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Baudrillard K Neg
Baudrillard K Neg.......................................................................................................................................................1
Baudrillard K Neg..........................................................................................................................1
Links – Policy Debate – Disneyland (1/2)..................................................................................................................5
Links – Policy Debate – Disneyland (1/2)....................................................................................5
Links – Policy Debate – Disneyland (2/2)..................................................................................................................6
Links – Policy Debate – Disneyland (2/2)....................................................................................6
Links – Policy Debate – Hyperreal Communication (1/2)..........................................................................................7
Links – Policy Debate – Hyperreal Communication (1/2).........................................................7
Links – Policy Debate – Hyperreal Communication (2/2)..........................................................................................8
Links – Policy Debate – Hyperreal Communication (2/2).........................................................8
Links – Leadership type Impacts – Saving Private Ryan (1/2).................................................................................10
Links – Leadership type Impacts – Saving Private Ryan (1/2)...............................................10
Links – Leadership type Impacts – Saving Private Ryan (2/2).................................................................................11
Links – Leadership type Impacts – Saving Private Ryan (2/2)...............................................11
Links – War Scenarios..............................................................................................................................................12
Links – War Scenarios.................................................................................................................12
Links – Preventing the “Real” War...........................................................................................................................13
Links – Preventing the “Real” War...........................................................................................13
Links – Rights/Revolution/Hippie Shit.....................................................................................................................14
Links – Rights/Revolution/Hippie Shit......................................................................................14
Links – Micropolitics................................................................................................................................................15
Links – Micropolitics...................................................................................................................15
Links – Leftist Politics..............................................................................................................................................16
Links – Leftist Politics.................................................................................................................16
Links – Alternative Energy – Tech/R&D.................................................................................................................17
Links – Alternative Energy – Tech/R&D..................................................................................17
Links – Alternative Energy – Nuclear Energy (1/2).................................................................................................18
Links – Alternative Energy – Nuclear Energy (1/2).................................................................18
Links – Alternative Energy – Nuclear Energy (1/2).................................................................................................19
Links – Alternative Energy – Nuclear Energy (1/2).................................................................19
Links – Preservation/Nature/Environment/Ecology (1/3)........................................................................................20
Links – Preservation/Nature/Environment/Ecology (1/3)........................................................20
Whitman College 85911615.doc 7/20/08
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Links – Preservation/Nature/Environment/Ecology (2/3)........................................................................................21
Links – Preservation/Nature/Environment/Ecology (2/3)........................................................21
Links – Preservation/Nature/Environment/Ecology (3/3)........................................................................................22
Links – Preservation/Nature/Environment/Ecology (3/3)........................................................22
Impacts – War (1/2)..................................................................................................................................................23
Impacts – War (1/2).....................................................................................................................23
Impacts – War (2/2)..................................................................................................................................................24
Impacts – War (2/2).....................................................................................................................24
Impacts – Fascism.....................................................................................................................................................25
Impacts – Fascism........................................................................................................................25
Impacts – Violence....................................................................................................................................................26
Impacts – Violence.......................................................................................................................26
Impacts – Annihilation of Difference Impact...........................................................................................................28
Impacts – Annihilation of Difference Impact............................................................................28
Impacts – Cuomo – Ecological Destruction..............................................................................................................29
Impacts – Cuomo – Ecological Destruction...............................................................................29
Alternative – Strategy of the Object – The Children................................................................................................30
Alternative – Strategy of the Object – The Children................................................................30
Alternative – Fatal Strategies Alternative.................................................................................................................31
Alternative – Fatal Strategies Alternative.................................................................................31
Alternative – Strategy of the Object Alternative.......................................................................................................32
Alternative – Strategy of the Object Alternative......................................................................32
A2 Perm – Ironic Strategies Can’t Include the Subject............................................................................................34
A2 Perm – Ironic Strategies Can’t Include the Subject...........................................................34
AT: Passivity Bad/Whatever Else the 2AC Says......................................................................................................35
AT: Passivity Bad/Whatever Else the 2AC Says.......................................................................35
A2 “You Deny the Reality of War”..........................................................................................................................36
A2 “You Deny the Reality of War”............................................................................................36
A2 “You Deny the Reality of War”..........................................................................................................................37
A2 “You Deny the Reality of War”............................................................................................37
Whitman College 85911615.doc 7/20/08
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A2 Sign production/Culture Crash Link Turn..........................................................................................................40
A2 Sign production/Culture Crash Link Turn.........................................................................40
A2 “The Case Impacts Still Happen”.......................................................................................................................41
A2 “The Case Impacts Still Happen”.........................................................................................41
Whitman College 85911615.doc 7/20/08
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While ecology and limitations on consumption are laudable goals insofar as they solve problems like the exhaustion of resources, this responsible stewardship is inherently bound up with an unpredictable and uncontrollable underside – the development of renewables is a liberation of the forces of energy that amounts to a limitless proliferation culminating in the devouring of the very agents of that energy. Technologized energy is a Pandora’s box that we can have no fantasies of control over – it exceeds and defies attempts at containment. Jean Baudrillard, Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School, 1993, The Transparency of Evil, p. 103-05
The dangers threatening the human species are thus less risks of default (exhaustion of natural resources, dilapidation of the environment, etc.) than risks of excess: runaway energy flows, chain reactions, or frenzied autonomous developments. This distinction is a vital one, for while risks of default can be addressed by a New Political Ecology, the basic assumptions of which are by now generally accepted (indeed, they are already written into the International Rights of the Species), there is absolutely nothing to counter this other immanent logic, this speeding-up of everything, which plays double or nothing with nature. In the first case, the restoration of equilibrium to our ecological niche is still possible, the energies in play could still be rebalanced; in the second case, however, we are confronted by a development that is irretrievably out of balance. In the first case ethical principles may be brought to bear: a teleology that transcends the material process involved — even if merely the goal of survival — may come into play; in the second case, however, a process whose only goal is limitless proliferation will inevitably absorb all transcendence and devour all agents thereof. A full-blown and planet-wide schizophrenia, therefore, now rules: even as all sorts of ecological measures are being taken, even as a strategy for the proper use of the world, for an ideal interaction with the world, is being deployed, there is a simultaneous proliferation of enterprises of destruction, a total unleashing of the performance principle. And the very same forces often contribute to both trends. Furthermore, though the end-point of the first tendency seems fairly clear — to wit, the saving of our species by means of ecological conviviality — we know absolutely nothing about the secret destination of the second. But surely this acceleration, this excentric motion, must
have an end, must imply a destiny for the human species, a different symbolic relationship with the world that is much more complex and ambiguous than a relationship of balance and interaction? This too would be a vital destination — but it would involve a total risk. If such a destination has indeed been chosen for us, it is obvious that ecology’s rational deities will be powerless against the throwing of technology and energy into the struggle for an unpredictable goal, in a sort of Great Game whose rules are unknown to us. Even now we have no protection against the perverse effects of security, control and crime-prevention measures. We already know to what dangerous extremities we are led by prophylaxis in every sphere: social, medical, economic or political. In the name of the highest possible degree of security, an endemic terror may well be instituted that is in every way as dangerous as the epidemic threat of catastrophe. One thing is certain: in view of the complexity of the initial conditions and the potential reversibility of all the effects, we should entertain no illusions about the effectiveness of any kind of rational intervention. In the face of a process which so far surpasses the ‘individual or collective will of the players, we have no choice but to accept that any distinction between good and evil (and by extension here any possibility of assessing the ‘right level’ of technological development) can have the slightest validity only within the tiny marginal sphere contributed by our rational model. Inside these bounds, ethical reflection and practical determinations are feasible; beyond them, at the level of the overall process
which we have ourselves set in motion, but which from now on marches on independently of us with the ineluctability of a natural catastrophe, there reigns — for better or worse — the inseparability of good and evil, and hence the impossibility of mobilizing the one without the other. This is, properly speaking, the theorem of the accursed share. There is no point whatsoever in wondering whether things ought to be thus: they simply are thus, and to fail to acknowledge it is to fall utterly prey to illusion. None of this invalidates whatever may be possible in
the ethical, ecological or economic sphere of our life — but it does totally relativize the impact of such efforts upon the symbolic level, which is the level of destiny.
<<Insert More Links Here, choose wisely based off of whether it is a more critical or a more policy oriented affirmative>>
Thus. is drawn. panegyric of American values. p. This imaginary world is supposed to ensure the success of the operation. In fact. Simulacra and Simulation.a city of incredible proportions but without space. Debate. childlike world is found to have been conceived and realize by a man who is himself now cryogenized: Walt Disney. But what attracts the crowds the most is without a doubt the social microcosm. Embalmed and pacified. Enchanted Village.is total. solitude is directed at a single gadget: the automobile. but belong to the hyperreal order and to the order of simulation. rather: inside. Whence the possibility of an ideological analysis of Disneyland (L.doc 7/20/08 5 File Title Links – Policy Debate – Disneyland (1/2) Policy debate is about imagining the world of the plan. down to the morphology of individuals and of the crowd. whereas all of Los Angeles and the America that surrounds it are no longer real. the Future World.Whitman College 85911615. international politics is just as much of a game as debate. . a whole panoply of gadgets magnetizes the crowd in directed flows outside. without dimension. everywhere in Disneyland the objective profile of America. Magic Mountain. that is carceral). it is a deterrence machine set up in order to rejuvenate the fiction of the real in the opposite camp. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School.a veritable concentration camp. but this makes something else and this “ideological” blanket functions as a cover for a simulation of the third order: Disneyland exists in order to hide that it is the “real” country. the religious. As much as electrical and atomic power stations. play of space]): digest of the American way of life. its infantile degeneration. jeux d’espace [Utopias. this city. like Disneyland. the Frontier. The contrast with the absolute solitude of the parking lot. One parks outside and stand in line inside. of its constraints and joys. 12-14 Disneyland is a perfect model of all the entangled orders of simulacra. By an extraordinary coincidence (but this derives without a doubt from the enchantment inherent to this universe. Marin did it very well in Utopiques. which is no longer anything but an immense scenario and a perpetual pan shot. in the “real” world.. needs this old imaginary like a sympathetic nervous system made up of childhood signals and faked phantasms. Jean Baudrillard. Disneyland is not the only one. and in the sufficient and excessive number of gadgets necessary to create the multitudinous effect. It is no longer a question of a false representation of reality (ideology) but of concealing the fact that the real is no longer real. Marine World: Los Angeles is surrounded by these imaginary stations that feed reality. this frozen. The only phantasmagoria in this imaginary world lies in the tenderness and warmth of the crowd. who awaits his resurrection through an increase of 180 degrees centigrade. It is first of all a play of illusions and phantasms: the Pirates. miniaturized pleasure of real America. Or. Whence the debility of this imaginary. all of “real” America that is Disneyland (a bit like prisons are there to hide that it is the social in its entirety. The violence of the real world is sustained by policy simulation. and to conceal the fact that true childishness is everywhere. unreal circulation. the energy of the real to a city whose mystery is precisely that of no longer being anything but a network of incessant. idealized transposition of a contradictory reality. Disneyland is presented as imaginary in order to make us believe that the rest is real. however. is a fiction factory whose function is to reify the world outside. etc. Policy hacks come to the imaginary realm of debate to convince themselves that all that stuff they hear on CNN is reality.that it is that of the adults themselves who come here to act the child in order to foster illusion as to their real childishness. Certainly. and thus of saving the reality principle. as much as cinema studios. in its banal omnipresence. one is altogether abandoned at the exit. This world wants to be childish in order to make us believe that the adults are elsewhere. The imaginary of Disneyland is neither true nor false. 1981. All its values are exalted by the miniature and the comic strip.
the first great toxic excrement of a hyperreal civilization. or the lost taste for food. and money. whose visible signs would be those of this strange obesity. health food. somatic recycling institutes. yoga. vanished savage naturalness: natural food. but they go jogging. but at a secondary level: here. maybe a mental catastrophe. One reinvents penury. in the guise of ecology. a simulated behavior of the underdeveloped (including the adoption of Marxist tenets) that.Whitman College 85911615. On a mental level. which proliferate in California. adds a final esoteric aureole to the triumph of an esoteric culture.doc 7/20/08 6 File Title Links – Policy Debate – Disneyland (2/2) Disneyland: a space of the regeneration of the imaginary as waste-treatment plants are elsewhere. belonging to the same order. but there is contactotherapy. but there are institutes for that. etc. a mental implosion and involution without prececedent lies in wait for a system of the kink. a penury/simulacrum. or lost sociality. the historical. or the incredible coexistence of the most bizarre theories and practices. and the dreams. in the sophisticated confines of a triumphal market economy is reinvented a penury/sign. of energy crises and the critique of capital. and even here. Marshall Sahlins’s idea that it is the economy of the market. psychic. They no longer walk. fairylike. People no longer look at each other. . They no longer touch each other. Disneyland is the prototype of this new function. that secretes penury. which correspond to the improbable coalition of luxury. Everywhere one recycles lost faculties. legendary imaginary of children and adults is a waste product. and not of nature at all. Everywhere today one must recycle waste. is verified. But all the sexual. to the improbable luxurious materialization of life and to undiscoverable contradictions. Nevertheless. or lost bodies. the phantasms. asceticism. heaven.
Thus information dissolves meaning and dissolves the social. it is a circular process—that of simulation. the opposite occurs. A circular arrangement through which one stages the desire of the audience.doc 7/20/08 7 File Title Links – Policy Debate – Hyperreal Communication (1/2) Policy debate is intricately tied to the workings of mass media. or that it neutralizes them. of the implosion of the social in the masses. but of exactly the opposite. It is useless to ask if it is the loss of communication that produces this escalation in the simulacrum. Thus. A gigantic process of simulation that is very familiar. Rather than producing meaning. very much on the contrary. the pressure of information pursues an irresistible destructuration of the social. But one can believe that this belief is as ambiguous as that which was attached to myths in ancient societies. We are all complicitous in this myth. Rather than creating communication. the mass media. . It devours communication and the social. 1981. a general consensus would have it that nevertheless. to short-circuit in advance any possibility of communication (precession of the model that calls an end to the real). in a sort of nebulous state dedicated not to a surplus of innovation. Myth exists.. which is redistributed in all the interstices of the social—just as consensus would have it that material production. participation at every level. our intense analysis of the world does not produce more understanding. as a whole. The nondirective interview. Behind this exacerbated mise-en-scene of communication. etc. Whoever is underexposed to the media is dissocialized or virtually asocial. dissuasive action of information. Everywhere socialization is measured by the exposure to media messages. or whether it is the simulacrum that is there first for dissuasive ends. To this tautology of the system the masses respond with ambivalence. speech. the integrated circuit of the negative. faith in information attach themselves to this tautological proof that the system gives of itself by doubling the signs of an unlocatable reality. despite its dysfunctions and irrationalities. there be an excess of meaning. which means that you reproduce your harms Jean Baudrillard. In fact.Whitman College 85911615. 1. to avoid the brutal desimulation that would confront us in the face of the obvious reality of a radical loss of meaning. the media. but. the fact is that it is collapsing. Well. that of the hyperreal. It is the alpha and omega of our modernity. One both believes and doesn’t. there is a rigorous and necessary correlation between the two. Information devours its own content. to the extent that information is directly destructive of meaning and signification. it exhausts itself in the act of staging communication.tying news articles together to create the most accurate representation possible of the real world and then combine them into a coherent and logical story. in each one of us. the antitheater of communication. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. this awakening dream of communication. This coherence and logic is the fundamental myth of modernity. on the contrary. Everywhere information is thought to produce an accelerated circulation of meaning. Immense energies are deployed to hold this simulacrum at bay. and for this very reason: because where we think that information produces meaning. a plus value of meaning homologous to the economic one that results from the accelerated rotation of capital Information is thought to create communication. but still. this homeopathic grafting. 79-82 Or. without which the credibility of our social organization would collapse. Useless to ask which is the first term. Moreover.” More and more information is invaded by this kind of phantom content. and the mass media. this information ritual becomes encoded in the real. “I know very well. it exhausts itself in the staging of meaning. you are the event. opens onto an excess of wealth and social purpose. corresponds to this simulation of meaning and of communication in which this system encloses us. Belief. Thus the media are producers not of socialization. p. as a lure— to which the force of myth is attached. but less. to total entropy. but one must guard against thinking that people believe in it: this is the trap of critical thinking that can only be exercised if it presupposes the naïveté and stupidity of the masses. not only communication but the social functions in a closed circuit.” A sort of inverse simulation in the masses. is never anything but the recycling in the negative of the traditional institution. and even if the waste is enormous. And this is only the macroscopic extension of the implosion of meaning at the microscopic level of the sign. More real than the real. And for two reasons. blackmail through speech: “You are concerned. 2. Simulacra and Simulation. to deterrence they respond with disaffection. The third hypothesis is the most interesting but flies in the face of every commonly held opinion. listeners who call in. The hyperreality of communication and of meaning. which as one knows. One does not ask oneself. or with an always enigmatic belief. The loss of meaning is directly linked to the dissolving. that is how the real is abolished. there is none.
whether they are conformist or subversive.doc 7/20/08 8 File Title Links – Policy Debate – Hyperreal Communication (2/2) This implosion should be analyzed according to McLuhan’s formula. . That is—and this is where McLuhan’s formula leads. pushed to its limit—there is not only an implosion of the message in the medium. Only the medium can make an event—whatever the contents. pirate-radios. That means that all contents of meaning are absorbed in the only dominant form of the medium. there is perhaps still a subversive. the medium is the message. But there is something even more serious. revolutionary use value of the medium as such. in the same movement. there is. If all the content is wiped out. anti-media. etc. one could still expect to manipulate the medium in its form and to transform the real by using the impact of the medium as form.Whitman College 85911615. the consequences of which have yet to be exhausted. Because beyond this neutralization of all content. in which even the definition and distinct action of the medium can no longer by determined. which McLuhan himself did not see. A serious problem for all counter-information. the implosion of the medium itself in the real. the implosion of the medium and of the real in a sort of hyperreal nebula.
doc 7/20/08 9 File Title .Whitman College 85911615.
a retro politics. these death pangs of the real and of the rational that open onto an age of simulation. it is a myth that invades cinema as imaginary content. is this decline of strong referentials. Whence the omnipresence of fascism and of war in retro—a coincidence. in the euphoric or catastrophic expectation of a revolution—today one has the impression that history has retreated. This trauma (loss of referentials) is similar to the discovery of the difference between the sexes in children. war. Hypotyposis and specularity. . an affinity that is not at all political. The politics that enter the university are those that come from history. as serious. in the same retro fascination. with the air of a game and a field of adventure. but simply to resurrect the period whet at least there was history. the great trauma. this leukemia of history and of politics. Cinema plagiarizes itself. aestheticized by retro)… Concurrently with this effort toward an absolute correspondence with the real. only nostalgia endlessly accumulates: war. but precisely. ideologies. or the revolutionary struggles. the period immediately following the war—the innumerable films that play on these themes for us have a closer. Myth. full dramatic relation. In a violent and contemporary period of history (let’s say between the two world wars and the cold war). the panoply of events. which is dubbed peaceful coexistence on a global level. this hemorrhage of values—it is in proportion to this distress that all content can be evoked pell-mell. and affinity that is not at all political. It is unto this void that the phantasms of a past history recede. finds refuge in cinema. etc. One can explain it by evoking the Freudian theory of fetishism (perhaps also a retro hypothesis). it is history itself that invades the cinema according to the same scenario—the historical stake chased from our lives by this sort of immense neutralization. “Entering another round of Saving Private Ryan” is a perfect example of how neoconservative leadership impact authors write under the naïve hallucination of ideology and power. History is our lost referential. they just can’t get over it.” as one congratulated oneself on the “entrance of politics into the university. p. It is by the virtue of this fact that it takes the place of myths on the screen. cinema also approaches an absolute correspondence with itself—and this is not contradictory: it is the very definition of the hyperreal. 1981. more confused essence). Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. Thus the fetishized history will preferably be the one immediately preceding our “irreferential” era.: all of this is logical. denser. same mystification. including the delirious use of its own technique) used to have a lively. as profound. this kind of politics is like sexuality or permanent education (or like social security in its time). The illusion would be to congratulate oneself on this “awareness of history on the part of the cinema. everything is equivalent and is mixed indiscriminately in the same morose and funereal exaltation. unreality. this object is not just any object. lived in the march of history. remakes the silent film more perfectly than the original. retroactivates its original myths. it is for this reason that fascism can again become fascinating in its filtered cruelty. retro fashions—no longer so much because people believe in them or still place some hope in the them. and pacified monotony on the quotidian level—this history exorcised by a slowly or brutally congealing society celebrates its resurrection in force on the screen. but emptied of references. according to the same process that used to make lost myths live again.doc 7/20/08 10 File Title Links – Leadership type Impacts – Saving Private Ryan (1/2) It should be a measure of Khalizad’s argument that he depends on cinema to make it for him. The cinema and the imaginary (the novelistic. which is still less amusing. the cinema is fascinated by itself as a lost object as much as it (and we) are fascinated by the real as a lost referent. recopies itself. Jean Baudrillard. it is often the last object perceived before the traumatic discovery. at least there was violence (albeit fascist). leaving behind it an indifferent nebula. The affirmative simply recycles the signs of power. and particularly the last.” Same misunderstanding.Whitman College 85911615. Simulacra and Simulation. more perverse. posthumous liberalization. traversed by currents. emptied of substance and legalized in their superficial exercise. that is to say our myth. remakes its classics. it is naïve to conclude that the evocation of fascism and of war in retro—a coincidence. There is however a privileging of the immediately preceding era (fascism. Anything serves to escape this void. because one is in something else. that all previous history is resurrected in bulk—a controlling idea no longer selects. The great event of this period. dialectical. Whereas so many generations. it is naïve to conclude that the evocation of fascism signals a current renewal of fascism (it is precisely because one is no longer there. 43-48. chased from the real by the violence of history. Post-history has rendered power useless. says Freud. when at least life and death were at stake. It is the golden age of despotic and legendary resurrections. as irreversible: the fetishization of an object intervenes to obscure this unbearable discovery. that is. fascism. the mythical. the pageantry of the belle époque. Today.
the mythical energy of an event or of a narrative. Because cinema itself contributed to the disappearance of history. which was substituted for all other value—we are all complicitous in this. It is a myth that at once subtended the possibility of an “objective” enchainment of events and causes and the possibility of a narrative enchainment of discourse. The age of history. this negative and implacable fidelity to the materiality of the past. and this is irreversible. It is this fabulous character. and it itself is lost therein. the last great myth. is also the age of the novel. if one can call it that. that today seems to be increasingly lost. Photography and cinema contributed in large part to the secularization of history. the cool promiscuity. to fixing it in its visible. to the restitution of an absolute simulacrum of the past or the present. and to the advent of the archive. Behind a performative and demonstrative logic: the obsession with real time or with the minute quotidianeity of Jeanne Hilmann doing the dishes).doc 7/20/08 11 File Title Links – Leadership type Impacts – Saving Private Ryan (2/2) The relation that is being formed today between the cinema and the real is an inverse. perhaps. It only resurrects ghosts. along with the unconscious. all its technology in the service of reanimating what it itself contributed to liquidating. negative relation: it results from the loss of specificity of one and of the other. Today cinema can place all its talent. “objective form at the expense of the myths that once traversed it. The cold collage. the asexual nuptials of two cold media that evolve in an asymptotic line toward each other: the cinema attempting to abolish itself in the cinematographic (or televised) hyperreal. History is a strong myth.Whitman College 85911615. . to a particular scene of the past or of the present.
and the remarkable paranoia that from the beginning conceived of this film as a historical. irrational in political terms: the Americans and the Vietnamese are already reconciled. and make him crush the Vietnamese village to the sound of Wagner’s music—those are not critical. a baroque dream of napalm and o the tropics. of the organic metabolism of all the technologies. The war became film. with the same clownish effect in overdrive. the war become film even before being filmed. distant signs.. that is not a value judgment. the war in Vietnam would have been nothing other than what it is. It reassures us that war is indeed an extension of politics by other means. no critical sense. that this film is part of the war—if the Americans (seemingly) lost the other one. The war abolishes itself in its technological test. Coppola can certainly deck out his helicopter captain in a ridiculous hat of the light cavalry. Simulacra and Simulation. would not fundamentally have existed—and it is necessary for us to believe in this: the war in Vietnam “in itself” perhaps in fact never happened. test the impact of a cinema that has become an immeasurable machinery of special effects. which completes the mass-spectacle effect of this war. The war as entrenchment. 59-60. Jean Baudrillard. the sacrificial. the war as a succession of special effects. perhaps waiting for nothing but consecration by a superfilm. and its apotheosis. of so many misadventures. their methods. a gigantic territory in which to test their arms. excessive deployment of a power already filming itself as it unfolded. they are part of the special effect. a psychotropic dream that had the goal neither of a victory nor of a policy at stake. there is no possible verdict. it is the best possible testimonial— with the same immoderation. that nothing separates them.Whitman College 85911615. with the same retro megalomania. Coppola does nothing but that: test cinema’s power of intervention. no desire for “raising consciousness” in relation to the war: and in a sense this is the brutal quality of this film—not being rotten with the moral psychology of war. the same monstrous candor… and the same success. it is a dream. This exercise in the simulated effects of war is indistinguishable from the means of war and the war itself. the omnipresence of these reassurances is proof that modern warfare is simply an exercise in special effects. but one of the reversibility of both destruction and production. Coppola makes his film like the Americans made war—in this sense.the explosions. but rather. Apocalypse Now is a global victory. and for Americans it was primarily that: a test site. but that of the film strictly speaking)? But there is no answer. his film is really the extension of the war through other means. p. equal or superior to that of the Pentagon and of governments. of the carpet of bombs in the strip of film… . and the same nonsignifying furor. the same excess of means. one of good and evil. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. the sacrificial joy of so many millions spent. One revisits everything through cinema and one begins again: the Molochian joy of filming. the film is not without interest: it retrospectively illuminates (not even retrospectively. But there it is. in the mind of the creator. exactly as if they had annihilated the jungle and the towns. The real war is waged by Coppola as it is by Westmoreland: without counting the inspired irony of having forests and Philippine villages napalmed to retrace the hell of South Vietnam. it is bewildering. Cinematographic power equal and superior to that of the industrial and military complexes. the orgasmic sacrifice of industrial means. exactly as they are making their film today. One has understood nothing.doc 7/20/08 12 File Title Links – War Scenarios Like special effects in war cinema. they are immersed in the machinery. they certainly won this one. he hits us with that. the two are joined by their common hemorrhage into technology. In fact. in which. global event. the affirmative impact evidence traces out the mass destruction/mass spectacle of war-. 1981. of such a holocaust of means. and he himself makes movies in the same way. of the immanence of a thing in its very revolution. and one can say to oneself: how is such a horror possible (not that of the war. either about the war nr about cinema (at least the latter) if one has not grasped this lack of distinction that is no longer either an ideological or a moral one. the pinnacle of this failed war. And all of a sudden. and one can even rejoice in this monstrous trick (exactly as with Wagner). it is there. No real distance. their power. because the film is a phase of this war without end) what was already crazy about this war. as technological and psychedelic fantasy. In this sense. but that tells you the war in Vietnam and this film are cut from the same cloth. right after the end of the hostilities the Americans offered economic aid.but one can always retrieve a tiny little idea that is not nasty. the film becomes war.
it is their virtual death that is at issue. Deterrence has passed by that way and it spares no one. 26-28 We are in neither a logic of war nor a logic of peace but in a logic of deterrence which has wound its way inexorably through forty years of cold war to a denouement in our current events. a logic of weak events. the privilege of real war. the transparent degree which allows war to be seen from the depths of the darkroom. then of operations themselves. and we are confronted with a virtual apocalypse. The most widespread belief is in a logical progression from virtual to actual. The passage to action suffers widespread infamy: it supposedly corresponds to a brutal lifting of repression.Whitman College 85911615. The build-up is unreal. However. Against this obsession with the real we have created a gigantic apparatus of simulation which allows us to pass to the act “in vitro” (this is true even of procreation). thus to a psychotic process. their function of death and destruction. It is the de-intensified state of war. then of the distinction between winners and losers (the winner readily becomes the hostage of the loser: the Stockholm syndrome). which already presaged the disappearance of the end of hostilities. Since it never began. We are no longer in a logic of the passage from virtual to actual but in a hyperrealist logic of the deterrence of the real by the virtual. the aim of which is to present a face-lifted war. of an orbital war purged of all local and political peripeteias. Our virtual has definitively overtaken the actual and we must be content with this extreme virtuality which. It seems that this obsession with the passage to action today governs all our behaviour: obsession with every real. It is neither the strong form nor the degree zero of war. We prefer the exile of the virtual. In this process. the cosmetically treated spectre of its death. That’s no longer the case in an age of simulation. Everything is therefore transposed into the virtual. into the virtual impossibility of war which translates into the paltry fantasia where adversaries compete in de-escalation. 1995. It is the bellicose equivalent of safe sex: make war like love with a condom! On the Richter scale. with every real event. Peripeteias of an anorexic history or an anorexic war which can no longer devour the enemy because it is incapable of conceiving the enemy as worthy of being challenged or annihilated — and God knows Saddam Hussein is worthy of neither challenge nor annihilation — and thus devours itself. The Gulf War Did Not Take Place. to the catastrophe of the real. but the weak or phthisical [sic] degree. p. the asymptotic form which allows a brush with war but no encounter. not their real death. a hegemony ultimately much more dangerous than real apocalypse. We should have been suspicious about the disappearance of the declaration of war. There will never be a monument to the unknown hostage. Extracted like molecules in an experimental process. as though the fiction of an earthquake were created by manipulating the measuring instruments. according to which no available weapon will not one day be used and such a concentration of force cannot but lead to conflict. the military personnel do not know what to make of their real function. Jean Baudrillard. as though the irruption or the event of war had become obscene and insupportable. War has not escaped this virtualisation which is like a surgical operation. No more than the politicians. with every pleasure which is too real.doc 7/20/08 13 File Title Links – Preventing the “Real” War The affirmative engages in an obsessive quest to limit the outbreak of real war – this buys into an outdated logic that believes the real emerges from the virtual. Moreover. they never die: at best they disappear. They are pledged to the decoy of war as the others are to the decoy of power. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. the Gulf War would not even reach two or three. then distilled one by one in the exchange. everyone is too ashamed of him: the collective shame which attaches to the hostage reflects the absolute degradation of real hostility (war) into virtual hospitality (Saddam Hussein’s “guests”). Even the military has lost the privilege of use value. of which television is the universal mirror. unlike the Aristotelian. and its even more deceptive televisual subterfuge (as we saw at Timisoara). like every real event moreover. this is an Aristotelian logic which is no longer our own. that of the right to war under the green light of the UN and with an abundance of precautions and concessions. we have fallen into soft war. to which belong those in Eastern Europe as well as the Gulf War. the hostages are once again revealing. . the disappearance of the symbolic passage to the act. By dint of dreaming of pure war. with every real violence. this war is therefore interminable. The obsession with the real only strengthens the passage to the virtual. no longer sustainable. deters any passage to action.
This was a total orgy —an orgy of the real. children’s liberation. therefore. to the principle of uncertainty. No true revolution of values can ever take place.doc 7/20/08 14 File Title Links – Rights/Revolution/Hippie Shit The Revolution –liberation in every sphere – has already happened. — — . women’s liberation. we may say that the unavoidable goal of all liberation is to foster and provision circulatory networks. because all the goals of liberation are already behind us. of all utopias realized. a fractal mode of dispersal. yet which we must continue to reproduce in a sort of inescapable indifference. phantasies. We may pretend to carry on in the same direction. With the benefit of a little hindsight. the rational. by dying. Rather than a mortal mode of disappearance. as a result of their transfer into the secondary existence of simulation. 3-5 If I were asked to characterize the present state of affairs. a state in which we are obliged to replay all scenarios precisely because they have all taken place already. the moment of liberation in every sphere. The orgy in question was the moment when modernity exploded upon us. and since we can no longer. The assumption of all models of representation. as of all models of anti-representation. Nothing is truly reflected any more whether in a mirror or in the abyssal realm (which is merely the endless reduplication of consciousness).the very availability of all the signs. liberation of art. sexual liberation. but in reality we are accelerating in a void. A centripetal compulsion coexists with a decentredness of all systems. freedom and revolution are prime examples of the simulation of values continuing in endless cycles of reiteration. so that it can go into orbit. images and dreams which are now behind us. But that’s all they are – simulation. but in the sense of an increase in power. but not in the way we expected. Now everything has been liberated. Everywhere what has been liberated has been liberated so that it can enter a state of pure circulation. neither. But since they have. 1993. Nothing (not even God) now disappears by coming to an end. There is no longer any such thing as a revolution of values — merely a circumvention or involution of values. We have pursued every avenue in the production and effective overproduction of objects. nourish the hope of realizing them. The state of utopia realized. But what can we do? This is the state of simulation. We live amid the interminable reproduction of ideals. all the forms. and because what haunts and obsesses us is being thus ahead of all the results . accelerating. is it a logic of equivalence. the sexual. we can only ‘hyper-realize’ them through interminable simulation. simulate liberation. ideologies and satisfactions. and these things are thus subject to increasing indeterminacy. I would describe it as ‘after the orgy’. signs.. Instead. a fantastic potentialization whereby their own very existence is put at risk. an internal metastasis or fevered endogenic virulence which creates a tendency for systems to explode beyond their own limits. and we find ourselves faced collectively with the big question: WHAT DO WE DO NOW THE ORGY IS OVER? Now all we can do is simulate the orgy. p. because of extenuation or extermination. Jean Baudrillard Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. all the desires that we had been pursuing. The fate of the things liberated is an incessant commutation. of criticism as of anti-criticism. liberation of the forces of production. to override their own logic not in the sense of creating sheer redundancy. of development as of the crisis of development. therefore. things disappear through proliferation or contamination. the chips are down. whether actually or potentially. Your calls for liberation. or as a result of the epidemic of simulation. Political liberation. liberation of unconscious drives. The fact is that the revolution has well and truly happened. The logic of viral dispersal in networks is no longer a logic of value. liberation of the forces of destruction. The Transparency of Evil: Essays on Extreme Phenomena. wherein paradoxically we must continue to live as though they had not been.Whitman College 85911615. then. messages. by becoming saturated or transparent.
When everything is political. and occasioning a general commutability of terms has built its house upon the disillusion of metaphor. metonymy replacing the whole as well as the components.. Pundits analyze every gesture. anything can be an object of desire: power. The law that is imposed on us is the law of the confusion of categories. Total metonymy. and eventually manifested in the viral explosion of AIDS. which is simultaneously the complete actualization of an idea. rather as water ‘remembers’ molecules no matter how diluted. at the fractal. with the disappearance of sexual difference and hence of sexuality per se. The real loss of immunity concerns sex as a whole. p. the perfect realization of the whole tendency of modernity. in terms of repression. Likewise everything has become sexual. and every article of clothing until none of it has any meaning anymore. especially since 1968. language. AIDS is the reflection not so much of an excess of sex or sexual pleasure as of sex’s — . everything is now aestheticized: politics is aestheticized in the spectacle. Everything has acquired a political meaning. can hardly retain the features of a face. its venting through all the trivial variants of sexual incantation. and the negation of that idea and that tendency. the sphere of mass processes. The viral analogy is not an importation from biology. Sex is no longer located in sex itself.Whitman College 85911615. substitution is possible between any sphere and any other: there is a total confusion of types. as by its childish notion of self-transcendence. and sexual stereotypy reigns in every last corner. When everything is aesthetic. then — viral by definition (or lack of definition). Everything is aesthetic. for everything is affected simultaneously and under the same terms by the virulence in question.doc 7/20/08 15 File Title Links – Micropolitics There is no political activism anymore. then nothing can be because there are no longer any referentials designating what the political even is. but instead in business. and art itself disappears.and advertising-led semiologization: ‘culture degree Xerox’. sex becomes transsexuality all converge in a transversal and universal process wherein no discourse may have a metaphorical relationship to another. Economics becomes transeconomics. Perhaps we still have a memory of sex. too. Likewise. Sport itself. even desire. in the general style of performance. and sex loses its determinants. by virtue of their extension beyond their own bounds this state of affairs is epitomized by a single figure: the transpolitical. in sex. The Transparency of Evil: Essays on Extreme Phenomena. in politics. that the essential confusion of the epidemic takes hold. affecting all disciplines as they lose their specificity and partake of a process of confusion and contagion — a viral loss of determinacy which is the prime event among all the new events that assail us. Fundamentally. Each category is generalized to the greatest possible extent. playing as it did upon difference. micrological and non-human level. Each category thus passes through a phase transition during which its essence is diluted in homeopathic doses. their annihilation by virtue of their very success. effort and record-breaking. art. but elsewhere everywhere else. Politics is no longer restricted to the political sphere. it was aesthetic. and upon the illusion of difference. Jean Baudrillard Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. knowledge everything is interpreted in terms of phantasies. the word itself is meaningless. Thus every individual category is subject to contamination. All at once. it’s only inane babble. that are politicized as they enter the sphere of liberation. meanwhile.. every facial expression. When everything is sexual. Perhaps our melancholy stems from this. is no longer located in sport as such. But that is the whole point: this is only a molecular memory. so that it eventually loses all specificity and is reabsorbed by all the other categories. like the ‘memory of water’. science. This paradoxical state of affairs. differential fields and distinct objects must exist. for metaphor still had its beauty. until it finally disappears. but infects every sphere economics. the corpuscular memory of an earlier life. media and communications. sport. just like the aff. It is in this diffraction of the sexual reality principle. Today. This is an aspect of a general tendency towards transsexuality which extends well beyond sex.~ — — — decompensation through its general spread into all areas of life. after all. and not a memory of forms or singularities (water. So what we are left with is the simple imprint of a faceless sexuality infinitely watered down in a broth of politics. nothing is political any more. But they cannot exist where contamination is possible between any discipline and any other. the media. 1993.. and all kinds of activity in what is conventionally referred to as culture a sort of all-pervasive media. the transsexual. nothing is sexual any more. the transaesthetic. by haphazard and senseless proliferation and metastasis. because for there to be metaphor. and it is not just everyday life but also madness.7-10 The possibility of metaphor is disappearing in every sphere. or the colour of someone’s eyes). aesthetics becomes transaesthetics. nothing is beautiful or ugly any more. in fact.if everything is political. by the chain reaction we have been discussing. Everything is political. sex in advertising and porn. All these domains are affected by sport’s criteria of ‘excellence’. leaving a trace so small as to be indiscernible. — — — . infinitesimal relative to the total solution. Everything is sexual.
against power has always been fulfilled. These staged presidential assassinations are revealing because they signal the status of all negativity in the West political opposition. crazy people. This is why in the end power is so much in tune with ideological discourses and discourses on ideology. even and especially if they are revolutionary. we should instead let power work on us in mute silence. Simulacra and Simulation. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School.. In the same way. Rather than adopting the strategy of the affirmative and decrying the abuses of power. chance. But already impeachment is no longer assassination: it happens via the Constitution. Watergate is still a mechanism for the ritual murder of power (the American institution of the presidency is much more thrilling in this regard than the European: it surrounds itself with all the violence and vicissitudes of primitive powers. he is immunized by his impotence.doc 7/20/08 16 File Title Links – Leftist Politics All that power asks of us is that we subject it to ideological analysis. and liquidated. this changes nothing: the leftist penchant for detecting a rightist conspiracy beneath this brings out a false problem—the function of bringing depth to. simulation corresponds to a short circuit of reality and to its duplication through signs.in fact. that is they are discourses of truth.Whitman College 85911615. who was not even found worthy of dying at the hands of the most insignificant. to constitute a mortal enough danger to the group to be one day relieved of his duties. Nixon. 24-25. by demented people. that we revive it through the negative. denounce. etc. Ford doesn’t even have this opportunity anymore: a simulacrum of an already dead power. If they become weak for one reason or another. Jean Baudrillard. to a dying system of democratic values.—a simulacral contrast through which power attempts to break the vicious circle of its nonexistence. was nevertheless ritually put to death by Watergate. Ideology only corresponds to a corruption of reality through signs.” critical discourse. of its “suspension. it is no longer a question of the ideology of power. 1981. Curiously. End of revolutionary praxis. . The Watergate scandal was in fact the greatest of windfalls for the power of the American presidency. because this system that is dying from being dispossessed of its death expects nothing but that from us: that we give the system back its death. who nonetheless carry out a social function as fundamental as that of presidents). or neurotics. it is the system itself that deploys against its own structures this violence that annuls all substance and all finality. it is always a false problem to wish to restore the truth beneath the simulacrum. but of the scenario of power. Nixon has nevertheless arrived at the goal of which all power dreams: to be taken seriously enough. unbalanced person (and thought it is perhaps true that presidents are assassinated by unbalanced types. power has no other recourse but to artificially revive and hallucinate them. which infuriates him. etc. exposing it to its own lack of substance and reality. like theory. the “Left.” Power floats like money.it reinjected a fiction of legitimacy. but for how much longer? The deterioration of all power is irresistibly pursued-.always good for countering the mortal blows of simulation. or the prophecy. It is always the goal of the ideological analysis to restore the objective process. from primitive societies to the present. like language.the traditional ethic that would obscure the “real” process of work and the “objective” process of exploitation—but of the scenario of work. p. a shimmering. It is no longer a question of the ideology of work. It is in this way that the Spanish executions still serve as a stimulant to Western liberal democracy. he can only accumulate against himself the signs of reversion through murder.it is not so much the “revolutionary forces” that accelerate this process (often it is quite the opposite). Fresh blood. One must not resist this process by trying to confront the system and destroy it. Criticism and negativity alone still secrete a phantom of the reality of power. end of the dialectic. of savage rituals). of its fundamental irresponsibility. ephemeral vision of “good government”.that we take it seriously enough to oppose it.
We should instead adopt an ironic stance towards technology. this operating principle is thwarted by its very extension. bringing about our ruin. from the retrospective nostalgia for being and from all unhappy critique in terms of alienation and disenchantment. which would not be far from radical snobbery. Irony as universal form of disillusionment. An objective illusion. but because we are no longer in a position to see it: that. We very much labour under the illusion that the aim of technology is to be an extension of man and his power.Whitman College 85911615. the stellar course of the mystery. and by which the mystery (of the continuation of the Nothing) conceals itself beneath the universal banality of information. we behold the constellation. ironically undecidable. It is the logic of the system which. from the post-historical snobbery Kojeve spoke of. in effect. it seems. All our technologies might. behind which lurks the evil genius of technology which sees to it itself that the mystery of the world is well—guarded. The opposite hypothesis is more subtle. but labors under the illusion that we can create new and better energy technology. a nuance of play and distantiation. For us. therefore. Through the most refined procedures we deploy to pin it down. is it not the object which dupes us and mocks our objective pretensions to analyse it? Scientists themselves are not. and we are merely the operators. Heidegger: ‘When we look into the ambiguous essence of technology. At the same time as reaching a paroxystic stage. The naive illusion about the media is that the political authorities use them to manipulate or mystify the masses. Jean Baudrillard. things have also reached a parodic one. has passed into things. 71-73 At the peak of our technological performance. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. Through the media. The Japanese sense the presence of a divinity in every industrial object. Though this is. p. The Perfect Crime. an ironic phase of technology? A proposition which would deliver us from the Heideggerian vision of technology as the final phase of metaphysics. one might say what Canetti says of animals: that behind each of them there is a hidden someone thumbing his nose at us. whereas in fact the world is using this machinery to impose itself. It is at the point where the political authorities think they are manipulating them that the masses impose their clandestine strategy of neutralization and destabilization. It is no longer we who think the object. be said to be the instrument of a world which we believe we rule. it is the masses who definitively modify the exercise of power (or what sees itself as such). And would put in its place a conception of the gigantic objective irony of this whole process. The same hypothesis holds for the object of science. that sacred presence has been reduced to a tiny ironic glimmer. but the object which thinks us. far from admitting this. carrying it beyond itself. It seems that technology has taken into itself all the illusion it has caused us to lose. But today. that though the illusion of the world has been lost. of all our artificial productions. now it is the object which is ‘losing’ us. the irresistible impression remains that something eludes us — not because we seem to have lost it (the real?). the irony of the world.doc 7/20/08 17 File Title Links – Alternative Energy – Tech/R&D The Affirmative opposes fossil fuels. for its part. . by the unbridled virtuality we see outrunning the laws of physics and metaphysics. is altering its determinations. a spiritual form. from this point on. The illusion of technology makes us believe we’re in control and not the other way around. but also as the universal form of the stratagem by which the world hides behind the radical illusion of technology. it is not we who are winning out over the world. and that what we have in return for the loss of illusion is the emergence of an objective irony of this world. in fact. then. Once we lived in the age of the lost object. the end of political Reason. The Evil Spirit keeps watch beneath artefacts and. It seems. similar to the one that prevails in the media sphere. this is still the end of media Reason. we labour under the subjective illusion of technology. 1996. none the less. but the world which is winning out over us. Can one advance the hypothesis that beyond the objective and critical phase there is an ironic phase of science. Even if the two hypotheses are simultaneously valid. Everything which will be done or said in the media sphere is.
it is the system of deterrence that grows. A gigantic involution that makes every conflict. Simulacra and Simulation. rather. transforming the life left us into survival. and the unknown is precisely that variable of simulation which makes of the atomic arsenal itself a hyperreal form. The political stake is dead. politics. by zero-sum signs like those that regulate the “strategy of games” (but the true equation is elsewhere. No longer can nay revolt.doc 7/20/08 18 File Title Links – Alternative Energy – Nuclear Energy (1/2) Nuclear energy cements a system of deterrence. The balance of terror is the terror of balance. equivalent signs. And the progressive satellization of the whole planet through this hypermodel of security. and around it grows the historical. p. everywhere where the norm replaces the old arsenal of laws and violence (including war). indifferent. Thus the money of destruction (without any reference to real destruction. everywhere where the notion of security becomes omnipotent. and political desert. The most insignificant of our behaviors is regulated by neutralized. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. for installing a universal security system.not even into a life insurance policy: into a policy that already has no value). like the Trojan War. The whole world pretends to believe in the reality of this threat (this is understandable on the part of the military. only simulacra of conflicts and carefully circumscribed stakes remain. when one still confused the nuclear apparatus with conventional war) but. a universal lockup and control system whose deterrent effect is not at all aimed at an atomic clash (which was never in question. any story be deployed according to its own logic because it risks annihilation. And this deterrence comes from the fact that even the real atomic clash is precluded—precluded like the eventuality of the real in a system of signs. and escalation is only a puerile game given over to the military. Jean Baudrillard. it circulates and is exchanged between nuclear protagonists exactly as is international capital in the orbital zone of monetary speculation whose fluctuations suffice to control all global exchanges. However. What is hatched in the shadow of this mechanism with the pretext of a maximal. will not take place. Pacification does not distinguish between the civil and the military: everywhere where irreversible apparatuses of control are elaborated. Only the signs of power. Nuclear suspension only serves to seal the trivialized system of deterrence that is at the heart of the media. “objective. freezes them all. the gravity of their exercise and the discourse of their “strategy” are at stake). social. of anything that would be an event in the general system and upset its balance. The whole originality of the situation lies in the improbability of destruction. in forms that are not threatening to the order of things. Everything freezes under the lack of possibility engendered by the civilian and military nuclear umbrella.Whitman College 85911615. every confrontation contract in proportion to this blackmail that interrupts. Deterrence precludes war—the archaic violence of expanding systems. The risk of nuclear annihilation only serves as a pretext. at the much greater probability of any real event. is the perfection of the best system of control that has ever existed. 32-35.” threat. it is deterrence that gives them leukemia. Atomic war. Deterrence is not a strategy. There is no longer a subject of deterrence. Massive war. into a stake without stakes. the balance of terror is never anything but the spectacular slope of a system of deterrence that has insinuated itself from the inside into all the cracks of daily life. neutralizes. any more than floating capital has a real referent of production) that circulates in nuclear orbit suffices to control all the violence and potential conflicts around the world. The same goes for peaceful nuclear power stations. a simulacrum that dominates everything and reduces all “ground-level” events to being nothing but ephemeral scenarios. . except without a doubt in the very initial stages of the cold war. revolutions and political subjectivity is no longer possible. through the sophistication of weapons (a sophistication that surpasses any possible objective to such an extent that it is itself a symptom of nullity). The apotheosis of simulation: the nuclear. of the aleatory apparatus of all the choices that are made for us. and thanks to Damocles’ nuclear sword. implosive violence of metastable systems or systems in involution. every finality. nor an adversary nor a strategy—it is a planetary structure of the annihilation of stakes. It is not the direct threat of atomic destruction that paralyzes our lives. but it is precisely at this level that there are no strategic stakes. of the violence without consequences that reigns throughout the world. 1981. Deterrence itself is the neutral. and violence remain. No strategy is possible any longer.
rather.” Because what. Because if the law. by the immanent wonder of the programmed unfolding of events. still taps a perverse imaginary. of contradiction. energy. A universe purged of all threat of meaning. irreversible process: the generalized deterrence of chance. it is the same model of programmatic infallibility. nothing will be left to chance. environment—nothing can be left to contingencies. Fascination with the maximal norm and the mastery of probability: Vertigo of the model. This is why the space program was so easily able to replace it in the 1960s (Kennedy/Khrushchev). where nothing can be left to chance. rupture. The exaltation of the crowds was not a response to the event of landing on the moon or of sending a man into space (this would be. of the conquest of the moon. ultimately. the norm fixes. In fact. of accident. in a state of asepsis and weightlessness—it is this very perfection that is fascinating. rather. the model vectors of a system of planetary control (where even the superpowers of this scenario are not free—the whole world is satellized). Just watching it produces vertigo. with its aura of transgression. physiology. calculation. psychology. of transversality. the fulfillment of an earlier dream). toward a limit that one believed would be explosive (revolution). Here as well. which began centuries ago. of maximum security and deterrence that today controls the spread of the social. The vertigo of a world without flaws. is the function of the space program. this is the total universe of the norm—the Law no longer exists. and makes every imaginary involute. fascinates. which unites with the model of death. implosive. but which for the moment is translated by an inverse. or to develop concurrently as a form of “peaceful coexistence. There lies the true nuclear fallout: the meticulous operation of the social. stupefies. we are dumbfounded by the perfection of the programming and the technical manipulation. doomed to the descriptive transparency of mechanisms of information. if order. it is the operational immanence of every detail that is law. of finality. of satellization of which the lunar module is the perfect embryo? Programmed microcosm. nor military and strategic superiority. . Trajectory. One no longer fantasizes about the minutiae of a program. the spatial and nuclear models do not have their own ends: neither the discovery of the moon. Now. Their truth is to be the models of simulation. with its aura of violence. but which has now entered its accelerated phase. or complexity in a sociality illuminated by the norm. moreover this is the essence of socialization. but without fear or drive.doc 7/20/08 19 File Title Links – Alternative Energy – Nuclear Energy (1/2) The “space race” played exactly the same role as nuclear escalation.Whitman College 85911615. of the launching of satellites if not the institution of a model of universal gravitation.
Doesn’t all science live on this paradoxical slope to which it is doomed by the evanescence of its object in its very apprehensions. instead of being circumscribed as a geometric site.a murder of which the Savages. and by the pitiless reversal that the dead object exerts on it? Like Orpheus. It is thus very naïve to look for ethnology in the Savages or in some Third World. and o the resurrection of differences. like a dimension of life. who were seeing the indigenous people disintegrate immediately upon contact. to their primitive state. We have all become living specimens in the spectral light of ethnology. but the object will be safe. 1981. by dying. everywhere. in the metropolises. Science loses precious capital there. an entire culture. but of the simulated sacrifice of its object in order to save its reality principle. It erases the memory of environmental destruction and replaces it with a museum-theme park version of nature. under the sign of dead differences. . out of the reach of colonizers. but that for a long time has extended to all Western societies.it attains its pure form. like Eurydice. The same holds true at Cruesot. frozen in their natural element. We are all Tasadays. Thus ethnology. and. languages. its object must die. Jean Baudrillard. or of antiethnology. 7-11. and science itself has become pure simulation. It is against this hell of the paradox that the ethnologists wished to protect themselves by cordoning off the Tasaday with virgin forest. that of the simulacrum. all so that we may all believe again that things are as they should be. The confinement of the scientific object is equal to the confinement of the mad and the dead. But in the same breath ethnology grants us its only and final lesson.doc 7/20/08 20 File Title Links – Preservation/Nature/Environment/Ecology (1/3) Your attempt to preserve nature only models the environment after a simulation of how we believe it once was. until it dispenses with it entirely: its autonomy is only rendered even more fantastic. This at the suggestion of the anthropologists themselves. In order for ethnology to live. of the blackmail of the real. Clastres are various witnesses. Here begins an antiethnology that will never end and to which Jaulin. what a triumph for this science that seemed dedicated to their destruction! Of course. be applied to all living things and make itself invisible. Indians who have again become what they were. Simulacra and Simulation. which is nothing but the pure form of triumphal ethnology. the secret that kills it (and which the Savages knew better than it did): the vengeance of the dead. cryogenized. Ethnology brushed up against its paradoxical death in 1971. in the White community. again becomes the model of simulation of all the possible Indians from before ethnology. then artificially resurrected under the auspices of the real.” It is not a question of sacrifice (science never sacrifices itself. The Indian thus returned to the ghetto. protected to death. sterilized. This model thus grants itself the luxury to incarnate itself beyond itself in the “brute” reality of these Indians it has entirely reinvented. noblesse oblige. will provide a perfect alibi. an eternal guarantee.simulacral Indians who at last proclaim the universal truth of ethnology. p. historical retrospection. in a world completely cataloged and analyzed. where they had lived for eight centuries without any contact with the rest of the species. of the murder of every symbolic form and of its hysterical. science can’t help but die contaminated by the death of this object that is its inverse mirror. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. The Tasaday. the object takes its revenge for being “discovered” and with its death defies the science that wants to grasp it. And just as all of society is irremediably contaminated by this mirror of madness that it has held up to itself. No one can touch them anymore: as in a mine the vein is closed down. as “historical” witnesses of their period entire working-class neighborhoods. lost to science. and ethnologists. it always turns around too soon.gestures. in the glass coffin of the virgin forest. In any case.Savages who are indebted to ethnology for still being Savages: what a turn of events. they have become referential simulacra. the logical evolution of a science is to distance itself increasingly from its object. Preserving the idea of an ideal nature will only expose the preserved object to a slowed down purification and a sterilized death. rather than circumscribing itself as an objective science. of the hallucination of truth. customs fossilized alive as in a snapshot.it is here. living metallurgic zones. its object falls back into Hades. these savages are posthumous: frozen.Whitman College 85911615. like and omnipresent fourth dimension. in a world of simulation. is everywhere now. were the first victims. will today. The museum. at the level of the “open” museum where one museumified in situ. but intact in its “virginity. like mummies in the open air. men women. liberated from its object. and children included. it is always murderous). Castaneda. the day when the Philippine government decided to return the few dozen Tasaday who had just been discovered in the depths of the jungle. tourists.
demuseumification is nothing but another spiral in artificiality. which only gives a dead and circular response to a dead and circular interrogation. and museums. which at least fooled no one. But mostly because our culture dreams. diffracted. which no longer masters anything. our order. Witness the cloister of Saint-Michel de Cuxa. Irreparable violence toward all secrets. As ethnology collapses in its classical institution. a visible myth of origin. In the same way science and technology were recently mobilized to save the mummy of Ramses II. It is possible that the memory of the original grottoes is itself stamped in the minds of future generations. behind this defunct power that it tries to annex. Thus at the beginning of colonization. a visible continuum. The West is seized with panic at the thought of not being able to save what the symbolic order had been able to conserve for forty centuries. if the Cloisters in New York are an artificial mosaic of all cultures (following a logic of the capitalist centralization of value).doc 7/20/08 21 File Title Links – Preservation/Nature/Environment/Ecology (2/3) It is science that masters the objects.” The form produced by confinement is followed by an innumerable. that is to say restoring a visible order. . one contented oneself with converting them. that is to say. gives speech back to the insane. according to an unconscious reversion. Well. as in Castaneda. science. which has again become savage in its way. and then one visits the reconstituted whole). Because finally we have never believed in them. master over putrefaction and death.” And everyone is supposed to applaud this restitution (as they did “the experimental campaign to take back the sidewalks” on the Champs Elysees!). to conceal that it is this world. but an exact replica was constructed five hundred meters from it. Our entire linear and accumulative culture collapses if we cannot stockpile the past in plain view. so that everyone could see them (one glances through a peephole at the authentic cave.the mastery over putrefaction that signified the mastery of the complete cycle of exchanged with death. the violence of a civilization without secrets. or even simply discovering them. after it was left to rot for several dozen years in the depths of a museum. We only know how a place our science in service of repairing the mummy. of an order that would have had nothing to do with it. but it s the objects that invest it with depth. In the same way. Nothing changes when society breaks the mirror of madness (abolishes the asylums. with the pretext of saving the original. Whence this historic scene of the reception of the mummy at the Orly airport. hatred of a whole civilization for its own foundation.) and to bend down before the “differences. which only knows how to condemn what preceded it to decay and death and subsequently to try to revive it with science. the Savage fiction everywhere. which plays at extricating itself from its object to better secure itself in its pure form. and it dreams of it because it exterminated it by exhuming it as its own past. ours. there was a moment of stupor and bewilderment before the very possibility of escaping the universal law of the Gospel. or exterminate the Indians to efface the evidence. Because mummies don’t rot from worms: they die from being transplanted from a slow order of the symbolic. They are prey to both science and worms. to an order of history. We are fascinated by Ramses as Renaissance Christians were by the American Indians. but from now on there is no longer any difference the duplication suffices to render both artificial. slowed-down mechanism. Only absolute secrecy assured them this millennial power. Thus it would have been enough to exhume Ramses to ensure his extermination by museumification. one forbade visitors to enter the Lascaux caves.) nor when science seems to break the mirror of its objectivity (effacing itself before its object. There were two possible responses: either admit that this Law was not universal. To this end the pharaohs must be brought out of their tomb and the mummies out of their silence. etc. Ramses does not signify anything for us. it survives in an antiethnology whose task it is to reinject the difference fiction. which is devastated by difference and by death. whereas embalming was a mythical effort that strove to immortalize a hidden dimension. but out of sight and far from the light of day. The cloister should have stayed in New York in its simulated environment. Why Because Ramses was a great despotic and military figure? Certainly. only the mummy is of an inestimable worth because it is what guarantees that accumulation has meaning. To this end they must be exhumed and given military honors. if the exportation of the cornices was in effect an arbitrary at. which would suffice to slowly exterminate them. which one will repatriate at great cost from the Cloisters in New York to reinstall it in “its original site. etc. those (human?) beings who had never known the word of Christ. And just as with ethnology. their reimportation to the original site is even more artificial: it is a total simulacrum that links up with “reality” through a complete circumvolution. which reassures us about our end. In general. We require a visible past.Whitman College 85911615.
more cheerful. In the same way. rests on the limitation of the group and the refusal of any “unlimited” increase. In this way. as can be seen in Ishi’s case. the imminence of their death. for exceeding the original number. more authentic. One effaces everything and starts over. (With sinister derision. their demographic “promotion is just another step toward symbolic extermination.doc 7/20/08 22 File Title Links – Preservation/Nature/Environment/Ecology (3/3) Repatriating it is nothing but a supplementary subterfuge. This is presented as proof of the superiority of civilization it will produce more Indians that they themselves were able to do. in the light of their model. But this doubling does not signify. acting as if nothing had happened and indulging in retrospective hallucination. Americans flatter themselves for having brought the population of Indians back to pre-Conquest levels. and better than when they were alive.they are already purged of their death.Whitman College 85911615.) Everywhere we live in a universe strangely similar to the original. as it did traditionally. . this overproduction is again a means of destroying them: for Indian culture. like all tribal culture. like the faces in funeral homes. They even flatter themselves for doing better.things are doubled by their own scenario.
What meaning did this war have. of course. This war. with the equal complicity of the two adversaries. the holders of high wartime values should not be too discouraged: the war is no less atrocious for being only a simulacrum—the flesh suffers just the same.” This scenario: the extremely harsh bombardments of Hanoi. “The North Vietnamese were advised to countenance a scenario for liquidating the American presence in the course of which. the two adversaries are fundamentally in solidarity against something else. the transition from a radical alternative to political alternation in a system now essentially regulated (the normalization of Peking-Washington relations): this was what was at stake in the war in Vietnam. is total liquidation. because it took place at the intersection of a maximum historical and “revolutionary” stake. one must save face.and war itself. the shift from a global strategy of revolution to one of shared forces and empires. This objective is always fulfilled. which is played out as such (or else one could never send people to get themselves killed in this kind of thing). Something else. it could be trusted. then. Simulacra and Simulation. The nonintervention of China obtained and secured after many years. the murderous antagonism of the adversaries—which seems a matter of life and death. Tribal. And the war ended “spontaneously” when this objective was achieved. they no longer have any meaning. When at last the war had passed into the hands of regular troops in the North and escaped that of the resistance. What no longer exists is the adversity of the adversaries. they are no longer anything but the duplex effect of simulation at the summit. remained unliquidated. in its immense. one could let them take over. That is why it was deescalated. Total complicity. The stake is thus that of a political relay.Whitman College 85911615. subtly. never spoken. But. Yet. spectacular death apparatus. so long. As soon as the Vietnamese had proved that they were no longer the carriers of an unpredictable subversion. Rather. Jean Baudrillard. The other aspect of this war and of all wars today: behind the armed violence. is nothing but the medium of this process of the terrorist rationalization of the social—the murder on which sociality will be founded. or division of labor between two adversaries (who may even consent to enormous sacrifices for it) for the very end of reshaping and domesticating social relations. and the dead and former combatants are worth the same as in other wars. even a Communist one. at bottom. every form of exchange. the ideological seriousness of war. despite this deterrence by the orbital power—the nuclear or molecular code—events continue at ground level. p. that is what must be abolished. whatever its allegiance. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. but whose objective outcome in war. demobilized so easily. communitarian. Communist r capitalist. That theirs is a Communist order is not serious in the end: it had proved itself. . China’s apprenticeship to a global modus Vivendi. just like that of the charting of territories and disciplinary sociality. unnamed. Nothing of the sort occurred. and in this sense. 1981. 36-39. The moralists of war. and of the installation of this deterrent authority. given the global process of the contiguity and simultaneity of data. precapitalist structures. of symbolic organization. of language. took place. vanish from one day to the net as if by magic? Why did this American defeat (the largest reversal in the history of the USA) have no internal repercussions in America? If it had really signified the failure of the planetary strategy of the United States. the war could stop: it had attained its objective. that is the object of murder in war-. nothing was objectively at stake but the verisimilitude of the final montage. it would necessarily have completely disrupted its internal balance and the American political system. the reality of antagonistic causes. Their untenable character must not conceal the fact that they were nothing but a simulacrum to enable the Vietnamese to seem to countenance a compromise and for Nixon to make the Americans swallow the withdrawal of their troops. The best example can only be that of the war in Vietnam. war exists in order to reassure us of the existence of ideological stakes. so ferocious. It marked the arrival of China to peaceful coexistence. misfortunes are even more numerous. so hard. Same scenario in the Algerian war. was nothing but a crucial episode of peaceful coexistence. The war lasted as long as elements irreducible to a healthy politics and discipline of power. This same reduction of forces can be seen on the field. The game was already won. It is even more effective than capitalism in the liquidation of “savage” and archaic precapitalist structures. the USA pulled out of Vietnam but won the war. and to annihilate the presence of anything that would disrupt the global system of deterrence. and wasn’t its unfolding a means of sealing the end of history in the decisive and culminating historic event of our era? Why did this war.doc 7/20/08 23 File Title Impacts – War (1/2) War no longer has an ideological purpose. behind this simulacrum of fighting to the earth and of ruthless global stakes.
the two differential poles implode into each other. it is that at every moment war and peace are equivalent. Everything still unfolds around us. complete equivalence. of the lost “difference” of Savages) that all these things arrived too late. ersatz. to a second existence as the referential of cruelty).” said Orwell. parodic rehabilitation of all lost referentials. and even all real writing of cruelty has disappeared. Thus one can completely miss the truth of a war: namely. that it was finished well before it started. of blood. by a moribund ethnology. war being a process that triumphs well beyond these appearances. or one becomes aware (as with the Communists “in power” in Italy. toward a reabsorption of all the stakes without a trace of blood. There also. All dramaturgy. which was still an attempt to create a dramaturgy of life. All the events are to be read backward. and we only have a right to the retro. For us the trick has been played. of retro and porno at the same time—doubtless everyone knows this. the last gasp of an ideality of the body. the pacification (or the deterrence) that dominates us today is beyond war and peace. or recycle one another—a simultaneity of contradictions that is at once the parody and the end of every dialectic. in the most contradictory. a spiral of delay. In any case. that they long ago exhausted their meaning and only live from an artificial effervescence of signs.Whitman College 85911615. of the reality of the stakes. and that perhaps it never started. Simulation is the master. in the cold light of deterrence (including Artaud. catastrophes and crises destined to maintain a historical investment under hypnosis. with a history of delay. “War is peace. The reality of simulation is unbearable—crueler than Artaud’s Theater of Cruelty.doc 7/20/08 24 File Title Impacts – War (2/2) And also the reality of victory or defeat. of violence in a system that was already taking it away. to the phantom. and as artifacts of history. that all these events succeed each other without logic. . and no one really accepts it. except as artificial occurrences—abstract. the retro. that there was an end to war at the heart of war itself. posthumous rediscovery of the gulags and Soviet dissidents like the almost contemporary discovery. never existed. Many other events (the oil crisis. etc. in a profound indifference to their consequences (but this is because there are none: they exhaust themselves in their spectacular promotion)—all “newsreel” footage thus gives the sinister impression of kitsch. who has the right like everything else to his revival. The media and the official news service are only there to maintain the illusion of an actuality. of the objectivity of facts.) never started.
Whitman College 85911615.in a world without value or political referentials. this neutralization and pacification of life. p.” to desire its own repression and to invest in paranoid and fascist systems? A malign torsion that returns this revolution of desire to the same fundamental ambiguity as the other. eventually benefitting all ideological positions. p. etc. the mad intensification of collective value (blood. with which no interpretation has been able to come to grips (neither the Marxist one of political manipulation by dominant classes. said Lyotard. can already be interpreted as the “irrational” excess of mythic and political referentials. 1981. Mobian compulsion. of the rational secularization and unidimensionalization of all life. The Mobius strip. nor the Deleuzian one of despotic paranoia). which seizes the occasion to regenerate its own flagging humanism and whose indignant protest in turn consolidates Franco’s regime by uniting the Spanish masses against this foreign intervention? Where is the truth of all that. today both are dissolved in the same type of demand. reversibilized from the right to the left. which deepened in the West. 18. even if it is a profound. Simulacra and Simulation. circularized. irrational. if one divides it. which is no longer one of torture. the reinjection of death. Simulacra and Simulation. and as if involuntarily wanting what it wants. Formerly the discourse on history derived its power from violently opposing itself to that of nature. when such collusions admirably knot themselves together without the knowledge of their authors? Conjunction of the system and of is extreme alternative like the two sides of a curved mirror. etc.today they exchange their signifiers and their scenarios. and it is a response to that. the mystery of its appearance and of its collective energy. Fascism’s cruelty. an enigmatic reversal that brings desire “revolutionary in itself. Yet again. results in a supplementary spiral without the reversibility of surfaces being resolved (here the reversible continuity of hypotheses). but of the subtle. Hell of simulation. sex and work were fiercely opposed terms. Not so long ago. 1981. the historical revolution. its terror is on the level of this other terror that is the confusion of the real and the rational. .doc 7/20/08 25 File Title Impacts – Fascism Political subjectivity circles around.). the discourse of desire to that of power. everything seems to escape this catastrophe of value. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. 48 Fascism itself. of the operationalization of all social and individual life already makes itself strongly felt in the West. people. of a “political aesthetic of death” at a time when the processes of the disenchantment of value and of collective values. of the whole system. it would not have tapped into this massive energy if it hadn’t been a resistance to something much worse. race. nationality. the final pleasure as the metamorphosis of the law (which is why it is so widely the order of the day): only capital takes pleasure. All the referentials combine their discourses in a circular. Fascism is the logical result of hyperreality. maleficent. a torsion that is like that of the evil spirit of commutation. a “vicious” curvature of a political space that is henceforth magnetized. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. Fascism is a resistance to this. nor the Reichian one of the sexual repression of the masses. demented resistance. before thinking that we now take pleasure in capital. the infinity of capital folded back on its own surface: transfinite? And is it not the same for desire and the libidinal space? Conjunction of desire and the law. elusive twisting o meaning—where even the condemned at Burgos are still a gift from Franco to Western democracy. Who will unravel this imbroglio? The Gordian knot can at least be cut. Jean Baudrillard. including paranoid reactionaries Jean Baudrillard. Overwhelming versatility of desire in Deleuze. the masses may turn to the extreme valorization of race.
it is there that we must aim at order. a determined power that can only reign over a determined world. it is now impossible to isolate the process of the real. For example: it would be interesting to see whether the repressive apparatus would not react more violently to a simulated holdup than to a real holdup.” in order to test the reaction of the apparatus to a perfect simulacrum. law and order themselves might be nothing but simulation. without wishing it. whereas the former attacks the reality principle itself. But this does not make them harmless. The challenge of simulation is never admitted by power. as such it is as serious as the simulation of crime. On the contrary. because the law is a simulacrum of the second order. because it cannot function anywhere else. through the force of inertia of the real that surrounds us. When in doubt. Demand a ransom. airplane hijackings. p. But this becomes more and more difficult. and make it so that the operation creates as much commotion as possible. lacking the real. Illusion is no longer possible.in short. it always prefers this hypothesis (as in the army one prefers to take the simulator for a real madman). because if it is practically impossible to isolate the process of simulation. Simulacra and Simulation. so that no human life will be in danger (or one lapses into the criminal). and no longer at all to their “real” end. Organize a fake holdup. etc. How to feign a violation and put it to the test? Simulate a robbery in a large store: how to persuade security that it is a simulated robbery? There is no “objective” difference: the gestures. beyond equivalences. It is necessary to see in this impossibility of isolating the process of simulation the weight of an order that cannot see and conceive of anything but the real. one will actually pay you the phony ransom). This is how all the holdups. demonstrations. crises. To the established order they are always of the order of the real. in short. remain close to the “truth. no longer with a specific content or end. Transgression and violence are less serious because they only contest the distribution of the real. The established order can do nothing against it. This is certainly why order always opts for the real. etc. and hence no repression either. In short. You won’t be able to do it: the network of artificial signs will become inextricably mixed up with real elements (a policeman will really fire on sight. a client of the bank will faint and die of a heart attack.). the right to property. But the difficulty is proportional to the danger. a referential order that can only reign over the referential. will either be punished less severely (because it has no “consequences”) or punished as an offense against the judicial system (for example if one sets in motion a police operation “for nothing”)—but never as simulation since it is precisely as such that no equivalence with the real is possible. Indeed. Jean Baudrillard. in the real. Thus. The violence of the real is reinjected everywhere into a society that cannot accept appearances at face value. power itself ends by being . How can the simulation of virtue be punished? However. will before institutions and justice come into play. the signs do not lean to one side or another. if it is established as such. on causes and ends.Whitman College 85911615. the opposite is also true (and this reversibility itself is part of the apparatus of simulation and the impotence of power): namely. you will immediately find yourself once again. and that is the most serious crime. Verify that your weapons are harmless. the signs are the same as for a real robbery. of hypersimulation or offensive simulation that is posed here. Parody renders submission and transgression equivalent. are now in some sense simulation holdups in that they are already inscribed in the decoding and orchestration rituals of the media. to the established order itself. because it cancels out the difference upon which the law is based. 1981. it is in this sense that they cannot be controlled by an order that can only exert itself on the real and the rational. but that cannot do anything against this indefinite recurrence of simulation. Because the latter does nothing but disturb the order of things. anticipated in their presentation and their possible consequences. it is the threat of simulation that inspires violence. whereas simulation is of the third order. and take the most trustworthy hostage. The impossibility of rediscovering an absolute level of the real is of the same order as the impossibility of staging illusion. 19-23. against this nebula whose weight no longer obeys the laws of gravitation of the real. above and beyond its object. beyond rational distinctions upon which the whole of the social and power depend. it is as hyperreal events. one of whose functions is precisely to devour any attempt at simulation. to reduce very thing to the real—that is. because the real is no longer possible. or to prove the real. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. where they function as a group of signs dedicated exclusively to their recurrence as signs.doc 7/20/08 26 File Title Impacts – Violence Just because everything is a simulation doesn’t mean that violence doesn’t happen. beyond true and false. but indefinitely refracted by each other (just like so-called historical events: strikes. It is the whole political problem of parody. Simulation is infinitely more dangerous because it always leaves open to supposition that. The simulation of an offense.
they turn against power the deterrent that it used so well for such a long time. that overdose of a strong referential in a society that cannot terminate its mourning. it was also the first to liquidate it by exterminating all use value. even the confusion of the reality principle and the principle of desire is less dangerous than contagious hyperreality. social. on which to establish a last glimmer of power. For power. One remains among principles. all real equivalence of the states and the omnipotence of manipulation. its only strategy against this defection is to reinject the real and the referential everywhere. obsession with its survival. today it is this same logic that is even more set against capital. why not? That of desire.. but it is not longer anything but its scaled-down refraction (thus hyperrealists fix a real from which all meaning and charm. plays at remanufacturing artificial. Power itself has for a long time produced nothing but the signs of its resemblance. it is a question of life and death. the iron law of its power. But it is too late. To this end it prefers the discourse of crisis. Whence the characteristic hysteria of our times: that of the production and reproduction of the real. The melancholy of societies without power this has already stirred up fascism. Because in the end. plays at crisis. Thus everywhere the hyperrealism of simulation is translated by the hallucinatory resemblance of the real to itself. it does nothing but multiply the signs and accelerate the play of simulation. The only weapon of power. and to overproduce. disconnection. “Take your desires for reality!” can be understood as the ultimate slogan of power since in a nonreferential world. And in the end the game of power becomes nothing but the critical obsession with power—obsession with its death.doc 7/20/08 27 File Title dismantled in this space and becoming a simulation of power (disconnected from its ends and its objectives. but also. all depth and energy of representation have vanished in a hallucinatory resemblance). etc. deterritorialization. economic. And at the same time. And as soon as it wishes to combat this disastrous spiral by secreting as last glimmer of reality. has for a long time had no specific meaning. to persuade us to f the reality of the social. Well. abstraction. is to restore the real that escapes it. throughout its history it was capital that first fed on the destructuration of every referential. another figure of power comes into play: that of a collective demand for signs of power. the whole discourse of traditional production. Hyperreality and simulation are deterrents of every principle and every objective. power plays at the real. good and evil. That is why today this “material” production is that of the hyperreal itself. of the gravity of the economy and the finalities of production. Capital was the first to play at deterrence. and if it is the one that fostered reality. everyone unloads it on everyone else) and the panicked nostalgia over its loss. that of the belle époque of political economy. and political stakes. we will logically be under the total hallucination of power—a haunting memory that is already rid of it (no one wants it anymore. power played at deterrence and simulation. that shattered every ideal distinction between true and false. . When it has totally disappeared. The other production. which increases as it disappears. that of values and commodities. the reality principle. and among those power is always in the right. disintegrating all the contradictions by dint of producing equivalent signs. What every society looks for in continuing to produce.a whole world adheres to it more or less in terror of the collapse of the political. of every human objective. in order to establish a radical law of equivalence and exchange. It retains all the features. Today when the danger comes at it from simulation (that of being dissolved in the play of signs).Whitman College 85911615. and dedicated to the effects of power and mass simulation). As long as the historical threat came at it from the real.
negativity. The project of eliminating the external environment under the logic of calculation embodies this process. By eliminating the work of the negative. Even in devitalized substances: in sugar without calories. by eliminating all singularities in order to radiate total positivity. We have become masters – at least virtual masters – of this world. no more hostile environments — no environment at all any longer. No longer threatened by them. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. What becomes of a master without a slave? He ends up terrorizing himself. passions without object. thus causing him to lose all his defences. A tragic destiny for individuals and for our — self-programming and selfreferential — systems: no more adversaries. we have at the same time — by a perverse. This is like wresting a species away from its natural predators. not to mention racial and linguistic differences. of an ultrapositivity of which it is the lethal embodiment. violence. can be seen in all that has lost its shadow and become transparent to itself. This paradigm of the subject without object. the finality of that mastery. by contrast. life without spice. as it were).Whitman College 85911615. . a species we attempt at all costs to immortalize and wrest away from death — as we do with all our replacement technologies for the body’s organs — is doomed to disappear. p. becoming estranged from oneself— alienation in the literal sense. salt without sodium. we are eliminating ourselves.doc 7/20/08 28 File Title Impacts – Annihilation of Difference Impact The quest to obliterate all that differs and replace it with the image of the same leads uncontestably to the destruction of everything. And of a slave without a master? He ends up exploiting himself. and that is what has become lethal today. but the object of that mastery. it is much more serious to be dispossessed of the other than of oneself. is the product. but perfectly coherent effect — released an intense viral pathology. By setting off the chain reaction of the positive. The best strategy for bringing about someone’s ruin is to eliminate everything which threatens him. For a virus. By eliminating the other in all its forms (illness. that of the subject without object. by liquidation of the dialectical opposition itself. and it is this strategy we are applying to ourselves. to lose all otherness. ‘Verfremdung’ means becoming other. This had escaped us. of the subject without other. far from being negative. rather. wars without enemy. Now. effects without causes. or the slaves without masters we have become. have disappeared. no more exteriority. 1996. death. it cannot but destroy itself (by ‘depredation’. masters without slaves. Death being the great natural predator. ‘Entfremdung’. total performance. The two are conjoined today in the modern form of voluntary servitude: enslavement to data systems and calculation systems – total efficiency. rooting out evil in all its forms. Jean Baudrillard. An irrevocable destabilization. we have unleashed positivity. as had the metamorphoses of evil which follow the advances of reason about like a shadow. strangeness). means to be dispossessed of the other. of the same without other — definitive stasis and metastasis of the Same. there are two apparently synonymous terms with a very significant distinction between them. Being deprived of the other is worse than alienation: a lethal change. 112-14 In German. We have fought negativity and death. time without memory. The Perfect Crime.
Because military ecological destruction occurs primarily "during peacetime. or if.pubmedcentral. In 1999. Compensation. cultural constructions associate women with nature and help justify the mistreatment of both. feminists must be against oppression in any form. Congress has approved legislation requested by the DOD amending the Migratory Bird Protection Act. is slowly leaching solvents. According to the Democratic Committee on Energy and Commerce. which generate smog. because I believe these effects to be significant to feminists for two basic reasons.nih. attention to the ecological impacts of war further illustrates the limitations of only thinking of war in terms of events. online I turn now to a discussion of the environmental effects of war. The base released some 5. says in reference to the Farallon de Medinilla closure. according to the EPA Toxics Release Inventory.doc 7/20/08 29 File Title Impacts – Cuomo – Ecological Destruction Treating war as an event ignores the environmental effects of this mentality and the continuation of military based ecological destruction Chris J. Many feminists and ecological feminists have discussed these problematic conceptual connections as created or fueled by the dichotomous thinking discussed above (Griffin 1989. You can’t do that if you introduce artificialities into training. Military training negatively affects the surrounding areas.gov/articlerender. In any case. the DOD is seeking changes through the RRPI to certain hazardous waste laws—specifically. a 34-square-mile multi-use training facility in Cape Cod. located 55 miles northeast of Reno. an environmental lawyer with the DOD General Counsel’s office. and perchlorate into the area’s sole aquifer. and the Clean Air Act (CAA). .” including the case at Eagle River Flats and the Navy’s 2002 temporary closure of its Farallon de Medinilla live-fire training range in the Pacific. the Comprehensive Environmental Response. not on other considerations. and Liability Act (CER-CLA). or material connections between environmental degradation and women's oppression. including aluminum.4 million pounds of toxic chemicals that year. Now. Cuomo 1992. Though women are no more essentially connected to nature than any other organic beings. pg.C. the most recent year for which data are available. focus on the practical. Joe Willging. more than 50. the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). RDX. in 1996. . copper. including the oppression of nature. Cuomo. As evidence of the need to act now. including Vandana Shiva and Maria Mies (1993). King 1990. . The DOD acknowledges that these laws have never been shown to have interfered with specific military training. and the Marine Mammal Protection Act. airmen. it is arguable that the ecological effects of war and militarism are feminist issues. Warren 1990. the DOD points to a number of lawsuits and “close calls. We want to maintain the ability to use those ranges in the optimum way based on military readiness considerations. these flights emitted 75 tons of nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds. “We don’t feel it’s wise to wait for that kind of train wreck to see if we are going to lose in litigation.000 military flights contributed to the heavy air traffic over Washington.” . if women's oppression is connected to the unjustified destruction of nature. Military aircraft from DOD facilities also generate noise and air pollution. That closure followed a lawsuit filed by the Center for Biological Diversity alleging that bombing at the range was killing protected migratory birds. For instance. As of this publication. and zinc fumes.000 people at the height of tourist season. was California’s leading air polluter. but says it can’t afford to wait until training is shut down before it acts. The DOD argues that even the threat of interference by hazardous waste litigation justifies its aims. and Marines into combat environments in the absolute best-prepared way we can. 1996. a drinking water source for up to 500. sailors. D. Our job is to send soldiers. for instance. as Karen Warren argues. both environmental and living Schmidt. portions of the Endangered Species Act. the Sierra Army Depot. Plumwood 1993).Whitman College 85911615.fcgi?artid=1253681 December 2004 Nearly 1 in 10 Americans live within 10 miles of a DOD Superfund site—a sometimes perilous proximity. The Massachusetts Military Reservation. Charles W “The price of preparing for war” Environmental Health Perspectives http://www. assistant professor of philosophy and women’s studies at the university of Cincinnati. Others." and because it is so directly tied to other forms of ecological and social violence. jet fuel. Hypatia Special Issues: Women and Violence Volume 11 Number 4.
of the renunciation of the subject position and of meaning— precisely the practices of the masses—that we bury under the derisory terms of alienation and passivity. It blackmails us into becoming policymakers. of revolt. All the movements that only play on liberation. . which is a form of refusal and of non-reception. deciding. do not see that they are going in the direction of the system. exactly the opposite: childishness.doc 7/20/08 30 File Title Alternative – Strategy of the Object – The Children The system demands that we constitute ourselves as subjects. participating. refusing to continue on as living alibis for the violence of the real Jean Baudrillard. obedient. because it was ushered in by that phase of the system which prevails.” indeed a “raising of the unconscious” of subjects and of the masses.Whitman College 85911615. passivity. 1981. emancipation. responsible. expressing ourselves at whatever cost. in short. emancipation. of voting. free and conscious. to reflecting meaning. It is the strategy of the masses: it is equivalent to returning to the system its own logic by doubling it. impact of all the object practices. that of constituting ourselves as subjects. To the demand of being an object. like a mirror. When all the revolutions have already taken place. total dependence. p. and even if w are still confronted with it. the strategic resistance is the liberating claim of subjecthood But this strategy is more reflective of the earlier phase of the system. an object’s resistance. to the constant ultimatum we are given to constitute ourselves as pure objects. Thus the strategic resistance is that of the refusal of meaning and of the spoken word—or of the hyperconformist simulation of the very mechanisms of the system. playing the game—a form of blackmail and ultimatum just as serious as the other. idiocy. Simulacra and Simulation. speaking. Neither strategy has ore objective value than the other. without absorbing it. But this is to ignore the equal. conforming objects. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. but they do not respond at all to the other demand. and without a doubt superior. The subject-resistance is today unilaterally valorized and viewed as positive—just as in the political sphere only the practices of freedom. Children are simultaneously required to constitute themselves as autonomous subjects. the maximum production of meaning. The liberating practices respond to one of the aspects of the system. the strategic ground is to passively absorb appearances. just as obstinately. We are face to face with this system in a double situation and insoluble double bind— exactly like children faced with the demands of the adult world. of liberating ourselves. voters. hyperconformism. To choose the wrong strategy is a serious matter. etc. The child resists on all levels. that is to say. and to a contradictory demand he responds with a double strategy. he opposes all the practices of disobedience. 84-86 With one caution. expression. even more serious today. inert. of the group. producing. and the constitution of a political subject are seen as valuable and subversive. To the demand of being a subject he opposes. This strategy (if one can still speak of strategy) prevails today. a total claim to subjecthood. and to constitute themselves as submissive. and efficaciously. of the word based on “consciousness raising. revolutionaries. whose imperative today is precisely the overproduction and regeneration of meaning and of speech. on the resurrection of a subject of history. it is no longer the strategic terrain: the current argument of the system is to maximize speech. of emancipation. To a system whose argument is oppression and repression.
Today. Nothing can guarantee us a fatality. says Canetti. which is itself the denouement of language immanent to language (that is the fatal: the same sign presiding over a life’s crystallization and its resolution. if the object is ingenious. like the real is hyper-real. the object mocks the laws we attach to it. even less a strategy. And. must itself be a special effect. Seduction is fatal. too. in saving and eternalizing a moment of our lives. Truth only complicates things. with whom do we share this ironic end? . Fatality. if it exists. of the fatal. To find another rule. yielding to history. Today it’s man that poses to the Sphinx — the inhuman — the question of the inhuman. it too must be engaged in the eccentric cycle of its effects. the question Oedipus thought he answered. redoubling and escalating the stakes are spirited forms of denouement. There’s something stupid in the current forms of truth and objectivity that a superior irony could spare us. and runs the risk of what it describes — but the risk is to be taken. Everything must unfold in a fatal and ingenious way. In language become pure object. Everything is expiated in one way or another. therefore. Basically. history itself has withdrawn. the conditions according to which it accepts playing? No one knows them. simultaneously — there’s no paradox involved in this. and the one has never been able to erase the other. and leave it to the equations to verify themselves. there is something stupid about our current situation. The real we invent wholly in the hope of seeing it result in a prodigious artifice. Today. and therefore the impossibility of deciphering a word that plays the game of meaning all too well).Whitman College 85911615. nothing of the otherworldly delirium of a subjectivity trapped and escaping headlong into a paroxysmal inventory. could not be insensible. and even at the molecular level. No one knows what a strategy is. and on the side of its eccentric and precious effects. Everything is headed somewhere. But simply to delineate this other logic. as everyone knows. now that all negativity seems resolved in a world that pretends to realize itself. What’s the use of trying to establish chance as an objective process. And if the Last Judgement consists. That also is a challenge — eventually it threatens absurdity. it would rather figure in our calculations as a sarcastic variable. We invent all these strategies in the hope of having them result in the unexpected event. a dream inverse to its dream of totalization. Likewise with the joke. as in the Witz. What remains but to pass on the side of the object. of its fickleness toward objective laws. If there be a morality. Its failure today awakens passions that are much more subtle. unravel those other strategies. From seduction we look for surprise. And of course fatality exists too. leave the field open to objective irony. hardly answers. of the indifference of the world toward our affairs. but against all science. It’s what peeks through the heart of more banal strategies. to take up the cause of the object. From any object we hope for a blind response that hampers our projects. no objective. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. God himself is forced to employ a trial-and-error method. for each of us. There are not enough means in the world for us to be able to dispose of ends. It’s the effect of a sovereign object that recreates in you an original confusion and seeks to surprise you. Chance is also one. in the irony of the aleatory. a fatal strategy in that the subject thereby succumbs to the surpassing of its own objectives. no one is capable of articulating a final process. We are accomplices in this excess of finality that is there in the object (this can be the excess of meaning. The only way out is the fatal strategy of the object.doc 7/20/08 31 File Title Alternative – Fatal Strategies Alternative All of today’s critical radicality has ultimately proven useless. The strategy of the object allows everything to unfold to it in a fatal and ingenious way Jean Baudrillard. The object (the Sphinx). what can we do about it? After the art of survival. At the heart of banal strategies is the fiery desire of fatal strategies. But it’s certain nevertheless that in disobeying laws. whose fatality would be a strategy —something like the rule of another game. like the discovery of a hidden rule. now that all critical radicality has become useless. no final process. and they can change without notice. It’s the object. at the knotting of the intrigue and its denouement). irony (of the Witz*) is the objective form of this denouement. which just makes it more tragic and more seductive. p. Everywhere. must be no longer a moral stasis. The discovery of a hidden rule of the game is dazzling. Levi-Strauss claimed that the symbolic order had left us. 1990. installing thereby a strategy that doesn’t have its own ends: a “playful” strategy that stills the play of the subject. by which the object is taken in the very game that we wanted to make it play — doubling the ante somehow. In any case. it answers secretly to some enigma. Quite the contrary. but a moral ecstasy. escalating the bidding on the strategic limits it will tolerate. and the effects of desire are largely depleted — what remains but to bring things back to their enigmatic ground zero? Now the enigma is inverted: once it was the Sphinx that posed men the question of man. 184-85 188-191 if the object is fatal. to which destiny. is seductive. another axiom: nothing mystical in this. in turn. subtler than man. It’s true that this is a difficult and obscure route: to side with the object. a strategy precisely with no object. if it is an ironic one? Of course it exists. The interesting thing about this is the inexorable logical process that is visible here. From strategy we expect control. and now that the critical spirit has found its summer home in socialism. What is more. that we all thought we answered. in unravelling desire. The difference is that the irony of fatality is greater than the irony of chance. What remains but to side with this enigma? Everything can be summed up in this: let’s believe for a single instant the hypothesis that there is a fatal and enigmatic bias in the order of things. Even predestination is a form of ironic subversion of fatality. The hypothesis of a fatal strategy must itself be fatal. There’s something stupid in the raw event. the ironic art of disappearance? The subject has always dreamed of this. Fatal Strategies. just as everything was caught from the start in an original subversion. But the rules of its game. of its fatal effects (fatality is only the absolute liberty of effects )? Semiorrhage. must itself be hyper-moral. At the end of all that. If I look for a fatal connection in language. I fall on the joke. and compensates us in advance for the cruelest losses. the conjunction of these two terms is paradoxical: how could there be fatality if there is strategy? That’s just the point: the enigma is that fatality is at the heart of every strategy. and one only.
or placed in a context where it is made volatile or fragile. It is truly unreadable.com/2002_Volume_15/15_3/Article_4. a reversibility that is in the order of things. a kind of metaphorical transfer of things. an expression which describes a process. What we have is the event itself. if it is contrary to a truth principle. even if it is a crazy logic. Moreover. Let us call it strategy.htm. strategy being originally a military metaphor. If the strategy has to become logistically chancy. for there to be a strategy. it is no longer a strategy properly speaking. to be sure! How could an object have a strategy? It would be absurd. Regardless. a representation of the outcome. all the same. someone who has a will. it is deployed within space. it is a secret. The term strategy represents an opportunity because it is apt. we do not have it. But. Fatal strategy for me is a strategy of the object. the way that the discourse of sense tries to describe non-sense. Thus fatal strategy is. .Whitman College 85911615. At this point it has to be said that this supposes such relativity in the subject-object relation that it is that which becomes fatal. but it has certainly lost its military reference. and adopt the seemingly paradoxical strategy of the object Jean Baudrillard. decisive and determinant way. and yet it is used in such a way that subjectivity is undermined. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. When I use it in the expression "fatal strategies". But somewhere there is a logic in the unfolding of things. which has nothing to do with scientificity. Well. there has to be a subject of the strategy. online: http://www. effectively. 2005 CTHEORY: How is the concept of strategy used? It is implicit that it connotes a form of subjectivity. it speaks to the imaginary. Which means nothing. I also speak of objective illusion. But I am not the one who is going to say that. It has a form of mastery and. one can still use this term in a metaphorical sense perhaps. And the fact that it is no longer the subject that possesses things when. There has to be a finality. one will always remain between the two. It is a nice term. cannot be based on objectivity. there I agree with you. and this is. We witness the loss of subjectivity on the one hand. if not a strategy. at the moment. and perhaps even its reference to a finality. truly delirious. But it no longer means anything great in my opinion. accessed March 5. but we are nevertheless a vectorial element of the thing. But all the same. Thus. It is a type of fatal process. a process in which there is certainly no more subject. there is only a strategy of the subject. the flow of the world itself. Summer 2002. the fact of speaking of the strategy of objects is a paradox. we do not have an objective discourse available in the sense I intend it. at least a rule of the game. to what extent does it retain today martial connotations which complicate its sense even more? JEAN BAUDRILLARD: Yes. But I like to bring these two terms together all the same to create a clash between them. because. There will not be any objectivity there in the scientific sense of the term. it is clear that it no longer has any finality in itself. It has form.doc 7/20/08 32 File Title Alternative – Strategy of the Object Alternative Fatal strategies demand that we abandon the subject as an agent of politics. no more subjectivity. though not in the sense of subjects. I like to apply things that are paradoxical. Illusion. at the same time. fatal. and the intervention of the object itself in the game in a fatal.montrealserai. Why not! It is. as discourse itself is so grounded in subjectivity in this sense. We are all inside it. properly speaking. I think that there is a rule. and there is there. That is not possible. But clearly. but which would be the discourse of the object.
We think of nature as indifferent. that is to say. for here is where things cynically subvert themselves from their beginnings and their ends. the will to disdain their causes and to lose ourselves in their effects. How could we suppose that people were going to disavow their daily life and look for an alternative to it? On the contrary. seal the monotony of it with an even greater monotony. deep in man’s heart. even the increase of oppression and abjection that works like the liberating ecstasy of abjection — just as the absolute commodity works like the liberating form of the commodity. seductive passion. they’ll make a destiny out of it: intensify it while seeming to do the opposite. I’m not joking: people are not looking for amusement.doc 7/20/08 33 File Title A2 Perm The strategy of the object is our fatal strategy. and particularly in the effects of their disappearance. simulating passion. For example. opposed to all will for knowledge and power: tenacious. but it isn’t perhaps indifferent to the fact of making a spectacle of itself in natural disasters. as it were. It could mean the ecstatic deepening of anything. Jean Baudrillard. increase is salvation and ecstasy. plunge into it to the point of ecstasy. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School.Whitman College 85911615. To occur is necessary. I’m speaking also of people and their inhuman strategies. p. the most secret facts and thoughts. 1990. but in the magic of their effect — there only they appear great and do themselves the luxury of existing. it haunts nonetheless the process of events. There is. 184-85 gender modified When I speak of the object and its fatal strategies. This hyper-banality is the equivalent of fatality. which is a grand act of self-surpassing. not in the hold of representation. this production which is not at all a representation. Things can only happen in this excessive manner. subversive passion. to be commuted into spectacle. because it is made up of all the elements of happiness and distraction. instead they want to find a fatal distraction. All forms that tend to project a dazzling and miraculous liberty are only revolutionary homilies. Boredom is not the problem — the essential point is the increase of boredom. This is something of a parable. This is the only solution to the problem of “voluntary servitude. a drive for pure event. Liberating logic is basically understood only by a few. essentially it is fatal logic that wins out. to attain ecstasy in a scene instead of being produced as something really happening. objective information.” Furthermore there is no liberation but this one: in the deepening of negative conditions. if one doesn’t understand this. but their prodigious and eccentric form. in a distant echo of original sin. the bitter and triumphal foreboding that there’s no escaping this. that means that things are meaningless unless transfigured by this illusion. and it certainly is to the passions and enterprises of [hu]man. the only fatal strategy. then one understands nothing of this collective brutishness. only a fatal logic wins its battle with power precisely because it’s not a battle but a radical passivity. All strategies that promise liberation from anything are illusions. to be in ecstasy is absolutely vital. . a human being can find in a vacation a greater boredom than in everyday life — a redoubled boredom. Another form of fundamental cynicism: this will to spectacle and illusion. Prodigious form that moralists have always condemned. Fatal Strategies. The important point is the predestination of vacations to boredom. but it’s here only to signify this passion of passions. this derision.
This is exemplified by the 1AC – they criticize the given meanings of SUVs and expose them as false. No longer any need for a critical consciousness to hold up the mirror of its double to the world: our modern world swallowed its double when it lost its shadow. through the spectrum of the sign and the commodity.e. its discontinuity its fragmentation. in which the absence and transparency of the subject is reflected. superconductive of illusion and non-meaning. all too visible sequencing. The critical function of the subject has given way to the ironic function of the object. of our models. its stereophony and its artificial instantaneity. This is all part of their visible. . There is something of revenge in this: the object becomes a strange attractor. object world which surrounds us. Its essence is promotional. Once they have passed through the medium or through the image. the object which refracts the subject and imposes upon it its presence and its random form.doc 7/20/08 34 File Title A2 Perm – Ironic Strategies Can’t Include the Subject Stances of irony are purely stances of the object. a trickster who has absorbed the drollery of the commodity and its mise en scene. We no longer have the sacred horizon of appearances. they discard their meanings effortlessly. which has annihilated all others. in a poetic unreality. 73-74 Irony is the only spiritual form in the modern world. although they will try to claim otherwise. exorbitated — i. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. A scriptwriter of genius (capital itself?) has dragged the world into a phantasmagoria of which we are all the fascinated victims. objects. of our objects. No longer any need to confront objects with the absurdity of their functions. it is an objective function.Whitman College 85911615. which can’t be combined with the affirmative. but that of the absolute commodity. taken out of the orbit of the subject — it is then that it becomes a pure object. At the heart of our universe of signs there is an evil genius of advertising. by their very existence. but the operator of the objective irony of the world. It alone is the guardian of the mystery. Our strategies are incompatible fundamentally because the affirmative. The aura of our world is no longer sacred. For it is no longer a function of the subject. Stripped of all illusion by technology. still believes in identifiable meanings of particular signs. It is. henceforth. thus positively identifying their meanings as “not the given ones. which of itself creates a parody effect. and the irony of that incorporated double shines out at every moment in every fragment of our signs. that of the artificial. as the Surrealists did: things move to shed an ironic light on themselves all on their own. The Perfect Crime. Jean Baudrillard. All metaphysics is swept away by this turnabout in which the subject is no longer the master of representation (‘I’ll be your mirror’). perform an artificial and ironic function. 1996.” We should abandon all hopes of finding any meaning at all in these systems of signs – only doing that allows the strategy of the object. but it is no longer ours to exercise. p. It is the power of the object which cuts a swathe through the very artifice we have imposed on it. stripped of all connotation of meaning and value.
Jean Baudrillard. illusive. But perhaps our true unconscious is in this ironic power of withdrawal. Our unconscious might not be composed of desires properly sworn to the sad destiny of repression. If only for the sake of change. in a paradoxical mode. sovereign lack of will. whose will would have been diverted. and they don’t want power. by proxy. of all enlightenment and depths of meaning. to recall Veblen’s concept. as possessing a delusive. joyous and seductive. intellectual. The assumption of the alienated masses is something made by the affirmative. in a sort of game of irresponsibility. Vicarious*. this tedious business of power and will. That couldn’t be further from the truth. It would instead be made up out of what’s left after this joyous expulsion of all encumbering superstructures of being and will. it would be interesting to conceive of the masses. But they’re not that at all: the masses are very snobbish. p. absorption then expulsion of all powers. No one knows what the true opposite of consciousness is — unless it be this unconscious of repression that psychoanalysis has imposed upon us. the object-masses. Fatal Strategies. We always had a sad vision of the masses (alienated). ironic challenge. non-knowledge. a strategy that eludes capture by power. toward the secret finalities of the very masses they despise. corresponding to an unconscious that is finally ironic. a sad vision of the unconscious (repressed). or secret ruse. allusive strategy. because of an insistance which is thereby bathed in the light of a ridiculous looking halo. wills.Whitman College 85911615. not us – we affirm the masses’ passivity and lack of choice as a joyous. All mediators (political. 98-99 The masses know that they know nothing and they have no desire to know. subjectively. . Upon our entire philosophy lies the heavy weight of these sad correlations. liberatory gesture. of non-desire. alienated way. without their realizing it. The masses know they are powerless. It might not even be repressed at all. We live all of this. the status of these “privileged” classes. since these masses coexist in us with the intelligent and voluntary being who condemns and scorns them. to relieve the masses of this transendence for their greater pleasure. they act like Brummel and sovereignly delegate the faculty of choice to someone else. We reproach them vigorously for these signs of stupidity and passivity. heirs to the philosophers of the Enlightenment in their contempt of the masses) are only good basically for this: to administer by delegation. and then to reward them with the spectacle of it. 1990.doc 7/20/08 35 File Title AT: Passivity Bad/Whatever Else the 2AC Says Their arguments assume we embrace the masses’ passivity in a sad. silence. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School.
The disparity between US and Iraqi forces with regard to method and military technology was so great that direct engagement rarely took place. 1995. Rather. and when it did the outcome was entirely predictable. The image of a just war fought between the forces of freedom and those of tyranny dissolved in the moral ambiguities of the postconflict period. the use of force remains carefully circumscribed. They are police operations rather than wars. was the subordination of Islam to the global order: “Our wars thus have less to do with the confrontation of warriors than with the domestication of the refractory forces on the planet . the US and its allies sought a rapid conflict based upon airpower. war has always involved an antagonistic and destructive confrontation between adversaries. or who. and the extensive use of electronic warfare. can this be called a war?” (6 7—8) In his defence of the rationalist outlook which rejects the postmodern reduction of truth to consensus belief. like Saddam Hussein. this was not the case in the Gulf conflict. Whereas Iraq was disposed to fight in the manner of its previous war with Iran. That did not happen in the Gulf. shooting at each other. Paul Patton. The crucial stake in the Gulf affair. The almost complete absence of any engagement by Iraqi planes. The claim that war itself has become virtual does not mean that military conflicts do not occur: they do and with increasing frequency and savagery in the New World Order. The rights of Kuwait may have been restored. In the past. From a political point of view. Lecturer in Philosophy at the University of Sydney. in the case of the Gulf conflict. The same Americans who had systematically destroyed Iraq’s power grid and transport infrastructure now refused to enforce the law of democracy and the New World Order where this would entail intervening in the internal affairs of a sovereign state. but rather that what took place was not a war. does the fact of military conflict constitute a refutation of the hypothesis that there was no Gulf War? It does only if we accept that what did take place out there in the desert beyond the reach of the TV cameras was in fact a war. a lever of last resort employed only to the extent that is necessary to bring the recalcitrant party into line. Baudrillard argues. it is because they are in conflict with third world forces who do not recognise that the rules of the game have changed. . like the persistence of sweatshops alongside fully automated production facilities. methods and military technology of the two sides was so great that what occurred cannot be considered an adversarial encounter. The imbalance of military means was such that this was not a conflict in which the survival of both sides was in play. apart from the massive damage and suffering inflicted upon Iraq. but an entirely asymmetrical operation. it was no longer clear what had been gained by the sacrifice of so many lives.”20 He goes on to describe the successive phases of the conflict as involving varieties of state terrorism practised on both sides. and a form of slaughter practised by US and UK air and ground forces upon Iraqi soldiers and civilians. But these are secondary phenomena.. Norris points to the figure of Chomsky as someone who is both a defender of Enlightenment ideals in morality and the philosophy of language.Whitman College 85911615. lobotomised. Yet Chomsky has also questioned whether what took place in the Gulf in 1990-1 was a war. However. but in exchange for the rights of minorities in Iraq. it involves two sides in combat. located for the most part in a political and military third world. This is the law of democracy and the New World Order. and it is this failure of communication which leads to the use of force. which means it defies the logic of their criticism. operate according to different rules. and prepared to tolerate the massive casualties which would result from a ground-based war of attrition. that it was a hoax like the moon landing or something. p. a dual relation between warring parties. 1720 Does the refusal of the critical strategy which seeks to re-establish the truth of what happened commit Baudrillard to the irrationalist denial that any military engagement took place? Alternatively. deterrence breaks down for lack of any common ground. and a staunch critic of US foreign policy.” (86) This is not war.doc 7/20/08 36 File Title A2 “You Deny the Reality of War” Our argument is not that nothing happened in the Gulf.. the Gulf War did not take place. and even if it were. very little changed as a result of the military conflict. Where they do involve first world powers such as the US or UK. an exercise in domination rather than an act of war. In several respects. running towards the television journalists in order to surrender or immobilised beside their tanks . high-technology intelligence and weapons systems. In these cases.. He writes: “As I understand the concept ‘war’. testify to the one-sided nature of the conflict: “it is as though the Iraqis were electrocuted.(71) In short. what took place was not a war in any traditional logic. and its army permitted to crush the Kurdish and Shiite rebellions. it is as though it never happened. and the fate of their technologically inferior tanks. Other commentators have argued that the disparity between the aims. a model of the liberal and critical intellectual. The final irony of the whole episode is that. say. The Gulf War Did Not Take Place. and the short-Lived political and economic benefits at home. They are the consequences of a law of uneven development.. The Iraqi regime was allowed to remain intact. All that is singular and irreducible must be reduced and absorbed. A perfect semblance of victory for the Americans was exchanged for the perfect semblance of defeat for Iraq. Baudrillard’s argument in “The Gulf War did not take place” is not that nothing took place.
online Ethical approaches that do not attend to the ways in which warfare and military practices are woven into the very fabric of life in twenty-first century technological states lead to crisis-based politics and analyses. and that it is perpetrated by military institutions and other militaristic agents of the state. pg. 1996. omnipresent systems of domination and oppression that so often function as givens in most people's lives. For any feminism that aims to resist oppression and create alternative social and political options. or when the stability of privilege is directly threatened. political concern only regarding armed conflict. all of the time. and who do not regularly encounter the realities of militarism. The belief that militarism is an ethical.doc 7/20/08 37 File Title A2 “You Deny the Reality of War” Treating war as an event disables challenges to state sponsored violence and militarism Chris J. Crisis-driven attention to declarations of war might actually keep resisters complacent about and complicitous in the general presence of global militarism. Antiwar resistance is then mobilized when the "real" violence finally occurs. assistant professor of philosophy and women’s studies at the university of Cincinnati. Seeing war as necessarily embedded in constant military presence draws attention to the fact that horrific. Neglecting the omnipresence of militarism allows the false belief that the absence of declared armed conflicts is peace. crisis-based ethics and politics are problematic because they distract attention from the need for sustained resistance to the enmeshed. the polar opposite of war. to maintain this false belief. .Whitman College 85911615. It is particularly easy for those whose lives are shaped by the safety of privilege. creates forms of resistance to militarism that are merely exercises in crisis control. Hypatia Special Issues: Women and Violence Volume 11 Number 4. and at that point it is difficult not to respond in ways that make resisters drop all other political priorities. state-sponsored violence is happening nearly all over. Cuomo.
Slavoj Zizek. provocations in the style of the notorious "Sensation" exhibitions ARE the norm. Habermas designated the present era as that of the neue Undurchsichtlichkeit . really changing. violations of human rights. politically correct. in art. In sex. today. which precludes any serious questioning of how this liberal-democratic order is complicit in the phenomena it officially condemns.doc 7/20/08 38 File Title A2 Reformism Particularized demands for change. This kind of activity provides the perfect example of interpassivity2: of doing things not to achieve something... of course. the shattering impact of the digitalization of our daily lives.Whitman College 85911615. accessed January 28. the prohibition to think. activity fits the formula of "Let's go on changing something all the time so that.the new opacity. the answer is immediately: "Benevolent as it is. denouncing and boycotting companies which do not respect ecological conditions or which use child labor) . globally. no matter how radical." as Lenin himself would have put it. 2004 What are we to say to this? Again. one should bear in mind Walter Benjamin's reminder that it is not enough to ask how a certain theory (or art) declares itself to stay with regard to social struggles .the moment one shows a minimal sign of engaging in political projects that aim to seriously challenge the existing order. More then ever. the effectively hegemonic attitude is not patriarchal repression. it means: say and write whatever you want . but to question the hegemonic ideological coordinates. So everything is allowed.they are tolerated and supported as long as they do not get too close to a certain limit. In these circumstances. even if they seemingly enter the economic territory (say. sexism.com/replenin. This is the point on which one cannot and should not concede: today. our daily experience is mystifying: modernization generates new obscurantisms. one is accused of abandoning scientific objectivity for the outdated ideological positions. but even supported by the media. professor of philosophy at the university of Ljubljana. In short. All the frenetic humanitarian.one should also ask how it effectively functions IN these very struggles.htm. solicited even. are performed against the backdrop of the neoliberal-democratic order and are tolerated as long as they fail to fundamentally change hegemonic ideology. to directly intervene and change things (which then inevitably ends in a cul de sac of debilitating impossibility: "what can one do against the global capital?"). the problem resides in the implicit qualifications which can be easily discerned by the "concrete analysis of the concrete situation. 2001. If. one follows a direct call to act.” http://lacan. gulag and the more recent Third World catastrophes is thus to serve as the support of this Denkverbot by constantly reminding us how things may have been much worse: "Just look around and see for yourself what will happen if we follow your radical notions!" And it is exactly the same thing that the demand for "scientific objectivity" means: the moment one seriously questions the existing liberal consensus. religious or sexist violence.1 More than ever. this will necessarily end in a new Gulag!" The ideological function of the constant reference to the holocaust. “Repeating Lenin. antifeminism. one should be especially careful not to confuse the ruling ideology with ideology which SEEMS to dominate. etc. the growing violence not only in the far-away countries. which are all not only tolerated. as a critical topic: the prospects of a global ecological catastrophe. The problem is that all this occurs against the background of a fundamental Denkverbot.. feminist and anti-racist campaigns. Greenpeace. but to PREVENT from something really happening. there is nothing easier today than to get international. homophobia. this act will not be performed in an empty space . and. but also in our megalopolises. the reduction of freedom is presented to us as the arrival of new freedoms. the actual freedom of thought means the freedom to question the predominant liberal-democratic "postideological" consensus . state or corporate funds for a multidisciplinary research into how to fight the new forms of ethnic.on condition that what you do does not effectively question or disturb the predominant political consensus.it will be an act WITHIN the hegemonic ideological coordinates: those who "really want to do something to help people" get involved in (undoubtedly honorable) exploits like Medecins sans frontiere.or it means nothing. One is therefore tempted to turn around Marx's thesis 11: the first task today is precisely NOT to succumb to the temptation to act. between the rich and the poor. things will remain the same!" . the example of the art fully integrated into the establishment. Today's liberal-democratic hegemony is sustained by a kind of unwritten Denkverbot similar to the infamous Berufsverbot in Germany of the late 60s . but free promiscuity. any serious attempt to imagine a society whose socio-political order would be different. the gap between the First and the Third World. "Fidelity to the democratic consensus" means the acceptance of the present liberal-parlamentary consensus.
It no longer needs to be rational.doc 7/20/08 39 File Title A2 Reformism Reform doesn’t exist anymore. though some shreds are still discernible in the deserts.such is the vital function of the model in a system of death. which simultaneously culminates in and is engulfed by the cartographer’s mad project of the ideal coextensivity of map and territory. In fact. today it is the territory whose shreds slowly rot across the extent of the map. Something has disappeared: the sovereign difference. All the revolutions and reforms have already happenedthen the neo-conservatives pushed back. of the real and its concept. p. on massive servers. No more imaginary coextensivity: it is genetic miniaturization that is the dimension of simulation.as the most beautiful allegory of simulation. this fable has now come full circle for us. A hyperreal henceforth sheltered from the imaginary. the double. It is produced from cable television pundits.that engenders the territory. Simulacra and Simulation. from countless PACs. and memory banks. nor duplication. produced from the radiating synthesis of combinatory models in a hyperspace without atmosphere. even inverted. whose vestiges persist here and there in the deserts that are no longer those of the Empire. matrices. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. to all binary oppositions. and its fall into ruins.worse: with their artificial resurrection in the systems of signs. Political reality is now purely operational. between one and the other. coincide with their models of simulation. a material more malleable that meaning. Simulation is no longer that of a territory. or rather of anticipated resurrection. the magic of the concept and the charm of the real. because it not longer measures itself against either an ideal or negative instance. The territory no longer precedes the map.Whitman College 85911615. returning to the substance of the soil. models of control. and if one must return to the fable. By crossing into a space whose curvature is no longer that of the real. that no longer even gives the event of death a chance. Jean Baudrillard. 1-3 If once we were able to view the Borges fable in which the cartographers of the Empire draw up a map so detailed that it ends up covering the territory exactly(the decline of the Empire witnesses the fraying of this map. a programmatic. remains. demographics. Because it is difference that constitutes the poetry of the map and the charm of the territory. and possesses nothing but the discrete charm of second-order simulacra. nor that of truth. Because it is with this same imperialism that present-day simulators attempt to make the real. The real is produced from miniaturized cells. It is all of metaphysics that is lost. the era of simulation is inaugurated by a liquidation of all referentials. the mirror. little by little. to all combinatory algebra. No more mirror of being and appearances.and it can be reproduced an indefinite number of times from these. Only the allegory of the Empire. but ours. Never again will the real have the chance to produce itself. and from any distinction between the real and the imaginary. all of the real.the metaphysical beauty of this ruined abstraction testifying to a pride equal to the Empire and rotting like a carcass. nor does it survive it. It is nevertheless the map that precedes the territory. or a substance. 1981. nor even parody. a referential being. now we live in a hyper-pluralist stasis. that constituted the charm of abstraction. It is no longer a question of imitation. The desert of the real itself. It is no longer anything but operational. leaving room only for the orbital recurrence of models and for the simulated generation of differences. It is the real. perfectly descriptive machine that offers all the signs of the real and short-circuits all its vicissitudes. because no imaginary envelops it anymore. a bit as the double ends by being confused with the real through aging). that is to say of an operation of deterring every real process via its operational double. It is a question of substituting the signs of the real for the real. lobbyists. Borge’s fable is unusable. metastable. and interest groups. in that tit lends itself to all systems of equivalences. This imaginary of representation. Today abstraction is no longer that of the map. it is no longer really the real. and not the map. But it is no longer a question of either maps o territories. In fact. It is the generation by models of a real without origin or reality: a hyperreal. disappears in the simulation whose operation is nuclear and genetic. It is a hyperreal.precession of simulacra. or the concept. perhaps. . no longer at all spectacular or discursive.
Simulacra and Simulation. of lived experience. has thus in a sense closed up again in universalizing itself—a universal market. Hallucination of the real. From then onward. The proliferation of signs leads to the hallucination and revisiting of impacts in their hyperrealized forms. 1981. This is also true of geographic and spatial exploration: when there is no longer any virgin territory. not only of merchandise. but a desperate rehallucination of the past. When a system reaches its own limits and becomes saturated. There is no relationship of cause and effect there: it is not because terrestrial space today is virtually coded. emptied of meaning. the events. mapped. the perimeters of a prior world. signs. precisely because it has disappeared from our life. the ideologies of the past. 123-124 Perhaps science fiction from the cybernetic and hyperreal era can only exhaust itself. the end of the phantasm. hypostatized in space. in its artificial resurrection of “historical” worlds. models of simulation in place and to contrive to give them the feeling of the real. in which fiction will never again be a mirror held toward the future. the people. . besides it forged its path in the narratives of spatial exploration. the end of science fiction—the era of hyperreality begins. when the map covers the whole territory. Jean Baudrillard. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. something must change: the projection. be the opposite: it will be to put decentered situations. brought to light with a transparent precision. raised to a spatial power (one could say) with the most recent lunar module.Whitman College 85911615. We can no longer imagine any other universe: the grace of transcendence was taken away from us in that respect too. sometimes down to disquietingly strange details. of the quotidian. Until now we have always had a reserve of the imaginary—now the coefficient of reality is proportional to the reserve of the imaginary that gives it its specific weight. to reinvent the real as fiction. counterparts to the more terrestrial forms of exploration and colonization of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. mental. Witness this two bedroom/kitchen/shower put into orbit. and thus one available to the imaginary. reconstituted as an animal or vegetal reserve. In this way. Gigantic hologram in three dimensions. of the banal. the imaginary from the givens of the real. models. down to the smallest details. The process will. and they are two versions of the same general process of implosion that follows the gigantic process of explosion and expansion characteristic of past centuries. leaving no room for the imaginary—it is not exactly because of this that the exploratory universe (technical. p. a reversal is produced— something else takes place.doc 7/20/08 40 File Title A2 Sign production/Culture Crash Link Turn Just because you accelerate the process of sign creation doesn’t mean that you collapse signification itself. something like the principle of reality disappears.the satellization of the real in the transcendence of space—it is the end of metaphysics. rather. There is a hemorrhaging of reality as in internal coherence of a limited universe. saturated. but hallucinatory with retrospective truth. once the limits of this universe recede into infinity. Dick. The everydayness of the terrestrial habitat itself elevated to the rank of cosmic value. but without substance. The conquest of space that follows that of the planet is equal to derealizing (dematerializing) human space. the sort of pantographic excess that constituted the charm of science fiction are all impossible. in the imaginary as well. Thus in Simulacra by Philip K. It is no longer possible to fabricate the unreal from the real. but reconstituted. the war of Secession. of lived experience. the extrapolation. cosmic) of science fiction has ceased to function. derealized in advance. can only try to reconstruct invitro. But the two are narrowly linked. of their original process. the conquest of space constitutes an irreversible crossing toward the loss of the terrestrial referential. but of values. hyperrealized. or to transferring it into a hyperreal of simulation. Classical science fiction was that of an expanding universe. registered.
nonexplosive—except for the possibility of an explosion toward the center. In this sense. One can no longer imagine what project. This was already the aporia of the modern revolution. “real” use of it (as the Americans did in Hiroshima—but precisely only they had the right to this “use value” of the bomb. censure.Whitman College 85911615. they deter themselves. what power. Responsibility.  The nuclear is at once the culminating point of available energy and the maximization of energy control systems. believing that they are buying their independent striking force. self-deterrence always grow more rapidly than the forces or the weapons at our disposal: this is the secret of the social order. it freezes everything around it. all of those who have acquired it since will be deterred from using by the very fact of possessing it). that is to say in the sense of a reversion of the whole cycle toward a minimal point. unintelligible. Entry into the atomic club. this vast saturation of a system by its own forces. . of an implosion where all these energies would be abolished in a catastrophic process (in the literal sense. and bombs to ever latitude. so many neutron bombs knocking out all historic virulence. Therein lies the whole process of deterrence. Thus the very possibility of paralyzing a whole country by flicking a switch makes it so that the electrical engineers will never use this weapon: the whole myth of the total and revolutionary strike crumbles at the very moment when the means are available—but alas precisely because those means are available. what subject would exist behind this enclosure. p. Control by the threat will be replaced by the more effective strategy of pacification through the bomb and through the possession of the bomb. Energies freeze in their own fire. all risk of explosion. the nuclear everywhere inaugurates an accelerated process of implosion. of their own deterrence. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. of a reversion of energies toward a minimal threshold). 1981. The “little” powers. now neutralized. Lockdown and control increase in direct proportion to (and undoubtedly even faster than) liberating potentialities. unusable. The same goes for the atomic reactors that we have already sent them. weapons. what strategy. Simulacra and Simulation. 39-40 This is why nuclear proliferation does not increase the risk of either an atomic clash or an accident— save in the interval when the “young” powers could be tempted to make a nondeterrant. control. it absorbs all living energy.doc 7/20/08 41 File Title A2 “The Case Impacts Still Happen” Deterrence makes your massive impacts impossible Jean Baudrillard. so prettily named. will buy the virus of deterrence. It is still the absolute paradox of the nuclear. It is thus perfectly probable that one day we will see nuclear powers export atomic reactors. very quickly effaces (as unionization does in the working world) any inclination toward violent intervention.
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