. the retro. of retro and porno at the same time—doubtless everyone knows this.doc 7/20/08 24 File Title Impacts – War (2/2) And also the reality of victory or defeat. catastrophes and crises destined to maintain a historical investment under hypnosis. The media and the official news service are only there to maintain the illusion of an actuality. who has the right like everything else to his revival. and we only have a right to the retro. For us the trick has been played. of the reality of the stakes. and no one really accepts it. toward a reabsorption of all the stakes without a trace of blood. that there was an end to war at the heart of war itself. in the cold light of deterrence (including Artaud. a spiral of delay. that it was finished well before it started. of the lost “difference” of Savages) that all these things arrived too late. of blood. except as artificial occurrences—abstract. and as artifacts of history. In any case. to a second existence as the referential of cruelty). All dramaturgy. Thus one can completely miss the truth of a war: namely. parodic rehabilitation of all lost referentials. or one becomes aware (as with the Communists “in power” in Italy. of violence in a system that was already taking it away. it is that at every moment war and peace are equivalent. “War is peace. The reality of simulation is unbearable—crueler than Artaud’s Theater of Cruelty.” said Orwell. that all these events succeed each other without logic. Everything still unfolds around us. complete equivalence. with a history of delay. in a profound indifference to their consequences (but this is because there are none: they exhaust themselves in their spectacular promotion)—all “newsreel” footage thus gives the sinister impression of kitsch. which was still an attempt to create a dramaturgy of life. or recycle one another—a simultaneity of contradictions that is at once the parody and the end of every dialectic. All the events are to be read backward. and that perhaps it never started. war being a process that triumphs well beyond these appearances. that they long ago exhausted their meaning and only live from an artificial effervescence of signs.) never started. to the phantom.

. reversibilized from the right to the left. circularized. etc. Hell of simulation. before thinking that we now take pleasure in capital. which deepened in the West. the infinity of capital folded back on its own surface: transfinite? And is it not the same for desire and the libidinal space? Conjunction of desire and the law. it would not have tapped into this massive energy if it hadn’t been a resistance to something much worse. 48 Fascism itself. Simulacra and Simulation. this neutralization and pacification of life. Mobian compulsion. race. nor the Deleuzian one of despotic paranoia). Fascism is the logical result of hyperreality. Fascism’s cruelty. 18. an enigmatic reversal that brings desire “revolutionary in itself. a “vicious” curvature of a political space that is henceforth magnetized. its terror is on the level of this other terror that is the confusion of the real and the rational. eventually benefitting all ideological positions. including paranoid reactionaries Jean Baudrillard. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. and as if involuntarily wanting what it wants. Jean Baudrillard. the final pleasure as the metamorphosis of the law (which is why it is so widely the order of the day): only capital takes pleasure. even if it is a profound. Yet again. Overwhelming versatility of desire in Deleuze.Whitman College 85911615. which seizes the occasion to regenerate its own flagging humanism and whose indignant protest in turn consolidates Franco’s regime by uniting the Spanish masses against this foreign intervention? Where is the truth of all that. etc. the mad intensification of collective value (blood. of a “political aesthetic of death” at a time when the processes of the disenchantment of value and of collective values. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School.). demented resistance.doc 7/20/08 25 File Title Impacts – Fascism Political subjectivity circles around. when such collusions admirably knot themselves together without the knowledge of their authors? Conjunction of the system and of is extreme alternative like the two sides of a curved mirror. the discourse of desire to that of power. nor the Reichian one of the sexual repression of the masses. the historical revolution. elusive twisting o meaning—where even the condemned at Burgos are still a gift from Franco to Western democracy. Who will unravel this imbroglio? The Gordian knot can at least be cut. All the referentials combine their discourses in a circular. Fascism is a resistance to this. said Lyotard. Formerly the discourse on history derived its power from violently opposing itself to that of nature. sex and work were fiercely opposed terms.in a world without value or political referentials. p.” to desire its own repression and to invest in paranoid and fascist systems? A malign torsion that returns this revolution of desire to the same fundamental ambiguity as the other. but of the subtle. can already be interpreted as the “irrational” excess of mythic and political referentials. people. 1981. if one divides it. irrational. nationality. results in a supplementary spiral without the reversibility of surfaces being resolved (here the reversible continuity of hypotheses). 1981. Simulacra and Simulation. of the whole system. which is no longer one of torture. a torsion that is like that of the evil spirit of commutation. The Mobius strip. the reinjection of death. today both are dissolved in the same type of demand. with which no interpretation has been able to come to grips (neither the Marxist one of political manipulation by dominant classes. Not so long ago. the masses may turn to the extreme valorization of race. and it is a response to that. p. the mystery of its appearance and of its collective energy. maleficent. of the rational secularization and unidimensionalization of all life. everything seems to escape this catastrophe of value. of the operationalization of all social and individual life already makes itself strongly felt in the West.today they exchange their signifiers and their scenarios.

through the force of inertia of the real that surrounds us. on causes and ends. The impossibility of rediscovering an absolute level of the real is of the same order as the impossibility of staging illusion. are now in some sense simulation holdups in that they are already inscribed in the decoding and orchestration rituals of the media. and take the most trustworthy hostage. It is necessary to see in this impossibility of isolating the process of simulation the weight of an order that cannot see and conceive of anything but the real. the signs are the same as for a real robbery. Thus. How can the simulation of virtue be punished? However. beyond rational distinctions upon which the whole of the social and power depend. whereas simulation is of the third order. The established order can do nothing against it. The violence of the real is reinjected everywhere into a society that cannot accept appearances at face value. But the difficulty is proportional to the danger. and that is the most serious crime.Whitman College 85911615. etc. it always prefers this hypothesis (as in the army one prefers to take the simulator for a real madman). because the real is no longer possible.). a client of the bank will faint and die of a heart attack. 1981. law and order themselves might be nothing but simulation.” in order to test the reaction of the apparatus to a perfect simulacrum. Verify that your weapons are harmless. in the real. It is the whole political problem of parody. it is as hyperreal events. demonstrations. and no longer at all to their “real” end. How to feign a violation and put it to the test? Simulate a robbery in a large store: how to persuade security that it is a simulated robbery? There is no “objective” difference: the gestures. no longer with a specific content or end. crises. In short. anticipated in their presentation and their possible consequences. This is certainly why order always opts for the real. Simulacra and Simulation. will either be punished less severely (because it has no “consequences”) or punished as an offense against the judicial system (for example if one sets in motion a police operation “for nothing”)—but never as simulation since it is precisely as such that no equivalence with the real is possible. Because the latter does nothing but disturb the order of things. but indefinitely refracted by each other (just like so-called historical events: strikes. beyond true and false. if it is established as such. Organize a fake holdup. Demand a ransom. it is now impossible to isolate the process of the real. one will actually pay you the phony ransom).in short. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. power itself ends by being . whereas the former attacks the reality principle itself. and make it so that the operation creates as much commotion as possible. The challenge of simulation is never admitted by power. you will immediately find yourself once again. But this becomes more and more difficult. it is the threat of simulation that inspires violence. because if it is practically impossible to isolate the process of simulation. the opposite is also true (and this reversibility itself is part of the apparatus of simulation and the impotence of power): namely. will before institutions and justice come into play. This is how all the holdups. one of whose functions is precisely to devour any attempt at simulation. remain close to the “truth. etc. because it cannot function anywhere else. to reduce very thing to the real—that is. Indeed. so that no human life will be in danger (or one lapses into the criminal). lacking the real. in short. above and beyond its object. of hypersimulation or offensive simulation that is posed here. it is in this sense that they cannot be controlled by an order that can only exert itself on the real and the rational. To the established order they are always of the order of the real. p. to the established order itself. because the law is a simulacrum of the second order. airplane hijackings. But this does not make them harmless. Simulation is infinitely more dangerous because it always leaves open to supposition that. When in doubt. where they function as a group of signs dedicated exclusively to their recurrence as signs. On the contrary. or to prove the real. because it cancels out the difference upon which the law is based. Parody renders submission and transgression equivalent. a determined power that can only reign over a determined world. a referential order that can only reign over the referential. it is there that we must aim at order. against this nebula whose weight no longer obeys the laws of gravitation of the real.doc 7/20/08 26 File Title Impacts – Violence Just because everything is a simulation doesn’t mean that violence doesn’t happen. and hence no repression either. Transgression and violence are less serious because they only contest the distribution of the real. but that cannot do anything against this indefinite recurrence of simulation. the signs do not lean to one side or another. 19-23. You won’t be able to do it: the network of artificial signs will become inextricably mixed up with real elements (a policeman will really fire on sight. For example: it would be interesting to see whether the repressive apparatus would not react more violently to a simulated holdup than to a real holdup. the right to property. as such it is as serious as the simulation of crime. without wishing it. Jean Baudrillard. The simulation of an offense. beyond equivalences. Illusion is no longer possible.

and if it is the one that fostered reality. Thus everywhere the hyperrealism of simulation is translated by the hallucinatory resemblance of the real to itself. abstraction. That is why today this “material” production is that of the hyperreal itself. of the gravity of the economy and the finalities of production. all real equivalence of the states and the omnipotence of manipulation. and to overproduce. its only strategy against this defection is to reinject the real and the referential everywhere. etc. that of values and commodities. obsession with its survival. Capital was the first to play at deterrence. that shattered every ideal distinction between true and false. today it is this same logic that is even more set against capital. another figure of power comes into play: that of a collective demand for signs of power. it is a question of life and death. good and evil. Whence the characteristic hysteria of our times: that of the production and reproduction of the real. and political stakes. Because in the end. everyone unloads it on everyone else) and the panicked nostalgia over its loss. disintegrating all the contradictions by dint of producing equivalent signs. on which to establish a last glimmer of power. it was also the first to liquidate it by exterminating all use value. plays at remanufacturing artificial.doc 7/20/08 27 File Title dismantled in this space and becoming a simulation of power (disconnected from its ends and its objectives. the whole discourse of traditional production. of every human objective. economic. The other production. disconnection. we will logically be under the total hallucination of power—a haunting memory that is already rid of it (no one wants it anymore. has for a long time had no specific meaning. and dedicated to the effects of power and mass simulation).a whole world adheres to it more or less in terror of the collapse of the political. “Take your desires for reality!” can be understood as the ultimate slogan of power since in a nonreferential world. even the confusion of the reality principle and the principle of desire is less dangerous than contagious hyperreality. The only weapon of power. that overdose of a strong referential in a society that cannot terminate its mourning. Hyperreality and simulation are deterrents of every principle and every objective. social. And in the end the game of power becomes nothing but the critical obsession with power—obsession with its death. The melancholy of societies without power this has already stirred up fascism. the reality principle. they turn against power the deterrent that it used so well for such a long time. plays at crisis. . One remains among principles. power played at deterrence and simulation. all depth and energy of representation have vanished in a hallucinatory resemblance). in order to establish a radical law of equivalence and exchange. why not? That of desire. to persuade us to f the reality of the social. To this end it prefers the discourse of crisis. What every society looks for in continuing to produce. that of the belle époque of political economy. Power itself has for a long time produced nothing but the signs of its resemblance. power plays at the real. and among those power is always in the right. Well. it does nothing but multiply the signs and accelerate the play of simulation. And as soon as it wishes to combat this disastrous spiral by secreting as last glimmer of reality. but it is not longer anything but its scaled-down refraction (thus hyperrealists fix a real from which all meaning and charm.. It retains all the features. the iron law of its power. but also. And at the same time. But it is too late. is to restore the real that escapes it. which increases as it disappears. deterritorialization.Whitman College 85911615. As long as the historical threat came at it from the real. When it has totally disappeared. throughout its history it was capital that first fed on the destructuration of every referential. For power. Today when the danger comes at it from simulation (that of being dissolved in the play of signs).

life without spice. no more exteriority. we are eliminating ourselves. by eliminating all singularities in order to radiate total positivity. This had escaped us. . This paradigm of the subject without object. of the same without other — definitive stasis and metastasis of the Same. wars without enemy. By setting off the chain reaction of the positive.Whitman College 85911615. or the slaves without masters we have become. By eliminating the work of the negative. For a virus. passions without object. we have at the same time — by a perverse. it cannot but destroy itself (by ‘depredation’. The two are conjoined today in the modern form of voluntary servitude: enslavement to data systems and calculation systems – total efficiency. Being deprived of the other is worse than alienation: a lethal change. the finality of that mastery.doc 7/20/08 28 File Title Impacts – Annihilation of Difference Impact The quest to obliterate all that differs and replace it with the image of the same leads uncontestably to the destruction of everything. What becomes of a master without a slave? He ends up terrorizing himself. An irrevocable destabilization. means to be dispossessed of the other. salt without sodium. can be seen in all that has lost its shadow and become transparent to itself. there are two apparently synonymous terms with a very significant distinction between them. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. no more hostile environments — no environment at all any longer. We have fought negativity and death. far from being negative. By eliminating the other in all its forms (illness. time without memory. Death being the great natural predator. and it is this strategy we are applying to ourselves. total performance. a species we attempt at all costs to immortalize and wrest away from death — as we do with all our replacement technologies for the body’s organs — is doomed to disappear. The project of eliminating the external environment under the logic of calculation embodies this process. have disappeared. we have unleashed positivity. strangeness). Even in devitalized substances: in sugar without calories. violence. of the subject without other. rather. that of the subject without object. p. to lose all otherness. masters without slaves. and that is what has become lethal today. as it were). The best strategy for bringing about someone’s ruin is to eliminate everything which threatens him. rooting out evil in all its forms. is the product. 1996. Now. And of a slave without a master? He ends up exploiting himself. ‘Entfremdung’. We have become masters – at least virtual masters – of this world. becoming estranged from oneself— alienation in the literal sense. of an ultrapositivity of which it is the lethal embodiment. by liquidation of the dialectical opposition itself. not to mention racial and linguistic differences. as had the metamorphoses of evil which follow the advances of reason about like a shadow. Jean Baudrillard. The Perfect Crime. it is much more serious to be dispossessed of the other than of oneself. No longer threatened by them. This is like wresting a species away from its natural predators. by contrast. A tragic destiny for individuals and for our — self-programming and selfreferential — systems: no more adversaries. thus causing him to lose all his defences. ‘Verfremdung’ means becoming other. negativity. effects without causes. death. but perfectly coherent effect — released an intense viral pathology. but the object of that mastery. 112-14 In German.

Because military ecological destruction occurs primarily "during peacetime. the Comprehensive Environmental Response. Charles W “The price of preparing for war” Environmental Health Perspectives http://www.nih.pubmedcentral. and the Marine Mammal Protection Act. Our job is to send soldiers. According to the Democratic Committee on Energy and Commerce. portions of the Endangered Species Act. The DOD argues that even the threat of interference by hazardous waste litigation justifies its aims.” including the case at Eagle River Flats and the Navy’s 2002 temporary closure of its Farallon de Medinilla live-fire training range in the Pacific. Cuomo 1992. Plumwood 1993). attention to the ecological impacts of war further illustrates the limitations of only thinking of war in terms of events. You can’t do that if you introduce artificialities into training. The Massachusetts Military Reservation. 1996. feminists must be against oppression in any form.fcgi?artid=1253681 December 2004 Nearly 1 in 10 Americans live within 10 miles of a DOD Superfund site—a sometimes perilous proximity.gov/articlerender. As evidence of the need to act now. the DOD is seeking changes through the RRPI to certain hazardous waste laws—specifically. airmen. D." and because it is so directly tied to other forms of ecological and social violence. Congress has approved legislation requested by the DOD amending the Migratory Bird Protection Act. jet fuel. is slowly leaching solvents. located 55 miles northeast of Reno. Many feminists and ecological feminists have discussed these problematic conceptual connections as created or fueled by the dichotomous thinking discussed above (Griffin 1989. and the Clean Air Act (CAA). a drinking water source for up to 500. the Sierra Army Depot. which generate smog. King 1990. Now.doc 7/20/08 29 File Title Impacts – Cuomo – Ecological Destruction Treating war as an event ignores the environmental effects of this mentality and the continuation of military based ecological destruction Chris J. it is arguable that the ecological effects of war and militarism are feminist issues. sailors. Others.” . and Marines into combat environments in the absolute best-prepared way we can. online I turn now to a discussion of the environmental effects of war. cultural constructions associate women with nature and help justify the mistreatment of both. For instance. the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). an environmental lawyer with the DOD General Counsel’s office. or if. As of this publication. not on other considerations. or material connections between environmental degradation and women's oppression.C. . a 34-square-mile multi-use training facility in Cape Cod. if women's oppression is connected to the unjustified destruction of nature. including the oppression of nature. and Liability Act (CER-CLA). focus on the practical. In 1999. but says it can’t afford to wait until training is shut down before it acts. copper. That closure followed a lawsuit filed by the Center for Biological Diversity alleging that bombing at the range was killing protected migratory birds. Hypatia Special Issues: Women and Violence Volume 11 Number 4.000 people at the height of tourist season. for instance. because I believe these effects to be significant to feminists for two basic reasons. pg. was California’s leading air polluter. RDX. Military aircraft from DOD facilities also generate noise and air pollution. and zinc fumes. The base released some 5. according to the EPA Toxics Release Inventory. assistant professor of philosophy and women’s studies at the university of Cincinnati. Compensation. Military training negatively affects the surrounding areas. including Vandana Shiva and Maria Mies (1993). says in reference to the Farallon de Medinilla closure. and perchlorate into the area’s sole aquifer. The DOD acknowledges that these laws have never been shown to have interfered with specific military training. We want to maintain the ability to use those ranges in the optimum way based on military readiness considerations. including aluminum. both environmental and living Schmidt. the DOD points to a number of lawsuits and “close calls. . In any case. more than 50. Warren 1990. “We don’t feel it’s wise to wait for that kind of train wreck to see if we are going to lose in litigation. .000 military flights contributed to the heavy air traffic over Washington.4 million pounds of toxic chemicals that year. in 1996. Though women are no more essentially connected to nature than any other organic beings.Whitman College 85911615. these flights emitted 75 tons of nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds. the most recent year for which data are available. as Karen Warren argues. Cuomo. Joe Willging.

To choose the wrong strategy is a serious matter. speaking. and the constitution of a political subject are seen as valuable and subversive. obedient. Thus the strategic resistance is that of the refusal of meaning and of the spoken word—or of the hyperconformist simulation of the very mechanisms of the system. he opposes all the practices of disobedience. in short. It blackmails us into becoming policymakers. of the word based on “consciousness raising. an object’s resistance. because it was ushered in by that phase of the system which prevails. 84-86 With one caution. and without a doubt superior. expressing ourselves at whatever cost. and efficaciously. refusing to continue on as living alibis for the violence of the real Jean Baudrillard. The subject-resistance is today unilaterally valorized and viewed as positive—just as in the political sphere only the practices of freedom. To a system whose argument is oppression and repression. free and conscious. emancipation. To the demand of being a subject he opposes. . We are face to face with this system in a double situation and insoluble double bind— exactly like children faced with the demands of the adult world. impact of all the object practices. Neither strategy has ore objective value than the other. on the resurrection of a subject of history. of emancipation. participating. and to a contradictory demand he responds with a double strategy. and to constitute themselves as submissive. emancipation. the maximum production of meaning. hyperconformism. of the group. conforming objects. to reflecting meaning. Simulacra and Simulation. When all the revolutions have already taken place. Children are simultaneously required to constitute themselves as autonomous subjects. idiocy. of revolt. expression. total dependence. to the constant ultimatum we are given to constitute ourselves as pure objects. inert. responsible. All the movements that only play on liberation. the strategic resistance is the liberating claim of subjecthood But this strategy is more reflective of the earlier phase of the system.doc 7/20/08 30 File Title Alternative – Strategy of the Object – The Children The system demands that we constitute ourselves as subjects. the strategic ground is to passively absorb appearances. without absorbing it. of the renunciation of the subject position and of meaning— precisely the practices of the masses—that we bury under the derisory terms of alienation and passivity. but they do not respond at all to the other demand. of liberating ourselves. just as obstinately. 1981. whose imperative today is precisely the overproduction and regeneration of meaning and of speech.Whitman College 85911615. revolutionaries. This strategy (if one can still speak of strategy) prevails today. The liberating practices respond to one of the aspects of the system. that of constituting ourselves as subjects. deciding. passivity. a total claim to subjecthood. of voting. The child resists on all levels. that is to say. even more serious today. exactly the opposite: childishness. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School.” indeed a “raising of the unconscious” of subjects and of the masses. do not see that they are going in the direction of the system. producing. like a mirror. which is a form of refusal and of non-reception. p. It is the strategy of the masses: it is equivalent to returning to the system its own logic by doubling it. To the demand of being an object. playing the game—a form of blackmail and ultimatum just as serious as the other. But this is to ignore the equal. voters. it is no longer the strategic terrain: the current argument of the system is to maximize speech. and even if w are still confronted with it. etc.

therefore. and even at the molecular level. in saving and eternalizing a moment of our lives. The hypothesis of a fatal strategy must itself be fatal. irony (of the Witz*) is the objective form of this denouement. if it exists. the question Oedipus thought he answered. but against all science. and runs the risk of what it describes — but the risk is to be taken. by which the object is taken in the very game that we wanted to make it play — doubling the ante somehow. From any object we hope for a blind response that hampers our projects. Levi-Strauss claimed that the symbolic order had left us. What is more. simultaneously — there’s no paradox involved in this. of the indifference of the world toward our affairs. The object (the Sphinx). To find another rule. If I look for a fatal connection in language. Everything must unfold in a fatal and ingenious way. in the irony of the aleatory. leave the field open to objective irony. no final process. There are not enough means in the world for us to be able to dispose of ends. The interesting thing about this is the inexorable logical process that is visible here. hardly answers. We invent all these strategies in the hope of having them result in the unexpected event. Seduction is fatal. 184-85 188-191 if the object is fatal. to which destiny. just as everything was caught from the start in an original subversion. the conditions according to which it accepts playing? No one knows them. Everything is expiated in one way or another. That also is a challenge — eventually it threatens absurdity. If there be a morality. and therefore the impossibility of deciphering a word that plays the game of meaning all too well). No one knows what a strategy is. But simply to delineate this other logic. and one only. installing thereby a strategy that doesn’t have its own ends: a “playful” strategy that stills the play of the subject. Likewise with the joke. and compensates us in advance for the cruelest losses. too. is seductive. Chance is also one. a dream inverse to its dream of totalization. And if the Last Judgement consists. yielding to history. like the discovery of a hidden rule. like the real is hyper-real. if it is an ironic one? Of course it exists. which is itself the denouement of language immanent to language (that is the fatal: the same sign presiding over a life’s crystallization and its resolution. whose fatality would be a strategy —something like the rule of another game. Everything is headed somewhere. escalating the bidding on the strategic limits it will tolerate. of the fatal. Fatality. says Canetti. could not be insensible. Quite the contrary. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. At the heart of banal strategies is the fiery desire of fatal strategies. and the one has never been able to erase the other. there is something stupid about our current situation. must itself be hyper-moral. The difference is that the irony of fatality is greater than the irony of chance. it too must be engaged in the eccentric cycle of its effects. In language become pure object. nothing of the otherworldly delirium of a subjectivity trapped and escaping headlong into a paroxysmal inventory. subtler than man. a fatal strategy in that the subject thereby succumbs to the surpassing of its own objectives. The strategy of the object allows everything to unfold to it in a fatal and ingenious way Jean Baudrillard. the conjunction of these two terms is paradoxical: how could there be fatality if there is strategy? That’s just the point: the enigma is that fatality is at the heart of every strategy. as in the Witz. Fatal Strategies. Its failure today awakens passions that are much more subtle. must itself be a special effect. It’s the object. I fall on the joke. And of course fatality exists too. From strategy we expect control. But it’s certain nevertheless that in disobeying laws. as everyone knows. another axiom: nothing mystical in this. must be no longer a moral stasis. a strategy precisely with no object. with whom do we share this ironic end? . the ironic art of disappearance? The subject has always dreamed of this. The only way out is the fatal strategy of the object. to take up the cause of the object. Today. It’s what peeks through the heart of more banal strategies. We are accomplices in this excess of finality that is there in the object (this can be the excess of meaning. unravel those other strategies. It’s true that this is a difficult and obscure route: to side with the object. of its fickleness toward objective laws. God himself is forced to employ a trial-and-error method. for each of us. and on the side of its eccentric and precious effects. From seduction we look for surprise. Today it’s man that poses to the Sphinx — the inhuman — the question of the inhuman. and leave it to the equations to verify themselves. Basically. It’s the effect of a sovereign object that recreates in you an original confusion and seeks to surprise you. And. if the object is ingenious. There’s something stupid in the current forms of truth and objectivity that a superior irony could spare us.doc 7/20/08 31 File Title Alternative – Fatal Strategies Alternative All of today’s critical radicality has ultimately proven useless. that we all thought we answered. no one is capable of articulating a final process. which just makes it more tragic and more seductive. The discovery of a hidden rule of the game is dazzling. history itself has withdrawn. There’s something stupid in the raw event. Today. redoubling and escalating the stakes are spirited forms of denouement. What’s the use of trying to establish chance as an objective process. at the knotting of the intrigue and its denouement).Whitman College 85911615. in turn. 1990. and the effects of desire are largely depleted — what remains but to bring things back to their enigmatic ground zero? Now the enigma is inverted: once it was the Sphinx that posed men the question of man. no objective. in unravelling desire. it answers secretly to some enigma. The real we invent wholly in the hope of seeing it result in a prodigious artifice. but a moral ecstasy. Everywhere. and now that the critical spirit has found its summer home in socialism. and they can change without notice. At the end of all that. What remains but to side with this enigma? Everything can be summed up in this: let’s believe for a single instant the hypothesis that there is a fatal and enigmatic bias in the order of things. But the rules of its game. In any case. of its fatal effects (fatality is only the absolute liberty of effects )? Semiorrhage. the object mocks the laws we attach to it. now that all critical radicality has become useless. Nothing can guarantee us a fatality. Even predestination is a form of ironic subversion of fatality. Truth only complicates things. now that all negativity seems resolved in a world that pretends to realize itself. even less a strategy. p. what can we do about it? After the art of survival. What remains but to pass on the side of the object. it would rather figure in our calculations as a sarcastic variable.

a representation of the outcome. and perhaps even its reference to a finality. It is a nice term. I like to apply things that are paradoxical. truly delirious. there I agree with you. Thus fatal strategy is. an expression which describes a process.Whitman College 85911615. a reversibility that is in the order of things.com/2002_Volume_15/15_3/Article_4. cannot be based on objectivity. the fact of speaking of the strategy of objects is a paradox. The term strategy represents an opportunity because it is apt. decisive and determinant way. because. someone who has a will. accessed March 5. It is a type of fatal process. But somewhere there is a logic in the unfolding of things. if it is contrary to a truth principle. At this point it has to be said that this supposes such relativity in the subject-object relation that it is that which becomes fatal. at least a rule of the game. there has to be a subject of the strategy. fatal. to be sure! How could an object have a strategy? It would be absurd. Fatal strategy for me is a strategy of the object. When I use it in the expression "fatal strategies". it is no longer a strategy properly speaking. we do not have an objective discourse available in the sense I intend it. and adopt the seemingly paradoxical strategy of the object Jean Baudrillard. But clearly. I think that there is a rule. all the same. there is only a strategy of the subject. Moreover. But all the same. We witness the loss of subjectivity on the one hand. and there is there. it speaks to the imaginary. online: http://www. it is deployed within space.montrealserai. But. 2005 CTHEORY: How is the concept of strategy used? It is implicit that it connotes a form of subjectivity. it is clear that it no longer has any finality in itself. But I am not the one who is going to say that. and yet it is used in such a way that subjectivity is undermined. We are all inside it. strategy being originally a military metaphor. There will not be any objectivity there in the scientific sense of the term. a process in which there is certainly no more subject. as discourse itself is so grounded in subjectivity in this sense. if not a strategy. It is truly unreadable. If the strategy has to become logistically chancy. And the fact that it is no longer the subject that possesses things when. Summer 2002. Well. I also speak of objective illusion. to what extent does it retain today martial connotations which complicate its sense even more? JEAN BAUDRILLARD: Yes. no more subjectivity. There has to be a finality. and this is. the flow of the world itself. the way that the discourse of sense tries to describe non-sense. though not in the sense of subjects. But I like to bring these two terms together all the same to create a clash between them. Why not! It is. we do not have it. it is a secret. but we are nevertheless a vectorial element of the thing. . properly speaking. a kind of metaphorical transfer of things. Which means nothing. at the same time. effectively. or placed in a context where it is made volatile or fragile. but it has certainly lost its military reference.htm. one will always remain between the two. Regardless. It has a form of mastery and. That is not possible. Let us call it strategy. It has form. and the intervention of the object itself in the game in a fatal. What we have is the event itself. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. Illusion.doc 7/20/08 32 File Title Alternative – Strategy of the Object Alternative Fatal strategies demand that we abandon the subject as an agent of politics. for there to be a strategy. at the moment. but which would be the discourse of the object. Thus. But it no longer means anything great in my opinion. one can still use this term in a metaphorical sense perhaps. which has nothing to do with scientificity. even if it is a crazy logic.

but in the magic of their effect — there only they appear great and do themselves the luxury of existing. they’ll make a destiny out of it: intensify it while seeming to do the opposite. opposed to all will for knowledge and power: tenacious. to attain ecstasy in a scene instead of being produced as something really happening. it haunts nonetheless the process of events. as it were. but it’s here only to signify this passion of passions. seductive passion. for here is where things cynically subvert themselves from their beginnings and their ends. Prodigious form that moralists have always condemned. Jean Baudrillard. Fatal Strategies. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. to be in ecstasy is absolutely vital. For example. This is the only solution to the problem of “voluntary servitude. a human being can find in a vacation a greater boredom than in everyday life — a redoubled boredom. Things can only happen in this excessive manner. I’m speaking also of people and their inhuman strategies. instead they want to find a fatal distraction. increase is salvation and ecstasy.” Furthermore there is no liberation but this one: in the deepening of negative conditions. To occur is necessary. the bitter and triumphal foreboding that there’s no escaping this. but it isn’t perhaps indifferent to the fact of making a spectacle of itself in natural disasters. simulating passion. that is to say. objective information. the only fatal strategy. this derision. if one doesn’t understand this. and particularly in the effects of their disappearance. the will to disdain their causes and to lose ourselves in their effects. not in the hold of representation. even the increase of oppression and abjection that works like the liberating ecstasy of abjection — just as the absolute commodity works like the liberating form of the commodity. We think of nature as indifferent. essentially it is fatal logic that wins out. All strategies that promise liberation from anything are illusions. Liberating logic is basically understood only by a few. then one understands nothing of this collective brutishness. a drive for pure event. This is something of a parable. the most secret facts and thoughts. subversive passion. It could mean the ecstatic deepening of anything. How could we suppose that people were going to disavow their daily life and look for an alternative to it? On the contrary. All forms that tend to project a dazzling and miraculous liberty are only revolutionary homilies. This hyper-banality is the equivalent of fatality.doc 7/20/08 33 File Title A2 Perm The strategy of the object is our fatal strategy. that means that things are meaningless unless transfigured by this illusion. in a distant echo of original sin. this production which is not at all a representation. to be commuted into spectacle. deep in man’s heart. The important point is the predestination of vacations to boredom. I’m not joking: people are not looking for amusement.Whitman College 85911615. because it is made up of all the elements of happiness and distraction. but their prodigious and eccentric form. seal the monotony of it with an even greater monotony. Another form of fundamental cynicism: this will to spectacle and illusion. and it certainly is to the passions and enterprises of [hu]man. There is. 184-85 gender modified When I speak of the object and its fatal strategies. . 1990. Boredom is not the problem — the essential point is the increase of boredom. plunge into it to the point of ecstasy. only a fatal logic wins its battle with power precisely because it’s not a battle but a radical passivity. which is a grand act of self-surpassing. p.

We no longer have the sacred horizon of appearances. Jean Baudrillard. its stereophony and its artificial instantaneity. There is something of revenge in this: the object becomes a strange attractor. Stripped of all illusion by technology. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. in a poetic unreality. All metaphysics is swept away by this turnabout in which the subject is no longer the master of representation (‘I’ll be your mirror’). object world which surrounds us. still believes in identifiable meanings of particular signs. all too visible sequencing. A scriptwriter of genius (capital itself?) has dragged the world into a phantasmagoria of which we are all the fascinated victims. The Perfect Crime. Its essence is promotional. which of itself creates a parody effect. but it is no longer ours to exercise. It is the power of the object which cuts a swathe through the very artifice we have imposed on it. through the spectrum of the sign and the commodity. At the heart of our universe of signs there is an evil genius of advertising. which has annihilated all others. This is exemplified by the 1AC – they criticize the given meanings of SUVs and expose them as false. by their very existence. No longer any need to confront objects with the absurdity of their functions. It is. This is all part of their visible. Once they have passed through the medium or through the image. a trickster who has absorbed the drollery of the commodity and its mise en scene. superconductive of illusion and non-meaning. it is an objective function. p. and the irony of that incorporated double shines out at every moment in every fragment of our signs. exorbitated — i. the object which refracts the subject and imposes upon it its presence and its random form. The aura of our world is no longer sacred. 73-74 Irony is the only spiritual form in the modern world. Our strategies are incompatible fundamentally because the affirmative. they discard their meanings effortlessly. but that of the absolute commodity. The critical function of the subject has given way to the ironic function of the object. perform an artificial and ironic function. stripped of all connotation of meaning and value. It alone is the guardian of the mystery. its discontinuity its fragmentation. of our objects. taken out of the orbit of the subject — it is then that it becomes a pure object. of our models. in which the absence and transparency of the subject is reflected. For it is no longer a function of the subject.Whitman College 85911615. which can’t be combined with the affirmative. thus positively identifying their meanings as “not the given ones. objects. . but the operator of the objective irony of the world. 1996.doc 7/20/08 34 File Title A2 Perm – Ironic Strategies Can’t Include the Subject Stances of irony are purely stances of the object. although they will try to claim otherwise. as the Surrealists did: things move to shed an ironic light on themselves all on their own.” We should abandon all hopes of finding any meaning at all in these systems of signs – only doing that allows the strategy of the object.e. henceforth. No longer any need for a critical consciousness to hold up the mirror of its double to the world: our modern world swallowed its double when it lost its shadow. that of the artificial.

or secret ruse. The assumption of the alienated masses is something made by the affirmative. a strategy that eludes capture by power. in a paradoxical mode. No one knows what the true opposite of consciousness is — unless it be this unconscious of repression that psychoanalysis has imposed upon us. corresponding to an unconscious that is finally ironic. this tedious business of power and will.Whitman College 85911615. a sad vision of the unconscious (repressed). in a sort of game of irresponsibility. of non-desire. It might not even be repressed at all. heirs to the philosophers of the Enlightenment in their contempt of the masses) are only good basically for this: to administer by delegation. wills. 1990. Jean Baudrillard. joyous and seductive. it would be interesting to conceive of the masses. The masses know they are powerless. . ironic challenge. We always had a sad vision of the masses (alienated). to relieve the masses of this transendence for their greater pleasure. If only for the sake of change. the status of these “privileged” classes. the object-masses. intellectual. Vicarious*. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. allusive strategy. alienated way. of all enlightenment and depths of meaning. It would instead be made up out of what’s left after this joyous expulsion of all encumbering superstructures of being and will. absorption then expulsion of all powers. We live all of this. Upon our entire philosophy lies the heavy weight of these sad correlations. But they’re not that at all: the masses are very snobbish. 98-99 The masses know that they know nothing and they have no desire to know. illusive. p. That couldn’t be further from the truth. to recall Veblen’s concept. by proxy. because of an insistance which is thereby bathed in the light of a ridiculous looking halo. they act like Brummel and sovereignly delegate the faculty of choice to someone else. and then to reward them with the spectacle of it.doc 7/20/08 35 File Title AT: Passivity Bad/Whatever Else the 2AC Says Their arguments assume we embrace the masses’ passivity in a sad. silence. We reproach them vigorously for these signs of stupidity and passivity. sovereign lack of will. non-knowledge. liberatory gesture. whose will would have been diverted. as possessing a delusive. toward the secret finalities of the very masses they despise. Fatal Strategies. without their realizing it. not us – we affirm the masses’ passivity and lack of choice as a joyous. But perhaps our true unconscious is in this ironic power of withdrawal. subjectively. Our unconscious might not be composed of desires properly sworn to the sad destiny of repression. since these masses coexist in us with the intelligent and voluntary being who condemns and scorns them. All mediators (political. and they don’t want power.

running towards the television journalists in order to surrender or immobilised beside their tanks . the US and its allies sought a rapid conflict based upon airpower.. lobotomised. like the persistence of sweatshops alongside fully automated production facilities. The disparity between US and Iraqi forces with regard to method and military technology was so great that direct engagement rarely took place. that it was a hoax like the moon landing or something. but rather that what took place was not a war. In the past.doc 7/20/08 36 File Title A2 “You Deny the Reality of War” Our argument is not that nothing happened in the Gulf.. and when it did the outcome was entirely predictable. . high-technology intelligence and weapons systems. what took place was not a war in any traditional logic.” (86) This is not war. Where they do involve first world powers such as the US or UK. a lever of last resort employed only to the extent that is necessary to bring the recalcitrant party into line. Rather. This is the law of democracy and the New World Order. war has always involved an antagonistic and destructive confrontation between adversaries. it was no longer clear what had been gained by the sacrifice of so many lives. like Saddam Hussein. methods and military technology of the two sides was so great that what occurred cannot be considered an adversarial encounter.”20 He goes on to describe the successive phases of the conflict as involving varieties of state terrorism practised on both sides. Baudrillard argues. the use of force remains carefully circumscribed. p. and even if it were.. and its army permitted to crush the Kurdish and Shiite rebellions. The almost complete absence of any engagement by Iraqi planes. but in exchange for the rights of minorities in Iraq. located for the most part in a political and military third world. The claim that war itself has become virtual does not mean that military conflicts do not occur: they do and with increasing frequency and savagery in the New World Order. Baudrillard’s argument in “The Gulf War did not take place” is not that nothing took place. an exercise in domination rather than an act of war. The Iraqi regime was allowed to remain intact. Yet Chomsky has also questioned whether what took place in the Gulf in 1990-1 was a war. testify to the one-sided nature of the conflict: “it is as though the Iraqis were electrocuted. Lecturer in Philosophy at the University of Sydney. but an entirely asymmetrical operation. In several respects.Whitman College 85911615. apart from the massive damage and suffering inflicted upon Iraq. and the fate of their technologically inferior tanks. and a form of slaughter practised by US and UK air and ground forces upon Iraqi soldiers and civilians. say. which means it defies the logic of their criticism. and it is this failure of communication which leads to the use of force. the Gulf War did not take place. it involves two sides in combat. and the extensive use of electronic warfare. operate according to different rules. very little changed as a result of the military conflict. They are police operations rather than wars. All that is singular and irreducible must be reduced and absorbed. it is because they are in conflict with third world forces who do not recognise that the rules of the game have changed. deterrence breaks down for lack of any common ground.. it is as though it never happened. Other commentators have argued that the disparity between the aims. The imbalance of military means was such that this was not a conflict in which the survival of both sides was in play. He writes: “As I understand the concept ‘war’. Whereas Iraq was disposed to fight in the manner of its previous war with Iran.(71) In short. The Gulf War Did Not Take Place. and a staunch critic of US foreign policy. shooting at each other. and prepared to tolerate the massive casualties which would result from a ground-based war of attrition. does the fact of military conflict constitute a refutation of the hypothesis that there was no Gulf War? It does only if we accept that what did take place out there in the desert beyond the reach of the TV cameras was in fact a war. The image of a just war fought between the forces of freedom and those of tyranny dissolved in the moral ambiguities of the postconflict period. That did not happen in the Gulf. However. Paul Patton. a model of the liberal and critical intellectual. The rights of Kuwait may have been restored. 1720 Does the refusal of the critical strategy which seeks to re-establish the truth of what happened commit Baudrillard to the irrationalist denial that any military engagement took place? Alternatively. In these cases. can this be called a war?” (6 7—8) In his defence of the rationalist outlook which rejects the postmodern reduction of truth to consensus belief. The crucial stake in the Gulf affair. or who. a dual relation between warring parties. But these are secondary phenomena. and the short-Lived political and economic benefits at home. The final irony of the whole episode is that. was the subordination of Islam to the global order: “Our wars thus have less to do with the confrontation of warriors than with the domestication of the refractory forces on the planet . 1995. From a political point of view. A perfect semblance of victory for the Americans was exchanged for the perfect semblance of defeat for Iraq. They are the consequences of a law of uneven development. this was not the case in the Gulf conflict. in the case of the Gulf conflict. Norris points to the figure of Chomsky as someone who is both a defender of Enlightenment ideals in morality and the philosophy of language. The same Americans who had systematically destroyed Iraq’s power grid and transport infrastructure now refused to enforce the law of democracy and the New World Order where this would entail intervening in the internal affairs of a sovereign state.

and at that point it is difficult not to respond in ways that make resisters drop all other political priorities. crisis-based ethics and politics are problematic because they distract attention from the need for sustained resistance to the enmeshed. to maintain this false belief. For any feminism that aims to resist oppression and create alternative social and political options. Hypatia Special Issues: Women and Violence Volume 11 Number 4. assistant professor of philosophy and women’s studies at the university of Cincinnati.Whitman College 85911615. pg. Crisis-driven attention to declarations of war might actually keep resisters complacent about and complicitous in the general presence of global militarism. Neglecting the omnipresence of militarism allows the false belief that the absence of declared armed conflicts is peace. the polar opposite of war. Cuomo. The belief that militarism is an ethical. 1996.doc 7/20/08 37 File Title A2 “You Deny the Reality of War” Treating war as an event disables challenges to state sponsored violence and militarism Chris J. Seeing war as necessarily embedded in constant military presence draws attention to the fact that horrific. and who do not regularly encounter the realities of militarism. all of the time. or when the stability of privilege is directly threatened. omnipresent systems of domination and oppression that so often function as givens in most people's lives. It is particularly easy for those whose lives are shaped by the safety of privilege. state-sponsored violence is happening nearly all over. online Ethical approaches that do not attend to the ways in which warfare and military practices are woven into the very fabric of life in twenty-first century technological states lead to crisis-based politics and analyses. and that it is perpetrated by military institutions and other militaristic agents of the state. Antiwar resistance is then mobilized when the "real" violence finally occurs. . political concern only regarding armed conflict. creates forms of resistance to militarism that are merely exercises in crisis control.

If. violations of human rights. etc. professor of philosophy at the university of Ljubljana. activity fits the formula of "Let's go on changing something all the time so that.. In these circumstances. accessed January 28. today. religious or sexist violence. In sex. it means: say and write whatever you want .com/replenin. denouncing and boycotting companies which do not respect ecological conditions or which use child labor) . So everything is allowed. one is accused of abandoning scientific objectivity for the outdated ideological positions. as a critical topic: the prospects of a global ecological catastrophe. feminist and anti-racist campaigns.on condition that what you do does not effectively question or disturb the predominant political consensus. This is the point on which one cannot and should not concede: today.one should also ask how it effectively functions IN these very struggles. and. Today's liberal-democratic hegemony is sustained by a kind of unwritten Denkverbot similar to the infamous Berufsverbot in Germany of the late 60s . All the frenetic humanitarian.doc 7/20/08 38 File Title A2 Reformism Particularized demands for change. 2001.Whitman College 85911615. homophobia. the problem resides in the implicit qualifications which can be easily discerned by the "concrete analysis of the concrete situation. the growing violence not only in the far-away countries. gulag and the more recent Third World catastrophes is thus to serve as the support of this Denkverbot by constantly reminding us how things may have been much worse: "Just look around and see for yourself what will happen if we follow your radical notions!" And it is exactly the same thing that the demand for "scientific objectivity" means: the moment one seriously questions the existing liberal consensus. sexism. between the rich and the poor. solicited even. any serious attempt to imagine a society whose socio-political order would be different. which are all not only tolerated. but to PREVENT from something really happening.. this will necessarily end in a new Gulag!" The ideological function of the constant reference to the holocaust. of course. In short. the effectively hegemonic attitude is not patriarchal repression." as Lenin himself would have put it. which precludes any serious questioning of how this liberal-democratic order is complicit in the phenomena it officially condemns. one should be especially careful not to confuse the ruling ideology with ideology which SEEMS to dominate. the gap between the First and the Third World. the shattering impact of the digitalization of our daily lives.1 More than ever. this act will not be performed in an empty space . politically correct. things will remain the same!" . Slavoj Zizek. really changing. the reduction of freedom is presented to us as the arrival of new freedoms.or it means nothing. 2004 What are we to say to this? Again. but even supported by the media. antifeminism. The problem is that all this occurs against the background of a fundamental Denkverbot. “Repeating Lenin. even if they seemingly enter the economic territory (say. the prohibition to think.it will be an act WITHIN the hegemonic ideological coordinates: those who "really want to do something to help people" get involved in (undoubtedly honorable) exploits like Medecins sans frontiere. More then ever. globally. provocations in the style of the notorious "Sensation" exhibitions ARE the norm. to directly intervene and change things (which then inevitably ends in a cul de sac of debilitating impossibility: "what can one do against the global capital?"). Greenpeace. but free promiscuity. are performed against the backdrop of the neoliberal-democratic order and are tolerated as long as they fail to fundamentally change hegemonic ideology. the example of the art fully integrated into the establishment. the actual freedom of thought means the freedom to question the predominant liberal-democratic "postideological" consensus . our daily experience is mystifying: modernization generates new obscurantisms. one should bear in mind Walter Benjamin's reminder that it is not enough to ask how a certain theory (or art) declares itself to stay with regard to social struggles .they are tolerated and supported as long as they do not get too close to a certain limit. one follows a direct call to act.the moment one shows a minimal sign of engaging in political projects that aim to seriously challenge the existing order. the answer is immediately: "Benevolent as it is. One is therefore tempted to turn around Marx's thesis 11: the first task today is precisely NOT to succumb to the temptation to act. but also in our megalopolises. in art. This kind of activity provides the perfect example of interpassivity2: of doing things not to achieve something. no matter how radical..the new opacity. there is nothing easier today than to get international. "Fidelity to the democratic consensus" means the acceptance of the present liberal-parlamentary consensus. state or corporate funds for a multidisciplinary research into how to fight the new forms of ethnic.” http://lacan. Habermas designated the present era as that of the neue Undurchsichtlichkeit . but to question the hegemonic ideological coordinates.htm.

nor does it survive it.precession of simulacra. . and if one must return to the fable. even inverted. the mirror. between one and the other. 1-3 If once we were able to view the Borges fable in which the cartographers of the Empire draw up a map so detailed that it ends up covering the territory exactly(the decline of the Empire witnesses the fraying of this map. The desert of the real itself. It no longer needs to be rational.worse: with their artificial resurrection in the systems of signs. A hyperreal henceforth sheltered from the imaginary. remains. The real is produced from miniaturized cells. It is a hyperreal. though some shreds are still discernible in the deserts. from countless PACs.such is the vital function of the model in a system of death. in that tit lends itself to all systems of equivalences. that constituted the charm of abstraction. or rather of anticipated resurrection. It is produced from cable television pundits. Because it is difference that constitutes the poetry of the map and the charm of the territory. It is the real. Borge’s fable is unusable. It is a question of substituting the signs of the real for the real. Simulation is no longer that of a territory.the metaphysical beauty of this ruined abstraction testifying to a pride equal to the Empire and rotting like a carcass. a referential being. now we live in a hyper-pluralist stasis. Never again will the real have the chance to produce itself. In fact. and possesses nothing but the discrete charm of second-order simulacra. returning to the substance of the soil. all of the real. In fact. It is no longer anything but operational. It is no longer a question of imitation. The territory no longer precedes the map. whose vestiges persist here and there in the deserts that are no longer those of the Empire. the era of simulation is inaugurated by a liquidation of all referentials.doc 7/20/08 39 File Title A2 Reformism Reform doesn’t exist anymore. that is to say of an operation of deterring every real process via its operational double. and memory banks. disappears in the simulation whose operation is nuclear and genetic. which simultaneously culminates in and is engulfed by the cartographer’s mad project of the ideal coextensivity of map and territory. This imaginary of representation. It is nevertheless the map that precedes the territory. and its fall into ruins. no longer at all spectacular or discursive. little by little. Political reality is now purely operational. perhaps. today it is the territory whose shreds slowly rot across the extent of the map. or the concept. By crossing into a space whose curvature is no longer that of the real. lobbyists. It is the generation by models of a real without origin or reality: a hyperreal. nor duplication. 1981. but ours. No more mirror of being and appearances. metastable. or a substance. to all binary oppositions. matrices. because it not longer measures itself against either an ideal or negative instance. a programmatic. this fable has now come full circle for us.and it can be reproduced an indefinite number of times from these. Simulacra and Simulation.that engenders the territory. perfectly descriptive machine that offers all the signs of the real and short-circuits all its vicissitudes. Today abstraction is no longer that of the map. because no imaginary envelops it anymore. that no longer even gives the event of death a chance. models of control. All the revolutions and reforms have already happenedthen the neo-conservatives pushed back. Something has disappeared: the sovereign difference. Only the allegory of the Empire.as the most beautiful allegory of simulation. p. No more imaginary coextensivity: it is genetic miniaturization that is the dimension of simulation. it is no longer really the real.Whitman College 85911615. It is all of metaphysics that is lost. nor that of truth. and interest groups. the double. nor even parody. the magic of the concept and the charm of the real. on massive servers. leaving room only for the orbital recurrence of models and for the simulated generation of differences. and from any distinction between the real and the imaginary. and not the map. But it is no longer a question of either maps o territories. to all combinatory algebra. demographics. produced from the radiating synthesis of combinatory models in a hyperspace without atmosphere. Because it is with this same imperialism that present-day simulators attempt to make the real. coincide with their models of simulation. Jean Baudrillard. a material more malleable that meaning. a bit as the double ends by being confused with the real through aging). of the real and its concept. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School.

But the two are narrowly linked. something like the principle of reality disappears.doc 7/20/08 40 File Title A2 Sign production/Culture Crash Link Turn Just because you accelerate the process of sign creation doesn’t mean that you collapse signification itself. in which fiction will never again be a mirror held toward the future. leaving no room for the imaginary—it is not exactly because of this that the exploratory universe (technical. of their original process. models. The conquest of space that follows that of the planet is equal to derealizing (dematerializing) human space. saturated. besides it forged its path in the narratives of spatial exploration. of the quotidian. the extrapolation. From then onward. the perimeters of a prior world. rather. cosmic) of science fiction has ceased to function. Witness this two bedroom/kitchen/shower put into orbit. brought to light with a transparent precision. . Thus in Simulacra by Philip K. mapped. Dick. sometimes down to disquietingly strange details. When a system reaches its own limits and becomes saturated. In this way. We can no longer imagine any other universe: the grace of transcendence was taken away from us in that respect too. but a desperate rehallucination of the past. of the banal. There is no relationship of cause and effect there: it is not because terrestrial space today is virtually coded. This is also true of geographic and spatial exploration: when there is no longer any virgin territory. models of simulation in place and to contrive to give them the feeling of the real. There is a hemorrhaging of reality as in internal coherence of a limited universe. or to transferring it into a hyperreal of simulation. the war of Secession. and they are two versions of the same general process of implosion that follows the gigantic process of explosion and expansion characteristic of past centuries. the people. The proliferation of signs leads to the hallucination and revisiting of impacts in their hyperrealized forms.Whitman College 85911615. The process will. counterparts to the more terrestrial forms of exploration and colonization of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. has thus in a sense closed up again in universalizing itself—a universal market. when the map covers the whole territory.the satellization of the real in the transcendence of space—it is the end of metaphysics. the conquest of space constitutes an irreversible crossing toward the loss of the terrestrial referential. not only of merchandise. Until now we have always had a reserve of the imaginary—now the coefficient of reality is proportional to the reserve of the imaginary that gives it its specific weight. derealized in advance. mental. p. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. 123-124 Perhaps science fiction from the cybernetic and hyperreal era can only exhaust itself. once the limits of this universe recede into infinity. the events. Simulacra and Simulation. registered. reconstituted as an animal or vegetal reserve. emptied of meaning. the ideologies of the past. Hallucination of the real. hyperrealized. The everydayness of the terrestrial habitat itself elevated to the rank of cosmic value. signs. 1981. but without substance. Classical science fiction was that of an expanding universe. hypostatized in space. be the opposite: it will be to put decentered situations. raised to a spatial power (one could say) with the most recent lunar module. something must change: the projection. but hallucinatory with retrospective truth. and thus one available to the imaginary. down to the smallest details. a reversal is produced— something else takes place. Gigantic hologram in three dimensions. can only try to reconstruct invitro. the imaginary from the givens of the real. in the imaginary as well. It is no longer possible to fabricate the unreal from the real. but reconstituted. the end of the phantasm. but of values. precisely because it has disappeared from our life. of lived experience. in its artificial resurrection of “historical” worlds. the sort of pantographic excess that constituted the charm of science fiction are all impossible. to reinvent the real as fiction. Jean Baudrillard. the end of science fiction—the era of hyperreality begins. of lived experience.

and bombs to ever latitude. what subject would exist behind this enclosure. Control by the threat will be replaced by the more effective strategy of pacification through the bomb and through the possession of the bomb. it absorbs all living energy. The same goes for the atomic reactors that we have already sent them. of a reversion of energies toward a minimal threshold). . control. the nuclear everywhere inaugurates an accelerated process of implosion. One can no longer imagine what project. This was already the aporia of the modern revolution. Responsibility.doc 7/20/08 41 File Title A2 “The Case Impacts Still Happen” Deterrence makes your massive impacts impossible Jean Baudrillard. all of those who have acquired it since will be deterred from using by the very fact of possessing it). Entry into the atomic club. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. 1981. Simulacra and Simulation. The “little” powers. Thus the very possibility of paralyzing a whole country by flicking a switch makes it so that the electrical engineers will never use this weapon: the whole myth of the total and revolutionary strike crumbles at the very moment when the means are available—but alas precisely because those means are available. believing that they are buying their independent striking force. so prettily named. weapons. 39-40 This is why nuclear proliferation does not increase the risk of either an atomic clash or an accident— save in the interval when the “young” powers could be tempted to make a nondeterrant. will buy the virus of deterrence. p. [40] The nuclear is at once the culminating point of available energy and the maximization of energy control systems. Lockdown and control increase in direct proportion to (and undoubtedly even faster than) liberating potentialities. of their own deterrence. all risk of explosion. so many neutron bombs knocking out all historic virulence. In this sense.Whitman College 85911615. they deter themselves. of an implosion where all these energies would be abolished in a catastrophic process (in the literal sense. what power. self-deterrence always grow more rapidly than the forces or the weapons at our disposal: this is the secret of the social order. this vast saturation of a system by its own forces. It is thus perfectly probable that one day we will see nuclear powers export atomic reactors. Therein lies the whole process of deterrence. unusable. nonexplosive—except for the possibility of an explosion toward the center. Energies freeze in their own fire. that is to say in the sense of a reversion of the whole cycle toward a minimal point. unintelligible. it freezes everything around it. It is still the absolute paradox of the nuclear. censure. what strategy. “real” use of it (as the Americans did in Hiroshima—but precisely only they had the right to this “use value” of the bomb. very quickly effaces (as unionization does in the working world) any inclination toward violent intervention. now neutralized.

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