Whitman College 85911615.
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Baudrillard K Neg
Baudrillard K Neg.......................................................................................................................................................1
Baudrillard K Neg..........................................................................................................................1
Links – Policy Debate – Disneyland (1/2)..................................................................................................................5
Links – Policy Debate – Disneyland (1/2)....................................................................................5
Links – Policy Debate – Disneyland (2/2)..................................................................................................................6
Links – Policy Debate – Disneyland (2/2)....................................................................................6
Links – Policy Debate – Hyperreal Communication (1/2)..........................................................................................7
Links – Policy Debate – Hyperreal Communication (1/2).........................................................7
Links – Policy Debate – Hyperreal Communication (2/2)..........................................................................................8
Links – Policy Debate – Hyperreal Communication (2/2).........................................................8
Links – Leadership type Impacts – Saving Private Ryan (1/2).................................................................................10
Links – Leadership type Impacts – Saving Private Ryan (1/2)...............................................10
Links – Leadership type Impacts – Saving Private Ryan (2/2).................................................................................11
Links – Leadership type Impacts – Saving Private Ryan (2/2)...............................................11
Links – War Scenarios..............................................................................................................................................12
Links – War Scenarios.................................................................................................................12
Links – Preventing the “Real” War...........................................................................................................................13
Links – Preventing the “Real” War...........................................................................................13
Links – Rights/Revolution/Hippie Shit.....................................................................................................................14
Links – Rights/Revolution/Hippie Shit......................................................................................14
Links – Micropolitics................................................................................................................................................15
Links – Micropolitics...................................................................................................................15
Links – Leftist Politics..............................................................................................................................................16
Links – Leftist Politics.................................................................................................................16
Links – Alternative Energy – Tech/R&D.................................................................................................................17
Links – Alternative Energy – Tech/R&D..................................................................................17
Links – Alternative Energy – Nuclear Energy (1/2).................................................................................................18
Links – Alternative Energy – Nuclear Energy (1/2).................................................................18
Links – Alternative Energy – Nuclear Energy (1/2).................................................................................................19
Links – Alternative Energy – Nuclear Energy (1/2).................................................................19
Links – Preservation/Nature/Environment/Ecology (1/3)........................................................................................20
Links – Preservation/Nature/Environment/Ecology (1/3)........................................................20
Whitman College 85911615.doc 7/20/08
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Links – Preservation/Nature/Environment/Ecology (2/3)........................................................................................21
Links – Preservation/Nature/Environment/Ecology (2/3)........................................................21
Links – Preservation/Nature/Environment/Ecology (3/3)........................................................................................22
Links – Preservation/Nature/Environment/Ecology (3/3)........................................................22
Impacts – War (1/2)..................................................................................................................................................23
Impacts – War (1/2).....................................................................................................................23
Impacts – War (2/2)..................................................................................................................................................24
Impacts – War (2/2).....................................................................................................................24
Impacts – Fascism.....................................................................................................................................................25
Impacts – Fascism........................................................................................................................25
Impacts – Violence....................................................................................................................................................26
Impacts – Violence.......................................................................................................................26
Impacts – Annihilation of Difference Impact...........................................................................................................28
Impacts – Annihilation of Difference Impact............................................................................28
Impacts – Cuomo – Ecological Destruction..............................................................................................................29
Impacts – Cuomo – Ecological Destruction...............................................................................29
Alternative – Strategy of the Object – The Children................................................................................................30
Alternative – Strategy of the Object – The Children................................................................30
Alternative – Fatal Strategies Alternative.................................................................................................................31
Alternative – Fatal Strategies Alternative.................................................................................31
Alternative – Strategy of the Object Alternative.......................................................................................................32
Alternative – Strategy of the Object Alternative......................................................................32
A2 Perm – Ironic Strategies Can’t Include the Subject............................................................................................34
A2 Perm – Ironic Strategies Can’t Include the Subject...........................................................34
AT: Passivity Bad/Whatever Else the 2AC Says......................................................................................................35
AT: Passivity Bad/Whatever Else the 2AC Says.......................................................................35
A2 “You Deny the Reality of War”..........................................................................................................................36
A2 “You Deny the Reality of War”............................................................................................36
A2 “You Deny the Reality of War”..........................................................................................................................37
A2 “You Deny the Reality of War”............................................................................................37
Whitman College 85911615.doc 7/20/08
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A2 Sign production/Culture Crash Link Turn..........................................................................................................40
A2 Sign production/Culture Crash Link Turn.........................................................................40
A2 “The Case Impacts Still Happen”.......................................................................................................................41
A2 “The Case Impacts Still Happen”.........................................................................................41
Whitman College 85911615.doc 7/20/08
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While ecology and limitations on consumption are laudable goals insofar as they solve problems like the exhaustion of resources, this responsible stewardship is inherently bound up with an unpredictable and uncontrollable underside – the development of renewables is a liberation of the forces of energy that amounts to a limitless proliferation culminating in the devouring of the very agents of that energy. Technologized energy is a Pandora’s box that we can have no fantasies of control over – it exceeds and defies attempts at containment. Jean Baudrillard, Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School, 1993, The Transparency of Evil, p. 103-05
The dangers threatening the human species are thus less risks of default (exhaustion of natural resources, dilapidation of the environment, etc.) than risks of excess: runaway energy flows, chain reactions, or frenzied autonomous developments. This distinction is a vital one, for while risks of default can be addressed by a New Political Ecology, the basic assumptions of which are by now generally accepted (indeed, they are already written into the International Rights of the Species), there is absolutely nothing to counter this other immanent logic, this speeding-up of everything, which plays double or nothing with nature. In the first case, the restoration of equilibrium to our ecological niche is still possible, the energies in play could still be rebalanced; in the second case, however, we are confronted by a development that is irretrievably out of balance. In the first case ethical principles may be brought to bear: a teleology that transcends the material process involved — even if merely the goal of survival — may come into play; in the second case, however, a process whose only goal is limitless proliferation will inevitably absorb all transcendence and devour all agents thereof. A full-blown and planet-wide schizophrenia, therefore, now rules: even as all sorts of ecological measures are being taken, even as a strategy for the proper use of the world, for an ideal interaction with the world, is being deployed, there is a simultaneous proliferation of enterprises of destruction, a total unleashing of the performance principle. And the very same forces often contribute to both trends. Furthermore, though the end-point of the first tendency seems fairly clear — to wit, the saving of our species by means of ecological conviviality — we know absolutely nothing about the secret destination of the second. But surely this acceleration, this excentric motion, must
have an end, must imply a destiny for the human species, a different symbolic relationship with the world that is much more complex and ambiguous than a relationship of balance and interaction? This too would be a vital destination — but it would involve a total risk. If such a destination has indeed been chosen for us, it is obvious that ecology’s rational deities will be powerless against the throwing of technology and energy into the struggle for an unpredictable goal, in a sort of Great Game whose rules are unknown to us. Even now we have no protection against the perverse effects of security, control and crime-prevention measures. We already know to what dangerous extremities we are led by prophylaxis in every sphere: social, medical, economic or political. In the name of the highest possible degree of security, an endemic terror may well be instituted that is in every way as dangerous as the epidemic threat of catastrophe. One thing is certain: in view of the complexity of the initial conditions and the potential reversibility of all the effects, we should entertain no illusions about the effectiveness of any kind of rational intervention. In the face of a process which so far surpasses the ‘individual or collective will of the players, we have no choice but to accept that any distinction between good and evil (and by extension here any possibility of assessing the ‘right level’ of technological development) can have the slightest validity only within the tiny marginal sphere contributed by our rational model. Inside these bounds, ethical reflection and practical determinations are feasible; beyond them, at the level of the overall process
which we have ourselves set in motion, but which from now on marches on independently of us with the ineluctability of a natural catastrophe, there reigns — for better or worse — the inseparability of good and evil, and hence the impossibility of mobilizing the one without the other. This is, properly speaking, the theorem of the accursed share. There is no point whatsoever in wondering whether things ought to be thus: they simply are thus, and to fail to acknowledge it is to fall utterly prey to illusion. None of this invalidates whatever may be possible in
the ethical, ecological or economic sphere of our life — but it does totally relativize the impact of such efforts upon the symbolic level, which is the level of destiny.
<<Insert More Links Here, choose wisely based off of whether it is a more critical or a more policy oriented affirmative>>
is drawn. Certainly. etc. The imaginary of Disneyland is neither true nor false.that it is that of the adults themselves who come here to act the child in order to foster illusion as to their real childishness. Magic Mountain. idealized transposition of a contradictory reality. Whence the possibility of an ideological analysis of Disneyland (L. panegyric of American values. Jean Baudrillard. As much as electrical and atomic power stations. Enchanted Village. and to conceal the fact that true childishness is everywhere. like Disneyland. as much as cinema studios. In fact. Disneyland is not the only one. Policy hacks come to the imaginary realm of debate to convince themselves that all that stuff they hear on CNN is reality. rather: inside. The only phantasmagoria in this imaginary world lies in the tenderness and warmth of the crowd. everywhere in Disneyland the objective profile of America. that is carceral). and in the sufficient and excessive number of gadgets necessary to create the multitudinous effect.Whitman College 85911615. unreal circulation.a veritable concentration camp. It is first of all a play of illusions and phantasms: the Pirates. is a fiction factory whose function is to reify the world outside. The violence of the real world is sustained by policy simulation. 12-14
Disneyland is a perfect model of all the entangled orders of simulacra. jeux d’espace [Utopias. one is altogether abandoned at the exit. and thus of saving the reality principle. Embalmed and pacified. p.doc 7/20/08
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Links – Policy Debate – Disneyland (1/2)
Policy debate is about imagining the world of the plan. however..is total. It is no longer a question of a false representation of reality (ideology) but of concealing the fact that the real is no longer real. solitude is directed at a single gadget: the automobile. childlike world is found to have been conceived and realize by a man who is himself now cryogenized: Walt Disney. it is a deterrence machine set up in order to rejuvenate the fiction of the real in the opposite camp. the energy of the real to a city whose mystery is precisely that of no longer being anything but a network of incessant. play of space]): digest of the American way of life. down to the morphology of individuals and of the crowd. all of “real” America that is Disneyland (a bit like prisons are there to hide that it is the social in its entirety. Marin did it very well in Utopiques. its infantile degeneration. the religious. which is no longer anything but an immense scenario and a perpetual pan shot. Disneyland is presented as imaginary in order to make us believe that the rest is real. without dimension. the Future World. Debate. of its constraints and joys.
. But what attracts the crowds the most is without a doubt the social microcosm. 1981. this frozen. whereas all of Los Angeles and the America that surrounds it are no longer real. this city. in its banal omnipresence. One parks outside and stand in line inside. Thus. international politics is just as much of a game as debate. All its values are exalted by the miniature and the comic strip. The contrast with the absolute solitude of the parking lot.a city of incredible proportions but without space. This imaginary world is supposed to ensure the success of the operation. Simulacra and Simulation. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. a whole panoply of gadgets magnetizes the crowd in directed flows outside. but belong to the hyperreal order and to the order of simulation. Marine World: Los Angeles is surrounded by these imaginary stations that feed reality. the Frontier. needs this old imaginary like a sympathetic nervous system made up of childhood signals and faked phantasms. By an extraordinary coincidence (but this derives without a doubt from the enchantment inherent to this universe. This world wants to be childish in order to make us believe that the adults are elsewhere. miniaturized pleasure of real America. who awaits his resurrection through an increase of 180 degrees centigrade. Or. but this makes something else and this “ideological” blanket functions as a cover for a simulation of the third order: Disneyland exists in order to hide that it is the “real” country. Whence the debility of this imaginary. in the “real” world.
a penury/simulacrum. psychic. and money. or the incredible coexistence of the most bizarre theories and practices. health food. whose visible signs would be those of this strange obesity. maybe a mental catastrophe. and not of nature at all. Everywhere today one must recycle waste. etc. belonging to the same order. but they go jogging. Marshall Sahlins’s idea that it is the economy of the market.Whitman College 85911615. legendary imaginary of children and adults is a waste product. People no longer look at each other. Nevertheless.
. vanished savage naturalness: natural food. One reinvents penury. asceticism. is verified. fairylike. They no longer touch each other. that secretes penury. But all the sexual. but there are institutes for that. heaven. a mental implosion and involution without prececedent lies in wait for a system of the kink. a simulated behavior of the underdeveloped (including the adoption of Marxist tenets) that. the first great toxic excrement of a hyperreal civilization. the phantasms. to the improbable luxurious materialization of life and to undiscoverable contradictions.doc 7/20/08
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Links – Policy Debate – Disneyland (2/2)
Disneyland: a space of the regeneration of the imaginary as waste-treatment plants are elsewhere. Everywhere one recycles lost faculties. They no longer walk. which correspond to the improbable coalition of luxury. adds a final esoteric aureole to the triumph of an esoteric culture. of energy crises and the critique of capital. which proliferate in California. yoga. somatic recycling institutes. or lost sociality. but at a secondary level: here. Disneyland is the prototype of this new function. On a mental level. in the sophisticated confines of a triumphal market economy is reinvented a penury/sign. or lost bodies. in the guise of ecology. and even here. and the dreams. but there is contactotherapy. the historical. or the lost taste for food.
Immense energies are deployed to hold this simulacrum at bay. To
this tautology of the system the masses respond with ambivalence. 1981.doc 7/20/08
7 File Title
Links – Policy Debate – Hyperreal Communication (1/2)
Policy debate is intricately tied to the workings of mass media. The third hypothesis is the most interesting but flies in the face of every commonly held opinion. which as one knows. that is how the real is abolished. In fact. 2. the fact is that it is collapsing. but. Everywhere information is thought to produce an accelerated circulation of meaning.” A sort of inverse simulation in the masses. or with an always enigmatic belief. without which the credibility of our social organization would collapse. participation at every level. it exhausts itself in the act of staging communication. Myth exists. and even if the waste is enormous. to the extent that information is directly destructive of meaning and signification. to avoid the brutal desimulation that would confront us in the face of the obvious reality of a radical loss of meaning. Rather than creating communication. the media. And for two reasons. this information ritual becomes encoded in the real.Whitman College 85911615. “I know very well. our intense analysis of the world does not produce more understanding. in each one of us. faith in
information attach themselves to this tautological proof that the system gives of itself by doubling the signs of an unlocatable reality.
. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School.. but still. and the mass media. despite its dysfunctions and irrationalities. Useless to ask which is the first term. there is none.” More and more information is invaded by this kind of phantom content. not only communication but the social functions in a closed circuit. a plus value of meaning homologous to the economic one that results from the accelerated rotation of capital Information is thought to create communication. very much on the contrary. on the contrary. More real than the real. Moreover. One both believes and doesn’t. A gigantic process of simulation that is very familiar. Belief. in a sort of nebulous state dedicated not to a surplus of innovation. as a lure— to which the force of myth is attached. but one must guard against thinking that people believe in it: this is the trap of critical thinking that can only be exercised if it presupposes the naïveté and stupidity of the masses. Whoever is underexposed to the media is dissocialized or virtually asocial. p. listeners who call in. Everywhere socialization is measured by the exposure to media messages. a general
consensus would have it that nevertheless. The hyperreality of communication and of meaning. which means that you reproduce your harms Jean Baudrillard. It devours communication and the social. is never anything but the recycling in the negative of the traditional institution. and for this very reason: because where we think that information produces meaning. which is redistributed in all the interstices of the social—just as consensus would have it that material production. Thus. to deterrence they respond with disaffection. the antitheater of communication. blackmail through speech: “You are concerned. but less. the opposite occurs. it is a circular process—that of simulation. as a whole. We are all complicitous in this myth. the pressure of information pursues an irresistible destructuration of the social. Thus the media are producers not of socialization. Simulacra and Simulation. This coherence and logic is the fundamental myth of modernity.tying news articles together to create the most accurate representation possible of the real world and then combine them into a coherent and logical story. Well. etc. this awakening dream of communication. 79-82
Or. But one can believe that this belief is as ambiguous as that which was attached to myths in
ancient societies. the mass media. The loss of meaning is directly linked to the dissolving. or whether it is the simulacrum that is there first for dissuasive ends. there be an excess of meaning. that of the hyperreal. the integrated circuit of the negative. you are the event. corresponds to this simulation of meaning and of communication in which this system encloses us. A circular arrangement through which one stages the desire of the audience. opens onto an excess of wealth and social purpose. Information devours its own content. speech. dissuasive action of information. Thus information dissolves meaning and dissolves the social. or that it neutralizes them. 1. Behind this exacerbated mise-en-scene of communication. it exhausts itself in the staging of meaning. Rather than producing meaning. of the implosion of the social in the masses. One does not ask oneself. but of exactly the opposite. And this is only the macroscopic extension of the implosion of meaning at the microscopic level of the sign. It is the alpha and omega of our modernity. there
is a rigorous and necessary correlation between the two. It is
useless to ask if it is the loss of communication that produces this escalation in the simulacrum. to total entropy. The
nondirective interview. to short-circuit in advance any possibility of communication (precession of the model that calls an end to the real). this homeopathic grafting.
the consequences of which have yet to be exhausted. etc. anti-media. there is perhaps still a subversive.doc 7/20/08
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Links – Policy Debate – Hyperreal Communication (2/2)
This implosion should be analyzed according to McLuhan’s formula. That is—and this is where McLuhan’s formula leads. pushed to its limit—there is not only an implosion of the message in the medium. But there is something even more serious. in the same movement.Whitman College 85911615. one could still expect to manipulate the medium in its form and to transform the real by using the impact of the medium as form. revolutionary use value of the medium as such. the implosion of the medium itself in the real. there is. If all the content is wiped out. A serious problem for all counter-information. whether they are conformist or subversive. the medium is the message.
. pirate-radios. Only the medium can make an event—whatever the contents. in which even the definition and distinct action of the medium can no longer by determined. Because beyond this neutralization of all content.
the implosion of the medium and of the real in a sort of hyperreal nebula. which McLuhan himself did not see. That means that all contents of meaning are absorbed in the only dominant form of the medium.
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.Whitman College 85911615.
remakes the silent film more perfectly than the original. The illusion would be to congratulate oneself on this “awareness of history on the part of the cinema. they just can’t get over it. same mystification. the panoply of events.” Same misunderstanding. it is often the last object perceived before the traumatic discovery. an affinity that is not at all political. in the same retro fascination. cinema also approaches an absolute correspondence with itself—and this is not contradictory: it is the very definition of the hyperreal. Thus the fetishized history will preferably be the one immediately preceding our “irreferential” era. or the revolutionary struggles. more confused essence). a retro politics. fascism. this hemorrhage of values—it is in proportion to this distress that all content can be evoked pell-mell. and pacified monotony on the quotidian level—this history exorcised by a slowly or brutally congealing society celebrates its resurrection in force on the screen. the pageantry of the belle époque. that is to say our myth. it is naïve to conclude that the evocation of fascism and of war in retro—a coincidence. Jean Baudrillard. etc. everything is equivalent and is mixed indiscriminately in the same morose and funereal exaltation. this leukemia of history and of politics. The cinema and the imaginary (the novelistic. the cinema is fascinated by itself as a lost object as much as it (and we) are fascinated by the real as a lost referent. and particularly the last. it is naïve to conclude that the evocation of fascism signals a current renewal of fascism (it is precisely because one is no longer there. war. including the delirious use of its own technique) used to have a lively.
. aestheticized by retro)… Concurrently with this effort toward an absolute correspondence with the real. this object is not just any object. more perverse.
In a violent and contemporary period of history (let’s say between the two world wars and the cold war). The affirmative simply recycles the signs of power. Whence the omnipresence of fascism and of war in retro—a coincidence. it is for this reason that fascism can again become fascinating in its filtered cruelty. The politics that enter the university are those that come from history. with the air of a game and a field of adventure. It is the golden age of despotic and legendary resurrections. which is dubbed peaceful coexistence on a global level. “Entering another round of Saving Private Ryan” is a perfect example of how neoconservative leadership impact authors write under the naïve hallucination of ideology and power. retroactivates its original myths. Post-history has rendered power useless.doc 7/20/08
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Links – Leadership type Impacts – Saving Private Ryan (1/2)
It should be a measure of Khalizad’s argument that he depends on cinema to make it for him. unreality. Today. it is history itself that invades the cinema according to the same scenario—the historical stake chased from our lives by this sort of immense neutralization. It is unto this void that the phantasms of a past history recede. retro fashions—no longer so much because people believe in them or still place some hope in the them. it is a myth that invades cinema as imaginary content. that all previous history is resurrected in bulk—a controlling idea no longer selects. Myth. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. says Freud. remakes its classics. but simply to resurrect the period whet at least there was history. leaving behind it an indifferent nebula. posthumous liberalization. the mythical.: all of this is logical. emptied of substance and legalized in their superficial exercise. at least there was violence (albeit fascist). the period immediately following the war—the innumerable films that play on these themes for us have a closer. in the euphoric or catastrophic expectation of a revolution—today one has the impression that history has retreated. Whereas so many generations. finds refuge in cinema. these death pangs of the real and of the rational that open onto an age of simulation. when at least life and death were at stake.” as one congratulated oneself on the “entrance of politics into the university. The great event of this period. ideologies. but precisely. Simulacra and Simulation. as profound. 43-48. that is. this kind of politics is like sexuality or permanent education (or like social security in its time). It is by the virtue of this fact that it takes the place of myths on the screen. Anything serves to escape this void. the great trauma. but emptied of references. as irreversible: the fetishization of an object intervenes to obscure this unbearable discovery. History is our lost referential. traversed by currents. lived in the march of history. There is however a privileging of the immediately preceding era (fascism. recopies itself. because one is in something else. One can explain it by evoking the Freudian theory of fetishism (perhaps also a retro hypothesis). which is still less amusing.Whitman College 85911615. This trauma (loss of referentials) is similar to the discovery of the difference between the sexes in children. Hypotyposis and specularity. only nostalgia endlessly accumulates: war. as serious. and affinity that is not at all political. p. chased from the real by the violence of history. denser. according to the same process that used to make lost myths live again. 1981. is this decline of strong referentials. full dramatic relation. dialectical. Cinema plagiarizes itself.
“objective form at the expense of the myths that once traversed it.Whitman College 85911615. Behind a performative and demonstrative logic: the obsession with real time or with the minute quotidianeity of Jeanne Hilmann doing the dishes). and this is irreversible. the last great myth. perhaps. is also the age of the novel. the asexual nuptials of two cold media that evolve in an asymptotic line toward each other: the cinema attempting to abolish itself in the cinematographic (or televised) hyperreal. all its technology in the service of reanimating what it itself contributed to liquidating. if one can call it that. Today cinema can place all its talent. negative relation: it results from the loss of specificity of one and of the other. Because cinema itself contributed to the disappearance of history. It is a myth that at once subtended the possibility of an “objective” enchainment of events and causes and the possibility of a narrative enchainment of discourse. which was substituted for all other value—we are all complicitous in this. It only resurrects ghosts. to fixing it in its visible. Photography and cinema contributed in large part to the secularization of history. the mythical energy of an event or of a narrative. to a particular scene of the past or of the present. The cold collage. to the restitution of an absolute simulacrum of the past or the present. It is this fabulous character. and it itself is lost therein. the cool promiscuity. The age of history. that today seems to be increasingly lost.doc 7/20/08
11 File Title
Links – Leadership type Impacts – Saving Private Ryan (2/2)
The relation that is being formed today between the cinema and the real is an inverse.
. this negative and implacable fidelity to the materiality of the past. and to the advent of the archive. History is a strong myth. along with the unconscious.
there is no possible verdict. One has understood nothing. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. 1981. it is there. and he himself makes movies in the same way. the two are joined by their common hemorrhage into technology. but rather. Cinematographic power equal and superior to that of the industrial and military complexes. his film is really the extension of the war through other means. and the remarkable paranoia that from the beginning conceived of this film as a historical. excessive deployment of a power already filming itself as it unfolded. a psychotropic dream that had the goal neither of a victory nor of a policy at stake. of such a holocaust of means. and make him crush the Vietnamese village to the sound of Wagner’s music—those are not critical. irrational in political terms: the Americans and the Vietnamese are already reconciled. 59-60. and the same nonsignifying furor. the war in Vietnam would have been nothing other than what it is. in the mind of the creator. would not fundamentally have existed—and it is necessary for us to believe in this: the war in Vietnam “in itself” perhaps in fact never happened. perhaps waiting for nothing but consecration by a superfilm. distant signs.the explosions. the orgasmic sacrifice of industrial means. it is bewildering. that this film is part of the war—if the Americans (seemingly) lost the other one. a baroque dream of napalm and o the tropics. no critical sense. but that tells you the war in Vietnam and this film are cut from the same cloth. global event. right after the end of the hostilities the Americans offered economic aid.but one can always retrieve a tiny little idea that is not nasty. the sacrificial. In fact. he hits us with that.
Coppola makes his film like the Americans made war—in this sense. their power. the war as a succession of special effects. because the film is a phase of this war without end) what was already crazy about this war. But there it is. the film is not without interest: it retrospectively illuminates (not even retrospectively. the pinnacle of this failed war. Jean Baudrillard. exactly as if they had annihilated the jungle and the towns. of the carpet of bombs in the strip of film…
. And all of a sudden. in which. exactly as they are making their film today. Apocalypse Now is a global victory. p. test the impact of a cinema that has become an immeasurable machinery of special effects. One revisits everything through cinema and one begins again: the Molochian joy of filming. as technological and psychedelic fantasy. the same monstrous candor… and the same success. Simulacra and Simulation. no desire for “raising consciousness” in relation to the war: and in a sense this is the brutal quality of this film—not being rotten with the moral psychology of war. the sacrificial joy of so many millions spent. but that of the film strictly speaking)? But there is no answer. one of good and evil. Coppola does nothing but that: test cinema’s power of intervention. and one can say to oneself: how is such a horror possible (not that of the war.Whitman College 85911615. The war became film. The war abolishes itself in its technological test. it is a dream.doc 7/20/08
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Links – War Scenarios
Like special effects in war cinema. with the same retro megalomania. In this sense. No real distance. The real war is waged by Coppola as it is by Westmoreland: without counting the inspired irony of having forests and Philippine villages napalmed to retrace the hell of South Vietnam. the film becomes war. This exercise in the simulated effects of war is indistinguishable from the means of war and the war itself.. they are immersed in the machinery. that nothing separates them. but one of the reversibility of both destruction and production. the war become film even before being filmed. It reassures us that war is indeed an extension of politics by other means. of the organic metabolism of all the technologies. either about the war nr about cinema (at least the latter) if one has not grasped this lack of distinction that is no longer either an ideological or a moral one. and its apotheosis. with the same clownish effect in overdrive. equal or superior to that of the Pentagon and of governments. and for Americans it was primarily that: a test site. they are part of the special effect. the same excess of means. Coppola can certainly deck out his helicopter captain in a ridiculous hat of the light cavalry. the affirmative impact evidence traces out the mass destruction/mass spectacle of war-. of the immanence of a thing in its very revolution. The war as entrenchment. they certainly won this one. a gigantic territory in which to test their arms. their methods. which completes the mass-spectacle effect of this war. of so many misadventures. that is not a value judgment. and one can even rejoice in this monstrous trick (exactly as with Wagner). it is the best possible testimonial— with the same immoderation. the omnipresence of these reassurances is proof that modern warfare is simply an exercise in special effects.
In this process. Peripeteias of an anorexic history or an anorexic war which can no longer devour the enemy because it is incapable of conceiving the enemy as worthy of being challenged or annihilated — and God knows Saddam Hussein is worthy of neither challenge nor annihilation — and thus devours itself. 1995. It seems that this obsession with the passage to action today governs all our behaviour: obsession with every real. 26-28
We are in neither a logic of war nor a logic of peace but in a logic of deterrence which has wound its way inexorably through forty years of cold war to a denouement in our current events. Since it never began. War has not escaped this virtualisation which is like a surgical operation. It is neither the strong form nor the degree zero of war. The Gulf War Did Not Take Place. By dint of dreaming of pure war. We are no longer in a logic of the passage from virtual to actual but in a hyperrealist logic of the deterrence of the real by the virtual. the military personnel do not know what to make of their real function. deters any passage to action. We should have been suspicious
about the disappearance of the declaration of war. It is the de-intensified state of war. the hostages are once again
revealing. with every real event. Everything is therefore transposed into the virtual. No more than the politicians. a hegemony ultimately much more dangerous than real apocalypse.Whitman College 85911615. their function of death and destruction. They are pledged to the decoy of war as the others are to the decoy of power. into the virtual impossibility of war which translates into the paltry fantasia where adversaries compete in de-escalation. to the catastrophe of the real. Moreover. p. not their real death. thus to a psychotic process. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. Jean Baudrillard. this war is therefore interminable. However. the asymptotic form which allows a brush with war but no encounter. Even the military has lost the privilege of use value. That’s no longer the case in an age of simulation. and its even more deceptive televisual subterfuge (as we saw at Timisoara). the cosmetically treated spectre of its death. no longer sustainable. as though the irruption or the event of war had become obscene and insupportable. unlike the Aristotelian. It is the bellicose equivalent of safe sex: make war like love with a condom! On the Richter scale. with every real violence. then distilled one by one in the exchange. The build-up is unreal. the privilege of real war. Deterrence has passed by that way and it spares no one. that of the right to war under the green light of the UN and with an abundance of precautions and concessions. but the weak or phthisical [sic] degree. everyone is too ashamed of him: the collective shame which attaches to the hostage reflects the absolute degradation of real hostility (war) into virtual hospitality (Saddam Hussein’s “guests”). with every pleasure which is too real. The obsession with the real only strengthens the passage to the virtual. to which belong those in Eastern Europe as well as the Gulf War. then of operations themselves. The
passage to action suffers widespread infamy: it supposedly corresponds to a brutal lifting of repression. The most widespread belief is in a logical progression from virtual to actual. the aim of which is to present a face-lifted war. the disappearance of the symbolic passage to the act.
. according to which no available weapon will not one day be used and such a concentration of force cannot but lead to conflict. Extracted like molecules in an experimental process. the Gulf War would not even reach two or three. Our virtual has definitively overtaken the actual and we must be content with this extreme virtuality which. we have fallen into soft war. like every real event moreover. of an orbital war purged of all local and political peripeteias. There will never be a monument to the unknown hostage. it is their virtual death that is at issue. We prefer the exile of the virtual.doc 7/20/08
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Links – Preventing the “Real” War
The affirmative engages in an obsessive quest to limit the outbreak of real war – this buys into an outdated logic that believes the real emerges from the virtual. this is an Aristotelian logic which is no longer our own. as though the fiction of an earthquake were created by manipulating the measuring instruments. which already presaged the disappearance of the end of hostilities. Against this obsession with the real we have created a gigantic apparatus of simulation which allows us to pass to the act “in vitro” (this is true even of procreation). a logic of weak
events. of which television is the universal mirror. they never die: at best they disappear. then of the distinction between winners and losers (the winner readily becomes the hostage of the loser: the Stockholm syndrome). the transparent degree which allows war to be seen from the depths of the darkroom. and we are confronted with a virtual apocalypse.
Your calls for liberation. of all utopias realized. The logic of viral dispersal in networks is no longer a logic of value. 3-5
If I were asked to characterize the present state of affairs. Rather than a mortal mode of disappearance. or as a result of the epidemic of simulation. and since we can no longer. The fate of the things liberated is an incessant commutation. to the principle of uncertainty. but not in the way we expected.the very availability of all the signs. Now everything has been liberated. Political liberation. because of extenuation or extermination. the rational. by dying. Jean Baudrillard Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. sexual liberation. a fractal mode of dispersal. With the benefit of a little hindsight. freedom and revolution are prime examples of the simulation of values continuing in endless cycles of reiteration. No true revolution of values can ever take place. The Transparency of Evil: Essays on Extreme Phenomena. A centripetal compulsion coexists with a decentredness of all systems. nourish the hope of realizing them. to override their own logic not in the sense of creating sheer redundancy. accelerating. the sexual. by becoming saturated or transparent. wherein paradoxically we must continue to live as though they had not been. Instead. phantasies. The fact is that the revolution has well and truly happened. women’s liberation. The state of utopia realized. Everywhere what has been liberated has been liberated so that it can enter a state of pure circulation. things disappear through proliferation or contamination. Nothing is truly reflected any more whether in a mirror or in the abyssal realm (which is merely the endless reduplication of consciousness). a state in which we are obliged to replay all scenarios precisely because they have all taken place already. as a result of their transfer into the secondary existence of simulation. is it a logic of equivalence. signs. We live amid the interminable reproduction of ideals. all the desires that we had been pursuing. all the forms. The assumption of all models of representation. therefore. children’s liberation.Whitman College 85911615. liberation of the forces of destruction. But since they have. and because what haunts and obsesses us is being thus ahead of all the results . There is no longer any such thing as a revolution of values — merely a circumvention or involution of values. p. so that it can go into orbit. 1993. of criticism as of anti-criticism. as of all models of anti-representation. neither. ideologies and satisfactions. we may say that the unavoidable goal of all liberation is to foster and provision circulatory networks. an internal metastasis or fevered endogenic virulence which creates a tendency for systems to explode beyond their own limits. the moment of liberation in every sphere. liberation of the forces of production. simulate liberation. This was a total orgy —an orgy of the real. The orgy in question was the moment when modernity exploded upon us. because all the goals of liberation are already behind us. a fantastic potentialization whereby their own very existence is put at risk. messages. liberation of unconscious drives. but in the sense of an increase in power. images and dreams which are now behind us. We may pretend to carry on in the same direction. therefore. yet which we must continue to reproduce in a sort of inescapable indifference. then.doc 7/20/08
14 File Title
Links – Rights/Revolution/Hippie Shit
The Revolution –liberation in every sphere – has already happened. Nothing (not even God) now disappears by coming to an end. liberation of art. I would describe it as ‘after the orgy’. We have pursued every avenue in the production and effective overproduction of objects. whether actually or potentially. of development as of the crisis of development. and these things are thus subject to increasing indeterminacy. and we find ourselves faced collectively with the big question: WHAT DO WE DO NOW THE ORGY IS OVER? Now all we can do is simulate the orgy. But what can we do? This is the state of simulation. But that’s all they are – simulation.
. we can only ‘hyper-realize’ them through interminable simulation. but in reality we are accelerating in a void.. the chips are down.
Jean Baudrillard Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. and eventually manifested in the viral explosion of AIDS. Economics becomes transeconomics. because for there to be metaphor. The law that is imposed on us is the law of the confusion of categories. p. sport.and advertising-led semiologization: ‘culture degree Xerox’. Everything is aesthetic. the corpuscular memory of an earlier life. Likewise. nothing is beautiful or ugly any more. 1993. especially since 1968. leaving a trace so small as to be indiscernible. in sex. just like the aff. for everything is affected simultaneously and under the same terms by the virulence in question. too. but elsewhere everywhere else. It is in this diffraction of the sexual reality principle. and sex loses its determinants. Perhaps our melancholy stems from this. Sex is no longer located in sex itself. When everything is aesthetic. metonymy replacing the whole as well as the components. and all kinds of activity in what is conventionally referred to as culture a sort of all-pervasive media. meanwhile. that the essential confusion of the epidemic takes hold. Total metonymy. AIDS is the reflection not so much of an excess of sex or sexual pleasure as of sex’s
— . that are politicized as they enter the sphere of liberation. knowledge everything is interpreted in terms of phantasies.Whitman College 85911615. at the fractal. Each category thus passes through a phase transition during which its essence is diluted in homeopathic doses. after all. then — viral by definition (or lack of definition). sex becomes transsexuality all converge in a transversal and universal process wherein no discourse may have a metaphorical relationship to another. language. science. but instead in business. for metaphor still had its beauty.if everything is political. Likewise everything has become sexual. Everything is political. then nothing can be because there are no longer any referentials designating what the political even is..doc 7/20/08
15 File Title
Links – Micropolitics
There is no political activism anymore. Each category is generalized to the greatest possible extent. When everything is sexual. Perhaps we still have a memory of sex. everything is now aestheticized: politics is aestheticized in the spectacle. the media. in politics. nothing is sexual any more. Pundits analyze every gesture. by the chain reaction we have been discussing. aesthetics becomes transaesthetics. and upon the illusion of difference. micrological and non-human level. Everything has acquired a political meaning. Fundamentally. effort and record-breaking. and it is not just everyday life but also madness. in terms of repression. Sport itself. playing as it did upon difference. so that it eventually loses all specificity and is reabsorbed by all the other categories. Everything is
sexual. the perfect realization of the whole tendency of modernity. affecting all disciplines as they lose their specificity and partake of a process of confusion and contagion — a viral loss of determinacy which is the prime event among all the new events that assail us. with the disappearance of sexual difference and hence of sexuality per se. is no longer located in sport as such.
— — —
. the sphere of mass processes. All these domains are affected by sport’s criteria of ‘excellence’. All at once. When everything is political. and not a memory of forms or singularities (water. The real loss of immunity concerns sex as a whole. substitution is possible between any sphere and any other: there is a total confusion of types. as by its childish notion of self-transcendence. the transsexual. Today. nothing is political any more. Politics is no longer restricted to the political sphere. So what we are left with is the simple imprint of a faceless sexuality infinitely watered down in a broth of politics. even desire. But they cannot exist where contamination is possible between any discipline and any other. anything can be an object of desire: power. the word itself is meaningless. rather as water ‘remembers’ molecules no matter how diluted.. its venting through all the trivial variants of sexual incantation. and every article of clothing until none of it has any meaning anymore. in the general style of performance. by haphazard and senseless proliferation and metastasis. sex in advertising and porn. but infects every sphere economics. and occasioning a general commutability of terms has built its house upon the disillusion of metaphor. by virtue of their extension beyond their own bounds this state of affairs is epitomized by a single figure: the transpolitical..7-10
The possibility of metaphor is disappearing in every sphere. their annihilation by virtue of their very success. Thus every individual category is subject to contamination. and art itself disappears. which is simultaneously the complete actualization of an idea. infinitesimal relative to the total solution.~ — — —
decompensation through its general spread into all areas of life. every facial expression. the transaesthetic. it’s only inane babble. But that is the whole point: this is only a molecular memory. This is an aspect of a general tendency towards transsexuality which extends well beyond sex. art. it was aesthetic. The viral analogy is not an importation from biology. differential fields and distinct objects must exist. This paradoxical state of affairs. and the negation of that idea and that tendency. can hardly retain the features of a face. media and communications. or the colour of someone’s eyes). and sexual stereotypy reigns in every last corner. in fact. like the ‘memory of water’. The Transparency of Evil: Essays on Extreme Phenomena. until it finally disappears.
to a dying system of democratic values. like language. or the prophecy. was nevertheless ritually put to death by Watergate. against power has always been fulfilled. it is no longer a question of the ideology of power. crazy people. which infuriates him. 1981. that we revive it through the negative. even and especially if they are revolutionary. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. In the same way. It is always the goal of the ideological analysis to restore the objective process. Rather than adopting the strategy of the affirmative and decrying the abuses of power. power has no other recourse but to artificially revive and hallucinate them. Ford doesn’t even have this opportunity anymore: a simulacrum of an already dead power. this changes nothing: the leftist penchant for detecting a rightist conspiracy beneath this brings out a false problem—the function of bringing depth to. like theory. denounce. It is no longer a question of the ideology of work.—a simulacral contrast through which power attempts to break the vicious circle of its nonexistence. Jean Baudrillard. from primitive societies to the present.Whitman College 85911615. etc. and liquidated. he is immunized by his impotence.always good for countering the mortal blows of simulation. p. it is the system itself that deploys against its own structures this violence that annuls all substance and all finality. he can only accumulate against himself the signs of reversion through murder. unbalanced person (and thought it is perhaps true that presidents are assassinated by unbalanced types. end of the dialectic.it is not so much the “revolutionary forces” that accelerate this process (often it is quite the opposite). etc. Criticism and negativity alone still secrete a phantom of the reality of power. of savage rituals). The Watergate scandal was in fact the greatest of windfalls for the power of the American presidency. Ideology only corresponds to a corruption of reality through signs.in fact. by demented people. It is in this way that the Spanish executions still serve as a stimulant to Western liberal democracy. a shimmering.that we take it seriously enough to oppose it. it is always a false problem to wish to restore the truth beneath the simulacrum. Simulacra and Simulation. ephemeral vision of “good government”.the traditional ethic that would obscure the “real” process of work and the “objective” process of exploitation—but of the scenario of work.. of its fundamental irresponsibility.
These staged presidential assassinations are revealing because they signal the status of all negativity in the West political opposition. we should instead let power work on us in mute silence. Curiously.it reinjected a fiction of legitimacy. One must not resist this process by trying to confront the system and destroy it. that is they are discourses of truth. exposing it to its own lack of substance and reality.doc 7/20/08
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Links – Leftist Politics
All that power asks of us is that we subject it to ideological analysis. who was not even found worthy of dying at the hands of the most insignificant. Watergate is still a mechanism for the ritual murder of power (the American institution of the presidency is much more thrilling in this regard than the European: it surrounds itself with all the violence and vicissitudes of primitive powers. Nixon has nevertheless arrived at the goal of which all power dreams: to be taken seriously enough. If they become weak for one reason or another.” Power floats like money. but of the scenario of power. to constitute a mortal enough danger to the group to be one day relieved of his duties. but for how much longer? The deterioration of all power is irresistibly pursued-. This is why in the end power is so much in tune with ideological discourses and discourses on ideology. of its “suspension. Fresh blood. who nonetheless carry out a social function as fundamental as that of presidents). 24-25.
. simulation corresponds to a short circuit of reality and to its duplication through signs. or neurotics. the “Left. But already impeachment is no longer assassination: it happens via the Constitution. chance. Nixon. End of revolutionary praxis.” critical discourse. because this system that is dying from being dispossessed of its death expects nothing but that from us: that we give the system back its death.
of all our artificial productions. the stellar course of the mystery. be said to be the instrument of a world which we believe we rule. For us. 1996. has passed into things. Can one advance the hypothesis that beyond the objective and critical phase there is an ironic phase of science. the irony of the world. The illusion of technology makes us believe we’re in control and not the other way around. that though the illusion of the world has been lost. Everything which will be done or said in the media sphere is. it seems. now it is the object which is ‘losing’ us. but labors under the illusion that we can create new and better energy technology. for its part. An objective illusion. Through the most refined procedures we deploy to pin it down. Once we lived in the age of the lost object. it is the masses who definitively modify the exercise of power (or what sees itself as such). therefore. Jean Baudrillard. At the same time as reaching a paroxystic stage.
. but the object which thinks us. by the unbridled virtuality we see outrunning the laws of physics and metaphysics. is it not the object which dupes us and mocks our objective pretensions to analyse it? Scientists themselves are not. which would not be far from radical snobbery. Through the media. The opposite hypothesis is more subtle. We should instead adopt an ironic stance towards technology. It seems that technology has taken into itself all the illusion it has caused us to lose. but because we are no longer in a position to see it: that. The Evil Spirit keeps watch beneath artefacts and. the irresistible impression remains that something eludes us — not because we seem to have lost it (the real?). Even if the two hypotheses are simultaneously valid. It is no longer we who think the object. one might say what Canetti says of animals: that behind each of them there is a hidden someone thumbing his nose at us. a spiritual form. an ironic phase of technology? A proposition which would deliver us from the Heideggerian vision of technology as the final phase of metaphysics. behind which lurks the evil genius of technology which sees to it itself that the mystery of the world is well—guarded. We very much labour under the illusion that the aim of technology is to be an extension of man and his power. whereas in fact the world is using this machinery to impose itself. and that what we have in return for the loss of illusion is the emergence of an objective irony of this world. it is not we who are winning out over the world. carrying it beyond itself. we labour under the subjective illusion of technology. The same hypothesis holds for the object of science. The naive illusion about the media is that the political authorities use them to manipulate or mystify the masses. and by which the mystery (of the continuation of the Nothing) conceals itself beneath the universal banality of information. but the world which is winning out over us. Irony as universal form of disillusionment. that sacred presence has been reduced to a tiny ironic glimmer. from the retrospective nostalgia for being and from all unhappy critique in terms of alienation and disenchantment. from the post-historical snobbery Kojeve spoke of. bringing about our ruin. a nuance of play and distantiation. similar to the one that prevails in the media sphere. Heidegger: ‘When we look into the ambiguous essence of technology.doc 7/20/08
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Links – Alternative Energy – Tech/R&D
The Affirmative opposes fossil fuels. The Perfect Crime. and we are merely the operators. from this point on. The Japanese sense the presence of a divinity in every industrial object. Though this is. then. none the less. things have also reached a parodic one. far from admitting this. All our technologies might. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. 71-73
At the peak of our technological performance. p.Whitman College 85911615. in fact. But today. It seems. It is at the point where the political authorities think they are manipulating them that the masses impose their clandestine strategy of neutralization and destabilization. we behold the constellation. And would put in its place a conception of the gigantic objective irony of this whole process. ironically undecidable. the end of political Reason. is altering its determinations. this is still the end of media Reason. this operating principle is thwarted by its very extension. It is the logic of the system which. in effect. but also as the universal form of the stratagem by which the world hides behind the radical illusion of technology.
Jean Baudrillard. No longer can nay revolt. There is no longer a subject of deterrence. and around it grows the historical. indifferent.
The apotheosis of simulation: the nuclear. any more than floating capital has a real referent of production) that circulates in nuclear orbit suffices to control all the violence and potential conflicts around the world. politics.” threat. The whole originality of the situation lies in the improbability of destruction. Only the signs of power. it circulates and is exchanged between nuclear protagonists exactly as is international capital in the orbital zone of monetary speculation whose fluctuations suffice to control all global exchanges. into a stake without stakes. nor an adversary nor a strategy—it is a planetary structure of the annihilation of stakes. except without a doubt in the very initial stages of the cold war. the balance of terror is never anything but the spectacular slope of a system of deterrence that has insinuated itself from the inside into all the cracks of daily life. The political stake is dead. in forms that are not threatening to the order of things. Pacification does not distinguish between the civil and the military: everywhere where irreversible apparatuses of control are elaborated. The most insignificant of our behaviors is regulated by neutralized. everywhere where the notion of security becomes omnipotent.
. revolutions and political subjectivity is no longer possible. through the sophistication of weapons (a sophistication that surpasses any possible objective to such an extent that it is itself a symptom of nullity). and the unknown is precisely that variable of simulation which makes of the atomic arsenal itself a hyperreal form. 32-35. a simulacrum that dominates everything and reduces all “ground-level” events to being nothing but ephemeral scenarios. It is not the direct threat of atomic destruction that paralyzes our lives. Massive war.not even into a life insurance policy: into a policy that already has no value). only simulacra of conflicts and carefully circumscribed stakes remain. by zero-sum signs like those that regulate the “strategy of games” (but the true equation is elsewhere. and thanks to Damocles’ nuclear sword. And the progressive satellization of the whole planet through this hypermodel of security. Nuclear suspension only serves to seal the trivialized system of deterrence that is at the heart of the media.Whitman College 85911615. every finality. 1981. Atomic war. and violence remain. The same goes for peaceful nuclear power stations. every confrontation contract in proportion to this blackmail that interrupts. What is hatched in the shadow of this mechanism with the pretext of a maximal. of the violence without consequences that reigns throughout the world. for installing a universal security system. neutralizes. However. everywhere where the norm replaces the old arsenal of laws and violence (including war). Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. implosive violence of metastable systems or systems in involution. Deterrence is not a strategy. transforming the life left us into survival. any story be deployed according to its own logic because it risks annihilation. No strategy is possible any longer. “objective. The whole world pretends to believe in the reality of this threat (this is understandable on the part of the military. and political desert. it is deterrence that gives them leukemia. Everything freezes under the lack of possibility engendered by the civilian and military nuclear umbrella. it is the system of deterrence that grows. p. when one still confused the nuclear apparatus with conventional war) but. but it is precisely at this level that there are no strategic stakes. of anything that would be an event in the general system and upset its balance. The risk of nuclear annihilation only serves as a pretext. rather. Simulacra and Simulation. and escalation is only a puerile game given over to the military. will not take place. social. is the perfection of the best system of control that has ever existed. a universal lockup and control system whose deterrent effect is not at all aimed at an atomic clash (which was never in question. of the aleatory apparatus of all the choices that are made for us. And this deterrence comes from the fact that even the real atomic clash is precluded—precluded like the eventuality of the real in a system of signs. like the Trojan War. the gravity of their exercise and the discourse of their “strategy” are at stake). The balance of terror is the terror of balance. Deterrence precludes war—the archaic violence of expanding systems. A gigantic involution that makes every conflict. Thus the money of destruction (without any reference to real destruction. at the much greater probability of any real event. Deterrence itself is the neutral.doc 7/20/08
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Links – Alternative Energy – Nuclear Energy (1/2)
Nuclear energy cements a system of deterrence. freezes them all. equivalent signs.
Because if the law. the spatial and nuclear models do not have their own ends: neither the discovery of the moon. in a state of asepsis and weightlessness—it is this very perfection that is fascinating. The vertigo of a world without flaws.
. and makes every imaginary involute. One no longer fantasizes about the minutiae of a program. Trajectory. Here as well. A universe purged of all threat of meaning. Now. which unites with the model of death. it is the same model of programmatic infallibility. it is the operational immanence of every detail that is law. where nothing can be left to chance. but without fear or drive. rather. Just watching it produces vertigo. the model vectors of a system of planetary control (where even the superpowers of this scenario are not free—the whole world is satellized). The exaltation of the crowds was not a response to the event of landing on the moon or of sending a man into space (this would be. if order. fascinates. rupture. or to develop concurrently as a form of “peaceful coexistence. calculation. implosive. of accident. energy. this is the total universe of the norm—the Law no longer exists. nor military and strategic superiority. but which for the moment is translated by an inverse. doomed to the descriptive transparency of mechanisms of information. is the function of the space program. of maximum security and deterrence that today controls the spread of the social. but which has now entered its accelerated phase. psychology.Whitman College 85911615. Their truth is to be the models of simulation. Fascination with the maximal norm and the mastery of probability: Vertigo of the model. still taps a perverse imaginary. irreversible process: the generalized deterrence of chance. the norm fixes. or complexity in a sociality illuminated by the norm. the fulfillment of an earlier dream). which began centuries ago.” Because what. with its aura of violence. ultimately. we are dumbfounded by the perfection of the programming and the technical manipulation. There lies the true nuclear fallout: the meticulous operation of the social. of transversality. by the immanent wonder of the programmed unfolding of events. toward a limit that one believed would be explosive (revolution). environment—nothing can be left to contingencies. This is why the space program was so easily able to replace it in the 1960s (Kennedy/Khrushchev).doc 7/20/08
19 File Title
Links – Alternative Energy – Nuclear Energy (1/2)
The “space race” played exactly the same role as nuclear escalation. In fact. of finality. physiology. of the launching of satellites if not the institution of a model of universal gravitation. nothing will be left to chance. with its aura of transgression. stupefies. rather. of the conquest of the moon. of contradiction. of satellization of which the lunar module is the perfect embryo? Programmed microcosm. moreover this is the essence of socialization.
Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. noblesse oblige. like Eurydice.” It is not a question of sacrifice (science never sacrifices itself. Preserving the idea of an ideal nature will only expose the preserved object to a slowed down purification and a sterilized death. everywhere. what a triumph for this science that seemed dedicated to their destruction! Of course. like a dimension of life. Clastres are various witnesses. No one can touch them anymore: as in a mine the vein is closed down. it is always murderous). protected to death. The same holds true at Cruesot. men women. then artificially resurrected under the auspices of the real. by dying.gestures. will provide a perfect alibi. it always turns around too soon. instead of being circumscribed as a geometric site. in a world completely cataloged and analyzed. The Indian thus returned to the ghetto. rather than circumscribing itself as an objective science. In order for ethnology to live. who were seeing the indigenous people disintegrate immediately upon contact. like mummies in the open air. But in the same breath ethnology grants us its only and final lesson.doc 7/20/08
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Links – Preservation/Nature/Environment/Ecology (1/3)
Your attempt to preserve nature only models the environment after a simulation of how we believe it once was. as “historical” witnesses of their period entire working-class neighborhoods. tourists.simulacral Indians who at last proclaim the universal truth of ethnology. of the hallucination of truth. out of the reach of colonizers. and by the pitiless reversal that the dead object exerts on it? Like Orpheus. in the metropolises.Whitman College 85911615. In any case. in the White community. This model thus grants itself the luxury to incarnate itself beyond itself in the “brute” reality of these Indians it has entirely reinvented. the object takes its revenge for being “discovered” and with its death defies the science that wants to grasp it. the day when the Philippine government decided to return the few dozen Tasaday who had just been discovered in the depths of the jungle.it is here. languages. sterilized. will today. they have become referential simulacra.Savages who are indebted to ethnology for still being Savages: what a turn of events. the secret that kills it (and which the Savages knew better than it did): the vengeance of the dead. or of antiethnology. We have all become living specimens in the spectral light of ethnology. lost to science. but intact in its “virginity. Doesn’t all science live on this paradoxical slope to which it is doomed by the evanescence of its object in its very apprehensions. of the blackmail of the real. It is against this hell of the paradox that the ethnologists wished to protect themselves by cordoning off the Tasaday with virgin forest. like and omnipresent fourth dimension. The Tasaday.a murder of which the Savages. and ethnologists. Science loses precious capital there. and o the resurrection of differences. where they had lived for eight centuries without any contact with the rest of the species. 1981. science can’t help but die contaminated by the death of this object that is its inverse mirror. under the sign of dead differences. of the murder of every symbolic form and of its hysterical. but of the simulated sacrifice of its object in order to save its reality principle. living metallurgic zones. but that for a long time has extended to all Western societies. but the object will be safe. Simulacra and Simulation. Thus ethnology. to their primitive state. and children included. an entire culture. until it dispenses with it entirely: its autonomy is only rendered even more fantastic. which is nothing but the pure form of triumphal ethnology.it attains its pure form. It is thus very naïve to look for ethnology in the Savages or in some Third World.
Ethnology brushed up against its paradoxical death in 1971. in the glass coffin of the virgin forest. 7-11. its object falls back into Hades. customs fossilized alive as in a snapshot. The confinement of the scientific object is equal to the confinement of the mad and the dead. be applied to all living things and make itself invisible. an eternal guarantee. that of the simulacrum. And just as all of society is irremediably contaminated by this mirror of madness that it has held up to itself. at the level of the “open” museum where one museumified in situ. cryogenized. again becomes the model of simulation of all the possible Indians from before ethnology. all so that we may all believe again that things are as they should be. and science itself has become pure simulation.
. these savages are posthumous: frozen. frozen in their natural element. Indians who have again become what they were. The museum. historical retrospection. and. in a world of simulation. is everywhere now. p. Jean Baudrillard. liberated from its object. It erases the memory of environmental destruction and replaces it with a museum-theme park version of nature. This at the suggestion of the anthropologists themselves. its object must die. the logical evolution of a science is to distance itself increasingly from its object. Castaneda. We are all Tasadays. were the first victims. Here begins an antiethnology that will never end and to which Jaulin.
In the same way. Because mummies don’t rot from worms: they die from being transplanted from a slow order of the symbolic.the mastery over putrefaction that signified the mastery of the complete cycle of exchanged with death. the Savage fiction everywhere. that is to say. The West is seized with panic at the thought of not being able to save what the symbolic order had been able to conserve for forty centuries. Because finally we have never believed in them. diffracted. Thus at the beginning of colonization. demuseumification is nothing but another spiral in artificiality. Thus it would have been enough to exhume Ramses to ensure his extermination by museumification. which is devastated by difference and by death. but it s the objects that invest it with depth. to an order of history. We only know how a place our science in service of repairing the mummy. Why Because Ramses was a great despotic and military figure? Certainly. It is possible that the memory of the original grottoes is itself stamped in the minds of future generations. so that everyone could see them (one glances through a peephole at the authentic cave. after it was left to rot for several dozen years in the depths of a museum. We are fascinated by Ramses as Renaissance Christians were by the American Indians. ours.) nor when science seems to break the mirror of its objectivity (effacing itself before its object. which at least fooled no one. the violence of a civilization without secrets. that is to say restoring a visible order. Witness the cloister of Saint-Michel de Cuxa. or exterminate the Indians to efface the evidence. and museums. In the same way science and technology were recently mobilized to save the mummy of Ramses II. but from now on there is no longer any difference the duplication suffices to render both artificial. Ramses does not signify anything for us. etc. or even simply discovering them. slowed-down mechanism. one contented oneself with converting them. a visible continuum. Only absolute secrecy assured them this millennial power. which would suffice to slowly exterminate them.” And everyone is supposed to applaud this restitution (as they did “the experimental campaign to take back the sidewalks” on the Champs Elysees!). As ethnology collapses in its classical institution. their reimportation to the original site is even more artificial: it is a total simulacrum that links up with “reality” through a complete circumvolution. only the mummy is of an inestimable worth because it is what guarantees that accumulation has meaning. behind this defunct power that it tries to annex. The cloister should have stayed in New York in its simulated environment. our order. which only knows how to condemn what preceded it to decay and death and subsequently to try to revive it with science. hatred of a whole civilization for its own foundation. Our entire linear and accumulative culture collapses if we cannot stockpile the past in plain view. which one will repatriate at great cost from the Cloisters in New York to reinstall it in “its original site. there was a moment of stupor and bewilderment before the very possibility of escaping the universal law of the Gospel. master over putrefaction and death.” The form produced by confinement is followed by an innumerable. To this end they must be exhumed and given military honors. according to an unconscious reversion. which has again become savage in its way. etc. it survives in an antiethnology whose task it is to reinject the difference fiction. if the Cloisters in New York are an artificial mosaic of all cultures (following a logic of the capitalist centralization of value). We require a visible past. To this end the pharaohs must be brought out of their tomb and the mummies out of their silence.
. but out of sight and far from the light of day. and it dreams of it because it exterminated it by exhuming it as its own past. Well. Whence this historic scene of the reception of the mummy at the Orly airport. as in Castaneda. with the pretext of saving the original.) and to bend down before the “differences. those (human?) beings who had never known the word of Christ. which plays at extricating itself from its object to better secure itself in its pure form. And just as with ethnology. They are prey to both science and worms. Irreparable violence toward all secrets. which reassures us about our end. Nothing changes when society breaks the mirror of madness (abolishes the asylums.doc 7/20/08
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Links – Preservation/Nature/Environment/Ecology (2/3)
It is science that masters the objects. of an order that would have had nothing to do with it. one forbade visitors to enter the Lascaux caves. In general. But mostly because our culture dreams. whereas embalming was a mythical effort that strove to immortalize a hidden dimension. gives speech back to the insane. and then one visits the reconstituted whole). science. but an exact replica was constructed five hundred meters from it. a visible myth of origin. to conceal that it is this world. which no longer masters anything. which only gives a dead and circular response to a dead and circular interrogation. if the exportation of the cornices was in effect an arbitrary at.Whitman College 85911615. There were two possible responses: either admit that this Law was not universal.
more cheerful. acting as if nothing had happened and indulging in retrospective hallucination. and better than when they were alive. like the faces in funeral homes. as can be seen in Ishi’s case. like all tribal culture. rests on the limitation of the group and the refusal of any “unlimited” increase. in the light of their model. the imminence of their death.) Everywhere we live in a universe strangely similar to the original. more authentic. One effaces everything and starts over.
. as it did traditionally. In this way. In the same way.doc 7/20/08
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Links – Preservation/Nature/Environment/Ecology (3/3)
Repatriating it is nothing but a supplementary subterfuge. their demographic “promotion is just another step toward symbolic extermination. But this doubling does not signify.things are doubled by their own scenario. This is presented as proof of the superiority of civilization it will produce more Indians that they themselves were able to do. They even flatter themselves for doing better.Whitman College 85911615.they are already purged of their death. for exceeding the original number. (With sinister derision. Americans flatter themselves for having brought the population of Indians back to pre-Conquest levels. this overproduction is again a means of destroying them: for Indian culture.
But. every form of exchange. the reality of antagonistic causes. the USA pulled out of Vietnam but won the war. The nonintervention of China obtained and secured after many years. Simulacra and Simulation. of language. and of the installation of this deterrent authority. p. communitarian. misfortunes are even more numerous. the murderous antagonism of the adversaries—which seems a matter of life and death. so ferocious. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. This war. What meaning did this war have. the ideological seriousness of war. despite this deterrence by the orbital power—the nuclear or molecular code—events continue at ground level. It is even more effective than capitalism in the liquidation of “savage” and archaic precapitalist structures. spectacular death apparatus. Nothing of the sort occurred. behind this simulacrum of fighting to the earth and of ruthless global stakes. Tribal. because it took place at the intersection of a maximum historical and “revolutionary” stake. in its immense. so long. Something else. it would necessarily have completely disrupted its internal balance and the American political system.and war itself. with the equal complicity of the two adversaries. Communist r capitalist. and in this sense. so hard. Total complicity. The war lasted as long as elements irreducible to a healthy politics and discipline of power. The best example can only be that of the war in Vietnam. is total liquidation. subtly. one must save face. was nothing but a crucial episode of peaceful coexistence. Jean Baudrillard. whatever its allegiance. it could be trusted. China’s apprenticeship to a global modus Vivendi. given the global process of the contiguity and simultaneity of data. but whose objective outcome in war. “The North Vietnamese were advised to countenance a scenario for liquidating the American presence in the course of which. It marked the arrival of China to peaceful coexistence. and the dead and former combatants are worth the same as in other wars. of symbolic organization. the two adversaries are fundamentally in solidarity against something else. war exists in order to reassure us of the existence of ideological stakes. When at last the war had passed into the hands of regular troops in the North and escaped that of the resistance. The moralists of war. just like that of the charting of territories and disciplinary sociality. that is the object of murder in war-. nothing was objectively at stake but the verisimilitude of the final montage. This same reduction of forces can be seen on the field. that is what must be abolished. which is played out as such (or else one could never send people to get themselves killed in this kind of thing). is nothing but the medium of this process of the terrorist rationalization of the social—the murder on which sociality will be founded. This objective is always fulfilled. even a Communist one. What no longer exists is the adversity of the adversaries. of course. remained unliquidated. That is why it was deescalated. the holders of high wartime values should not be too discouraged: the war is no less atrocious for being only a simulacrum—the flesh suffers just the same. then.” This scenario: the extremely harsh bombardments of Hanoi. The other aspect of this war and of all wars today: behind the armed violence. And the war ended “spontaneously” when this objective was achieved. never spoken. the shift from a global strategy of revolution to one of shared forces and empires. they no longer have any meaning. or division of labor between two adversaries (who may even consent to enormous sacrifices for it) for the very end of reshaping and domesticating social relations.
Yet. one could let them take over. That theirs is a Communist order is not serious in the end: it had proved itself. vanish from one day to the net as if by magic? Why did this American defeat (the largest reversal in the history of the USA) have no internal repercussions in America? If it had really signified the failure of the planetary strategy of the United States. demobilized so easily. Their untenable character must not conceal the fact that they were nothing but a simulacrum to enable the Vietnamese to seem to countenance a compromise and for Nixon to make the Americans swallow the withdrawal of their troops.doc 7/20/08
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Impacts – War (1/2)
War no longer has an ideological purpose. the transition from a radical alternative to political alternation in a system now essentially regulated (the normalization of Peking-Washington relations): this was what was at stake in the war in Vietnam. the war could stop: it had attained its objective. they are no longer anything but the duplex effect of simulation at the summit. Same scenario in the Algerian war.
. 1981. and wasn’t its unfolding a means of sealing the end of history in the decisive and culminating historic event of our era? Why did this war. at bottom. Rather. The stake is thus that of a political relay. 36-39. As soon as the Vietnamese had proved that they were no longer the carriers of an unpredictable subversion. and to annihilate the presence of anything that would disrupt the global system of deterrence. took place. The game was already won. precapitalist structures.Whitman College 85911615. unnamed.
Everything still unfolds around us. There also. of the lost “difference” of Savages) that all these things arrived too late. “War is peace.
. and we only have a right to the retro. to a second existence as the referential of cruelty). which was still an attempt to create a dramaturgy of life. Simulation is the master. with a history of delay. in a profound indifference to their consequences (but this is because there are none: they exhaust themselves in their spectacular promotion)—all “newsreel” footage thus gives the sinister impression of kitsch. etc. the pacification (or the deterrence) that dominates us today is beyond war and peace. in the most contradictory. and as artifacts of history. The reality of simulation is unbearable—crueler than Artaud’s Theater of Cruelty. that they long ago exhausted their meaning and only live from an artificial effervescence of signs. and that perhaps it never started. war being a process that triumphs well beyond these appearances. toward a reabsorption of all the stakes without a trace of blood. the retro. or one becomes aware (as with the Communists “in power” in Italy. Thus one can completely miss the truth of a war: namely. in the cold light of deterrence (including Artaud. and even all real writing of cruelty has disappeared. All the events are to be read backward. Many other events (the oil crisis. The media and the official news service are only there to maintain the illusion of an actuality. that there was an end to war at the heart of war itself.) never started. of violence in a system that was already taking it away. of the reality of the stakes.doc 7/20/08
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Impacts – War (2/2)
And also the reality of victory or defeat. or recycle one another—a simultaneity of contradictions that is at once the parody and the end of every dialectic. the last gasp of an ideality of the body. ersatz. For us the trick has been played. complete equivalence. All dramaturgy. never existed. the two differential poles implode into each other. that it was finished well before it started. to the phantom. that all these events succeed each other without logic. who has the right like everything else to his revival. of blood. except as artificial occurrences—abstract. In any case. by a moribund ethnology. catastrophes and crises destined to maintain a historical investment under hypnosis.Whitman College 85911615. a spiral of delay. of retro and porno at the same time—doubtless everyone knows this.” said Orwell. it is that at every moment war and peace are equivalent. and no one really accepts it. posthumous rediscovery of the gulags and Soviet dissidents like the almost contemporary discovery. of the objectivity of facts. parodic rehabilitation of all lost referentials.
Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. and it is a response to that. The Mobius strip. the final pleasure as the metamorphosis of the law (which is why it is so widely the order of the day): only capital takes pleasure. a “vicious” curvature of a political space that is henceforth magnetized.doc 7/20/08
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Impacts – Fascism
Political subjectivity circles around. nor the Reichian one of the sexual repression of the masses. even if it is a profound. before thinking that we now take pleasure in capital. sex and work were fiercely opposed terms. if one divides it. everything seems to escape this catastrophe of value. this neutralization and pacification of life. reversibilized from the right to the left. of a “political aesthetic of death” at a time when the processes of the disenchantment of value and of collective values. Fascism is a resistance to this. the mad intensification of collective value (blood. can already be interpreted as the “irrational” excess of mythic and political referentials. of the whole system. Mobian compulsion. race. the mystery of its appearance and of its collective energy. nationality. irrational.
Who will unravel this imbroglio? The Gordian knot can at least be cut. etc.” to desire its own repression and to invest in paranoid and fascist systems? A malign torsion that returns this revolution of desire to the same fundamental ambiguity as the other. the masses may turn to the extreme valorization of race. Yet again. Hell of simulation. including paranoid reactionaries Jean Baudrillard. which is no longer one of torture. when such collusions admirably knot themselves together without the knowledge of their authors? Conjunction of the system and of is extreme alternative like the two sides of a curved mirror. All the referentials combine their discourses in a circular. it would not have tapped into this massive energy if it hadn’t been a resistance to something much worse. of the operationalization of all social and individual life already makes itself strongly felt in the West. which deepened in the West. 1981. which seizes the occasion to regenerate its own flagging humanism and whose indignant protest in turn consolidates Franco’s regime by uniting the Spanish masses against this foreign intervention? Where is the truth of all that. Not so long ago. but of the subtle. a torsion that is like that of the evil spirit of commutation. maleficent. p. the historical revolution.
Fascism is the logical result of hyperreality. results in a supplementary spiral without the reversibility of surfaces being resolved (here the reversible continuity of hypotheses). of the rational secularization and unidimensionalization of all life. 48
Fascism itself. with which no interpretation has been able to come to grips (neither the Marxist one of political manipulation by dominant classes. 18. circularized. 1981. the reinjection of death. p. Fascism’s cruelty. an enigmatic reversal that brings desire “revolutionary in itself. Simulacra and Simulation. demented resistance. its terror is on the level of this other terror that is the confusion of the real and the rational.in a world without value or political referentials. eventually benefitting all ideological positions. Jean Baudrillard. etc. the infinity of capital folded back on its own surface: transfinite? And is it not the same for desire and the libidinal space? Conjunction of desire and the law. nor the Deleuzian one of despotic paranoia). the discourse of desire to that of power.today they exchange their signifiers and their scenarios. Formerly the discourse on history derived its power from violently opposing itself to that of nature.). said Lyotard.Whitman College 85911615.
. elusive twisting o meaning—where even the condemned at Burgos are still a gift from Franco to Western democracy. people. Simulacra and Simulation. today both are dissolved in the same type of demand. and as if involuntarily wanting what it wants. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. Overwhelming versatility of desire in Deleuze.
it is in this sense that they cannot be controlled by an order that can only exert itself on the real and the rational. and take the most trustworthy hostage. 19-23. one of whose functions is precisely to devour any attempt at simulation. will either be punished less severely (because it has no “consequences”) or punished as an offense against the judicial system (for example if one sets in motion a police operation “for nothing”)—but never as simulation since it is precisely as such that no equivalence with the real is possible. because the law is a simulacrum of the second order. but that cannot do anything against this indefinite recurrence of simulation. Indeed. but indefinitely refracted by each other (just like so-called historical events: strikes. if it is established as such. It is necessary to see in this impossibility of isolating the process of simulation the weight of an order that cannot see and conceive of anything but the real. demonstrations. it is as hyperreal events. This is certainly why order always opts for the real. The established order can do nothing against it. Simulacra and Simulation. Verify that your weapons are harmless. How to feign a violation and put it to the test? Simulate a robbery in a large store: how to persuade security that it is a simulated robbery? There is no “objective” difference: the gestures. Transgression and violence are less serious because they only contest the distribution of the real. the right to property.). to reduce very thing to the real—that is. through the force of inertia of the real that surrounds us. In short. You won’t be able to do it: the network of artificial signs will become inextricably mixed up with real elements (a policeman will really fire on sight. How can the simulation of virtue be punished? However. Parody renders submission and transgression equivalent. Jean Baudrillard. the signs are the same as for a real robbery. and that is the most serious crime. beyond equivalences. Because the latter does nothing but disturb the order of things. On the contrary. a referential order that can only reign over the referential.
The impossibility of rediscovering an absolute level of the real is of the same order as the impossibility of staging illusion. or to prove the real. etc. beyond true and false. it always prefers this hypothesis (as in the army one prefers to take the simulator for a real madman). The challenge of simulation is never admitted by power.Whitman College 85911615. airplane hijackings. a determined power that can only reign over a determined world. will before institutions and justice come into play. you will immediately find yourself once again. This is how all the holdups. Organize a fake holdup. etc. Thus. crises. because the real is no longer possible. because if it is practically impossible to isolate the process of simulation. Simulation is infinitely more dangerous because it always leaves open to supposition that. the signs do not lean to one side or another. in the real. because it cannot function anywhere else. beyond rational distinctions upon which the whole of the social and power depend. above and beyond its object. where they function as a group of signs dedicated exclusively to their recurrence as signs. so that no human life will be in danger (or one lapses into the criminal). p. in short. But the difficulty is proportional to the danger. of hypersimulation or offensive simulation that is posed here. anticipated in their presentation and their possible consequences. The violence of the real is reinjected everywhere into a society that cannot accept appearances at face value. whereas the former attacks the reality principle itself. it is now impossible to isolate the process of the real. 1981. a client of the bank will faint and die of a heart attack. Demand a ransom. power itself ends by being
. are now in some sense simulation holdups in that they are already inscribed in the decoding and orchestration rituals of the media. one will actually pay you the phony ransom). the opposite is also true (and this reversibility itself is part of the apparatus of simulation and the impotence of power): namely. without wishing it. and make it so that the operation creates as much commotion as possible. on causes and ends. lacking the real. To the established order they are always of the order of the real. and hence no repression either.in short. remain close to the “truth.doc 7/20/08
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Impacts – Violence
Just because everything is a simulation doesn’t mean that violence doesn’t happen. whereas simulation is of the third order. law and order themselves might be nothing but simulation. Illusion is no longer possible. For example: it would be interesting to see whether the repressive apparatus would not react more violently to a simulated holdup than to a real holdup. When in doubt. It is the whole political problem of parody. it is there that we must aim at order. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. to the established order itself. because it cancels out the difference upon which the law is based. But this becomes more and more difficult. The simulation of an offense. as such it is as serious as the simulation of crime. it is the threat of simulation that inspires violence. But this does not make them harmless. no longer with a specific content or end. and no longer at all to their “real” end.” in order to test the reaction of the apparatus to a perfect simulacrum. against this nebula whose weight no longer obeys the laws of gravitation of the real.
And as soon as it wishes to combat this disastrous spiral by secreting as last glimmer of reality. It retains all the features. The other production. disconnection. of the gravity of the economy and the finalities of production. throughout its history it was capital that first fed on the destructuration of every referential. which increases as it disappears. What every society looks for in continuing to produce. Because in the end. social. That is why today this “material” production is that of the hyperreal itself. it was also the first to liquidate it by exterminating all use value. and dedicated to the effects of power and mass simulation).doc 7/20/08
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dismantled in this space and becoming a simulation of power (disconnected from its ends and its objectives. of every human objective. As long as the historical threat came at it from the real.. deterritorialization. the reality principle. has for a long time had no specific meaning. But it is too late. and among those power is always in the right. plays at crisis. economic. the whole discourse of traditional production. plays at remanufacturing artificial. all real equivalence of the states and the omnipotence of manipulation. it is a question of life and death. and political stakes. but it is not longer anything but its scaled-down refraction (thus hyperrealists fix a real from which all meaning and charm. and if it is the one that fostered reality. the iron law of its power. And in the end the game of power becomes nothing but the critical obsession with power—obsession with its death. its only strategy against this defection is to reinject the real and the referential everywhere. Well. Today when the danger comes at it from simulation (that of being dissolved in the play of signs). “Take your desires for reality!” can be understood as the ultimate slogan of power since in a nonreferential world. disintegrating all the contradictions by dint of producing equivalent signs. For power. on which to establish a last glimmer of power. today it is this same logic that is even more set against capital. power plays at the real. The only weapon of power. it does nothing but multiply the signs and accelerate the play of simulation. that of the belle époque of political economy. etc. Whence the characteristic hysteria of our times: that of the production and reproduction of the real. that of values and commodities. good and evil. Thus everywhere the hyperrealism of simulation is translated by the hallucinatory resemblance of the real to itself. power played at deterrence and simulation. everyone unloads it on everyone else) and the panicked nostalgia over its loss. to persuade us to f the reality of the social. And at the same time. they turn against power the deterrent that it used so well for such a long time.
. in order to establish a radical law of equivalence and exchange. we will logically be under the total hallucination of power—a haunting memory that is already rid of it (no one wants it anymore. To this end it prefers the discourse of crisis. obsession with its survival. Hyperreality and simulation are deterrents of every principle and every objective. all depth and energy of representation have vanished in a hallucinatory resemblance).a whole world adheres to it more or less in terror of the collapse of the political. The melancholy of societies without power this has already stirred up fascism. Power itself has for a long time produced nothing but the signs of its resemblance. is to restore the real that escapes it. abstraction. even the confusion of the reality principle and the principle of desire is less dangerous than contagious hyperreality. that overdose of a strong referential in a society that cannot terminate its mourning. why not? That of desire. Capital was the first to play at deterrence. When it has totally disappeared. that shattered every ideal distinction between true and false. but also. and to overproduce.Whitman College 85911615. another figure of power comes into play: that of a collective demand for signs of power. One remains among principles.
1996. as had the metamorphoses of evil which follow the advances of reason about like a shadow. rather. The project of eliminating the external environment under the logic of calculation embodies this process. violence. The Perfect Crime. By eliminating the work of the negative. becoming estranged from oneself— alienation in the literal sense. of the subject without other. We have become masters – at least virtual masters – of this world. we have unleashed positivity. The best strategy for bringing about someone’s ruin is to eliminate everything which threatens him. no more exteriority. not to mention racial and linguistic differences. to lose all otherness. Even in devitalized substances: in sugar without calories. ‘Verfremdung’ means becoming other. This had escaped us. it is much more serious to be dispossessed of the other than of oneself. a species we attempt at all costs to immortalize and wrest away from death — as we do with all our replacement technologies for the body’s organs — is doomed to disappear. time without memory. but the object of that mastery. there are two apparently synonymous terms with a very significant distinction between them. is the product. The two are conjoined today in the modern form of voluntary servitude: enslavement to data systems and calculation systems – total efficiency. of the same without other — definitive stasis and metastasis of the Same. can be seen in all that has lost its shadow and become transparent to itself. By eliminating the other in all its forms (illness. wars without enemy. By setting off the chain reaction of the positive. An irrevocable destabilization. that of the subject without object. and that is what has become lethal today. strangeness). life without spice. death. or the slaves without masters we have become. no more hostile environments — no environment at all any longer. negativity. masters without slaves. by contrast. Death being the great natural predator. rooting out evil in all its forms. What becomes of a master without a slave? He ends up terrorizing himself. effects without causes. passions without object. we have at the same time — by a perverse. far from being negative. For a virus.Whitman College 85911615. No longer threatened by them. ‘Entfremdung’. means to be dispossessed of the other. the finality of that mastery. by liquidation of the dialectical opposition itself. Jean Baudrillard.
In German. it cannot but destroy itself (by ‘depredation’. we are eliminating ourselves. and it is this strategy we are applying to ourselves. And of a slave without a master? He ends up exploiting himself. of an ultrapositivity of which it is the lethal embodiment. as it were). Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. Being deprived of the other is worse than alienation: a lethal change. but perfectly coherent effect — released an intense viral pathology. thus causing him to lose all his defences. A tragic destiny for individuals and for our — self-programming and selfreferential — systems: no more adversaries. p. salt without sodium. This is like wresting a species away from its natural predators. by eliminating all singularities in order to radiate total positivity. This paradigm of the subject without object.doc 7/20/08
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Impacts – Annihilation of Difference Impact
The quest to obliterate all that differs and replace it with the image of the same leads uncontestably to the destruction of everything. have disappeared. total performance. Now. We have fought negativity and death.
Plumwood 1993). but says it can’t afford to wait until training is shut down before it acts.” including the case at Eagle River Flats and the Navy’s 2002 temporary closure of its Farallon de Medinilla live-fire training range in the Pacific. The DOD argues that even the threat of interference by hazardous waste litigation justifies its aims. Congress has approved legislation requested by the DOD amending the Migratory Bird Protection Act.fcgi?artid=1253681 December 2004
Nearly 1 in 10 Americans live within 10 miles of a DOD Superfund site—a sometimes perilous proximity. The DOD acknowledges that these laws have never been shown to have interfered with specific military training. Military aircraft from DOD facilities also generate noise and air pollution. the DOD points to a number of lawsuits and “close calls. according to the EPA Toxics Release Inventory. Though women are no more essentially connected to nature than any other organic beings. attention to the ecological impacts of war further illustrates the limitations of only thinking of war in terms of events. D. As of this publication.”
. Cuomo 1992. Compensation. both environmental and living Schmidt. As evidence of the need to act now. jet fuel. Our job is to send soldiers. not on other considerations.nih. The base released some 5. the Comprehensive Environmental Response. and Liability Act (CER-CLA). if women's oppression is connected to the unjustified destruction of nature. including aluminum. feminists must be against oppression in any form. In any case. in 1996. and the Clean Air Act (CAA). The Massachusetts Military Reservation. a drinking water source for up to 500. In 1999.doc 7/20/08
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Treating war as an event ignores the environmental effects of this mentality and the continuation of military based ecological destruction Chris J. sailors. Now. You can’t do that if you introduce artificialities into training. . Because military ecological destruction occurs primarily "during peacetime. and perchlorate into the area’s sole aquifer. We want to maintain the ability to use those ranges in the optimum way based on military readiness considerations." and because it is so directly tied to other forms of ecological and social violence. including Vandana Shiva and Maria Mies (1993). “We don’t feel it’s wise to wait for that kind of train wreck to see if we are going to lose in litigation. copper. an environmental lawyer with the DOD General Counsel’s office. or if. Warren 1990. According to the Democratic Committee on Energy and Commerce. a 34-square-mile multi-use training facility in Cape Cod. was California’s leading air polluter. the most recent year for which data are available. and zinc fumes. 1996. the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Charles W “The price of preparing for war” Environmental Health Perspectives http://www. portions of the Endangered Species Act. Many feminists and ecological feminists have discussed these problematic conceptual connections as created or fueled by the dichotomous thinking discussed above (Griffin 1989. For instance. pg.Whitman College 85911615. cultural constructions associate women with nature and help justify the mistreatment of both. Joe Willging. these flights emitted 75 tons of nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds. including the oppression of nature. airmen. says in reference to the Farallon de Medinilla closure.4 million pounds of toxic chemicals that year. RDX. as Karen Warren argues. Hypatia Special Issues: Women and Violence Volume 11 Number 4.
Military training negatively affects the surrounding areas. which generate smog. or material connections between environmental degradation and women's oppression. .pubmedcentral. because I believe these effects to be significant to feminists for two basic reasons. located 55 miles northeast of Reno. Others. is slowly leaching solvents. That closure followed a lawsuit filed by the Center for Biological Diversity alleging that bombing at the range was killing protected migratory birds.C. assistant professor of philosophy and women’s studies at the university of Cincinnati.gov/articlerender. Cuomo. King 1990. online
I turn now to a discussion of the environmental effects of war.000 people at the height of tourist season. focus on the practical. more than 50. for instance. it is arguable that the ecological effects of war and militarism are feminist issues.000 military flights contributed to the heavy air traffic over Washington. and the Marine Mammal Protection Act. the Sierra Army Depot. and Marines into combat environments in the absolute best-prepared way we can. the DOD is seeking changes through the RRPI to certain hazardous waste laws—specifically. .
But this is to ignore the equal.” indeed a “raising of the unconscious” of subjects and of the masses. that is to say. deciding. the strategic ground is to passively absorb appearances. The child resists on all levels. The subject-resistance is today unilaterally valorized and viewed as positive—just as in the political sphere only the practices of freedom. do not see that they are going in the direction of the system. etc. exactly the opposite: childishness. of revolt. because it was ushered in by that phase of the system which prevails. of the group. but they do not respond at all to the other demand.Whitman College 85911615. of emancipation. in short. it is no longer the strategic terrain: the current argument of the system is to maximize speech. To a system whose argument is oppression and repression. and even if w are still confronted with it. like a mirror. Neither strategy has ore objective value than the other. Children are simultaneously required to constitute themselves as autonomous subjects. whose imperative today is precisely the overproduction and regeneration of meaning and of speech. a total claim to subjecthood. voters. idiocy. and without a doubt superior. of liberating ourselves. inert. total dependence. refusing to continue on as living alibis for the violence of the real Jean Baudrillard. without absorbing it. hyperconformism. Simulacra and Simulation. an object’s resistance. the maximum production of meaning. expressing ourselves at whatever cost. All the movements that only play on liberation. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. The liberating practices respond to one of the aspects of the system. and the constitution of a political subject are seen as valuable and subversive. emancipation. To the demand of being an object. to the constant ultimatum we are given to constitute ourselves as pure objects. revolutionaries. of the word based on “consciousness raising. responsible. free and conscious. he opposes all the practices of disobedience. Thus the strategic resistance is that of the refusal of meaning and of the spoken word—or of the hyperconformist simulation of the very mechanisms of the system. passivity. p. When all the revolutions have already taken place. the strategic resistance is the liberating claim of subjecthood But this strategy is more reflective of the earlier phase of the system. speaking. and efficaciously. on the resurrection of a subject of history. participating. which is a form of refusal and of non-reception. 1981. 84-86
With one caution. playing the game—a form of blackmail and ultimatum just as serious as the other.
. emancipation. and to a contradictory demand he responds with a double strategy. of the renunciation of the subject position and of meaning— precisely the practices of the masses—that we bury under the derisory terms of alienation and passivity. that of constituting ourselves as subjects. to reflecting meaning. of voting. This strategy (if one can still speak of strategy) prevails today. impact of all the object practices. To the demand of being a subject he opposes.doc 7/20/08
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Alternative – Strategy of the Object – The Children
The system demands that we constitute ourselves as subjects. even more serious today. We are face to face with this system in a double situation and insoluble double bind— exactly like children faced with the demands of the adult world. just as obstinately. obedient. producing. To choose the wrong strategy is a serious matter. It is the strategy of the masses: it is equivalent to returning to the system its own logic by doubling it. conforming objects. It blackmails us into becoming policymakers. and to constitute themselves as submissive. expression.
therefore. of the fatal. the question Oedipus thought he answered. of the indifference of the world toward our affairs.Whitman College 85911615. to take up the cause of the object. If I look for a fatal connection in language. which is itself the denouement of language immanent to language (that is the fatal: the same sign presiding over a life’s crystallization and its resolution. escalating the bidding on the strategic limits it will tolerate. the conjunction of these two terms is paradoxical: how could there be fatality if there is strategy? That’s just the point: the enigma is that fatality is at the heart of every strategy. What is more. and one only. installing thereby a strategy that doesn’t have its own ends: a “playful” strategy that stills the play of the subject. Likewise with the joke. no objective. It’s the object. 184-85 188-191
if the object is fatal. but against all science. To find another rule. and the effects of desire are largely depleted — what remains but to bring things back to their enigmatic ground zero? Now the enigma is
inverted: once it was the Sphinx that posed men the question of man. as in the Witz. like the real is hyper-real. of its fickleness toward objective laws. yielding to history. Fatality. redoubling and escalating the stakes are spirited forms of denouement. just as everything was caught from the start in an original subversion. leave the field
open to objective irony. Today. We invent all these strategies in the hope of having them result in the unexpected event. That also is a challenge — eventually it threatens absurdity. no final process. There’s something stupid in the current forms of truth and
objectivity that a superior irony could spare us. now that all critical
radicality has become useless. unravel those other strategies. in the irony of the aleatory. Its failure today awakens passions that are much more subtle. of its fatal effects (fatality is only the absolute liberty of effects )? Semiorrhage. the ironic art of disappearance? The subject has always dreamed of this. which just makes it more tragic and more seductive. In language become pure object. Quite the contrary. Today it’s man that poses to the Sphinx — the inhuman — the question of the inhuman. whose fatality would be a strategy —something like the rule of another game. And if the Last Judgement consists. history itself has withdrawn. could not be insensible. a strategy precisely with no object. From seduction we look for surprise. The hypothesis of a fatal strategy must itself be fatal. The discovery of a hidden rule of the game is dazzling. for each of us. What remains but to side with this enigma? Everything can be summed up in this: let’s believe for a single instant the hypothesis that there is a fatal and enigmatic bias in the order of things. Chance is also one. No one knows what a strategy is. There are not enough means in the world for us to be able to dispose of ends. and now that the critical spirit has found its summer home in socialism. It’s true that this is a difficult and obscure route: to side with the object. must be no longer a moral stasis. Fatal Strategies.
At the end of all that. I fall on the joke. and even at the molecular level. to which destiny. there is something stupid about our current situation. if it exists. in
saving and eternalizing a moment of our lives. In any case. is seductive. Everything is headed somewhere. with whom do we share this ironic end?
. in unravelling desire. What’s the use of trying to establish chance as an objective process. and therefore the impossibility of deciphering a word that plays the game of meaning all too well). by which the object is taken in the very game that we wanted to make it play — doubling the ante somehow. Truth only complicates things. and runs the risk of what it describes — but the risk is to be taken. must itself be a special effect. simultaneously — there’s no paradox involved in this. and the one has never been able to erase the other. the object mocks the laws we
attach to it. Basically. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. a fatal strategy in that the subject thereby succumbs to the surpassing of its own objectives. At the heart of banal strategies is the fiery desire of fatal strategies. as everyone knows. Today. hardly answers. Seduction is fatal. We are accomplices in this excess of finality that is there in the object (this can be the excess of
meaning. There’s something stupid in the raw event. nothing of the otherworldly delirium of a subjectivity trapped and escaping headlong into a paroxysmal inventory. subtler than man. And. another axiom: nothing mystical in this. if the object is ingenious. no one is capable of articulating a final process. and leave it to the equations to verify themselves. From strategy we expect control. But the rules of its game. Everything must unfold in a fatal and ingenious way.
From any object we hope for a blind response that hampers our projects. now that all negativity seems resolved in a world that pretends to realize itself. It’s the effect of a sovereign object that recreates in you an
original confusion and seeks to surprise you. at the knotting of the intrigue and its denouement). the conditions according to which it accepts playing? No one knows them. that we all thought we answered. Levi-Strauss claimed that the symbolic order had left us. But it’s certain nevertheless that in disobeying laws. 1990. The difference is that the irony of fatality is greater than the irony of chance. The only way out is the fatal strategy of the object. even less a strategy. irony (of the Witz*) is the objective form of this denouement. God himself is forced to employ a trial-and-error method. must itself be hyper-moral. if it is an ironic one? Of course it exists. The real we invent wholly in the hope of seeing it result in a prodigious artifice. says Canetti. in turn. Everything is expiated in one way or another. And of course fatality exists too. p. It’s what peeks through the heart of more banal strategies. Even predestination is a form of ironic subversion of fatality. The object (the Sphinx). it too must be engaged in the eccentric cycle of its effects. Everywhere. What remains but to pass on the side of the object. and on the side of its eccentric and precious effects. but a moral ecstasy. too. and they can change without notice. a dream inverse to its dream of totalization. Nothing can guarantee us a fatality. what can we do about it? After the art of survival. it answers secretly to some enigma. and compensates us in advance for the cruelest losses. The interesting thing about this is the inexorable logical process that is visible here.doc 7/20/08
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Alternative – Fatal Strategies Alternative
All of today’s critical radicality has ultimately proven useless. If there be
a morality. But simply to delineate this other logic. it would rather figure in our calculations as a sarcastic variable. like the discovery of a hidden rule. The strategy of the object allows everything to unfold to it in a fatal and ingenious way Jean Baudrillard.
truly delirious. which has nothing to do with scientificity. but which would be the discourse of the object. a kind of metaphorical transfer of things. That is not possible. though not in the sense of subjects. and adopt the seemingly paradoxical strategy of the object Jean Baudrillard. or placed in a context where it is made volatile or fragile. it speaks to the imaginary. if it is contrary to a truth principle. Summer 2002. there has to be a subject of the strategy. to be sure! How could an object have a strategy? It would be absurd. the way that the discourse of sense tries to describe non-sense. a process in which there is certainly no more subject. one will always remain between the two. But all the same.
2005 CTHEORY: How is the concept of strategy used? It is implicit that it connotes a form of subjectivity. But it no longer means anything great in my opinion. it is no longer a strategy properly speaking. but it has certainly lost its military reference. but we are nevertheless a vectorial element of the thing. and the intervention of the object itself in the game in a fatal. When I use it in the expression "fatal strategies". It is a type of fatal process. If the strategy has to become logistically chancy. It is truly unreadable. as discourse itself is so grounded in subjectivity in this sense. strategy being originally a military metaphor. Fatal strategy for me is a strategy of the object. There has to be a finality. and perhaps even its reference to a finality. Let us call it strategy. Regardless. it is clear that it no longer has any finality in itself. Why not! It is. at the moment.com/2002_Volume_15/15_3/Article_4. At this point it has to be said that this supposes such relativity in the subject-object relation that it is that which becomes fatal. online: http://www. accessed March 5. I like to apply things that are paradoxical. Well. if not a strategy. the flow of the world itself. we do not have it. the fact of speaking of the strategy of objects is a paradox. one can still use this term in a metaphorical sense perhaps. We witness the loss of subjectivity on the one hand. But I am not the one who is going to say that.montrealserai. But clearly. And the fact that it is no longer the subject that possesses things when. and there is there. It is a nice term. effectively. at the same time. decisive and determinant way. because. all the same. Thus fatal strategy is. it is a secret. someone who has a will. for there to be a strategy. Which means nothing. no more subjectivity. The term strategy represents an opportunity because it is apt. But I like to bring these two terms together all the same to create a clash between them. an expression which describes a process. Thus. fatal. cannot be based on objectivity. there I agree with you. and this is. What we have is the event itself.
. But somewhere there is a logic in the unfolding of things. But. properly speaking. we do not have an objective discourse available in the sense I intend it. There will not be any objectivity there in the scientific sense of the term. and yet it is used in such a way that subjectivity is undermined. even if it is a crazy logic. Illusion. Moreover. at least a rule of the game.doc 7/20/08
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Alternative – Strategy of the Object Alternative
Fatal strategies demand that we abandon the subject as an agent of politics. a reversibility that is in the order of things. I think that there is a rule. We are all inside it. there is only a strategy of the subject.Whitman College 85911615.htm. it is deployed within space. to what extent does it retain today martial connotations which complicate its sense even more? JEAN BAUDRILLARD: Yes. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. I also speak of objective illusion. It has form. a representation of the outcome. It has a form of mastery and.
but in the magic of their effect — there only they appear great and do themselves the luxury of existing. I’m speaking also of people and their inhuman strategies. How could we suppose that people were going to disavow their daily life and look for an alternative to it? On the contrary. Boredom is not the problem — the essential point is the increase of boredom.” Furthermore there is no liberation but this one: in the deepening of negative conditions. 1990. For example. the will to disdain their causes and to lose ourselves in their effects. We think of nature as indifferent. seductive passion. Prodigious form that moralists have always condemned. increase is salvation and ecstasy. Another form of fundamental cynicism: this will to spectacle and illusion. that is to say. because it is made up of all the elements of happiness and distraction. this production which is not at all a representation. and particularly in the effects of their disappearance. even the increase of oppression and abjection that works like the liberating ecstasy of abjection — just as the absolute commodity works like the liberating form of the commodity. seal the monotony of it with an even greater monotony. it haunts nonetheless the process of events. p. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. as it were. Liberating logic is basically understood only by a few. 184-85 gender modified
When I speak of the object and its fatal strategies. This hyper-banality is the equivalent of fatality. I’m not joking: people are not looking for amusement. instead they want to find a fatal distraction. simulating passion. but their prodigious and eccentric form. not in the hold of representation. the only fatal strategy. Jean Baudrillard. to be in ecstasy is absolutely vital.doc 7/20/08
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The strategy of the object is our fatal strategy.Whitman College 85911615. only a fatal logic wins its battle with power precisely because it’s not a battle but a radical passivity. this derision. deep in man’s heart. and it certainly is to the passions and enterprises of [hu]man. plunge into it to the point of ecstasy. This is something of a parable. objective information. There is.
. essentially it is fatal logic that wins out. Fatal Strategies. which is a grand act of self-surpassing. This is the only solution to the problem of “voluntary servitude. but it isn’t perhaps indifferent to the fact of making a spectacle of itself in natural disasters. that means that things are meaningless unless transfigured by this illusion. for here is where things cynically subvert themselves from their beginnings and their ends. if one doesn’t understand this. they’ll make a destiny out of it: intensify it while seeming to do the opposite. then one understands nothing of this collective brutishness. opposed to all will for knowledge and power: tenacious. subversive passion. It could mean the ecstatic deepening of anything. a drive for pure event. the bitter and triumphal foreboding that there’s no escaping this. The important point is the predestination of vacations to boredom. the most secret facts and thoughts. All forms that tend to project a dazzling and miraculous liberty are only revolutionary homilies. Things can only happen in this excessive manner. To occur is necessary. to attain ecstasy in a scene instead of being produced as something really happening. to be commuted into spectacle. All strategies that promise liberation from anything are illusions. in a distant echo of original sin. a human being can find in a vacation a greater boredom than in everyday life — a redoubled boredom. but it’s here only to signify this passion of passions.
object world which surrounds us. although they will try to claim otherwise. It is the power of the object which cuts a swathe through the very artifice we have imposed on it. Jean Baudrillard. in a poetic unreality. Its essence is promotional. henceforth. and the irony of that incorporated double shines out at every moment in every fragment of our signs. all too visible sequencing. The aura of our world is no longer sacred. p. We no longer have the sacred horizon of appearances. This is exemplified by the 1AC – they criticize the given meanings of SUVs and expose them as false.
. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. still believes in identifiable meanings of particular signs. as the Surrealists did: things move to shed an ironic light on themselves all on their own. but it is no longer ours to exercise. Stripped of all illusion by technology. objects.e. There is something of revenge in this: the object becomes a strange attractor. its stereophony and its artificial instantaneity. the object which refracts the subject and imposes upon it its presence and its random form. through the spectrum of the sign and the commodity. perform an artificial and ironic function. by their very existence. No longer any need to confront objects with the absurdity of their functions. This is all part of their visible. The critical function of the subject has given way to the ironic function of the object. a trickster who has absorbed the drollery of the commodity and its mise en scene. At the heart of our universe of signs there is an evil genius of advertising. superconductive of illusion and non-meaning. For it is no longer a function of the subject. A scriptwriter of genius (capital itself?) has dragged the world into a phantasmagoria of which we are all the fascinated victims. its discontinuity its fragmentation.Whitman College 85911615. but the operator of the objective irony of the world. Our strategies are incompatible fundamentally because the affirmative. exorbitated — i. that of the artificial. The Perfect Crime. which can’t be combined with the affirmative. All metaphysics is swept away by this turnabout in which the subject is no longer the master of representation (‘I’ll be your mirror’).” We should abandon all hopes of finding any meaning at all in these systems of signs – only doing that allows the strategy of the object. 73-74
Irony is the only spiritual form in the modern world. which has annihilated all others. taken out of the orbit of the subject — it is then that it becomes a pure object. they discard their meanings effortlessly. it is an objective function. thus positively identifying their meanings as “not the given ones. No longer any need for a critical consciousness to hold up the mirror of its double to the world: our modern world swallowed its double when it lost its shadow. in which the absence and transparency of the subject is reflected.doc 7/20/08
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A2 Perm – Ironic Strategies Can’t Include the Subject
Stances of irony are purely stances of the object. It is. but that of the absolute commodity. which of itself creates a parody effect. of our objects. stripped of all connotation of meaning and value. It alone is the guardian of the mystery. of our models. Once they have passed through the medium or through the image. 1996.
of all enlightenment and depths of meaning. corresponding to an unconscious that is finally ironic. or secret ruse. 98-99
The masses know that they know nothing and they have no desire to know. and they don’t want power. 1990. It might not even be repressed at all. toward the secret finalities of the very masses they despise. No one knows what the true opposite of consciousness is — unless it be this unconscious of repression that psychoanalysis has imposed upon us. That couldn’t be further from the truth. without their realizing it. this tedious business of power and will. a strategy that eludes capture by power. joyous and seductive. But they’re not that at all: the masses are very snobbish. We always had a sad vision of the masses (alienated). since these masses coexist in us with the intelligent and voluntary being who condemns and scorns them. intellectual. non-knowledge. alienated way. heirs to the philosophers of the Enlightenment in their contempt of the masses) are only good basically for this: to administer by delegation. because of an insistance which is thereby bathed in the light of a ridiculous looking halo. It would instead be made up out of what’s left after this joyous expulsion of all encumbering superstructures of being and will. We live all of this. to recall Veblen’s concept. Upon our entire philosophy lies the heavy weight of these sad correlations. But perhaps our true unconscious is in this ironic power of withdrawal.Whitman College 85911615. Our unconscious might not be composed of desires properly sworn to the sad destiny of repression. the object-masses. the status of these “privileged” classes. it would be interesting to conceive of the masses. they act like Brummel and sovereignly delegate the faculty of choice to someone else.doc 7/20/08
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AT: Passivity Bad/Whatever Else the 2AC Says
Their arguments assume we embrace the masses’ passivity in a sad. and then to reward them with the spectacle of it. Jean Baudrillard. ironic challenge. in a paradoxical mode. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. whose will would have been diverted. The assumption of the alienated masses is something made by the affirmative. All mediators (political. as possessing a delusive. silence. in a sort of game of irresponsibility. wills.
. The masses know they are powerless. by proxy. subjectively. of non-desire. sovereign lack of will. Fatal Strategies. allusive strategy. Vicarious*. not us – we affirm the masses’ passivity and lack of choice as a joyous. p. a sad vision of the unconscious (repressed). liberatory gesture. absorption then expulsion of all powers. We reproach them vigorously for these signs of stupidity and passivity. to relieve the masses of this transendence for their greater pleasure. If only for the sake of change. illusive.
. Norris points to the figure of Chomsky as someone who is both a defender of Enlightenment ideals in morality and the philosophy of language. but rather that what took place was not a war. Rather. This is the law of democracy and the New World Order. The almost complete absence of any engagement by Iraqi planes. He writes: “As I understand the concept ‘war’. located for the most part in a political and military third world. does the fact of military conflict constitute a refutation of the hypothesis that there was no Gulf War? It does only if we accept that what did take place out there in the desert beyond the reach of the TV cameras was in fact a war. They are the consequences of a law of uneven development. testify to the one-sided nature of the conflict: “it is as though the Iraqis were electrocuted. The same Americans who had systematically destroyed Iraq’s power grid and transport infrastructure now refused to enforce the law of democracy and the New World Order where this would entail intervening in the internal affairs of a sovereign state. high-technology intelligence and weapons systems. lobotomised. 1720 Does the refusal of the critical strategy which seeks to re-establish the truth of what happened commit Baudrillard to the irrationalist denial that any military engagement took place? Alternatively. In the past. and even if it were. and the extensive use of electronic warfare.. methods and military technology of the two sides was so great that what occurred cannot be considered an adversarial encounter. this
was not the case in the Gulf conflict. like the persistence of sweatshops alongside fully automated production facilities. can this be called a war?” (6 7—8) In his defence of the rationalist outlook which rejects the postmodern reduction of truth to consensus belief.. a model of the liberal and critical intellectual. However. The Iraqi regime was allowed to remain intact. A perfect semblance of victory for the Americans was exchanged for the perfect
semblance of defeat for Iraq. Whereas Iraq was disposed to fight in the manner of its previous war with Iran. Lecturer in Philosophy at the University of Sydney. it is as though it never happened. it is because they are in conflict with third world forces who do not recognise that the rules of the game have changed. a lever of last resort employed only to the extent that is necessary to bring the recalcitrant party into line. and it is this failure of communication which leads to the use of force. or who.
Where they do involve first world powers such as the US or UK. The claim that war itself has become virtual does not mean that military conflicts do not occur:
they do and with increasing frequency and savagery in the New World Order. what took place was not a war in any traditional logic. The imbalance of military means was such that this was not a conflict in which the survival of both sides was in play. But these are secondary phenomena. and a form of slaughter practised by US and UK air and ground forces upon Iraqi soldiers and civilians. was the subordination of Islam to the global order: “Our wars thus have less to do with the confrontation of warriors than with the domestication of the refractory forces on the planet . it involves two sides in combat. and prepared to tolerate the massive casualties which would result from a ground-based war of attrition. In several respects. in the case of the Gulf conflict. Baudrillard argues. All that is singular and irreducible must be reduced and absorbed.. The disparity between US and Iraqi forces with regard to method and military technology was so great that direct engagement rarely took place. war has always involved an antagonistic and destructive confrontation between adversaries. the Gulf War did not take place. The image of a just war fought between the forces of freedom and those of tyranny dissolved in the moral ambiguities of the postconflict period.. and when it did the outcome was entirely predictable. apart from the massive damage and suffering inflicted upon Iraq. running towards the television journalists in order to surrender or immobilised beside their tanks . and the fate of their technologically inferior tanks. and its army permitted to crush the Kurdish and Shiite rebellions. very little changed as a result of the military conflict.(71) In short.”20 He goes on to describe the successive phases of the conflict as involving varieties of state terrorism practised on both sides. the US and its allies sought a rapid conflict based upon airpower. but an entirely asymmetrical operation. p. operate according to different rules. The final irony of the whole episode is that. that it was a hoax like the moon landing or something. The rights of Kuwait may have been restored. a dual relation between warring parties. Yet Chomsky has also questioned whether what took place in the Gulf in 1990-1 was a war.” (86) This is not war. Paul Patton. and the short-Lived political and economic benefits at home. The crucial stake in the Gulf affair. That did not happen in the Gulf. 1995. which means it defies the logic of their criticism. In these cases. and a staunch critic of US foreign policy. They are police operations rather than wars.doc 7/20/08
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A2 “You Deny the Reality of War”
Our argument is not that nothing happened in the Gulf. Baudrillard’s argument in “The Gulf War did not take place” is not that nothing took place. deterrence breaks down for lack of any common ground. the use of force remains carefully circumscribed. like Saddam Hussein. but in exchange for the rights of minorities in Iraq. Other commentators have argued that the disparity between the aims. From a political point of view. an exercise in domination rather than an act of war. say.Whitman College 85911615. The Gulf War Did Not Take Place. it was no longer clear what had been gained by the sacrifice of so many lives. shooting at each other.
Antiwar resistance is then mobilized when the "real" violence finally occurs.
. state-sponsored violence is happening nearly all over. Neglecting the omnipresence of militarism allows the false belief that the absence of declared armed conflicts is peace. or when the stability of privilege is directly threatened. Hypatia Special Issues: Women and Violence Volume 11 Number 4. It is particularly easy for those whose lives are shaped by the safety of privilege. Seeing war as necessarily embedded in constant military presence draws attention to the fact that horrific. all of the time. and who do not regularly encounter the realities of militarism. the polar opposite of war. and at that point it is difficult not to respond in ways that make resisters drop all other political priorities. Cuomo. crisis-based ethics and politics are problematic because they distract attention from the need for sustained resistance to the enmeshed. creates forms of resistance to militarism that are merely exercises in crisis control.Whitman College 85911615. For any feminism that aims to resist oppression and create alternative social and political options.doc 7/20/08
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A2 “You Deny the Reality of War”
Treating war as an event disables challenges to state sponsored violence and militarism Chris J. The belief that militarism is an ethical. 1996. to maintain this false belief. and that it is perpetrated by military institutions and other militaristic agents of the state. omnipresent systems of domination and oppression that so often function as givens in most people's lives. Crisis-driven attention to declarations of war might actually keep resisters complacent about and complicitous in the general presence of global militarism. online
Ethical approaches that do not attend to the ways in which warfare and military practices are woven into the very fabric of life in twenty-first century technological states lead to crisis-based politics and analyses. assistant professor of philosophy and women’s studies at the university of Cincinnati. pg. political concern only regarding armed conflict.
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Particularized demands for change." as Lenin himself would have put it. the answer is immediately: "Benevolent as it is. really changing. "Fidelity to the democratic consensus" means the acceptance of the present liberal-parlamentary consensus.the new opacity. All the frenetic humanitarian.or it means nothing.on condition that what you do does not effectively question or disturb the predominant political consensus. So everything is allowed.. antifeminism. Slavoj Zizek. in art. 2004 What are we to say to this? Again. etc. professor of philosophy at the university of Ljubljana. feminist and anti-racist campaigns. Today's liberal-democratic hegemony is sustained by a kind of unwritten Denkverbot similar to the infamous Berufsverbot in Germany of the late 60s . More then ever. the actual freedom of thought means the freedom to question the predominant liberal-democratic "postideological" consensus . which precludes any serious questioning of how this liberal-democratic order is complicit in the phenomena it officially condemns. solicited even. sexism. things will remain the same!"
. the prohibition to think. the example of the art fully integrated into the establishment. it means: say and write whatever you want . between the rich and the poor.. one should be especially careful not to confuse the ruling ideology with ideology which SEEMS to dominate. In these circumstances.they are tolerated and supported as long as they do not get too close to a certain limit. Habermas designated the present era as that of the neue Undurchsichtlichkeit .. even if they seemingly enter the economic territory (say. One is therefore tempted to turn around Marx's thesis 11: the first task today is precisely NOT to succumb to the temptation to act. but free promiscuity. this act will not be performed in an empty space . today. the reduction of freedom is presented to us as the arrival of new freedoms. any serious attempt to imagine a society whose socio-political order would be different. to directly intervene and change things (which then inevitably ends in a cul de sac of debilitating impossibility: "what can one do against the global capital?"). the shattering impact of the digitalization of our daily lives. violations of human rights. This kind of activity provides the perfect example of interpassivity2: of doing things not to achieve something. This is the point on which one cannot and should not concede: today. If. but even supported by the media. gulag and the more recent Third World catastrophes is thus to serve as the support of this Denkverbot by constantly reminding us how things may have been much worse: "Just look around and see for yourself what will happen if we follow your radical notions!" And it is exactly the same thing that the demand for "scientific objectivity" means: the moment one seriously questions the existing liberal consensus. as a critical topic: the prospects of a global ecological catastrophe. the problem resides in the implicit qualifications which can be easily discerned by the "concrete analysis of the concrete situation. accessed January 28. state or corporate funds for a multidisciplinary research into how to fight the new forms of ethnic.htm. politically correct. one is accused of abandoning scientific objectivity for the outdated ideological positions. there is nothing easier today than to get international. but also in our megalopolises. one follows a direct call to act. Greenpeace.one should also ask how it effectively functions IN these very struggles. the growing violence not only in the far-away countries.”
http://lacan. denouncing and boycotting companies which do not respect ecological conditions or which use child labor) .it will be an act WITHIN the hegemonic ideological coordinates: those who "really want to do something to help people" get involved in (undoubtedly honorable) exploits like Medecins sans frontiere.com/replenin. homophobia. The problem is that all this occurs against the background of a fundamental Denkverbot. provocations in the style of the notorious "Sensation" exhibitions ARE the norm. but to PREVENT from something really happening.the moment one shows a minimal sign of engaging in political projects that aim to seriously challenge the existing order. the effectively hegemonic attitude is not patriarchal repression. the gap between the First and the Third World. globally. of course. In short.1 More than ever.Whitman College 85911615. religious or sexist violence. and. “Repeating Lenin. one should bear in mind Walter Benjamin's reminder that it is not enough to ask how a certain theory (or art) declares itself to stay with regard to social struggles . In sex. our daily experience is mystifying: modernization generates new obscurantisms. activity fits the formula of "Let's go on changing something all the time so that. are performed against the backdrop of the neoliberal-democratic order and are tolerated as long as they fail to fundamentally change hegemonic ideology. no matter how radical. which are all not only tolerated. 2001. but to question the hegemonic ideological coordinates. this will necessarily end in a new Gulag!" The ideological function of the constant reference to the holocaust.
the metaphysical beauty of this ruined abstraction testifying to a pride equal to the Empire and rotting like a carcass. that constituted the charm of abstraction. nor duplication. and interest groups. now we live in a hyper-pluralist stasis.precession of simulacra. in that tit lends itself to all systems of equivalences. remains. even inverted. Simulation is no longer that of a territory. It is no longer anything but operational. or the concept. It is the real. It no longer needs to be rational. It is no longer a question of imitation. By crossing into a space whose curvature is no longer that of the real. and its fall into ruins. to all binary oppositions. This imaginary of representation. But it is no longer a question of either maps o territories. it is no longer really the real. though some shreds are still discernible in the deserts.such is the vital function of the model in a system of death.
. on massive servers. all of the real. or rather of anticipated resurrection.that engenders the territory. 1-3
If once we were able to view the Borges fable in which the cartographers of the Empire draw up a map so detailed that it ends up covering the territory exactly(the decline of the Empire witnesses the fraying of this map.Whitman College 85911615. between one and the other. or a substance.as the most beautiful allegory of simulation.doc 7/20/08
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Reform doesn’t exist anymore. It is all of metaphysics that is lost. nor even parody. to all combinatory algebra. The desert of the real itself. In fact. but ours. Jean Baudrillard. No more imaginary coextensivity: it is genetic miniaturization that is the dimension of simulation. nor does it survive it. the era of simulation is inaugurated by a liquidation of all referentials. It is a hyperreal. that is to say of an operation of deterring every real process via its operational double. of the real and its concept. Never again will the real have the chance to produce itself. the magic of the concept and the charm of the real. no longer at all spectacular or discursive. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School.worse: with their artificial resurrection in the systems of signs. It is produced from cable television pundits. p. perhaps. produced from the radiating synthesis of combinatory models in a hyperspace without atmosphere. metastable. which simultaneously culminates in and is engulfed by the cartographer’s mad project of the ideal coextensivity of map and territory. models of control. leaving room only for the orbital recurrence of models and for the simulated generation of differences. this fable has now come full circle for us. and possesses nothing but the discrete charm of second-order simulacra. All the revolutions and reforms have already happenedthen the neo-conservatives pushed back. a programmatic. because no imaginary envelops it anymore. It is the generation by models of a real without origin or reality: a hyperreal. Something has disappeared: the sovereign difference. lobbyists. little by little. the double. a referential being. a bit as the double ends by being confused with the real through aging). and from any distinction between the real and the imaginary. Because it is difference that constitutes the poetry of the map and the charm of the territory. Today abstraction is no longer that of the map. today it is the territory whose shreds slowly rot across the extent of the map. perfectly descriptive machine that offers all the signs of the real and short-circuits all its vicissitudes. A hyperreal henceforth sheltered from the imaginary. that no longer even gives the event of death a chance. Because it is with this same imperialism that present-day simulators attempt to make the real. The territory no longer precedes the map. coincide with their models of simulation. It is nevertheless the map that precedes the territory.and it can be reproduced an indefinite number of times from these. and if one must return to the fable. because it not longer measures itself against either an ideal or negative instance. a material more malleable that meaning. nor that of truth. Simulacra and Simulation. 1981. No more mirror of being and appearances. from countless PACs. whose vestiges persist here and there in the deserts that are no longer those of the Empire. Only the allegory of the Empire. The real is produced from miniaturized cells. It is a question of substituting the signs of the real for the real. and not the map. demographics. and memory banks. the mirror. Political reality is now purely operational. In fact. Borge’s fable is unusable. disappears in the simulation whose operation is nuclear and genetic. matrices. returning to the substance of the soil.
besides it forged its path in the narratives of spatial exploration. the conquest of space constitutes an irreversible crossing toward the loss of the terrestrial referential. p. The process will. When a system reaches its own limits and becomes saturated. models. not only of merchandise.Whitman College 85911615. something must change: the projection. the extrapolation. mapped. something like the principle of reality disappears. Dick. We can no longer imagine any other universe: the grace of transcendence was taken away from us in that respect too. raised to a spatial power (one could say) with the most recent lunar module. the ideologies of the past. of their original process. Until now we have always had a reserve of the imaginary—now the coefficient of reality is proportional to the reserve of the imaginary that gives it its specific weight. but reconstituted. of lived experience. once the limits of this universe recede into infinity. the people. but of values. but a desperate rehallucination of the past. But the two are narrowly linked. counterparts to the more terrestrial forms of exploration and colonization of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. the perimeters of a prior world. down to the smallest details.doc 7/20/08
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A2 Sign production/Culture Crash Link Turn
Just because you accelerate the process of sign creation doesn’t mean that you collapse signification itself. cosmic) of science fiction has ceased to function. 123-124
Perhaps science fiction from the cybernetic and hyperreal era can only exhaust itself. and they are two versions of the same general process of implosion that follows the gigantic process of explosion and expansion characteristic of past centuries. The proliferation of signs leads to the hallucination and revisiting of impacts in their hyperrealized forms. signs. in its artificial resurrection of “historical” worlds. brought to light with a transparent precision. be the opposite: it will be to put decentered situations. The conquest of space that follows that of the planet is equal to derealizing (dematerializing) human space. sometimes down to disquietingly strange details. precisely because it has disappeared from our life. models of simulation in place and to contrive to give them the feeling of the real. Thus in Simulacra by Philip K. saturated. There is no relationship of cause and effect there: it is not because terrestrial space today is virtually coded. the war of Secession. In this way. hypostatized in space. of lived experience. reconstituted as an animal or vegetal reserve. rather. a reversal is produced— something else takes place. registered. This is also true of geographic and spatial exploration: when there is no longer any virgin territory. It is no longer possible to fabricate the unreal from the real. the sort of pantographic excess that constituted the charm of science fiction are all impossible.
. of the banal. mental. Simulacra and Simulation. hyperrealized. 1981. Hallucination of the real. From then onward. emptied of meaning. and thus one available to the imaginary. but without substance. the end of the phantasm. derealized in advance. of the quotidian. can only try to reconstruct invitro. but hallucinatory with retrospective truth. in the imaginary as well. the end of science fiction—the era of hyperreality begins. has thus in a sense closed up again in universalizing itself—a universal market. in which fiction will never again be a mirror held toward the future. Classical science fiction was that of an expanding universe. The everydayness of the terrestrial habitat itself elevated to the rank of cosmic value. Witness this two bedroom/kitchen/shower put into orbit. the events.the satellization of the real in the transcendence of space—it is the end of metaphysics. There is a hemorrhaging of reality as in internal coherence of a limited universe. Gigantic hologram in three dimensions. Jean Baudrillard. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. the imaginary from the givens of the real. or to transferring it into a hyperreal of simulation. when the map covers the whole territory. leaving no room for the imaginary—it is not exactly because of this that the exploratory universe (technical. to reinvent the real as fiction.
Entry into the atomic club. Lockdown and control increase in direct proportion to (and undoubtedly even faster than) liberating potentialities. of their own deterrence.  The nuclear is at once the culminating point of available energy and the maximization of energy control systems. 1981. what power. it absorbs all living energy. what subject would exist behind this enclosure. Responsibility. Control by the threat will be replaced by the more effective strategy of pacification through the bomb and through the possession of the bomb. so many neutron bombs knocking out all historic virulence. nonexplosive—except for the possibility of an explosion toward the center. It is still the absolute paradox of the nuclear. that is to say in the sense of a reversion of the whole cycle toward a minimal point. unusable. it freezes everything around it. “real” use of it (as the Americans did in Hiroshima—but precisely only they had the right to this “use value” of the bomb. very quickly effaces (as unionization does in the working world) any inclination toward violent intervention. The “little” powers. weapons. Therein lies the whole process of deterrence. Energies freeze in their own fire. all of those who have acquired it since will be deterred from using by the very fact of possessing it). of a reversion of energies toward a minimal threshold). Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. p. The same goes for the atomic reactors that we have already sent them. now neutralized. they deter themselves. Thus the very possibility of paralyzing a whole country by flicking a switch makes it so that the electrical engineers will never use this weapon: the whole myth of the total and revolutionary strike crumbles at the very moment when the means are available—but alas precisely because those means are available. In this sense. will buy the virus of deterrence. all risk of explosion. self-deterrence always grow more rapidly than the forces or the weapons at our disposal: this is the secret of the social order. so prettily named. unintelligible.Whitman College 85911615. control. This was already the aporia of the modern revolution. One can no longer imagine what project.doc 7/20/08
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A2 “The Case Impacts Still Happen”
Deterrence makes your massive impacts impossible Jean Baudrillard. 39-40
This is why nuclear proliferation does not increase the risk of either an atomic clash or an accident— save in the interval when the “young” powers could be tempted to make a nondeterrant. believing that they are buying their independent striking force. Simulacra and Simulation. and bombs to ever latitude.
. this vast saturation of a system by its own forces. censure. of an implosion where all these energies would be abolished in a catastrophic process (in the literal sense. It is thus perfectly probable that one day we will see nuclear powers export atomic reactors. the nuclear everywhere inaugurates an accelerated process of implosion. what strategy.