Whitman College 85911615.

doc 7/20/08

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Baudrillard K Neg
Baudrillard K Neg.......................................................................................................................................................1

Baudrillard K Neg..........................................................................................................................1
1NC (1/1)....................................................................................................................................................................4

1NC (1/1).........................................................................................................................................4
Links – Policy Debate – Disneyland (1/2)..................................................................................................................5

Links – Policy Debate – Disneyland (1/2)....................................................................................5
Links – Policy Debate – Disneyland (2/2)..................................................................................................................6

Links – Policy Debate – Disneyland (2/2)....................................................................................6
Links – Policy Debate – Hyperreal Communication (1/2)..........................................................................................7

Links – Policy Debate – Hyperreal Communication (1/2).........................................................7
Links – Policy Debate – Hyperreal Communication (2/2)..........................................................................................8

Links – Policy Debate – Hyperreal Communication (2/2).........................................................8
Links – Leadership type Impacts – Saving Private Ryan (1/2).................................................................................10

Links – Leadership type Impacts – Saving Private Ryan (1/2)...............................................10
Links – Leadership type Impacts – Saving Private Ryan (2/2).................................................................................11

Links – Leadership type Impacts – Saving Private Ryan (2/2)...............................................11
Links – War Scenarios..............................................................................................................................................12

Links – War Scenarios.................................................................................................................12
Links – Preventing the “Real” War...........................................................................................................................13

Links – Preventing the “Real” War...........................................................................................13
Links – Rights/Revolution/Hippie Shit.....................................................................................................................14

Links – Rights/Revolution/Hippie Shit......................................................................................14
Links – Micropolitics................................................................................................................................................15

Links – Micropolitics...................................................................................................................15
Links – Leftist Politics..............................................................................................................................................16

Links – Leftist Politics.................................................................................................................16
Links – Alternative Energy – Tech/R&D.................................................................................................................17

Links – Alternative Energy – Tech/R&D..................................................................................17
Links – Alternative Energy – Nuclear Energy (1/2).................................................................................................18

Links – Alternative Energy – Nuclear Energy (1/2).................................................................18
Links – Alternative Energy – Nuclear Energy (1/2).................................................................................................19

Links – Alternative Energy – Nuclear Energy (1/2).................................................................19
Links – Preservation/Nature/Environment/Ecology (1/3)........................................................................................20

Links – Preservation/Nature/Environment/Ecology (1/3)........................................................20

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Links – Preservation/Nature/Environment/Ecology (2/3)........................................................................................21

Links – Preservation/Nature/Environment/Ecology (2/3)........................................................21
Links – Preservation/Nature/Environment/Ecology (3/3)........................................................................................22

Links – Preservation/Nature/Environment/Ecology (3/3)........................................................22
Impacts – War (1/2)..................................................................................................................................................23

Impacts – War (1/2).....................................................................................................................23
Impacts – War (2/2)..................................................................................................................................................24

Impacts – War (2/2).....................................................................................................................24
Impacts – Fascism.....................................................................................................................................................25

Impacts – Fascism........................................................................................................................25
Impacts – Violence....................................................................................................................................................26

Impacts – Violence.......................................................................................................................26
Impacts – Annihilation of Difference Impact...........................................................................................................28

Impacts – Annihilation of Difference Impact............................................................................28
Impacts – Cuomo – Ecological Destruction..............................................................................................................29

Impacts – Cuomo – Ecological Destruction...............................................................................29
Alternative – Strategy of the Object – The Children................................................................................................30

Alternative – Strategy of the Object – The Children................................................................30
Alternative – Fatal Strategies Alternative.................................................................................................................31

Alternative – Fatal Strategies Alternative.................................................................................31
Alternative – Strategy of the Object Alternative.......................................................................................................32

Alternative – Strategy of the Object Alternative......................................................................32
A2 Perm....................................................................................................................................................................33

A2 Perm........................................................................................................................................33
A2 Perm – Ironic Strategies Can’t Include the Subject............................................................................................34

A2 Perm – Ironic Strategies Can’t Include the Subject...........................................................34
AT: Passivity Bad/Whatever Else the 2AC Says......................................................................................................35

AT: Passivity Bad/Whatever Else the 2AC Says.......................................................................35
A2 “You Deny the Reality of War”..........................................................................................................................36

A2 “You Deny the Reality of War”............................................................................................36
A2 “You Deny the Reality of War”..........................................................................................................................37

A2 “You Deny the Reality of War”............................................................................................37
A2 Reformism...........................................................................................................................................................38

A2 Reformism...............................................................................................................................38
A2 Reformism...........................................................................................................................................................39

A2 Reformism...............................................................................................................................39

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A2 Sign production/Culture Crash Link Turn..........................................................................................................40

A2 Sign production/Culture Crash Link Turn.........................................................................40
A2 “The Case Impacts Still Happen”.......................................................................................................................41

A2 “The Case Impacts Still Happen”.........................................................................................41

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1NC (1/1)
While ecology and limitations on consumption are laudable goals insofar as they solve problems like the exhaustion of resources, this responsible stewardship is inherently bound up with an unpredictable and uncontrollable underside – the development of renewables is a liberation of the forces of energy that amounts to a limitless proliferation culminating in the devouring of the very agents of that energy. Technologized energy is a Pandora’s box that we can have no fantasies of control over – it exceeds and defies attempts at containment. Jean Baudrillard, Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School, 1993, The Transparency of Evil, p. 103-05
The dangers threatening the human species are thus less risks of default (exhaustion of natural resources, dilapidation of the environment, etc.) than risks of excess: runaway energy flows, chain reactions, or frenzied autonomous developments. This distinction is a vital one, for while risks of default can be addressed by a New Political Ecology, the basic assumptions of which are by now generally accepted (indeed, they are already written into the International Rights of the Species), there is absolutely nothing to counter this other immanent logic, this speeding-up of everything, which plays double or nothing with nature. In the first case, the restoration of equilibrium to our ecological niche is still possible, the energies in play could still be rebalanced; in the second case, however, we are confronted by a development that is irretrievably out of balance. In the first case ethical principles may be brought to bear: a teleology that transcends the material process involved — even if merely the goal of survival — may come into play; in the second case, however, a process whose only goal is limitless proliferation will inevitably absorb all transcendence and devour all agents thereof. A full-blown and planet-wide schizophrenia, therefore, now rules: even as all sorts of ecological measures are being taken, even as a strategy for the proper use of the world, for an ideal interaction with the world, is being deployed, there is a simultaneous proliferation of enterprises of destruction, a total unleashing of the performance principle. And the very same forces often contribute to both trends. Furthermore, though the end-point of the first tendency seems fairly clear — to wit, the saving of our species by means of ecological conviviality — we know absolutely nothing about the secret destination of the second. But surely this acceleration, this excentric motion, must
have an end, must imply a destiny for the human species, a different symbolic relationship with the world that is much more complex and ambiguous than a relationship of balance and interaction? This too would be a vital destination — but it would involve a total risk. If such a destination has indeed been chosen for us, it is obvious that ecology’s rational deities will be powerless against the throwing of technology and energy into the struggle for an unpredictable goal, in a sort of Great Game whose rules are unknown to us. Even now we have no protection against the perverse effects of security, control and crime-prevention measures. We already know to what dangerous extremities we are led by prophylaxis in every sphere: social, medical, economic or political. In the name of the highest possible degree of security, an endemic terror may well be instituted that is in every way as dangerous as the epidemic threat of catastrophe. One thing is certain: in view of the complexity of the initial conditions and the potential reversibility of all the effects, we should entertain no illusions about the effectiveness of any kind of rational intervention. In the face of a process which so far surpasses the ‘individual or collective will of the players, we have no choice but to accept that any distinction between good and evil (and by extension here any possibility of assessing the ‘right level’ of technological development) can have the slightest validity only within the tiny marginal sphere contributed by our rational model. Inside these bounds, ethical reflection and practical determinations are feasible; beyond them, at the level of the overall process

which we have ourselves set in motion, but which from now on marches on independently of us with the ineluctability of a natural catastrophe, there reigns — for better or worse — the inseparability of good and evil, and hence the impossibility of mobilizing the one without the other. This is, properly speaking, the theorem of the accursed share. There is no point whatsoever in wondering whether things ought to be thus: they simply are thus, and to fail to acknowledge it is to fall utterly prey to illusion. None of this invalidates whatever may be possible in
the ethical, ecological or economic sphere of our life — but it does totally relativize the impact of such efforts upon the symbolic level, which is the level of destiny.

<<Insert More Links Here, choose wisely based off of whether it is a more critical or a more policy oriented affirmative>>

down to the morphology of individuals and of the crowd. Disneyland is presented as imaginary in order to make us believe that the rest is real. and thus of saving the reality principle. 12-14 Disneyland is a perfect model of all the entangled orders of simulacra. Embalmed and pacified. Whence the possibility of an ideological analysis of Disneyland (L. its infantile degeneration. the religious. One parks outside and stand in line inside. in its banal omnipresence. which is no longer anything but an immense scenario and a perpetual pan shot. Magic Mountain.a city of incredible proportions but without space. This imaginary world is supposed to ensure the success of the operation. however. miniaturized pleasure of real America. needs this old imaginary like a sympathetic nervous system made up of childhood signals and faked phantasms. play of space]): digest of the American way of life. but this makes something else and this “ideological” blanket functions as a cover for a simulation of the third order: Disneyland exists in order to hide that it is the “real” country. By an extraordinary coincidence (but this derives without a doubt from the enchantment inherent to this universe.is total. this frozen. As much as electrical and atomic power stations. international politics is just as much of a game as debate. who awaits his resurrection through an increase of 180 degrees centigrade. Enchanted Village. panegyric of American values. All its values are exalted by the miniature and the comic strip. etc. solitude is directed at a single gadget: the automobile. Certainly. and in the sufficient and excessive number of gadgets necessary to create the multitudinous effect. that is carceral). childlike world is found to have been conceived and realize by a man who is himself now cryogenized: Walt Disney. but belong to the hyperreal order and to the order of simulation. But what attracts the crowds the most is without a doubt the social microcosm. the Frontier. all of “real” America that is Disneyland (a bit like prisons are there to hide that it is the social in its entirety. The contrast with the absolute solitude of the parking lot. without dimension. rather: inside. In fact.Whitman College 85911615. this city. The only phantasmagoria in this imaginary world lies in the tenderness and warmth of the crowd.a veritable concentration camp. Thus. as much as cinema studios. jeux d’espace [Utopias. Whence the debility of this imaginary. Marine World: Los Angeles is surrounded by these imaginary stations that feed reality. whereas all of Los Angeles and the America that surrounds it are no longer real. is a fiction factory whose function is to reify the world outside. . a whole panoply of gadgets magnetizes the crowd in directed flows outside. the energy of the real to a city whose mystery is precisely that of no longer being anything but a network of incessant. This world wants to be childish in order to make us believe that the adults are elsewhere. Simulacra and Simulation.doc 7/20/08 5 File Title Links – Policy Debate – Disneyland (1/2) Policy debate is about imagining the world of the plan. The violence of the real world is sustained by policy simulation. unreal circulation. the Future World. The imaginary of Disneyland is neither true nor false.that it is that of the adults themselves who come here to act the child in order to foster illusion as to their real childishness. one is altogether abandoned at the exit. idealized transposition of a contradictory reality. Disneyland is not the only one. Marin did it very well in Utopiques. is drawn. Policy hacks come to the imaginary realm of debate to convince themselves that all that stuff they hear on CNN is reality. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. p. Jean Baudrillard. everywhere in Disneyland the objective profile of America. of its constraints and joys. It is no longer a question of a false representation of reality (ideology) but of concealing the fact that the real is no longer real. in the “real” world. Or. like Disneyland. It is first of all a play of illusions and phantasms: the Pirates. it is a deterrence machine set up in order to rejuvenate the fiction of the real in the opposite camp.. 1981. Debate. and to conceal the fact that true childishness is everywhere.

in the guise of ecology. and money. On a mental level. in the sophisticated confines of a triumphal market economy is reinvented a penury/sign. a mental implosion and involution without prececedent lies in wait for a system of the kink. which proliferate in California. . which correspond to the improbable coalition of luxury. or the incredible coexistence of the most bizarre theories and practices. and not of nature at all.Whitman College 85911615. psychic. They no longer walk. that secretes penury. etc. somatic recycling institutes. or lost sociality. maybe a mental catastrophe. heaven. the first great toxic excrement of a hyperreal civilization. or lost bodies. is verified. Disneyland is the prototype of this new function. the phantasms. the historical. and the dreams. fairylike. of energy crises and the critique of capital.doc 7/20/08 6 File Title Links – Policy Debate – Disneyland (2/2) Disneyland: a space of the regeneration of the imaginary as waste-treatment plants are elsewhere. Everywhere today one must recycle waste. health food. but there are institutes for that. asceticism. to the improbable luxurious materialization of life and to undiscoverable contradictions. but there is contactotherapy. Nevertheless. yoga. a penury/simulacrum. or the lost taste for food. Marshall Sahlins’s idea that it is the economy of the market. legendary imaginary of children and adults is a waste product. and even here. People no longer look at each other. One reinvents penury. but at a secondary level: here. a simulated behavior of the underdeveloped (including the adoption of Marxist tenets) that. whose visible signs would be those of this strange obesity. But all the sexual. Everywhere one recycles lost faculties. belonging to the same order. adds a final esoteric aureole to the triumph of an esoteric culture. They no longer touch each other. but they go jogging. vanished savage naturalness: natural food.

Rather than creating communication. blackmail through speech: “You are concerned. etc. One both believes and doesn’t. the antitheater of communication. to the extent that information is directly destructive of meaning and signification. the media. but one must guard against thinking that people believe in it: this is the trap of critical thinking that can only be exercised if it presupposes the naïveté and stupidity of the masses. which as one knows. 79-82 Or. to total entropy. this information ritual becomes encoded in the real. The loss of meaning is directly linked to the dissolving. listeners who call in. To this tautology of the system the masses respond with ambivalence. this awakening dream of communication. on the contrary.tying news articles together to create the most accurate representation possible of the real world and then combine them into a coherent and logical story. We are all complicitous in this myth. One does not ask oneself. . to avoid the brutal desimulation that would confront us in the face of the obvious reality of a radical loss of meaning. dissuasive action of information. but of exactly the opposite. or that it neutralizes them. the pressure of information pursues an irresistible destructuration of the social. 2. and for this very reason: because where we think that information produces meaning. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. It is the alpha and omega of our modernity. Well. despite its dysfunctions and irrationalities. which is redistributed in all the interstices of the social—just as consensus would have it that material production. But one can believe that this belief is as ambiguous as that which was attached to myths in ancient societies. A circular arrangement through which one stages the desire of the audience. or with an always enigmatic belief. there is a rigorous and necessary correlation between the two. Rather than producing meaning. Behind this exacerbated mise-en-scene of communication. The third hypothesis is the most interesting but flies in the face of every commonly held opinion. and the mass media.” More and more information is invaded by this kind of phantom content.Whitman College 85911615.doc 7/20/08 7 File Title Links – Policy Debate – Hyperreal Communication (1/2) Policy debate is intricately tied to the workings of mass media. which means that you reproduce your harms Jean Baudrillard. it exhausts itself in the staging of meaning. Information devours its own content. in each one of us. you are the event. of the implosion of the social in the masses. is never anything but the recycling in the negative of the traditional institution. Thus information dissolves meaning and dissolves the social. Thus the media are producers not of socialization. faith in information attach themselves to this tautological proof that the system gives of itself by doubling the signs of an unlocatable reality. The nondirective interview. 1981. there be an excess of meaning. in a sort of nebulous state dedicated not to a surplus of innovation. that is how the real is abolished. Everywhere socialization is measured by the exposure to media messages. Simulacra and Simulation. and even if the waste is enormous. And this is only the macroscopic extension of the implosion of meaning at the microscopic level of the sign. it is a circular process—that of simulation. as a lure— to which the force of myth is attached. Whoever is underexposed to the media is dissocialized or virtually asocial. the fact is that it is collapsing. the mass media.” A sort of inverse simulation in the masses. Moreover. This coherence and logic is the fundamental myth of modernity. but still. not only communication but the social functions in a closed circuit. In fact. to short-circuit in advance any possibility of communication (precession of the model that calls an end to the real). or whether it is the simulacrum that is there first for dissuasive ends. to deterrence they respond with disaffection. 1. that of the hyperreal. Myth exists. Belief. Useless to ask which is the first term. the opposite occurs. speech. there is none. “I know very well. but less. The hyperreality of communication and of meaning. but. very much on the contrary.. a general consensus would have it that nevertheless. A gigantic process of simulation that is very familiar. corresponds to this simulation of meaning and of communication in which this system encloses us. opens onto an excess of wealth and social purpose. p. And for two reasons. participation at every level. it exhausts itself in the act of staging communication. More real than the real. It devours communication and the social. the integrated circuit of the negative. our intense analysis of the world does not produce more understanding. Thus. without which the credibility of our social organization would collapse. as a whole. Everywhere information is thought to produce an accelerated circulation of meaning. It is useless to ask if it is the loss of communication that produces this escalation in the simulacrum. this homeopathic grafting. Immense energies are deployed to hold this simulacrum at bay. a plus value of meaning homologous to the economic one that results from the accelerated rotation of capital Information is thought to create communication.

in which even the definition and distinct action of the medium can no longer by determined. the medium is the message. the implosion of the medium itself in the real. That is—and this is where McLuhan’s formula leads.doc 7/20/08 8 File Title Links – Policy Debate – Hyperreal Communication (2/2) This implosion should be analyzed according to McLuhan’s formula. But there is something even more serious. which McLuhan himself did not see.Whitman College 85911615. in the same movement. one could still expect to manipulate the medium in its form and to transform the real by using the impact of the medium as form. Because beyond this neutralization of all content. anti-media. pirate-radios. the implosion of the medium and of the real in a sort of hyperreal nebula. Only the medium can make an event—whatever the contents. revolutionary use value of the medium as such. . there is perhaps still a subversive. there is. That means that all contents of meaning are absorbed in the only dominant form of the medium. If all the content is wiped out. A serious problem for all counter-information. etc. whether they are conformist or subversive. the consequences of which have yet to be exhausted. pushed to its limit—there is not only an implosion of the message in the medium.

Whitman College 85911615.doc 7/20/08 9 File Title .

leaving behind it an indifferent nebula. it is a myth that invades cinema as imaginary content. as irreversible: the fetishization of an object intervenes to obscure this unbearable discovery. Anything serves to escape this void. chased from the real by the violence of history. The politics that enter the university are those that come from history. remakes its classics. but emptied of references. in the same retro fascination. The illusion would be to congratulate oneself on this “awareness of history on the part of the cinema. the great trauma. at least there was violence (albeit fascist). and pacified monotony on the quotidian level—this history exorcised by a slowly or brutally congealing society celebrates its resurrection in force on the screen. It is by the virtue of this fact that it takes the place of myths on the screen. as profound. that all previous history is resurrected in bulk—a controlling idea no longer selects. The great event of this period. this kind of politics is like sexuality or permanent education (or like social security in its time). fascism. war. is this decline of strong referentials. p. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. retro fashions—no longer so much because people believe in them or still place some hope in the them. It is unto this void that the phantasms of a past history recede. and particularly the last. but simply to resurrect the period whet at least there was history. There is however a privileging of the immediately preceding era (fascism. denser. that is. Hypotyposis and specularity. “Entering another round of Saving Private Ryan” is a perfect example of how neoconservative leadership impact authors write under the naïve hallucination of ideology and power. Myth. it is for this reason that fascism can again become fascinating in its filtered cruelty. lived in the march of history. Post-history has rendered power useless. as serious. more perverse. the mythical. a retro politics. ideologies. This trauma (loss of referentials) is similar to the discovery of the difference between the sexes in children. the panoply of events. cinema also approaches an absolute correspondence with itself—and this is not contradictory: it is the very definition of the hyperreal. and affinity that is not at all political. One can explain it by evoking the Freudian theory of fetishism (perhaps also a retro hypothesis). Whereas so many generations. Thus the fetishized history will preferably be the one immediately preceding our “irreferential” era. The affirmative simply recycles the signs of power. with the air of a game and a field of adventure. this object is not just any object. this hemorrhage of values—it is in proportion to this distress that all content can be evoked pell-mell. this leukemia of history and of politics. including the delirious use of its own technique) used to have a lively. the pageantry of the belle époque. it is naïve to conclude that the evocation of fascism signals a current renewal of fascism (it is precisely because one is no longer there. because one is in something else. the cinema is fascinated by itself as a lost object as much as it (and we) are fascinated by the real as a lost referent. but precisely. unreality. everything is equivalent and is mixed indiscriminately in the same morose and funereal exaltation. according to the same process that used to make lost myths live again. more confused essence). Cinema plagiarizes itself. recopies itself. History is our lost referential. In a violent and contemporary period of history (let’s say between the two world wars and the cold war). that is to say our myth. 1981. it is often the last object perceived before the traumatic discovery. same mystification. the period immediately following the war—the innumerable films that play on these themes for us have a closer. Today. says Freud. remakes the silent film more perfectly than the original. . in the euphoric or catastrophic expectation of a revolution—today one has the impression that history has retreated. an affinity that is not at all political. it is history itself that invades the cinema according to the same scenario—the historical stake chased from our lives by this sort of immense neutralization. it is naïve to conclude that the evocation of fascism and of war in retro—a coincidence. retroactivates its original myths.” as one congratulated oneself on the “entrance of politics into the university. full dramatic relation. or the revolutionary struggles. finds refuge in cinema.doc 7/20/08 10 File Title Links – Leadership type Impacts – Saving Private Ryan (1/2) It should be a measure of Khalizad’s argument that he depends on cinema to make it for him. aestheticized by retro)… Concurrently with this effort toward an absolute correspondence with the real.” Same misunderstanding.Whitman College 85911615. Simulacra and Simulation. emptied of substance and legalized in their superficial exercise. Jean Baudrillard. 43-48. dialectical. only nostalgia endlessly accumulates: war.: all of this is logical. these death pangs of the real and of the rational that open onto an age of simulation. posthumous liberalization. which is still less amusing. Whence the omnipresence of fascism and of war in retro—a coincidence. traversed by currents. The cinema and the imaginary (the novelistic. which is dubbed peaceful coexistence on a global level. It is the golden age of despotic and legendary resurrections. etc. when at least life and death were at stake. they just can’t get over it.

which was substituted for all other value—we are all complicitous in this. Today cinema can place all its talent. Behind a performative and demonstrative logic: the obsession with real time or with the minute quotidianeity of Jeanne Hilmann doing the dishes). the cool promiscuity. Photography and cinema contributed in large part to the secularization of history. the last great myth. all its technology in the service of reanimating what it itself contributed to liquidating. that today seems to be increasingly lost. It is a myth that at once subtended the possibility of an “objective” enchainment of events and causes and the possibility of a narrative enchainment of discourse. to the restitution of an absolute simulacrum of the past or the present. It is this fabulous character. this negative and implacable fidelity to the materiality of the past. negative relation: it results from the loss of specificity of one and of the other. along with the unconscious. the asexual nuptials of two cold media that evolve in an asymptotic line toward each other: the cinema attempting to abolish itself in the cinematographic (or televised) hyperreal. and it itself is lost therein. The age of history. and to the advent of the archive.doc 7/20/08 11 File Title Links – Leadership type Impacts – Saving Private Ryan (2/2) The relation that is being formed today between the cinema and the real is an inverse. the mythical energy of an event or of a narrative. Because cinema itself contributed to the disappearance of history. to fixing it in its visible. to a particular scene of the past or of the present. perhaps. . The cold collage. is also the age of the novel. “objective form at the expense of the myths that once traversed it. History is a strong myth. It only resurrects ghosts. and this is irreversible.Whitman College 85911615. if one can call it that.

that is not a value judgment. his film is really the extension of the war through other means.Whitman College 85911615. The real war is waged by Coppola as it is by Westmoreland: without counting the inspired irony of having forests and Philippine villages napalmed to retrace the hell of South Vietnam. and its apotheosis. and the remarkable paranoia that from the beginning conceived of this film as a historical. no desire for “raising consciousness” in relation to the war: and in a sense this is the brutal quality of this film—not being rotten with the moral psychology of war. and one can even rejoice in this monstrous trick (exactly as with Wagner). This exercise in the simulated effects of war is indistinguishable from the means of war and the war itself. no critical sense. a psychotropic dream that had the goal neither of a victory nor of a policy at stake. the sacrificial joy of so many millions spent. and the same nonsignifying furor. with the same retro megalomania. their methods. exactly as if they had annihilated the jungle and the towns. as technological and psychedelic fantasy. In this sense. they are immersed in the machinery. right after the end of the hostilities the Americans offered economic aid. Apocalypse Now is a global victory. one of good and evil. of the immanence of a thing in its very revolution. because the film is a phase of this war without end) what was already crazy about this war. that this film is part of the war—if the Americans (seemingly) lost the other one. the orgasmic sacrifice of industrial means. One revisits everything through cinema and one begins again: the Molochian joy of filming. p. And all of a sudden. excessive deployment of a power already filming itself as it unfolded. the war as a succession of special effects. the war in Vietnam would have been nothing other than what it is. Cinematographic power equal and superior to that of the industrial and military complexes. would not fundamentally have existed—and it is necessary for us to believe in this: the war in Vietnam “in itself” perhaps in fact never happened. and he himself makes movies in the same way. but rather. and for Americans it was primarily that: a test site. the film becomes war. and one can say to oneself: how is such a horror possible (not that of the war. it is there. of such a holocaust of means. the film is not without interest: it retrospectively illuminates (not even retrospectively. exactly as they are making their film today. the pinnacle of this failed war. the sacrificial. that nothing separates them. in the mind of the creator. 59-60. there is no possible verdict. No real distance. global event. Coppola can certainly deck out his helicopter captain in a ridiculous hat of the light cavalry. it is the best possible testimonial— with the same immoderation. he hits us with that. the same monstrous candor… and the same success. of the organic metabolism of all the technologies. the omnipresence of these reassurances is proof that modern warfare is simply an exercise in special effects. a gigantic territory in which to test their arms. irrational in political terms: the Americans and the Vietnamese are already reconciled. the war become film even before being filmed. the affirmative impact evidence traces out the mass destruction/mass spectacle of war-.. One has understood nothing. It reassures us that war is indeed an extension of politics by other means.the explosions. The war as entrenchment.but one can always retrieve a tiny little idea that is not nasty. Jean Baudrillard. which completes the mass-spectacle effect of this war. In fact. they are part of the special effect. but one of the reversibility of both destruction and production. equal or superior to that of the Pentagon and of governments. 1981.doc 7/20/08 12 File Title Links – War Scenarios Like special effects in war cinema. Coppola makes his film like the Americans made war—in this sense. of the carpet of bombs in the strip of film… . it is a dream. The war became film. of so many misadventures. in which. distant signs. with the same clownish effect in overdrive. either about the war nr about cinema (at least the latter) if one has not grasped this lack of distinction that is no longer either an ideological or a moral one. perhaps waiting for nothing but consecration by a superfilm. but that tells you the war in Vietnam and this film are cut from the same cloth. Coppola does nothing but that: test cinema’s power of intervention. they certainly won this one. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. But there it is. the two are joined by their common hemorrhage into technology. Simulacra and Simulation. but that of the film strictly speaking)? But there is no answer. a baroque dream of napalm and o the tropics. the same excess of means. The war abolishes itself in its technological test. their power. it is bewildering. and make him crush the Vietnamese village to the sound of Wagner’s music—those are not critical. test the impact of a cinema that has become an immeasurable machinery of special effects.

no longer sustainable. unlike the Aristotelian. everyone is too ashamed of him: the collective shame which attaches to the hostage reflects the absolute degradation of real hostility (war) into virtual hospitality (Saddam Hussein’s “guests”). this is an Aristotelian logic which is no longer our own. There will never be a monument to the unknown hostage. Our virtual has definitively overtaken the actual and we must be content with this extreme virtuality which. No more than the politicians. Deterrence has passed by that way and it spares no one. It is neither the strong form nor the degree zero of war. Extracted like molecules in an experimental process. Against this obsession with the real we have created a gigantic apparatus of simulation which allows us to pass to the act “in vitro” (this is true even of procreation). not their real death. Peripeteias of an anorexic history or an anorexic war which can no longer devour the enemy because it is incapable of conceiving the enemy as worthy of being challenged or annihilated — and God knows Saddam Hussein is worthy of neither challenge nor annihilation — and thus devours itself. 1995. the hostages are once again revealing. we have fallen into soft war. as though the fiction of an earthquake were created by manipulating the measuring instruments. as though the irruption or the event of war had become obscene and insupportable. The Gulf War Did Not Take Place.Whitman College 85911615. By dint of dreaming of pure war. Since it never began. but the weak or phthisical [sic] degree. However. deters any passage to action. It is the bellicose equivalent of safe sex: make war like love with a condom! On the Richter scale. this war is therefore interminable. the disappearance of the symbolic passage to the act. Everything is therefore transposed into the virtual. That’s no longer the case in an age of simulation. Even the military has lost the privilege of use value. with every pleasure which is too real. the military personnel do not know what to make of their real function. then distilled one by one in the exchange. It is the de-intensified state of war. the asymptotic form which allows a brush with war but no encounter. a logic of weak events. They are pledged to the decoy of war as the others are to the decoy of power. We should have been suspicious about the disappearance of the declaration of war. We are no longer in a logic of the passage from virtual to actual but in a hyperrealist logic of the deterrence of the real by the virtual. with every real event. then of operations themselves. the Gulf War would not even reach two or three. of an orbital war purged of all local and political peripeteias. then of the distinction between winners and losers (the winner readily becomes the hostage of the loser: the Stockholm syndrome). into the virtual impossibility of war which translates into the paltry fantasia where adversaries compete in de-escalation. p. The obsession with the real only strengthens the passage to the virtual. to the catastrophe of the real. The build-up is unreal. the cosmetically treated spectre of its death. War has not escaped this virtualisation which is like a surgical operation. the transparent degree which allows war to be seen from the depths of the darkroom. that of the right to war under the green light of the UN and with an abundance of precautions and concessions. according to which no available weapon will not one day be used and such a concentration of force cannot but lead to conflict. it is their virtual death that is at issue. 26-28 We are in neither a logic of war nor a logic of peace but in a logic of deterrence which has wound its way inexorably through forty years of cold war to a denouement in our current events. and its even more deceptive televisual subterfuge (as we saw at Timisoara). We prefer the exile of the virtual. and we are confronted with a virtual apocalypse. Jean Baudrillard. The passage to action suffers widespread infamy: it supposedly corresponds to a brutal lifting of repression. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School.doc 7/20/08 13 File Title Links – Preventing the “Real” War The affirmative engages in an obsessive quest to limit the outbreak of real war – this buys into an outdated logic that believes the real emerges from the virtual. Moreover. like every real event moreover. they never die: at best they disappear. which already presaged the disappearance of the end of hostilities. In this process. . a hegemony ultimately much more dangerous than real apocalypse. the privilege of real war. The most widespread belief is in a logical progression from virtual to actual. their function of death and destruction. of which television is the universal mirror. thus to a psychotic process. the aim of which is to present a face-lifted war. to which belong those in Eastern Europe as well as the Gulf War. It seems that this obsession with the passage to action today governs all our behaviour: obsession with every real. with every real violence.

an internal metastasis or fevered endogenic virulence which creates a tendency for systems to explode beyond their own limits. neither. whether actually or potentially. 1993. A centripetal compulsion coexists with a decentredness of all systems. therefore. we can only ‘hyper-realize’ them through interminable simulation. by dying. sexual liberation. yet which we must continue to reproduce in a sort of inescapable indifference. But what can we do? This is the state of simulation. but not in the way we expected. all the desires that we had been pursuing. of criticism as of anti-criticism. But that’s all they are – simulation. signs. Everywhere what has been liberated has been liberated so that it can enter a state of pure circulation. because all the goals of liberation are already behind us. Nothing is truly reflected any more whether in a mirror or in the abyssal realm (which is merely the endless reduplication of consciousness). Instead. messages. The orgy in question was the moment when modernity exploded upon us. then. With the benefit of a little hindsight.. the sexual. we may say that the unavoidable goal of all liberation is to foster and provision circulatory networks. but in reality we are accelerating in a void. Political liberation. wherein paradoxically we must continue to live as though they had not been. all the forms. liberation of the forces of destruction. as of all models of anti-representation. therefore. Your calls for liberation. as a result of their transfer into the secondary existence of simulation. Now everything has been liberated. by becoming saturated or transparent. and since we can no longer. the chips are down. the moment of liberation in every sphere. and these things are thus subject to increasing indeterminacy. simulate liberation. a state in which we are obliged to replay all scenarios precisely because they have all taken place already. children’s liberation. women’s liberation.the very availability of all the signs. images and dreams which are now behind us. of development as of the crisis of development. Rather than a mortal mode of disappearance. No true revolution of values can ever take place. phantasies. the rational. We may pretend to carry on in the same direction. because of extenuation or extermination. to the principle of uncertainty. The Transparency of Evil: Essays on Extreme Phenomena. We live amid the interminable reproduction of ideals. of all utopias realized. or as a result of the epidemic of simulation. There is no longer any such thing as a revolution of values — merely a circumvention or involution of values. The state of utopia realized. nourish the hope of realizing them. freedom and revolution are prime examples of the simulation of values continuing in endless cycles of reiteration. accelerating. The fate of the things liberated is an incessant commutation. Jean Baudrillard Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. 3-5 If I were asked to characterize the present state of affairs. ideologies and satisfactions. I would describe it as ‘after the orgy’. so that it can go into orbit. — — . liberation of the forces of production. and we find ourselves faced collectively with the big question: WHAT DO WE DO NOW THE ORGY IS OVER? Now all we can do is simulate the orgy. p. Nothing (not even God) now disappears by coming to an end.Whitman College 85911615. is it a logic of equivalence. but in the sense of an increase in power. This was a total orgy —an orgy of the real. things disappear through proliferation or contamination. The logic of viral dispersal in networks is no longer a logic of value. liberation of art.doc 7/20/08 14 File Title Links – Rights/Revolution/Hippie Shit The Revolution –liberation in every sphere – has already happened. and because what haunts and obsesses us is being thus ahead of all the results . liberation of unconscious drives. a fantastic potentialization whereby their own very existence is put at risk. The fact is that the revolution has well and truly happened. But since they have. to override their own logic not in the sense of creating sheer redundancy. a fractal mode of dispersal. We have pursued every avenue in the production and effective overproduction of objects. The assumption of all models of representation.

after all. Jean Baudrillard Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. playing as it did upon difference.and advertising-led semiologization: ‘culture degree Xerox’. Everything is political. Each category is generalized to the greatest possible extent. anything can be an object of desire: power. science. meanwhile. Total metonymy. Politics is no longer restricted to the political sphere. Sport itself. art.doc 7/20/08 15 File Title Links – Micropolitics There is no political activism anymore. media and communications. The law that is imposed on us is the law of the confusion of categories.. and the negation of that idea and that tendency. which is simultaneously the complete actualization of an idea. Perhaps we still have a memory of sex. but infects every sphere economics. Sex is no longer located in sex itself. This paradoxical state of affairs. All these domains are affected by sport’s criteria of ‘excellence’. too. by the chain reaction we have been discussing. Perhaps our melancholy stems from this. Economics becomes transeconomics. until it finally disappears. can hardly retain the features of a face. the corpuscular memory of an earlier life.. differential fields and distinct objects must exist. The viral analogy is not an importation from biology. But that is the whole point: this is only a molecular memory. or the colour of someone’s eyes). Everything is sexual. Thus every individual category is subject to contamination. that the essential confusion of the epidemic takes hold. even desire. is no longer located in sport as such. its venting through all the trivial variants of sexual incantation. at the fractal. infinitesimal relative to the total solution. it’s only inane babble. in fact. AIDS is the reflection not so much of an excess of sex or sexual pleasure as of sex’s — . just like the aff. The real loss of immunity concerns sex as a whole. like the ‘memory of water’. and sex loses its determinants. then nothing can be because there are no longer any referentials designating what the political even is. nothing is beautiful or ugly any more. and sexual stereotypy reigns in every last corner. nothing is sexual any more. metonymy replacing the whole as well as the components. by virtue of their extension beyond their own bounds this state of affairs is epitomized by a single figure: the transpolitical. All at once. everything is now aestheticized: politics is aestheticized in the spectacle. When everything is aesthetic. nothing is political any more. substitution is possible between any sphere and any other: there is a total confusion of types.7-10 The possibility of metaphor is disappearing in every sphere. The Transparency of Evil: Essays on Extreme Phenomena. and not a memory of forms or singularities (water. by haphazard and senseless proliferation and metastasis. that are politicized as they enter the sphere of liberation. knowledge everything is interpreted in terms of phantasies. When everything is sexual. affecting all disciplines as they lose their specificity and partake of a process of confusion and contagion — a viral loss of determinacy which is the prime event among all the new events that assail us. in the general style of performance. p. then — viral by definition (or lack of definition). language.~ — — — decompensation through its general spread into all areas of life. in sex. Everything has acquired a political meaning. 1993. it was aesthetic. This is an aspect of a general tendency towards transsexuality which extends well beyond sex. but instead in business. It is in this diffraction of the sexual reality principle. Today. and it is not just everyday life but also madness. with the disappearance of sexual difference and hence of sexuality per se.. So what we are left with is the simple imprint of a faceless sexuality infinitely watered down in a broth of politics. Likewise. Likewise everything has become sexual. the transaesthetic. micrological and non-human level. effort and record-breaking. the word itself is meaningless. and eventually manifested in the viral explosion of AIDS. Everything is aesthetic. especially since 1968. Pundits analyze every gesture. rather as water ‘remembers’ molecules no matter how diluted. in terms of repression. as by its childish notion of self-transcendence.if everything is political. and art itself disappears. sport. in politics. and occasioning a general commutability of terms has built its house upon the disillusion of metaphor.Whitman College 85911615. for metaphor still had its beauty. and upon the illusion of difference. aesthetics becomes transaesthetics. — — — . But they cannot exist where contamination is possible between any discipline and any other. leaving a trace so small as to be indiscernible. When everything is political. sex in advertising and porn. but elsewhere everywhere else. every facial expression. their annihilation by virtue of their very success. sex becomes transsexuality all converge in a transversal and universal process wherein no discourse may have a metaphorical relationship to another. so that it eventually loses all specificity and is reabsorbed by all the other categories. because for there to be metaphor. Each category thus passes through a phase transition during which its essence is diluted in homeopathic doses. and all kinds of activity in what is conventionally referred to as culture a sort of all-pervasive media. and every article of clothing until none of it has any meaning anymore. the transsexual. the media. the perfect realization of the whole tendency of modernity. for everything is affected simultaneously and under the same terms by the virulence in question. the sphere of mass processes. Fundamentally.

but for how much longer? The deterioration of all power is irresistibly pursued-. ephemeral vision of “good government”. because this system that is dying from being dispossessed of its death expects nothing but that from us: that we give the system back its death. it is no longer a question of the ideology of power. of savage rituals). even and especially if they are revolutionary. It is no longer a question of the ideology of work.Whitman College 85911615.” critical discourse. It is in this way that the Spanish executions still serve as a stimulant to Western liberal democracy.doc 7/20/08 16 File Title Links – Leftist Politics All that power asks of us is that we subject it to ideological analysis.always good for countering the mortal blows of simulation.that we take it seriously enough to oppose it.it is not so much the “revolutionary forces” that accelerate this process (often it is quite the opposite). Criticism and negativity alone still secrete a phantom of the reality of power. Ideology only corresponds to a corruption of reality through signs. was nevertheless ritually put to death by Watergate. Watergate is still a mechanism for the ritual murder of power (the American institution of the presidency is much more thrilling in this regard than the European: it surrounds itself with all the violence and vicissitudes of primitive powers.the traditional ethic that would obscure the “real” process of work and the “objective” process of exploitation—but of the scenario of work. 1981. etc. we should instead let power work on us in mute silence. he is immunized by his impotence.. it is the system itself that deploys against its own structures this violence that annuls all substance and all finality. In the same way. Curiously. by demented people. simulation corresponds to a short circuit of reality and to its duplication through signs. Nixon has nevertheless arrived at the goal of which all power dreams: to be taken seriously enough. he can only accumulate against himself the signs of reversion through murder. exposing it to its own lack of substance and reality. End of revolutionary praxis. and liquidated. If they become weak for one reason or another. a shimmering. which infuriates him. unbalanced person (and thought it is perhaps true that presidents are assassinated by unbalanced types.—a simulacral contrast through which power attempts to break the vicious circle of its nonexistence. like theory.” Power floats like money. who was not even found worthy of dying at the hands of the most insignificant. 24-25. Rather than adopting the strategy of the affirmative and decrying the abuses of power. p. Fresh blood. Ford doesn’t even have this opportunity anymore: a simulacrum of an already dead power. denounce. of its fundamental irresponsibility. chance. Nixon. to constitute a mortal enough danger to the group to be one day relieved of his duties. who nonetheless carry out a social function as fundamental as that of presidents). like language. the “Left. One must not resist this process by trying to confront the system and destroy it. It is always the goal of the ideological analysis to restore the objective process. crazy people. Simulacra and Simulation. end of the dialectic. . or neurotics. but of the scenario of power.in fact.it reinjected a fiction of legitimacy. of its “suspension. power has no other recourse but to artificially revive and hallucinate them. The Watergate scandal was in fact the greatest of windfalls for the power of the American presidency. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. Jean Baudrillard. These staged presidential assassinations are revealing because they signal the status of all negativity in the West political opposition. that is they are discourses of truth. This is why in the end power is so much in tune with ideological discourses and discourses on ideology. from primitive societies to the present. or the prophecy. But already impeachment is no longer assassination: it happens via the Constitution. etc. it is always a false problem to wish to restore the truth beneath the simulacrum. against power has always been fulfilled. this changes nothing: the leftist penchant for detecting a rightist conspiracy beneath this brings out a false problem—the function of bringing depth to. that we revive it through the negative. to a dying system of democratic values.

Through the media. from the post-historical snobbery Kojeve spoke of. We very much labour under the illusion that the aim of technology is to be an extension of man and his power. from the retrospective nostalgia for being and from all unhappy critique in terms of alienation and disenchantment. Irony as universal form of disillusionment. Through the most refined procedures we deploy to pin it down. the irresistible impression remains that something eludes us — not because we seem to have lost it (the real?). which would not be far from radical snobbery. of all our artificial productions. in fact. Heidegger: ‘When we look into the ambiguous essence of technology. then. is altering its determinations. and by which the mystery (of the continuation of the Nothing) conceals itself beneath the universal banality of information. It is at the point where the political authorities think they are manipulating them that the masses impose their clandestine strategy of neutralization and destabilization. Once we lived in the age of the lost object. but the world which is winning out over us. we labour under the subjective illusion of technology. The naive illusion about the media is that the political authorities use them to manipulate or mystify the masses. and we are merely the operators. it is not we who are winning out over the world. therefore. Everything which will be done or said in the media sphere is.doc 7/20/08 17 File Title Links – Alternative Energy – Tech/R&D The Affirmative opposes fossil fuels. one might say what Canetti says of animals: that behind each of them there is a hidden someone thumbing his nose at us. now it is the object which is ‘losing’ us. But today. All our technologies might. far from admitting this. 71-73 At the peak of our technological performance. The Japanese sense the presence of a divinity in every industrial object. . the irony of the world. it is the masses who definitively modify the exercise of power (or what sees itself as such). but labors under the illusion that we can create new and better energy technology. For us. things have also reached a parodic one. in effect. the end of political Reason. the stellar course of the mystery. 1996. ironically undecidable. a spiritual form. And would put in its place a conception of the gigantic objective irony of this whole process. It seems that technology has taken into itself all the illusion it has caused us to lose. and that what we have in return for the loss of illusion is the emergence of an objective irony of this world. similar to the one that prevails in the media sphere. is it not the object which dupes us and mocks our objective pretensions to analyse it? Scientists themselves are not. bringing about our ruin. but the object which thinks us. this operating principle is thwarted by its very extension. this is still the end of media Reason.Whitman College 85911615. We should instead adopt an ironic stance towards technology. Can one advance the hypothesis that beyond the objective and critical phase there is an ironic phase of science. but also as the universal form of the stratagem by which the world hides behind the radical illusion of technology. be said to be the instrument of a world which we believe we rule. It seems. an ironic phase of technology? A proposition which would deliver us from the Heideggerian vision of technology as the final phase of metaphysics. Even if the two hypotheses are simultaneously valid. The same hypothesis holds for the object of science. carrying it beyond itself. that though the illusion of the world has been lost. The opposite hypothesis is more subtle. has passed into things. At the same time as reaching a paroxystic stage. Though this is. behind which lurks the evil genius of technology which sees to it itself that the mystery of the world is well—guarded. It is no longer we who think the object. that sacred presence has been reduced to a tiny ironic glimmer. but because we are no longer in a position to see it: that. we behold the constellation. whereas in fact the world is using this machinery to impose itself. it seems. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. Jean Baudrillard. none the less. The illusion of technology makes us believe we’re in control and not the other way around. It is the logic of the system which. a nuance of play and distantiation. for its part. p. The Evil Spirit keeps watch beneath artefacts and. The Perfect Crime. An objective illusion. by the unbridled virtuality we see outrunning the laws of physics and metaphysics. from this point on.

of the aleatory apparatus of all the choices that are made for us. and escalation is only a puerile game given over to the military. The most insignificant of our behaviors is regulated by neutralized. The whole world pretends to believe in the reality of this threat (this is understandable on the part of the military. indifferent. It is not the direct threat of atomic destruction that paralyzes our lives. any story be deployed according to its own logic because it risks annihilation. Deterrence is not a strategy. of anything that would be an event in the general system and upset its balance. but it is precisely at this level that there are no strategic stakes. Pacification does not distinguish between the civil and the military: everywhere where irreversible apparatuses of control are elaborated.Whitman College 85911615. The political stake is dead. neutralizes. . into a stake without stakes. everywhere where the notion of security becomes omnipotent. politics. 1981. There is no longer a subject of deterrence. And the progressive satellization of the whole planet through this hypermodel of security. by zero-sum signs like those that regulate the “strategy of games” (but the true equation is elsewhere. Massive war. it is deterrence that gives them leukemia. every confrontation contract in proportion to this blackmail that interrupts. when one still confused the nuclear apparatus with conventional war) but. Thus the money of destruction (without any reference to real destruction. transforming the life left us into survival. everywhere where the norm replaces the old arsenal of laws and violence (including war). The same goes for peaceful nuclear power stations.” threat. Jean Baudrillard. revolutions and political subjectivity is no longer possible. it circulates and is exchanged between nuclear protagonists exactly as is international capital in the orbital zone of monetary speculation whose fluctuations suffice to control all global exchanges. Deterrence precludes war—the archaic violence of expanding systems. any more than floating capital has a real referent of production) that circulates in nuclear orbit suffices to control all the violence and potential conflicts around the world. is the perfection of the best system of control that has ever existed. and the unknown is precisely that variable of simulation which makes of the atomic arsenal itself a hyperreal form. a simulacrum that dominates everything and reduces all “ground-level” events to being nothing but ephemeral scenarios. through the sophistication of weapons (a sophistication that surpasses any possible objective to such an extent that it is itself a symptom of nullity). social. implosive violence of metastable systems or systems in involution. The whole originality of the situation lies in the improbability of destruction. like the Trojan War. and thanks to Damocles’ nuclear sword. The apotheosis of simulation: the nuclear. No longer can nay revolt. rather. only simulacra of conflicts and carefully circumscribed stakes remain. it is the system of deterrence that grows. in forms that are not threatening to the order of things. every finality. freezes them all. will not take place. Atomic war. No strategy is possible any longer.not even into a life insurance policy: into a policy that already has no value). a universal lockup and control system whose deterrent effect is not at all aimed at an atomic clash (which was never in question. the balance of terror is never anything but the spectacular slope of a system of deterrence that has insinuated itself from the inside into all the cracks of daily life.doc 7/20/08 18 File Title Links – Alternative Energy – Nuclear Energy (1/2) Nuclear energy cements a system of deterrence. nor an adversary nor a strategy—it is a planetary structure of the annihilation of stakes. Simulacra and Simulation. Nuclear suspension only serves to seal the trivialized system of deterrence that is at the heart of the media. “objective. Everything freezes under the lack of possibility engendered by the civilian and military nuclear umbrella. What is hatched in the shadow of this mechanism with the pretext of a maximal. at the much greater probability of any real event. A gigantic involution that makes every conflict. And this deterrence comes from the fact that even the real atomic clash is precluded—precluded like the eventuality of the real in a system of signs. Only the signs of power. except without a doubt in the very initial stages of the cold war. and around it grows the historical. the gravity of their exercise and the discourse of their “strategy” are at stake). 32-35. Deterrence itself is the neutral. The balance of terror is the terror of balance. The risk of nuclear annihilation only serves as a pretext. for installing a universal security system. of the violence without consequences that reigns throughout the world. and violence remain. However. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. and political desert. p. equivalent signs.

still taps a perverse imaginary. Trajectory. One no longer fantasizes about the minutiae of a program. of contradiction. environment—nothing can be left to contingencies. it is the operational immanence of every detail that is law. the model vectors of a system of planetary control (where even the superpowers of this scenario are not free—the whole world is satellized). doomed to the descriptive transparency of mechanisms of information.” Because what. This is why the space program was so easily able to replace it in the 1960s (Kennedy/Khrushchev). of satellization of which the lunar module is the perfect embryo? Programmed microcosm. if order. The exaltation of the crowds was not a response to the event of landing on the moon or of sending a man into space (this would be. ultimately. it is the same model of programmatic infallibility. in a state of asepsis and weightlessness—it is this very perfection that is fascinating. the fulfillment of an earlier dream). by the immanent wonder of the programmed unfolding of events. but which has now entered its accelerated phase. of finality. A universe purged of all threat of meaning. of the launching of satellites if not the institution of a model of universal gravitation. nor military and strategic superiority. rupture. but without fear or drive. of maximum security and deterrence that today controls the spread of the social. Just watching it produces vertigo. toward a limit that one believed would be explosive (revolution). moreover this is the essence of socialization. There lies the true nuclear fallout: the meticulous operation of the social. is the function of the space program. Fascination with the maximal norm and the mastery of probability: Vertigo of the model. physiology. with its aura of violence. rather.Whitman College 85911615. which unites with the model of death. The vertigo of a world without flaws. of transversality. psychology. this is the total universe of the norm—the Law no longer exists. or to develop concurrently as a form of “peaceful coexistence. of the conquest of the moon. calculation. which began centuries ago. Here as well. stupefies. with its aura of transgression. and makes every imaginary involute. . energy. Because if the law. In fact. Their truth is to be the models of simulation. the norm fixes. irreversible process: the generalized deterrence of chance.doc 7/20/08 19 File Title Links – Alternative Energy – Nuclear Energy (1/2) The “space race” played exactly the same role as nuclear escalation. Now. where nothing can be left to chance. nothing will be left to chance. of accident. the spatial and nuclear models do not have their own ends: neither the discovery of the moon. we are dumbfounded by the perfection of the programming and the technical manipulation. implosive. but which for the moment is translated by an inverse. or complexity in a sociality illuminated by the norm. rather. fascinates.

but the object will be safe. In any case. will provide a perfect alibi.it is here. all so that we may all believe again that things are as they should be. 1981. lost to science. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. its object must die. of the blackmail of the real.Savages who are indebted to ethnology for still being Savages: what a turn of events. in the White community. This model thus grants itself the luxury to incarnate itself beyond itself in the “brute” reality of these Indians it has entirely reinvented. of the murder of every symbolic form and of its hysterical. Here begins an antiethnology that will never end and to which Jaulin. the day when the Philippine government decided to return the few dozen Tasaday who had just been discovered in the depths of the jungle. the secret that kills it (and which the Savages knew better than it did): the vengeance of the dead. men women. But in the same breath ethnology grants us its only and final lesson. as “historical” witnesses of their period entire working-class neighborhoods. science can’t help but die contaminated by the death of this object that is its inverse mirror. The museum. an entire culture. Doesn’t all science live on this paradoxical slope to which it is doomed by the evanescence of its object in its very apprehensions. living metallurgic zones. by dying. The confinement of the scientific object is equal to the confinement of the mad and the dead. will today. In order for ethnology to live. No one can touch them anymore: as in a mine the vein is closed down. they have become referential simulacra. at the level of the “open” museum where one museumified in situ. 7-11.a murder of which the Savages. which is nothing but the pure form of triumphal ethnology.” It is not a question of sacrifice (science never sacrifices itself. customs fossilized alive as in a snapshot. cryogenized. the logical evolution of a science is to distance itself increasingly from its object. in the glass coffin of the virgin forest.it attains its pure form. The Indian thus returned to the ghetto. . it is always murderous). This at the suggestion of the anthropologists themselves. but intact in its “virginity. tourists.doc 7/20/08 20 File Title Links – Preservation/Nature/Environment/Ecology (1/3) Your attempt to preserve nature only models the environment after a simulation of how we believe it once was. Ethnology brushed up against its paradoxical death in 1971. until it dispenses with it entirely: its autonomy is only rendered even more fantastic. an eternal guarantee. and. then artificially resurrected under the auspices of the real. The Tasaday. these savages are posthumous: frozen. And just as all of society is irremediably contaminated by this mirror of madness that it has held up to itself. Simulacra and Simulation. like a dimension of life.gestures. sterilized. like Eurydice. is everywhere now. Castaneda. historical retrospection. and by the pitiless reversal that the dead object exerts on it? Like Orpheus. like and omnipresent fourth dimension. but of the simulated sacrifice of its object in order to save its reality principle. Indians who have again become what they were. Clastres are various witnesses. its object falls back into Hades. Science loses precious capital there. We are all Tasadays. again becomes the model of simulation of all the possible Indians from before ethnology. but that for a long time has extended to all Western societies. and children included.simulacral Indians who at last proclaim the universal truth of ethnology. and science itself has become pure simulation. the object takes its revenge for being “discovered” and with its death defies the science that wants to grasp it. instead of being circumscribed as a geometric site. like mummies in the open air.Whitman College 85911615. out of the reach of colonizers. that of the simulacrum. Thus ethnology. Jean Baudrillard. We have all become living specimens in the spectral light of ethnology. who were seeing the indigenous people disintegrate immediately upon contact. where they had lived for eight centuries without any contact with the rest of the species. everywhere. it always turns around too soon. under the sign of dead differences. in the metropolises. were the first victims. noblesse oblige. and o the resurrection of differences. in a world completely cataloged and analyzed. frozen in their natural element. It is thus very naïve to look for ethnology in the Savages or in some Third World. It erases the memory of environmental destruction and replaces it with a museum-theme park version of nature. Preserving the idea of an ideal nature will only expose the preserved object to a slowed down purification and a sterilized death. or of antiethnology. be applied to all living things and make itself invisible. languages. It is against this hell of the paradox that the ethnologists wished to protect themselves by cordoning off the Tasaday with virgin forest. of the hallucination of truth. p. rather than circumscribing itself as an objective science. in a world of simulation. what a triumph for this science that seemed dedicated to their destruction! Of course. protected to death. liberated from its object. The same holds true at Cruesot. to their primitive state. and ethnologists.

which only knows how to condemn what preceded it to decay and death and subsequently to try to revive it with science. which would suffice to slowly exterminate them. There were two possible responses: either admit that this Law was not universal. Only absolute secrecy assured them this millennial power. etc. our order. but an exact replica was constructed five hundred meters from it. and it dreams of it because it exterminated it by exhuming it as its own past. hatred of a whole civilization for its own foundation. diffracted. of an order that would have had nothing to do with it. Nothing changes when society breaks the mirror of madness (abolishes the asylums. which no longer masters anything. Why Because Ramses was a great despotic and military figure? Certainly. . Because finally we have never believed in them. Because mummies don’t rot from worms: they die from being transplanted from a slow order of the symbolic. or exterminate the Indians to efface the evidence. Thus at the beginning of colonization.” The form produced by confinement is followed by an innumerable.) and to bend down before the “differences. one contented oneself with converting them. behind this defunct power that it tries to annex. etc. Thus it would have been enough to exhume Ramses to ensure his extermination by museumification. gives speech back to the insane. according to an unconscious reversion. after it was left to rot for several dozen years in the depths of a museum. that is to say restoring a visible order. And just as with ethnology. Ramses does not signify anything for us. so that everyone could see them (one glances through a peephole at the authentic cave. and then one visits the reconstituted whole). if the Cloisters in New York are an artificial mosaic of all cultures (following a logic of the capitalist centralization of value). which one will repatriate at great cost from the Cloisters in New York to reinstall it in “its original site. it survives in an antiethnology whose task it is to reinject the difference fiction. with the pretext of saving the original. Our entire linear and accumulative culture collapses if we cannot stockpile the past in plain view. the Savage fiction everywhere. demuseumification is nothing but another spiral in artificiality. slowed-down mechanism. there was a moment of stupor and bewilderment before the very possibility of escaping the universal law of the Gospel.Whitman College 85911615. ours.the mastery over putrefaction that signified the mastery of the complete cycle of exchanged with death. a visible myth of origin. and museums. To this end they must be exhumed and given military honors. but it s the objects that invest it with depth. They are prey to both science and worms. Witness the cloister of Saint-Michel de Cuxa. which plays at extricating itself from its object to better secure itself in its pure form. We only know how a place our science in service of repairing the mummy. or even simply discovering them. Whence this historic scene of the reception of the mummy at the Orly airport. It is possible that the memory of the original grottoes is itself stamped in the minds of future generations. science. Irreparable violence toward all secrets.doc 7/20/08 21 File Title Links – Preservation/Nature/Environment/Ecology (2/3) It is science that masters the objects. The West is seized with panic at the thought of not being able to save what the symbolic order had been able to conserve for forty centuries. but from now on there is no longer any difference the duplication suffices to render both artificial. In general. whereas embalming was a mythical effort that strove to immortalize a hidden dimension.) nor when science seems to break the mirror of its objectivity (effacing itself before its object. to conceal that it is this world. But mostly because our culture dreams. which has again become savage in its way.” And everyone is supposed to applaud this restitution (as they did “the experimental campaign to take back the sidewalks” on the Champs Elysees!). In the same way. which is devastated by difference and by death. which at least fooled no one. which only gives a dead and circular response to a dead and circular interrogation. a visible continuum. but out of sight and far from the light of day. only the mummy is of an inestimable worth because it is what guarantees that accumulation has meaning. that is to say. To this end the pharaohs must be brought out of their tomb and the mummies out of their silence. The cloister should have stayed in New York in its simulated environment. Well. if the exportation of the cornices was in effect an arbitrary at. We are fascinated by Ramses as Renaissance Christians were by the American Indians. We require a visible past. the violence of a civilization without secrets. master over putrefaction and death. which reassures us about our end. one forbade visitors to enter the Lascaux caves. their reimportation to the original site is even more artificial: it is a total simulacrum that links up with “reality” through a complete circumvolution. As ethnology collapses in its classical institution. In the same way science and technology were recently mobilized to save the mummy of Ramses II. as in Castaneda. to an order of history. those (human?) beings who had never known the word of Christ.

and better than when they were alive. like all tribal culture. Americans flatter themselves for having brought the population of Indians back to pre-Conquest levels. .) Everywhere we live in a universe strangely similar to the original. (With sinister derision. like the faces in funeral homes. This is presented as proof of the superiority of civilization it will produce more Indians that they themselves were able to do. But this doubling does not signify. in the light of their model. In this way. the imminence of their death. more cheerful.Whitman College 85911615. In the same way. this overproduction is again a means of destroying them: for Indian culture. as can be seen in Ishi’s case. rests on the limitation of the group and the refusal of any “unlimited” increase.they are already purged of their death.things are doubled by their own scenario. acting as if nothing had happened and indulging in retrospective hallucination. their demographic “promotion is just another step toward symbolic extermination. as it did traditionally.doc 7/20/08 22 File Title Links – Preservation/Nature/Environment/Ecology (3/3) Repatriating it is nothing but a supplementary subterfuge. for exceeding the original number. One effaces everything and starts over. They even flatter themselves for doing better. more authentic.

36-39. It is even more effective than capitalism in the liquidation of “savage” and archaic precapitalist structures. Simulacra and Simulation. so hard. communitarian. took place. but whose objective outcome in war. What no longer exists is the adversity of the adversaries. of symbolic organization. war exists in order to reassure us of the existence of ideological stakes. in its immense. it could be trusted. Nothing of the sort occurred. which is played out as such (or else one could never send people to get themselves killed in this kind of thing). because it took place at the intersection of a maximum historical and “revolutionary” stake. Total complicity. “The North Vietnamese were advised to countenance a scenario for liquidating the American presence in the course of which. precapitalist structures. The other aspect of this war and of all wars today: behind the armed violence. with the equal complicity of the two adversaries. . the transition from a radical alternative to political alternation in a system now essentially regulated (the normalization of Peking-Washington relations): this was what was at stake in the war in Vietnam. the two adversaries are fundamentally in solidarity against something else. That is why it was deescalated. and of the installation of this deterrent authority. it would necessarily have completely disrupted its internal balance and the American political system. then. is nothing but the medium of this process of the terrorist rationalization of the social—the murder on which sociality will be founded. behind this simulacrum of fighting to the earth and of ruthless global stakes. The stake is thus that of a political relay. vanish from one day to the net as if by magic? Why did this American defeat (the largest reversal in the history of the USA) have no internal repercussions in America? If it had really signified the failure of the planetary strategy of the United States. Tribal. the ideological seriousness of war. This war. despite this deterrence by the orbital power—the nuclear or molecular code—events continue at ground level. even a Communist one. The nonintervention of China obtained and secured after many years. never spoken. Rather. Same scenario in the Algerian war. the reality of antagonistic causes. That theirs is a Communist order is not serious in the end: it had proved itself. As soon as the Vietnamese had proved that they were no longer the carriers of an unpredictable subversion. so long. Something else. subtly. of language. one could let them take over. nothing was objectively at stake but the verisimilitude of the final montage. the holders of high wartime values should not be too discouraged: the war is no less atrocious for being only a simulacrum—the flesh suffers just the same. and in this sense. What meaning did this war have. spectacular death apparatus. The game was already won. demobilized so easily. whatever its allegiance.doc 7/20/08 23 File Title Impacts – War (1/2) War no longer has an ideological purpose. so ferocious. every form of exchange. the shift from a global strategy of revolution to one of shared forces and empires. and to annihilate the presence of anything that would disrupt the global system of deterrence. 1981. The moralists of war. This same reduction of forces can be seen on the field. China’s apprenticeship to a global modus Vivendi. and the dead and former combatants are worth the same as in other wars. When at last the war had passed into the hands of regular troops in the North and escaped that of the resistance. the murderous antagonism of the adversaries—which seems a matter of life and death. and wasn’t its unfolding a means of sealing the end of history in the decisive and culminating historic event of our era? Why did this war. they are no longer anything but the duplex effect of simulation at the summit. misfortunes are even more numerous.” This scenario: the extremely harsh bombardments of Hanoi. unnamed. remained unliquidated. that is the object of murder in war-. given the global process of the contiguity and simultaneity of data. And the war ended “spontaneously” when this objective was achieved. the war could stop: it had attained its objective. one must save face. The best example can only be that of the war in Vietnam.Whitman College 85911615. Yet. Jean Baudrillard. The war lasted as long as elements irreducible to a healthy politics and discipline of power. p. This objective is always fulfilled. was nothing but a crucial episode of peaceful coexistence. that is what must be abolished. just like that of the charting of territories and disciplinary sociality. Their untenable character must not conceal the fact that they were nothing but a simulacrum to enable the Vietnamese to seem to countenance a compromise and for Nixon to make the Americans swallow the withdrawal of their troops. It marked the arrival of China to peaceful coexistence. the USA pulled out of Vietnam but won the war. Communist r capitalist. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. But. they no longer have any meaning. at bottom.and war itself. is total liquidation. or division of labor between two adversaries (who may even consent to enormous sacrifices for it) for the very end of reshaping and domesticating social relations. of course.

catastrophes and crises destined to maintain a historical investment under hypnosis. of the lost “difference” of Savages) that all these things arrived too late. and no one really accepts it. of blood. which was still an attempt to create a dramaturgy of life. toward a reabsorption of all the stakes without a trace of blood. There also. All dramaturgy. complete equivalence. For us the trick has been played. Thus one can completely miss the truth of a war: namely. that it was finished well before it started. except as artificial occurrences—abstract. or one becomes aware (as with the Communists “in power” in Italy.) never started. and that perhaps it never started. of retro and porno at the same time—doubtless everyone knows this. and even all real writing of cruelty has disappeared. Everything still unfolds around us. etc. by a moribund ethnology. with a history of delay. and as artifacts of history.doc 7/20/08 24 File Title Impacts – War (2/2) And also the reality of victory or defeat. the two differential poles implode into each other.Whitman College 85911615. parodic rehabilitation of all lost referentials. the pacification (or the deterrence) that dominates us today is beyond war and peace. in the most contradictory. it is that at every moment war and peace are equivalent. who has the right like everything else to his revival. to a second existence as the referential of cruelty). and we only have a right to the retro. “War is peace. in a profound indifference to their consequences (but this is because there are none: they exhaust themselves in their spectacular promotion)—all “newsreel” footage thus gives the sinister impression of kitsch. or recycle one another—a simultaneity of contradictions that is at once the parody and the end of every dialectic. The reality of simulation is unbearable—crueler than Artaud’s Theater of Cruelty. a spiral of delay. of violence in a system that was already taking it away. of the objectivity of facts. In any case. . that all these events succeed each other without logic. ersatz. to the phantom. the retro. Many other events (the oil crisis. in the cold light of deterrence (including Artaud. that they long ago exhausted their meaning and only live from an artificial effervescence of signs. never existed.” said Orwell. that there was an end to war at the heart of war itself. war being a process that triumphs well beyond these appearances. the last gasp of an ideality of the body. All the events are to be read backward. Simulation is the master. of the reality of the stakes. posthumous rediscovery of the gulags and Soviet dissidents like the almost contemporary discovery. The media and the official news service are only there to maintain the illusion of an actuality.

irrational. people. 1981.in a world without value or political referentials. with which no interpretation has been able to come to grips (neither the Marxist one of political manipulation by dominant classes. which deepened in the West. the infinity of capital folded back on its own surface: transfinite? And is it not the same for desire and the libidinal space? Conjunction of desire and the law. the masses may turn to the extreme valorization of race. 1981.). Fascism is the logical result of hyperreality. Overwhelming versatility of desire in Deleuze. demented resistance. etc. a torsion that is like that of the evil spirit of commutation. Simulacra and Simulation. . the mad intensification of collective value (blood. of the rational secularization and unidimensionalization of all life. etc. Not so long ago. can already be interpreted as the “irrational” excess of mythic and political referentials. circularized. Formerly the discourse on history derived its power from violently opposing itself to that of nature. The Mobius strip. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. which seizes the occasion to regenerate its own flagging humanism and whose indignant protest in turn consolidates Franco’s regime by uniting the Spanish masses against this foreign intervention? Where is the truth of all that. the historical revolution. p. nationality. Jean Baudrillard. Fascism is a resistance to this. nor the Reichian one of the sexual repression of the masses. Mobian compulsion. a “vicious” curvature of a political space that is henceforth magnetized. and it is a response to that.Whitman College 85911615. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School.today they exchange their signifiers and their scenarios. of a “political aesthetic of death” at a time when the processes of the disenchantment of value and of collective values. said Lyotard. race. which is no longer one of torture. All the referentials combine their discourses in a circular. the discourse of desire to that of power. the reinjection of death. of the operationalization of all social and individual life already makes itself strongly felt in the West. nor the Deleuzian one of despotic paranoia).” to desire its own repression and to invest in paranoid and fascist systems? A malign torsion that returns this revolution of desire to the same fundamental ambiguity as the other. before thinking that we now take pleasure in capital. including paranoid reactionaries Jean Baudrillard. an enigmatic reversal that brings desire “revolutionary in itself. 18. it would not have tapped into this massive energy if it hadn’t been a resistance to something much worse. but of the subtle. maleficent. p. eventually benefitting all ideological positions. even if it is a profound. Simulacra and Simulation. its terror is on the level of this other terror that is the confusion of the real and the rational. and as if involuntarily wanting what it wants. sex and work were fiercely opposed terms. Yet again. the final pleasure as the metamorphosis of the law (which is why it is so widely the order of the day): only capital takes pleasure. if one divides it. when such collusions admirably knot themselves together without the knowledge of their authors? Conjunction of the system and of is extreme alternative like the two sides of a curved mirror. the mystery of its appearance and of its collective energy. Fascism’s cruelty. results in a supplementary spiral without the reversibility of surfaces being resolved (here the reversible continuity of hypotheses). reversibilized from the right to the left. Hell of simulation. of the whole system. this neutralization and pacification of life. Who will unravel this imbroglio? The Gordian knot can at least be cut. today both are dissolved in the same type of demand. elusive twisting o meaning—where even the condemned at Burgos are still a gift from Franco to Western democracy. everything seems to escape this catastrophe of value. 48 Fascism itself.doc 7/20/08 25 File Title Impacts – Fascism Political subjectivity circles around.

doc 7/20/08 26 File Title Impacts – Violence Just because everything is a simulation doesn’t mean that violence doesn’t happen. The impossibility of rediscovering an absolute level of the real is of the same order as the impossibility of staging illusion. It is necessary to see in this impossibility of isolating the process of simulation the weight of an order that cannot see and conceive of anything but the real. one will actually pay you the phony ransom). This is certainly why order always opts for the real. The simulation of an offense. beyond equivalences. and hence no repression either. so that no human life will be in danger (or one lapses into the criminal). Parody renders submission and transgression equivalent. and no longer at all to their “real” end. without wishing it.Whitman College 85911615. 19-23. as such it is as serious as the simulation of crime. Thus. or to prove the real.). How can the simulation of virtue be punished? However. the right to property. When in doubt. to the established order itself. The challenge of simulation is never admitted by power. It is the whole political problem of parody. For example: it would be interesting to see whether the repressive apparatus would not react more violently to a simulated holdup than to a real holdup. because the real is no longer possible. and take the most trustworthy hostage. This is how all the holdups. beyond true and false. if it is established as such. p. a referential order that can only reign over the referential. you will immediately find yourself once again. are now in some sense simulation holdups in that they are already inscribed in the decoding and orchestration rituals of the media. where they function as a group of signs dedicated exclusively to their recurrence as signs. But this does not make them harmless. the signs do not lean to one side or another. You won’t be able to do it: the network of artificial signs will become inextricably mixed up with real elements (a policeman will really fire on sight. law and order themselves might be nothing but simulation. The established order can do nothing against it. Jean Baudrillard. in the real. Indeed. one of whose functions is precisely to devour any attempt at simulation.in short. beyond rational distinctions upon which the whole of the social and power depend. a client of the bank will faint and die of a heart attack. because it cancels out the difference upon which the law is based. But this becomes more and more difficult. it is there that we must aim at order. power itself ends by being . because it cannot function anywhere else. airplane hijackings. the opposite is also true (and this reversibility itself is part of the apparatus of simulation and the impotence of power): namely. and make it so that the operation creates as much commotion as possible. but indefinitely refracted by each other (just like so-called historical events: strikes. anticipated in their presentation and their possible consequences. to reduce very thing to the real—that is. To the established order they are always of the order of the real. it is now impossible to isolate the process of the real. crises. of hypersimulation or offensive simulation that is posed here.” in order to test the reaction of the apparatus to a perfect simulacrum. no longer with a specific content or end. whereas simulation is of the third order. Demand a ransom. because the law is a simulacrum of the second order. a determined power that can only reign over a determined world. will either be punished less severely (because it has no “consequences”) or punished as an offense against the judicial system (for example if one sets in motion a police operation “for nothing”)—but never as simulation since it is precisely as such that no equivalence with the real is possible. Transgression and violence are less serious because they only contest the distribution of the real. But the difficulty is proportional to the danger. Verify that your weapons are harmless. Because the latter does nothing but disturb the order of things. because if it is practically impossible to isolate the process of simulation. demonstrations. remain close to the “truth. Simulation is infinitely more dangerous because it always leaves open to supposition that. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. in short. will before institutions and justice come into play. it is in this sense that they cannot be controlled by an order that can only exert itself on the real and the rational. and that is the most serious crime. Organize a fake holdup. through the force of inertia of the real that surrounds us. etc. Illusion is no longer possible. above and beyond its object. against this nebula whose weight no longer obeys the laws of gravitation of the real. 1981. whereas the former attacks the reality principle itself. The violence of the real is reinjected everywhere into a society that cannot accept appearances at face value. In short. etc. it always prefers this hypothesis (as in the army one prefers to take the simulator for a real madman). it is the threat of simulation that inspires violence. Simulacra and Simulation. it is as hyperreal events. On the contrary. How to feign a violation and put it to the test? Simulate a robbery in a large store: how to persuade security that it is a simulated robbery? There is no “objective” difference: the gestures. but that cannot do anything against this indefinite recurrence of simulation. on causes and ends. lacking the real. the signs are the same as for a real robbery.

which increases as it disappears. its only strategy against this defection is to reinject the real and the referential everywhere. etc. it is a question of life and death. has for a long time had no specific meaning. we will logically be under the total hallucination of power—a haunting memory that is already rid of it (no one wants it anymore. it does nothing but multiply the signs and accelerate the play of simulation. the iron law of its power. to persuade us to f the reality of the social. Power itself has for a long time produced nothing but the signs of its resemblance. throughout its history it was capital that first fed on the destructuration of every referential. Whence the characteristic hysteria of our times: that of the production and reproduction of the real. of every human objective. abstraction. Hyperreality and simulation are deterrents of every principle and every objective. For power. and political stakes. The only weapon of power. of the gravity of the economy and the finalities of production. And as soon as it wishes to combat this disastrous spiral by secreting as last glimmer of reality. in order to establish a radical law of equivalence and exchange. the reality principle. all real equivalence of the states and the omnipotence of manipulation. but also. the whole discourse of traditional production. The melancholy of societies without power this has already stirred up fascism. But it is too late. . Capital was the first to play at deterrence. obsession with its survival. Because in the end. on which to establish a last glimmer of power. today it is this same logic that is even more set against capital. One remains among principles. power played at deterrence and simulation. It retains all the features. economic. all depth and energy of representation have vanished in a hallucinatory resemblance). good and evil. Well. social. And in the end the game of power becomes nothing but the critical obsession with power—obsession with its death. another figure of power comes into play: that of a collective demand for signs of power. that of values and commodities.doc 7/20/08 27 File Title dismantled in this space and becoming a simulation of power (disconnected from its ends and its objectives. When it has totally disappeared. “Take your desires for reality!” can be understood as the ultimate slogan of power since in a nonreferential world. As long as the historical threat came at it from the real. even the confusion of the reality principle and the principle of desire is less dangerous than contagious hyperreality. they turn against power the deterrent that it used so well for such a long time. plays at crisis. and dedicated to the effects of power and mass simulation). Thus everywhere the hyperrealism of simulation is translated by the hallucinatory resemblance of the real to itself. everyone unloads it on everyone else) and the panicked nostalgia over its loss.. and among those power is always in the right. And at the same time. that shattered every ideal distinction between true and false. disintegrating all the contradictions by dint of producing equivalent signs. it was also the first to liquidate it by exterminating all use value. why not? That of desire. That is why today this “material” production is that of the hyperreal itself. and if it is the one that fostered reality. disconnection. and to overproduce.Whitman College 85911615. deterritorialization. To this end it prefers the discourse of crisis. is to restore the real that escapes it. plays at remanufacturing artificial.a whole world adheres to it more or less in terror of the collapse of the political. that of the belle époque of political economy. Today when the danger comes at it from simulation (that of being dissolved in the play of signs). that overdose of a strong referential in a society that cannot terminate its mourning. but it is not longer anything but its scaled-down refraction (thus hyperrealists fix a real from which all meaning and charm. What every society looks for in continuing to produce. The other production. power plays at the real.

A tragic destiny for individuals and for our — self-programming and selfreferential — systems: no more adversaries. can be seen in all that has lost its shadow and become transparent to itself. as it were). but perfectly coherent effect — released an intense viral pathology. violence. that of the subject without object. have disappeared. strangeness). By eliminating the other in all its forms (illness. This is like wresting a species away from its natural predators. We have fought negativity and death. rooting out evil in all its forms. By setting off the chain reaction of the positive. it cannot but destroy itself (by ‘depredation’. we have unleashed positivity. and that is what has become lethal today. we have at the same time — by a perverse. negativity. by contrast. The two are conjoined today in the modern form of voluntary servitude: enslavement to data systems and calculation systems – total efficiency. Death being the great natural predator. of the subject without other. to lose all otherness. there are two apparently synonymous terms with a very significant distinction between them. What becomes of a master without a slave? He ends up terrorizing himself. death.Whitman College 85911615. By eliminating the work of the negative. no more hostile environments — no environment at all any longer. of the same without other — definitive stasis and metastasis of the Same. This had escaped us. . ‘Entfremdung’. but the object of that mastery. An irrevocable destabilization. the finality of that mastery. rather. p. and it is this strategy we are applying to ourselves. masters without slaves. means to be dispossessed of the other. not to mention racial and linguistic differences. of an ultrapositivity of which it is the lethal embodiment. The best strategy for bringing about someone’s ruin is to eliminate everything which threatens him. as had the metamorphoses of evil which follow the advances of reason about like a shadow. far from being negative. by eliminating all singularities in order to radiate total positivity. no more exteriority. by liquidation of the dialectical opposition itself. passions without object. The Perfect Crime. Jean Baudrillard. total performance. We have become masters – at least virtual masters – of this world. a species we attempt at all costs to immortalize and wrest away from death — as we do with all our replacement technologies for the body’s organs — is doomed to disappear. For a virus. we are eliminating ourselves. The project of eliminating the external environment under the logic of calculation embodies this process. thus causing him to lose all his defences. effects without causes.doc 7/20/08 28 File Title Impacts – Annihilation of Difference Impact The quest to obliterate all that differs and replace it with the image of the same leads uncontestably to the destruction of everything. is the product. wars without enemy. 1996. Now. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. Even in devitalized substances: in sugar without calories. This paradigm of the subject without object. or the slaves without masters we have become. ‘Verfremdung’ means becoming other. salt without sodium. life without spice. And of a slave without a master? He ends up exploiting himself. time without memory. becoming estranged from oneself— alienation in the literal sense. 112-14 In German. No longer threatened by them. it is much more serious to be dispossessed of the other than of oneself. Being deprived of the other is worse than alienation: a lethal change.

We want to maintain the ability to use those ranges in the optimum way based on military readiness considerations.doc 7/20/08 29 File Title Impacts – Cuomo – Ecological Destruction Treating war as an event ignores the environmental effects of this mentality and the continuation of military based ecological destruction Chris J. the Comprehensive Environmental Response.Whitman College 85911615. or if.” .gov/articlerender. That closure followed a lawsuit filed by the Center for Biological Diversity alleging that bombing at the range was killing protected migratory birds. “We don’t feel it’s wise to wait for that kind of train wreck to see if we are going to lose in litigation. it is arguable that the ecological effects of war and militarism are feminist issues.” including the case at Eagle River Flats and the Navy’s 2002 temporary closure of its Farallon de Medinilla live-fire training range in the Pacific. The DOD acknowledges that these laws have never been shown to have interfered with specific military training. RDX. attention to the ecological impacts of war further illustrates the limitations of only thinking of war in terms of events. According to the Democratic Committee on Energy and Commerce. in 1996. For instance. Our job is to send soldiers. Plumwood 1993). located 55 miles northeast of Reno. not on other considerations. pg. and Liability Act (CER-CLA).fcgi?artid=1253681 December 2004 Nearly 1 in 10 Americans live within 10 miles of a DOD Superfund site—a sometimes perilous proximity. The Massachusetts Military Reservation. and the Marine Mammal Protection Act. Compensation. You can’t do that if you introduce artificialities into training. . jet fuel.pubmedcentral. Charles W “The price of preparing for war” Environmental Health Perspectives http://www. . or material connections between environmental degradation and women's oppression. In 1999. Though women are no more essentially connected to nature than any other organic beings. Others. Warren 1990. and zinc fumes. as Karen Warren argues. Many feminists and ecological feminists have discussed these problematic conceptual connections as created or fueled by the dichotomous thinking discussed above (Griffin 1989. was California’s leading air polluter. Because military ecological destruction occurs primarily "during peacetime. these flights emitted 75 tons of nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds. Military aircraft from DOD facilities also generate noise and air pollution. including the oppression of nature. including Vandana Shiva and Maria Mies (1993). the DOD points to a number of lawsuits and “close calls. and the Clean Air Act (CAA). airmen. Joe Willging. As of this publication. the most recent year for which data are available. and perchlorate into the area’s sole aquifer. sailors. cultural constructions associate women with nature and help justify the mistreatment of both. both environmental and living Schmidt. Cuomo 1992.000 military flights contributed to the heavy air traffic over Washington. the DOD is seeking changes through the RRPI to certain hazardous waste laws—specifically. says in reference to the Farallon de Medinilla closure. but says it can’t afford to wait until training is shut down before it acts. a 34-square-mile multi-use training facility in Cape Cod. As evidence of the need to act now. according to the EPA Toxics Release Inventory. In any case. assistant professor of philosophy and women’s studies at the university of Cincinnati. portions of the Endangered Species Act. The DOD argues that even the threat of interference by hazardous waste litigation justifies its aims. focus on the practical. an environmental lawyer with the DOD General Counsel’s office. D. for instance. copper. King 1990. . Cuomo.nih. Now. The base released some 5." and because it is so directly tied to other forms of ecological and social violence.000 people at the height of tourist season. because I believe these effects to be significant to feminists for two basic reasons. including aluminum.4 million pounds of toxic chemicals that year. the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Hypatia Special Issues: Women and Violence Volume 11 Number 4.C. and Marines into combat environments in the absolute best-prepared way we can. Congress has approved legislation requested by the DOD amending the Migratory Bird Protection Act. feminists must be against oppression in any form. the Sierra Army Depot. a drinking water source for up to 500. more than 50. 1996. online I turn now to a discussion of the environmental effects of war. Military training negatively affects the surrounding areas. is slowly leaching solvents. which generate smog. if women's oppression is connected to the unjustified destruction of nature.

Thus the strategic resistance is that of the refusal of meaning and of the spoken word—or of the hyperconformist simulation of the very mechanisms of the system. p. Neither strategy has ore objective value than the other. do not see that they are going in the direction of the system. the maximum production of meaning. which is a form of refusal and of non-reception. of emancipation. We are face to face with this system in a double situation and insoluble double bind— exactly like children faced with the demands of the adult world. of the word based on “consciousness raising. even more serious today.doc 7/20/08 30 File Title Alternative – Strategy of the Object – The Children The system demands that we constitute ourselves as subjects. playing the game—a form of blackmail and ultimatum just as serious as the other. responsible. like a mirror. 84-86 With one caution. an object’s resistance. . It blackmails us into becoming policymakers. obedient. 1981. of the renunciation of the subject position and of meaning— precisely the practices of the masses—that we bury under the derisory terms of alienation and passivity. free and conscious. passivity. of liberating ourselves.Whitman College 85911615. All the movements that only play on liberation. and even if w are still confronted with it. to reflecting meaning.” indeed a “raising of the unconscious” of subjects and of the masses. To choose the wrong strategy is a serious matter. The child resists on all levels. revolutionaries. whose imperative today is precisely the overproduction and regeneration of meaning and of speech. conforming objects. the strategic resistance is the liberating claim of subjecthood But this strategy is more reflective of the earlier phase of the system. and efficaciously. of revolt. inert. he opposes all the practices of disobedience. It is the strategy of the masses: it is equivalent to returning to the system its own logic by doubling it. because it was ushered in by that phase of the system which prevails. refusing to continue on as living alibis for the violence of the real Jean Baudrillard. in short. to the constant ultimatum we are given to constitute ourselves as pure objects. When all the revolutions have already taken place. To a system whose argument is oppression and repression. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. Children are simultaneously required to constitute themselves as autonomous subjects. producing. The subject-resistance is today unilaterally valorized and viewed as positive—just as in the political sphere only the practices of freedom. without absorbing it. of voting. Simulacra and Simulation. emancipation. exactly the opposite: childishness. To the demand of being a subject he opposes. voters. just as obstinately. a total claim to subjecthood. emancipation. and the constitution of a political subject are seen as valuable and subversive. To the demand of being an object. and to constitute themselves as submissive. the strategic ground is to passively absorb appearances. expressing ourselves at whatever cost. impact of all the object practices. But this is to ignore the equal. it is no longer the strategic terrain: the current argument of the system is to maximize speech. etc. participating. and to a contradictory demand he responds with a double strategy. The liberating practices respond to one of the aspects of the system. but they do not respond at all to the other demand. speaking. total dependence. on the resurrection of a subject of history. deciding. hyperconformism. that of constituting ourselves as subjects. expression. idiocy. that is to say. This strategy (if one can still speak of strategy) prevails today. and without a doubt superior. of the group.

But it’s certain nevertheless that in disobeying laws. the question Oedipus thought he answered. of the indifference of the world toward our affairs. I fall on the joke. no final process. the conditions according to which it accepts playing? No one knows them. What’s the use of trying to establish chance as an objective process. At the heart of banal strategies is the fiery desire of fatal strategies. as in the Witz. simultaneously — there’s no paradox involved in this. unravel those other strategies. and they can change without notice. escalating the bidding on the strategic limits it will tolerate. It’s what peeks through the heart of more banal strategies. Fatal Strategies. To find another rule. like the discovery of a hidden rule. No one knows what a strategy is. The discovery of a hidden rule of the game is dazzling. The only way out is the fatal strategy of the object. That also is a challenge — eventually it threatens absurdity. but a moral ecstasy. must be no longer a moral stasis. the ironic art of disappearance? The subject has always dreamed of this. The strategy of the object allows everything to unfold to it in a fatal and ingenious way Jean Baudrillard. The hypothesis of a fatal strategy must itself be fatal. that we all thought we answered. It’s true that this is a difficult and obscure route: to side with the object. Basically. the object mocks the laws we attach to it. We are accomplices in this excess of finality that is there in the object (this can be the excess of meaning. in unravelling desire. Today. From any object we hope for a blind response that hampers our projects. to which destiny. it would rather figure in our calculations as a sarcastic variable. Today it’s man that poses to the Sphinx — the inhuman — the question of the inhuman. 1990. if it exists. it answers secretly to some enigma. Levi-Strauss claimed that the symbolic order had left us.Whitman College 85911615. The real we invent wholly in the hope of seeing it result in a prodigious artifice. and therefore the impossibility of deciphering a word that plays the game of meaning all too well). says Canetti. And if the Last Judgement consists. hardly answers. What remains but to side with this enigma? Everything can be summed up in this: let’s believe for a single instant the hypothesis that there is a fatal and enigmatic bias in the order of things. Everything is expiated in one way or another. by which the object is taken in the very game that we wanted to make it play — doubling the ante somehow. of its fickleness toward objective laws. and the effects of desire are largely depleted — what remains but to bring things back to their enigmatic ground zero? Now the enigma is inverted: once it was the Sphinx that posed men the question of man. now that all critical radicality has become useless. in the irony of the aleatory. and even at the molecular level. which just makes it more tragic and more seductive. and leave it to the equations to verify themselves. The object (the Sphinx). Likewise with the joke. too. in saving and eternalizing a moment of our lives. irony (of the Witz*) is the objective form of this denouement. a dream inverse to its dream of totalization. Seduction is fatal. p. At the end of all that. And. Today. history itself has withdrawn. of the fatal. Everywhere. Truth only complicates things. Everything must unfold in a fatal and ingenious way. Quite the contrary. a fatal strategy in that the subject thereby succumbs to the surpassing of its own objectives. Everything is headed somewhere. is seductive. and now that the critical spirit has found its summer home in socialism. therefore. if it is an ironic one? Of course it exists. If there be a morality. We invent all these strategies in the hope of having them result in the unexpected event. with whom do we share this ironic end? . nothing of the otherworldly delirium of a subjectivity trapped and escaping headlong into a paroxysmal inventory. And of course fatality exists too. There’s something stupid in the raw event. If I look for a fatal connection in language. whose fatality would be a strategy —something like the rule of another game. There’s something stupid in the current forms of truth and objectivity that a superior irony could spare us. leave the field open to objective irony. like the real is hyper-real. It’s the effect of a sovereign object that recreates in you an original confusion and seeks to surprise you. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. Its failure today awakens passions that are much more subtle. in turn. now that all negativity seems resolved in a world that pretends to realize itself. and on the side of its eccentric and precious effects. and runs the risk of what it describes — but the risk is to be taken. at the knotting of the intrigue and its denouement). redoubling and escalating the stakes are spirited forms of denouement. The interesting thing about this is the inexorable logical process that is visible here. the conjunction of these two terms is paradoxical: how could there be fatality if there is strategy? That’s just the point: the enigma is that fatality is at the heart of every strategy. to take up the cause of the object. God himself is forced to employ a trial-and-error method. subtler than man. installing thereby a strategy that doesn’t have its own ends: a “playful” strategy that stills the play of the subject. 184-85 188-191 if the object is fatal. a strategy precisely with no object. another axiom: nothing mystical in this. and compensates us in advance for the cruelest losses. even less a strategy. From seduction we look for surprise. From strategy we expect control. In language become pure object. no one is capable of articulating a final process. In any case. But the rules of its game. There are not enough means in the world for us to be able to dispose of ends. and one only. and the one has never been able to erase the other. there is something stupid about our current situation. Even predestination is a form of ironic subversion of fatality. of its fatal effects (fatality is only the absolute liberty of effects )? Semiorrhage. It’s the object. could not be insensible. as everyone knows. yielding to history. The difference is that the irony of fatality is greater than the irony of chance. if the object is ingenious. Nothing can guarantee us a fatality. Chance is also one. but against all science. for each of us. just as everything was caught from the start in an original subversion. which is itself the denouement of language immanent to language (that is the fatal: the same sign presiding over a life’s crystallization and its resolution. But simply to delineate this other logic. What remains but to pass on the side of the object. no objective. Fatality. must itself be a special effect.doc 7/20/08 31 File Title Alternative – Fatal Strategies Alternative All of today’s critical radicality has ultimately proven useless. must itself be hyper-moral. it too must be engaged in the eccentric cycle of its effects. what can we do about it? After the art of survival. What is more.

And the fact that it is no longer the subject that possesses things when. Illusion. But all the same. a kind of metaphorical transfer of things. fatal. the way that the discourse of sense tries to describe non-sense. Which means nothing. but we are nevertheless a vectorial element of the thing. there has to be a subject of the strategy. I like to apply things that are paradoxical. Regardless.doc 7/20/08 32 File Title Alternative – Strategy of the Object Alternative Fatal strategies demand that we abandon the subject as an agent of politics. effectively.htm. Why not! It is. if it is contrary to a truth principle. it is no longer a strategy properly speaking. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. What we have is the event itself. That is not possible. there I agree with you. cannot be based on objectivity. it is deployed within space. But somewhere there is a logic in the unfolding of things. 2005 CTHEORY: How is the concept of strategy used? It is implicit that it connotes a form of subjectivity. even if it is a crazy logic. to what extent does it retain today martial connotations which complicate its sense even more? JEAN BAUDRILLARD: Yes. and yet it is used in such a way that subjectivity is undermined. at the same time. it speaks to the imaginary. strategy being originally a military metaphor. decisive and determinant way. There has to be a finality.com/2002_Volume_15/15_3/Article_4. a representation of the outcome. Thus fatal strategy is. There will not be any objectivity there in the scientific sense of the term. though not in the sense of subjects. one can still use this term in a metaphorical sense perhaps. If the strategy has to become logistically chancy. which has nothing to do with scientificity. for there to be a strategy. and this is. someone who has a will.Whitman College 85911615. online: http://www. but it has certainly lost its military reference. accessed March 5. an expression which describes a process. It is a nice term. . It is truly unreadable. Summer 2002. and the intervention of the object itself in the game in a fatal. Fatal strategy for me is a strategy of the object. because. at least a rule of the game. a process in which there is certainly no more subject. But I like to bring these two terms together all the same to create a clash between them.montrealserai. it is a secret. The term strategy represents an opportunity because it is apt. truly delirious. there is only a strategy of the subject. at the moment. But I am not the one who is going to say that. Well. When I use it in the expression "fatal strategies". Thus. we do not have it. a reversibility that is in the order of things. It has a form of mastery and. But. but which would be the discourse of the object. no more subjectivity. I also speak of objective illusion. We are all inside it. and perhaps even its reference to a finality. to be sure! How could an object have a strategy? It would be absurd. It is a type of fatal process. It has form. But it no longer means anything great in my opinion. if not a strategy. properly speaking. all the same. We witness the loss of subjectivity on the one hand. as discourse itself is so grounded in subjectivity in this sense. or placed in a context where it is made volatile or fragile. it is clear that it no longer has any finality in itself. But clearly. the fact of speaking of the strategy of objects is a paradox. Let us call it strategy. At this point it has to be said that this supposes such relativity in the subject-object relation that it is that which becomes fatal. I think that there is a rule. we do not have an objective discourse available in the sense I intend it. and adopt the seemingly paradoxical strategy of the object Jean Baudrillard. the flow of the world itself. Moreover. and there is there. one will always remain between the two.

This is the only solution to the problem of “voluntary servitude. seductive passion. Prodigious form that moralists have always condemned. seal the monotony of it with an even greater monotony. but in the magic of their effect — there only they appear great and do themselves the luxury of existing. to attain ecstasy in a scene instead of being produced as something really happening. Liberating logic is basically understood only by a few. I’m not joking: people are not looking for amusement. This hyper-banality is the equivalent of fatality. deep in man’s heart. I’m speaking also of people and their inhuman strategies. the only fatal strategy. objective information. To occur is necessary.doc 7/20/08 33 File Title A2 Perm The strategy of the object is our fatal strategy. that is to say. because it is made up of all the elements of happiness and distraction. if one doesn’t understand this. essentially it is fatal logic that wins out. the most secret facts and thoughts. Fatal Strategies. It could mean the ecstatic deepening of anything. a drive for pure event. How could we suppose that people were going to disavow their daily life and look for an alternative to it? On the contrary. the bitter and triumphal foreboding that there’s no escaping this. which is a grand act of self-surpassing. but it’s here only to signify this passion of passions.” Furthermore there is no liberation but this one: in the deepening of negative conditions. subversive passion. simulating passion. This is something of a parable. All forms that tend to project a dazzling and miraculous liberty are only revolutionary homilies. to be in ecstasy is absolutely vital. There is. a human being can find in a vacation a greater boredom than in everyday life — a redoubled boredom. but their prodigious and eccentric form. as it were. All strategies that promise liberation from anything are illusions. Jean Baudrillard. 1990. . For example. opposed to all will for knowledge and power: tenacious. The important point is the predestination of vacations to boredom. and particularly in the effects of their disappearance. not in the hold of representation. p. the will to disdain their causes and to lose ourselves in their effects.Whitman College 85911615. that means that things are meaningless unless transfigured by this illusion. to be commuted into spectacle. We think of nature as indifferent. they’ll make a destiny out of it: intensify it while seeming to do the opposite. only a fatal logic wins its battle with power precisely because it’s not a battle but a radical passivity. it haunts nonetheless the process of events. but it isn’t perhaps indifferent to the fact of making a spectacle of itself in natural disasters. for here is where things cynically subvert themselves from their beginnings and their ends. 184-85 gender modified When I speak of the object and its fatal strategies. and it certainly is to the passions and enterprises of [hu]man. increase is salvation and ecstasy. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. this derision. instead they want to find a fatal distraction. in a distant echo of original sin. then one understands nothing of this collective brutishness. Boredom is not the problem — the essential point is the increase of boredom. this production which is not at all a representation. plunge into it to the point of ecstasy. Another form of fundamental cynicism: this will to spectacle and illusion. Things can only happen in this excessive manner. even the increase of oppression and abjection that works like the liberating ecstasy of abjection — just as the absolute commodity works like the liberating form of the commodity.

but that of the absolute commodity. which has annihilated all others. There is something of revenge in this: the object becomes a strange attractor. p. the object which refracts the subject and imposes upon it its presence and its random form. as the Surrealists did: things move to shed an ironic light on themselves all on their own. It is the power of the object which cuts a swathe through the very artifice we have imposed on it. that of the artificial. thus positively identifying their meanings as “not the given ones.doc 7/20/08 34 File Title A2 Perm – Ironic Strategies Can’t Include the Subject Stances of irony are purely stances of the object. of our objects. At the heart of our universe of signs there is an evil genius of advertising. Its essence is promotional. it is an objective function. henceforth. all too visible sequencing. We no longer have the sacred horizon of appearances.e. This is exemplified by the 1AC – they criticize the given meanings of SUVs and expose them as false. 73-74 Irony is the only spiritual form in the modern world. 1996. All metaphysics is swept away by this turnabout in which the subject is no longer the master of representation (‘I’ll be your mirror’). objects. which of itself creates a parody effect. For it is no longer a function of the subject. exorbitated — i. No longer any need to confront objects with the absurdity of their functions. perform an artificial and ironic function. The aura of our world is no longer sacred. but the operator of the objective irony of the world. object world which surrounds us. which can’t be combined with the affirmative. its stereophony and its artificial instantaneity. by their very existence. Stripped of all illusion by technology.Whitman College 85911615. they discard their meanings effortlessly. The critical function of the subject has given way to the ironic function of the object. although they will try to claim otherwise. It is. The Perfect Crime. still believes in identifiable meanings of particular signs. Jean Baudrillard. superconductive of illusion and non-meaning. A scriptwriter of genius (capital itself?) has dragged the world into a phantasmagoria of which we are all the fascinated victims. of our models. This is all part of their visible. .” We should abandon all hopes of finding any meaning at all in these systems of signs – only doing that allows the strategy of the object. It alone is the guardian of the mystery. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. a trickster who has absorbed the drollery of the commodity and its mise en scene. Our strategies are incompatible fundamentally because the affirmative. stripped of all connotation of meaning and value. in which the absence and transparency of the subject is reflected. its discontinuity its fragmentation. through the spectrum of the sign and the commodity. but it is no longer ours to exercise. taken out of the orbit of the subject — it is then that it becomes a pure object. in a poetic unreality. Once they have passed through the medium or through the image. No longer any need for a critical consciousness to hold up the mirror of its double to the world: our modern world swallowed its double when it lost its shadow. and the irony of that incorporated double shines out at every moment in every fragment of our signs.

We reproach them vigorously for these signs of stupidity and passivity. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. No one knows what the true opposite of consciousness is — unless it be this unconscious of repression that psychoanalysis has imposed upon us. of all enlightenment and depths of meaning. We always had a sad vision of the masses (alienated). since these masses coexist in us with the intelligent and voluntary being who condemns and scorns them. to relieve the masses of this transendence for their greater pleasure. toward the secret finalities of the very masses they despise. Our unconscious might not be composed of desires properly sworn to the sad destiny of repression. this tedious business of power and will. illusive. That couldn’t be further from the truth. silence. subjectively. intellectual. allusive strategy. 98-99 The masses know that they know nothing and they have no desire to know. Vicarious*. a sad vision of the unconscious (repressed). wills. The assumption of the alienated masses is something made by the affirmative.Whitman College 85911615. a strategy that eludes capture by power. If only for the sake of change. Jean Baudrillard. the status of these “privileged” classes. non-knowledge. the object-masses. sovereign lack of will. But perhaps our true unconscious is in this ironic power of withdrawal. Fatal Strategies. liberatory gesture. It might not even be repressed at all.doc 7/20/08 35 File Title AT: Passivity Bad/Whatever Else the 2AC Says Their arguments assume we embrace the masses’ passivity in a sad. as possessing a delusive. not us – we affirm the masses’ passivity and lack of choice as a joyous. whose will would have been diverted. The masses know they are powerless. . We live all of this. to recall Veblen’s concept. absorption then expulsion of all powers. without their realizing it. p. corresponding to an unconscious that is finally ironic. in a paradoxical mode. joyous and seductive. ironic challenge. 1990. All mediators (political. of non-desire. alienated way. But they’re not that at all: the masses are very snobbish. and they don’t want power. or secret ruse. they act like Brummel and sovereignly delegate the faculty of choice to someone else. by proxy. because of an insistance which is thereby bathed in the light of a ridiculous looking halo. and then to reward them with the spectacle of it. It would instead be made up out of what’s left after this joyous expulsion of all encumbering superstructures of being and will. heirs to the philosophers of the Enlightenment in their contempt of the masses) are only good basically for this: to administer by delegation. it would be interesting to conceive of the masses. Upon our entire philosophy lies the heavy weight of these sad correlations. in a sort of game of irresponsibility.

Rather. high-technology intelligence and weapons systems. From a political point of view. deterrence breaks down for lack of any common ground. and even if it were. p.doc 7/20/08 36 File Title A2 “You Deny the Reality of War” Our argument is not that nothing happened in the Gulf. a dual relation between warring parties. which means it defies the logic of their criticism.Whitman College 85911615. Norris points to the figure of Chomsky as someone who is both a defender of Enlightenment ideals in morality and the philosophy of language. A perfect semblance of victory for the Americans was exchanged for the perfect semblance of defeat for Iraq. it was no longer clear what had been gained by the sacrifice of so many lives.(71) In short. Other commentators have argued that the disparity between the aims.. In the past. methods and military technology of the two sides was so great that what occurred cannot be considered an adversarial encounter. That did not happen in the Gulf. war has always involved an antagonistic and destructive confrontation between adversaries. In these cases. apart from the massive damage and suffering inflicted upon Iraq. But these are secondary phenomena. and when it did the outcome was entirely predictable. testify to the one-sided nature of the conflict: “it is as though the Iraqis were electrocuted. They are the consequences of a law of uneven development. . does the fact of military conflict constitute a refutation of the hypothesis that there was no Gulf War? It does only if we accept that what did take place out there in the desert beyond the reach of the TV cameras was in fact a war. but an entirely asymmetrical operation. 1995. and its army permitted to crush the Kurdish and Shiite rebellions. Lecturer in Philosophy at the University of Sydney. located for the most part in a political and military third world. and the short-Lived political and economic benefits at home. lobotomised. say. an exercise in domination rather than an act of war. The rights of Kuwait may have been restored. and the fate of their technologically inferior tanks. the use of force remains carefully circumscribed. running towards the television journalists in order to surrender or immobilised beside their tanks . He writes: “As I understand the concept ‘war’. operate according to different rules. The final irony of the whole episode is that. The disparity between US and Iraqi forces with regard to method and military technology was so great that direct engagement rarely took place. Yet Chomsky has also questioned whether what took place in the Gulf in 1990-1 was a war. this was not the case in the Gulf conflict. Baudrillard argues. Where they do involve first world powers such as the US or UK. like Saddam Hussein. The Gulf War Did Not Take Place. it is as though it never happened. and prepared to tolerate the massive casualties which would result from a ground-based war of attrition. and a staunch critic of US foreign policy.”20 He goes on to describe the successive phases of the conflict as involving varieties of state terrorism practised on both sides. can this be called a war?” (6 7—8) In his defence of the rationalist outlook which rejects the postmodern reduction of truth to consensus belief. and a form of slaughter practised by US and UK air and ground forces upon Iraqi soldiers and civilians. This is the law of democracy and the New World Order. in the case of the Gulf conflict.. shooting at each other. The Iraqi regime was allowed to remain intact. However. or who. In several respects. a lever of last resort employed only to the extent that is necessary to bring the recalcitrant party into line. like the persistence of sweatshops alongside fully automated production facilities. The same Americans who had systematically destroyed Iraq’s power grid and transport infrastructure now refused to enforce the law of democracy and the New World Order where this would entail intervening in the internal affairs of a sovereign state. the US and its allies sought a rapid conflict based upon airpower. the Gulf War did not take place. it is because they are in conflict with third world forces who do not recognise that the rules of the game have changed. and it is this failure of communication which leads to the use of force. 1720 Does the refusal of the critical strategy which seeks to re-establish the truth of what happened commit Baudrillard to the irrationalist denial that any military engagement took place? Alternatively. but rather that what took place was not a war. it involves two sides in combat. The imbalance of military means was such that this was not a conflict in which the survival of both sides was in play. The claim that war itself has become virtual does not mean that military conflicts do not occur: they do and with increasing frequency and savagery in the New World Order. a model of the liberal and critical intellectual. and the extensive use of electronic warfare. All that is singular and irreducible must be reduced and absorbed. but in exchange for the rights of minorities in Iraq. Whereas Iraq was disposed to fight in the manner of its previous war with Iran. The crucial stake in the Gulf affair. that it was a hoax like the moon landing or something. The almost complete absence of any engagement by Iraqi planes.. what took place was not a war in any traditional logic. was the subordination of Islam to the global order: “Our wars thus have less to do with the confrontation of warriors than with the domestication of the refractory forces on the planet . Paul Patton. very little changed as a result of the military conflict. Baudrillard’s argument in “The Gulf War did not take place” is not that nothing took place. They are police operations rather than wars.. The image of a just war fought between the forces of freedom and those of tyranny dissolved in the moral ambiguities of the postconflict period.” (86) This is not war.

1996. It is particularly easy for those whose lives are shaped by the safety of privilege. Antiwar resistance is then mobilized when the "real" violence finally occurs. pg. all of the time. and at that point it is difficult not to respond in ways that make resisters drop all other political priorities.doc 7/20/08 37 File Title A2 “You Deny the Reality of War” Treating war as an event disables challenges to state sponsored violence and militarism Chris J. Neglecting the omnipresence of militarism allows the false belief that the absence of declared armed conflicts is peace. creates forms of resistance to militarism that are merely exercises in crisis control. and that it is perpetrated by military institutions and other militaristic agents of the state. online Ethical approaches that do not attend to the ways in which warfare and military practices are woven into the very fabric of life in twenty-first century technological states lead to crisis-based politics and analyses. . Crisis-driven attention to declarations of war might actually keep resisters complacent about and complicitous in the general presence of global militarism. to maintain this false belief. Cuomo. the polar opposite of war. political concern only regarding armed conflict.Whitman College 85911615. For any feminism that aims to resist oppression and create alternative social and political options. or when the stability of privilege is directly threatened. crisis-based ethics and politics are problematic because they distract attention from the need for sustained resistance to the enmeshed. Seeing war as necessarily embedded in constant military presence draws attention to the fact that horrific. state-sponsored violence is happening nearly all over. omnipresent systems of domination and oppression that so often function as givens in most people's lives. and who do not regularly encounter the realities of militarism. Hypatia Special Issues: Women and Violence Volume 11 Number 4. assistant professor of philosophy and women’s studies at the university of Cincinnati. The belief that militarism is an ethical.

which precludes any serious questioning of how this liberal-democratic order is complicit in the phenomena it officially condemns.” http://lacan. All the frenetic humanitarian." as Lenin himself would have put it. sexism. one is accused of abandoning scientific objectivity for the outdated ideological positions. it means: say and write whatever you want . of course. but also in our megalopolises. but to PREVENT from something really happening. etc. really changing.. no matter how radical. in art. 2004 What are we to say to this? Again. one should be especially careful not to confuse the ruling ideology with ideology which SEEMS to dominate. religious or sexist violence. In short. In sex.. antifeminism. any serious attempt to imagine a society whose socio-political order would be different. the reduction of freedom is presented to us as the arrival of new freedoms. accessed January 28. but free promiscuity. This kind of activity provides the perfect example of interpassivity2: of doing things not to achieve something.1 More than ever.it will be an act WITHIN the hegemonic ideological coordinates: those who "really want to do something to help people" get involved in (undoubtedly honorable) exploits like Medecins sans frontiere. 2001. So everything is allowed. the answer is immediately: "Benevolent as it is. this act will not be performed in an empty space . feminist and anti-racist campaigns. things will remain the same!" . as a critical topic: the prospects of a global ecological catastrophe. solicited even. One is therefore tempted to turn around Marx's thesis 11: the first task today is precisely NOT to succumb to the temptation to act. the growing violence not only in the far-away countries. violations of human rights. are performed against the backdrop of the neoliberal-democratic order and are tolerated as long as they fail to fundamentally change hegemonic ideology. today. Habermas designated the present era as that of the neue Undurchsichtlichkeit . If. to directly intervene and change things (which then inevitably ends in a cul de sac of debilitating impossibility: "what can one do against the global capital?").they are tolerated and supported as long as they do not get too close to a certain limit.the moment one shows a minimal sign of engaging in political projects that aim to seriously challenge the existing order. homophobia. but to question the hegemonic ideological coordinates. Today's liberal-democratic hegemony is sustained by a kind of unwritten Denkverbot similar to the infamous Berufsverbot in Germany of the late 60s . the prohibition to think. gulag and the more recent Third World catastrophes is thus to serve as the support of this Denkverbot by constantly reminding us how things may have been much worse: "Just look around and see for yourself what will happen if we follow your radical notions!" And it is exactly the same thing that the demand for "scientific objectivity" means: the moment one seriously questions the existing liberal consensus. "Fidelity to the democratic consensus" means the acceptance of the present liberal-parlamentary consensus. activity fits the formula of "Let's go on changing something all the time so that. which are all not only tolerated.the new opacity. globally. The problem is that all this occurs against the background of a fundamental Denkverbot.on condition that what you do does not effectively question or disturb the predominant political consensus. professor of philosophy at the university of Ljubljana. and. the gap between the First and the Third World. the effectively hegemonic attitude is not patriarchal repression. Greenpeace. even if they seemingly enter the economic territory (say.or it means nothing. denouncing and boycotting companies which do not respect ecological conditions or which use child labor) . this will necessarily end in a new Gulag!" The ideological function of the constant reference to the holocaust.com/replenin. This is the point on which one cannot and should not concede: today.doc 7/20/08 38 File Title A2 Reformism Particularized demands for change. the actual freedom of thought means the freedom to question the predominant liberal-democratic "postideological" consensus . Slavoj Zizek. politically correct.htm..Whitman College 85911615. state or corporate funds for a multidisciplinary research into how to fight the new forms of ethnic. “Repeating Lenin. between the rich and the poor. our daily experience is mystifying: modernization generates new obscurantisms. there is nothing easier today than to get international. the example of the art fully integrated into the establishment. but even supported by the media. the shattering impact of the digitalization of our daily lives. one follows a direct call to act.one should also ask how it effectively functions IN these very struggles. More then ever. In these circumstances. provocations in the style of the notorious "Sensation" exhibitions ARE the norm. the problem resides in the implicit qualifications which can be easily discerned by the "concrete analysis of the concrete situation. one should bear in mind Walter Benjamin's reminder that it is not enough to ask how a certain theory (or art) declares itself to stay with regard to social struggles .

and interest groups. it is no longer really the real. 1-3 If once we were able to view the Borges fable in which the cartographers of the Empire draw up a map so detailed that it ends up covering the territory exactly(the decline of the Empire witnesses the fraying of this map. Borge’s fable is unusable. demographics. This imaginary of representation. because no imaginary envelops it anymore. that constituted the charm of abstraction. leaving room only for the orbital recurrence of models and for the simulated generation of differences. no longer at all spectacular or discursive. nor that of truth. or the concept. a referential being. to all binary oppositions. disappears in the simulation whose operation is nuclear and genetic. A hyperreal henceforth sheltered from the imaginary. even inverted. or a substance. . In fact. on massive servers. No more mirror of being and appearances.and it can be reproduced an indefinite number of times from these. nor even parody. a programmatic. remains. Simulation is no longer that of a territory. but ours. No more imaginary coextensivity: it is genetic miniaturization that is the dimension of simulation. and memory banks.as the most beautiful allegory of simulation. nor does it survive it. the era of simulation is inaugurated by a liquidation of all referentials. Jean Baudrillard. a bit as the double ends by being confused with the real through aging). and its fall into ruins. Only the allegory of the Empire. the double. little by little. the magic of the concept and the charm of the real. between one and the other. from countless PACs.precession of simulacra.that engenders the territory. returning to the substance of the soil. Never again will the real have the chance to produce itself. Political reality is now purely operational. It is all of metaphysics that is lost. The desert of the real itself. All the revolutions and reforms have already happenedthen the neo-conservatives pushed back. or rather of anticipated resurrection. It is the generation by models of a real without origin or reality: a hyperreal. It is no longer anything but operational. lobbyists.the metaphysical beauty of this ruined abstraction testifying to a pride equal to the Empire and rotting like a carcass. It no longer needs to be rational. to all combinatory algebra. metastable. It is a hyperreal. The real is produced from miniaturized cells. and if one must return to the fable. It is a question of substituting the signs of the real for the real. The territory no longer precedes the map. now we live in a hyper-pluralist stasis. Today abstraction is no longer that of the map. this fable has now come full circle for us. that is to say of an operation of deterring every real process via its operational double. because it not longer measures itself against either an ideal or negative instance. By crossing into a space whose curvature is no longer that of the real. and not the map. in that tit lends itself to all systems of equivalences.Whitman College 85911615. today it is the territory whose shreds slowly rot across the extent of the map. whose vestiges persist here and there in the deserts that are no longer those of the Empire. of the real and its concept. which simultaneously culminates in and is engulfed by the cartographer’s mad project of the ideal coextensivity of map and territory. But it is no longer a question of either maps o territories. Because it is with this same imperialism that present-day simulators attempt to make the real. models of control. perhaps. and from any distinction between the real and the imaginary. produced from the radiating synthesis of combinatory models in a hyperspace without atmosphere.worse: with their artificial resurrection in the systems of signs. Simulacra and Simulation. matrices. that no longer even gives the event of death a chance. perfectly descriptive machine that offers all the signs of the real and short-circuits all its vicissitudes. though some shreds are still discernible in the deserts. In fact. It is no longer a question of imitation. p.doc 7/20/08 39 File Title A2 Reformism Reform doesn’t exist anymore. a material more malleable that meaning. 1981. coincide with their models of simulation. It is produced from cable television pundits. all of the real. Something has disappeared: the sovereign difference.such is the vital function of the model in a system of death. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. It is the real. and possesses nothing but the discrete charm of second-order simulacra. It is nevertheless the map that precedes the territory. the mirror. nor duplication. Because it is difference that constitutes the poetry of the map and the charm of the territory.

Witness this two bedroom/kitchen/shower put into orbit. 1981. Gigantic hologram in three dimensions. of lived experience. The conquest of space that follows that of the planet is equal to derealizing (dematerializing) human space. the conquest of space constitutes an irreversible crossing toward the loss of the terrestrial referential. besides it forged its path in the narratives of spatial exploration. The proliferation of signs leads to the hallucination and revisiting of impacts in their hyperrealized forms. 123-124 Perhaps science fiction from the cybernetic and hyperreal era can only exhaust itself. hyperrealized. mental. Classical science fiction was that of an expanding universe. the end of the phantasm. something like the principle of reality disappears. but reconstituted. saturated. of the banal. in its artificial resurrection of “historical” worlds. cosmic) of science fiction has ceased to function. There is no relationship of cause and effect there: it is not because terrestrial space today is virtually coded. and thus one available to the imaginary. in the imaginary as well. Simulacra and Simulation. leaving no room for the imaginary—it is not exactly because of this that the exploratory universe (technical. not only of merchandise. of their original process. be the opposite: it will be to put decentered situations. p. rather. the war of Secession. and they are two versions of the same general process of implosion that follows the gigantic process of explosion and expansion characteristic of past centuries.the satellization of the real in the transcendence of space—it is the end of metaphysics. Dick. models. the events. to reinvent the real as fiction. of the quotidian.doc 7/20/08 40 File Title A2 Sign production/Culture Crash Link Turn Just because you accelerate the process of sign creation doesn’t mean that you collapse signification itself. once the limits of this universe recede into infinity. the ideologies of the past. has thus in a sense closed up again in universalizing itself—a universal market. the end of science fiction—the era of hyperreality begins. Jean Baudrillard. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. Thus in Simulacra by Philip K. There is a hemorrhaging of reality as in internal coherence of a limited universe. models of simulation in place and to contrive to give them the feeling of the real. From then onward. Until now we have always had a reserve of the imaginary—now the coefficient of reality is proportional to the reserve of the imaginary that gives it its specific weight. We can no longer imagine any other universe: the grace of transcendence was taken away from us in that respect too. raised to a spatial power (one could say) with the most recent lunar module. but hallucinatory with retrospective truth. reconstituted as an animal or vegetal reserve. registered. . When a system reaches its own limits and becomes saturated. Hallucination of the real. the extrapolation. the perimeters of a prior world. or to transferring it into a hyperreal of simulation. In this way. can only try to reconstruct invitro. The everydayness of the terrestrial habitat itself elevated to the rank of cosmic value. hypostatized in space. counterparts to the more terrestrial forms of exploration and colonization of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. but a desperate rehallucination of the past. It is no longer possible to fabricate the unreal from the real. signs. emptied of meaning. down to the smallest details. in which fiction will never again be a mirror held toward the future. a reversal is produced— something else takes place. This is also true of geographic and spatial exploration: when there is no longer any virgin territory. brought to light with a transparent precision. sometimes down to disquietingly strange details. derealized in advance.Whitman College 85911615. precisely because it has disappeared from our life. of lived experience. the sort of pantographic excess that constituted the charm of science fiction are all impossible. the imaginary from the givens of the real. when the map covers the whole territory. mapped. something must change: the projection. but of values. the people. But the two are narrowly linked. The process will. but without substance.

p. This was already the aporia of the modern revolution. now neutralized. very quickly effaces (as unionization does in the working world) any inclination toward violent intervention. Energies freeze in their own fire. all risk of explosion. Control by the threat will be replaced by the more effective strategy of pacification through the bomb and through the possession of the bomb. It is thus perfectly probable that one day we will see nuclear powers export atomic reactors. nonexplosive—except for the possibility of an explosion toward the center. Thus the very possibility of paralyzing a whole country by flicking a switch makes it so that the electrical engineers will never use this weapon: the whole myth of the total and revolutionary strike crumbles at the very moment when the means are available—but alas precisely because those means are available. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. this vast saturation of a system by its own forces. unusable. 39-40 This is why nuclear proliferation does not increase the risk of either an atomic clash or an accident— save in the interval when the “young” powers could be tempted to make a nondeterrant.doc 7/20/08 41 File Title A2 “The Case Impacts Still Happen” Deterrence makes your massive impacts impossible Jean Baudrillard. Responsibility. of an implosion where all these energies would be abolished in a catastrophic process (in the literal sense. [40] The nuclear is at once the culminating point of available energy and the maximization of energy control systems. and bombs to ever latitude. The same goes for the atomic reactors that we have already sent them. of their own deterrence. so many neutron bombs knocking out all historic virulence. unintelligible. weapons. the nuclear everywhere inaugurates an accelerated process of implosion. what strategy. Simulacra and Simulation. “real” use of it (as the Americans did in Hiroshima—but precisely only they had the right to this “use value” of the bomb. Therein lies the whole process of deterrence. believing that they are buying their independent striking force. will buy the virus of deterrence. it freezes everything around it. control. It is still the absolute paradox of the nuclear. 1981. that is to say in the sense of a reversion of the whole cycle toward a minimal point. of a reversion of energies toward a minimal threshold). In this sense. . all of those who have acquired it since will be deterred from using by the very fact of possessing it). self-deterrence always grow more rapidly than the forces or the weapons at our disposal: this is the secret of the social order. Lockdown and control increase in direct proportion to (and undoubtedly even faster than) liberating potentialities. it absorbs all living energy. they deter themselves. Entry into the atomic club. what subject would exist behind this enclosure. so prettily named. One can no longer imagine what project. censure.Whitman College 85911615. what power. The “little” powers.

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