Whitman College 85911615.

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Baudrillard K Neg
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Baudrillard K Neg..........................................................................................................................1
1NC (1/1)....................................................................................................................................................................4

1NC (1/1).........................................................................................................................................4
Links – Policy Debate – Disneyland (1/2)..................................................................................................................5

Links – Policy Debate – Disneyland (1/2)....................................................................................5
Links – Policy Debate – Disneyland (2/2)..................................................................................................................6

Links – Policy Debate – Disneyland (2/2)....................................................................................6
Links – Policy Debate – Hyperreal Communication (1/2)..........................................................................................7

Links – Policy Debate – Hyperreal Communication (1/2).........................................................7
Links – Policy Debate – Hyperreal Communication (2/2)..........................................................................................8

Links – Policy Debate – Hyperreal Communication (2/2).........................................................8
Links – Leadership type Impacts – Saving Private Ryan (1/2).................................................................................10

Links – Leadership type Impacts – Saving Private Ryan (1/2)...............................................10
Links – Leadership type Impacts – Saving Private Ryan (2/2).................................................................................11

Links – Leadership type Impacts – Saving Private Ryan (2/2)...............................................11
Links – War Scenarios..............................................................................................................................................12

Links – War Scenarios.................................................................................................................12
Links – Preventing the “Real” War...........................................................................................................................13

Links – Preventing the “Real” War...........................................................................................13
Links – Rights/Revolution/Hippie Shit.....................................................................................................................14

Links – Rights/Revolution/Hippie Shit......................................................................................14
Links – Micropolitics................................................................................................................................................15

Links – Micropolitics...................................................................................................................15
Links – Leftist Politics..............................................................................................................................................16

Links – Leftist Politics.................................................................................................................16
Links – Alternative Energy – Tech/R&D.................................................................................................................17

Links – Alternative Energy – Tech/R&D..................................................................................17
Links – Alternative Energy – Nuclear Energy (1/2).................................................................................................18

Links – Alternative Energy – Nuclear Energy (1/2).................................................................18
Links – Alternative Energy – Nuclear Energy (1/2).................................................................................................19

Links – Alternative Energy – Nuclear Energy (1/2).................................................................19
Links – Preservation/Nature/Environment/Ecology (1/3)........................................................................................20

Links – Preservation/Nature/Environment/Ecology (1/3)........................................................20

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Links – Preservation/Nature/Environment/Ecology (2/3)........................................................................................21

Links – Preservation/Nature/Environment/Ecology (2/3)........................................................21
Links – Preservation/Nature/Environment/Ecology (3/3)........................................................................................22

Links – Preservation/Nature/Environment/Ecology (3/3)........................................................22
Impacts – War (1/2)..................................................................................................................................................23

Impacts – War (1/2).....................................................................................................................23
Impacts – War (2/2)..................................................................................................................................................24

Impacts – War (2/2).....................................................................................................................24
Impacts – Fascism.....................................................................................................................................................25

Impacts – Fascism........................................................................................................................25
Impacts – Violence....................................................................................................................................................26

Impacts – Violence.......................................................................................................................26
Impacts – Annihilation of Difference Impact...........................................................................................................28

Impacts – Annihilation of Difference Impact............................................................................28
Impacts – Cuomo – Ecological Destruction..............................................................................................................29

Impacts – Cuomo – Ecological Destruction...............................................................................29
Alternative – Strategy of the Object – The Children................................................................................................30

Alternative – Strategy of the Object – The Children................................................................30
Alternative – Fatal Strategies Alternative.................................................................................................................31

Alternative – Fatal Strategies Alternative.................................................................................31
Alternative – Strategy of the Object Alternative.......................................................................................................32

Alternative – Strategy of the Object Alternative......................................................................32
A2 Perm....................................................................................................................................................................33

A2 Perm........................................................................................................................................33
A2 Perm – Ironic Strategies Can’t Include the Subject............................................................................................34

A2 Perm – Ironic Strategies Can’t Include the Subject...........................................................34
AT: Passivity Bad/Whatever Else the 2AC Says......................................................................................................35

AT: Passivity Bad/Whatever Else the 2AC Says.......................................................................35
A2 “You Deny the Reality of War”..........................................................................................................................36

A2 “You Deny the Reality of War”............................................................................................36
A2 “You Deny the Reality of War”..........................................................................................................................37

A2 “You Deny the Reality of War”............................................................................................37
A2 Reformism...........................................................................................................................................................38

A2 Reformism...............................................................................................................................38
A2 Reformism...........................................................................................................................................................39

A2 Reformism...............................................................................................................................39

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A2 Sign production/Culture Crash Link Turn..........................................................................................................40

A2 Sign production/Culture Crash Link Turn.........................................................................40
A2 “The Case Impacts Still Happen”.......................................................................................................................41

A2 “The Case Impacts Still Happen”.........................................................................................41

Whitman College 85911615.doc 7/20/08

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1NC (1/1)
While ecology and limitations on consumption are laudable goals insofar as they solve problems like the exhaustion of resources, this responsible stewardship is inherently bound up with an unpredictable and uncontrollable underside – the development of renewables is a liberation of the forces of energy that amounts to a limitless proliferation culminating in the devouring of the very agents of that energy. Technologized energy is a Pandora’s box that we can have no fantasies of control over – it exceeds and defies attempts at containment. Jean Baudrillard, Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School, 1993, The Transparency of Evil, p. 103-05
The dangers threatening the human species are thus less risks of default (exhaustion of natural resources, dilapidation of the environment, etc.) than risks of excess: runaway energy flows, chain reactions, or frenzied autonomous developments. This distinction is a vital one, for while risks of default can be addressed by a New Political Ecology, the basic assumptions of which are by now generally accepted (indeed, they are already written into the International Rights of the Species), there is absolutely nothing to counter this other immanent logic, this speeding-up of everything, which plays double or nothing with nature. In the first case, the restoration of equilibrium to our ecological niche is still possible, the energies in play could still be rebalanced; in the second case, however, we are confronted by a development that is irretrievably out of balance. In the first case ethical principles may be brought to bear: a teleology that transcends the material process involved — even if merely the goal of survival — may come into play; in the second case, however, a process whose only goal is limitless proliferation will inevitably absorb all transcendence and devour all agents thereof. A full-blown and planet-wide schizophrenia, therefore, now rules: even as all sorts of ecological measures are being taken, even as a strategy for the proper use of the world, for an ideal interaction with the world, is being deployed, there is a simultaneous proliferation of enterprises of destruction, a total unleashing of the performance principle. And the very same forces often contribute to both trends. Furthermore, though the end-point of the first tendency seems fairly clear — to wit, the saving of our species by means of ecological conviviality — we know absolutely nothing about the secret destination of the second. But surely this acceleration, this excentric motion, must
have an end, must imply a destiny for the human species, a different symbolic relationship with the world that is much more complex and ambiguous than a relationship of balance and interaction? This too would be a vital destination — but it would involve a total risk. If such a destination has indeed been chosen for us, it is obvious that ecology’s rational deities will be powerless against the throwing of technology and energy into the struggle for an unpredictable goal, in a sort of Great Game whose rules are unknown to us. Even now we have no protection against the perverse effects of security, control and crime-prevention measures. We already know to what dangerous extremities we are led by prophylaxis in every sphere: social, medical, economic or political. In the name of the highest possible degree of security, an endemic terror may well be instituted that is in every way as dangerous as the epidemic threat of catastrophe. One thing is certain: in view of the complexity of the initial conditions and the potential reversibility of all the effects, we should entertain no illusions about the effectiveness of any kind of rational intervention. In the face of a process which so far surpasses the ‘individual or collective will of the players, we have no choice but to accept that any distinction between good and evil (and by extension here any possibility of assessing the ‘right level’ of technological development) can have the slightest validity only within the tiny marginal sphere contributed by our rational model. Inside these bounds, ethical reflection and practical determinations are feasible; beyond them, at the level of the overall process

which we have ourselves set in motion, but which from now on marches on independently of us with the ineluctability of a natural catastrophe, there reigns — for better or worse — the inseparability of good and evil, and hence the impossibility of mobilizing the one without the other. This is, properly speaking, the theorem of the accursed share. There is no point whatsoever in wondering whether things ought to be thus: they simply are thus, and to fail to acknowledge it is to fall utterly prey to illusion. None of this invalidates whatever may be possible in
the ethical, ecological or economic sphere of our life — but it does totally relativize the impact of such efforts upon the symbolic level, which is the level of destiny.

<<Insert More Links Here, choose wisely based off of whether it is a more critical or a more policy oriented affirmative>>

All its values are exalted by the miniature and the comic strip. This imaginary world is supposed to ensure the success of the operation. Disneyland is presented as imaginary in order to make us believe that the rest is real. 12-14 Disneyland is a perfect model of all the entangled orders of simulacra. who awaits his resurrection through an increase of 180 degrees centigrade. jeux d’espace [Utopias. however. whereas all of Los Angeles and the America that surrounds it are no longer real. rather: inside. Embalmed and pacified. Whence the possibility of an ideological analysis of Disneyland (L. international politics is just as much of a game as debate. all of “real” America that is Disneyland (a bit like prisons are there to hide that it is the social in its entirety. idealized transposition of a contradictory reality. This world wants to be childish in order to make us believe that the adults are elsewhere. play of space]): digest of the American way of life. It is no longer a question of a false representation of reality (ideology) but of concealing the fact that the real is no longer real. 1981. but this makes something else and this “ideological” blanket functions as a cover for a simulation of the third order: Disneyland exists in order to hide that it is the “real” country.is total. As much as electrical and atomic power stations. Enchanted Village. The imaginary of Disneyland is neither true nor false. one is altogether abandoned at the exit. Marin did it very well in Utopiques. in the “real” world. Marine World: Los Angeles is surrounded by these imaginary stations that feed reality. Disneyland is not the only one. etc. in its banal omnipresence. Whence the debility of this imaginary. The violence of the real world is sustained by policy simulation. p. One parks outside and stand in line inside. the religious. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. It is first of all a play of illusions and phantasms: the Pirates. that is carceral). unreal circulation. and to conceal the fact that true childishness is everywhere. The only phantasmagoria in this imaginary world lies in the tenderness and warmth of the crowd. In fact. its infantile degeneration. childlike world is found to have been conceived and realize by a man who is himself now cryogenized: Walt Disney. down to the morphology of individuals and of the crowd. Debate. without dimension. miniaturized pleasure of real America.a veritable concentration camp. Magic Mountain. and thus of saving the reality principle. is a fiction factory whose function is to reify the world outside. panegyric of American values. But what attracts the crowds the most is without a doubt the social microcosm. this frozen. it is a deterrence machine set up in order to rejuvenate the fiction of the real in the opposite camp. but belong to the hyperreal order and to the order of simulation. like Disneyland. the Future World. . Or.Whitman College 85911615. this city.doc 7/20/08 5 File Title Links – Policy Debate – Disneyland (1/2) Policy debate is about imagining the world of the plan. and in the sufficient and excessive number of gadgets necessary to create the multitudinous effect.that it is that of the adults themselves who come here to act the child in order to foster illusion as to their real childishness.a city of incredible proportions but without space. By an extraordinary coincidence (but this derives without a doubt from the enchantment inherent to this universe. solitude is directed at a single gadget: the automobile. is drawn. Certainly. needs this old imaginary like a sympathetic nervous system made up of childhood signals and faked phantasms. Thus. a whole panoply of gadgets magnetizes the crowd in directed flows outside.. the energy of the real to a city whose mystery is precisely that of no longer being anything but a network of incessant. as much as cinema studios. which is no longer anything but an immense scenario and a perpetual pan shot. Jean Baudrillard. Simulacra and Simulation. the Frontier. Policy hacks come to the imaginary realm of debate to convince themselves that all that stuff they hear on CNN is reality. of its constraints and joys. everywhere in Disneyland the objective profile of America. The contrast with the absolute solitude of the parking lot.

and money. vanished savage naturalness: natural food. yoga. People no longer look at each other. or lost sociality. Disneyland is the prototype of this new function. somatic recycling institutes. which correspond to the improbable coalition of luxury. heaven. psychic. or lost bodies. etc. Everywhere one recycles lost faculties. of energy crises and the critique of capital. in the sophisticated confines of a triumphal market economy is reinvented a penury/sign. Nevertheless. but there are institutes for that. a mental implosion and involution without prececedent lies in wait for a system of the kink. whose visible signs would be those of this strange obesity. and the dreams. . or the lost taste for food. that secretes penury. One reinvents penury. Marshall Sahlins’s idea that it is the economy of the market. asceticism. but at a secondary level: here. On a mental level. belonging to the same order.Whitman College 85911615. but there is contactotherapy. a penury/simulacrum. health food. They no longer walk. but they go jogging. Everywhere today one must recycle waste. to the improbable luxurious materialization of life and to undiscoverable contradictions. the historical. a simulated behavior of the underdeveloped (including the adoption of Marxist tenets) that. in the guise of ecology. and not of nature at all. which proliferate in California. fairylike. and even here. They no longer touch each other.doc 7/20/08 6 File Title Links – Policy Debate – Disneyland (2/2) Disneyland: a space of the regeneration of the imaginary as waste-treatment plants are elsewhere. adds a final esoteric aureole to the triumph of an esoteric culture. legendary imaginary of children and adults is a waste product. But all the sexual. maybe a mental catastrophe. the phantasms. is verified. the first great toxic excrement of a hyperreal civilization. or the incredible coexistence of the most bizarre theories and practices.

the fact is that it is collapsing. And this is only the macroscopic extension of the implosion of meaning at the microscopic level of the sign. on the contrary. the integrated circuit of the negative. The hyperreality of communication and of meaning. and even if the waste is enormous. 2. etc. 1. A circular arrangement through which one stages the desire of the audience. We are all complicitous in this myth. and the mass media. p. to the extent that information is directly destructive of meaning and signification. or whether it is the simulacrum that is there first for dissuasive ends. Everywhere socialization is measured by the exposure to media messages. Simulacra and Simulation. One does not ask oneself.. a general consensus would have it that nevertheless. as a lure— to which the force of myth is attached. faith in information attach themselves to this tautological proof that the system gives of itself by doubling the signs of an unlocatable reality. and for this very reason: because where we think that information produces meaning. Well. Belief. The nondirective interview. the opposite occurs. Myth exists. Everywhere information is thought to produce an accelerated circulation of meaning. there is none. Thus the media are producers not of socialization. it exhausts itself in the staging of meaning. or that it neutralizes them. Rather than creating communication. is never anything but the recycling in the negative of the traditional institution. which is redistributed in all the interstices of the social—just as consensus would have it that material production. 79-82 Or. The third hypothesis is the most interesting but flies in the face of every commonly held opinion. our intense analysis of the world does not produce more understanding. which means that you reproduce your harms Jean Baudrillard. dissuasive action of information. but one must guard against thinking that people believe in it: this is the trap of critical thinking that can only be exercised if it presupposes the naïveté and stupidity of the masses. it exhausts itself in the act of staging communication. “I know very well. The loss of meaning is directly linked to the dissolving. that of the hyperreal. of the implosion of the social in the masses. without which the credibility of our social organization would collapse. but. Rather than producing meaning. there is a rigorous and necessary correlation between the two. 1981.” More and more information is invaded by this kind of phantom content. not only communication but the social functions in a closed circuit. In fact. to deterrence they respond with disaffection. despite its dysfunctions and irrationalities. Thus information dissolves meaning and dissolves the social. listeners who call in. but still. Immense energies are deployed to hold this simulacrum at bay. It is the alpha and omega of our modernity. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. the antitheater of communication. Thus. It is useless to ask if it is the loss of communication that produces this escalation in the simulacrum. but less. Information devours its own content. the media. to short-circuit in advance any possibility of communication (precession of the model that calls an end to the real). This coherence and logic is the fundamental myth of modernity. opens onto an excess of wealth and social purpose. this information ritual becomes encoded in the real. that is how the real is abolished. this homeopathic grafting. And for two reasons.tying news articles together to create the most accurate representation possible of the real world and then combine them into a coherent and logical story. but of exactly the opposite. Whoever is underexposed to the media is dissocialized or virtually asocial.doc 7/20/08 7 File Title Links – Policy Debate – Hyperreal Communication (1/2) Policy debate is intricately tied to the workings of mass media. it is a circular process—that of simulation. participation at every level. Moreover. A gigantic process of simulation that is very familiar. speech. Useless to ask which is the first term. .” A sort of inverse simulation in the masses. you are the event. To this tautology of the system the masses respond with ambivalence. in a sort of nebulous state dedicated not to a surplus of innovation. in each one of us. as a whole. blackmail through speech: “You are concerned. It devours communication and the social. to avoid the brutal desimulation that would confront us in the face of the obvious reality of a radical loss of meaning. this awakening dream of communication. More real than the real. corresponds to this simulation of meaning and of communication in which this system encloses us. the mass media. or with an always enigmatic belief. Behind this exacerbated mise-en-scene of communication. there be an excess of meaning. One both believes and doesn’t. very much on the contrary. to total entropy. a plus value of meaning homologous to the economic one that results from the accelerated rotation of capital Information is thought to create communication. the pressure of information pursues an irresistible destructuration of the social.Whitman College 85911615. But one can believe that this belief is as ambiguous as that which was attached to myths in ancient societies. which as one knows.

the medium is the message. the implosion of the medium and of the real in a sort of hyperreal nebula. That means that all contents of meaning are absorbed in the only dominant form of the medium. revolutionary use value of the medium as such. in which even the definition and distinct action of the medium can no longer by determined. the implosion of the medium itself in the real. there is.Whitman College 85911615. pushed to its limit—there is not only an implosion of the message in the medium. which McLuhan himself did not see. whether they are conformist or subversive. there is perhaps still a subversive. That is—and this is where McLuhan’s formula leads. Only the medium can make an event—whatever the contents. anti-media. A serious problem for all counter-information. But there is something even more serious. Because beyond this neutralization of all content. in the same movement. pirate-radios. the consequences of which have yet to be exhausted. If all the content is wiped out. . one could still expect to manipulate the medium in its form and to transform the real by using the impact of the medium as form.doc 7/20/08 8 File Title Links – Policy Debate – Hyperreal Communication (2/2) This implosion should be analyzed according to McLuhan’s formula. etc.

Whitman College 85911615.doc 7/20/08 9 File Title .

Anything serves to escape this void. with the air of a game and a field of adventure. It is unto this void that the phantasms of a past history recede. as irreversible: the fetishization of an object intervenes to obscure this unbearable discovery. This trauma (loss of referentials) is similar to the discovery of the difference between the sexes in children. which is dubbed peaceful coexistence on a global level. including the delirious use of its own technique) used to have a lively. this kind of politics is like sexuality or permanent education (or like social security in its time). it is naïve to conclude that the evocation of fascism and of war in retro—a coincidence. recopies itself. more confused essence). but precisely. denser. it is a myth that invades cinema as imaginary content. retroactivates its original myths. etc. Hypotyposis and specularity. the cinema is fascinated by itself as a lost object as much as it (and we) are fascinated by the real as a lost referent. leaving behind it an indifferent nebula. a retro politics. Cinema plagiarizes itself. retro fashions—no longer so much because people believe in them or still place some hope in the them. the mythical. as serious. Post-history has rendered power useless. or the revolutionary struggles. war. Thus the fetishized history will preferably be the one immediately preceding our “irreferential” era.doc 7/20/08 10 File Title Links – Leadership type Impacts – Saving Private Ryan (1/2) It should be a measure of Khalizad’s argument that he depends on cinema to make it for him. It is the golden age of despotic and legendary resurrections. In a violent and contemporary period of history (let’s say between the two world wars and the cold war). cinema also approaches an absolute correspondence with itself—and this is not contradictory: it is the very definition of the hyperreal. it is history itself that invades the cinema according to the same scenario—the historical stake chased from our lives by this sort of immense neutralization. these death pangs of the real and of the rational that open onto an age of simulation. this object is not just any object. emptied of substance and legalized in their superficial exercise. Myth. traversed by currents. 43-48. full dramatic relation. as profound. History is our lost referential. but simply to resurrect the period whet at least there was history. this leukemia of history and of politics. in the euphoric or catastrophic expectation of a revolution—today one has the impression that history has retreated. Simulacra and Simulation. remakes its classics. when at least life and death were at stake.Whitman College 85911615. an affinity that is not at all political. The great event of this period. this hemorrhage of values—it is in proportion to this distress that all content can be evoked pell-mell. it is often the last object perceived before the traumatic discovery.” as one congratulated oneself on the “entrance of politics into the university. The cinema and the imaginary (the novelistic. and pacified monotony on the quotidian level—this history exorcised by a slowly or brutally congealing society celebrates its resurrection in force on the screen. The politics that enter the university are those that come from history. the period immediately following the war—the innumerable films that play on these themes for us have a closer. more perverse. finds refuge in cinema. is this decline of strong referentials. Jean Baudrillard. and affinity that is not at all political. lived in the march of history. that all previous history is resurrected in bulk—a controlling idea no longer selects. chased from the real by the violence of history. unreality. 1981. only nostalgia endlessly accumulates: war. “Entering another round of Saving Private Ryan” is a perfect example of how neoconservative leadership impact authors write under the naïve hallucination of ideology and power. posthumous liberalization. the panoply of events. same mystification. Today. the great trauma. It is by the virtue of this fact that it takes the place of myths on the screen. Whereas so many generations. . There is however a privileging of the immediately preceding era (fascism. Whence the omnipresence of fascism and of war in retro—a coincidence. fascism. One can explain it by evoking the Freudian theory of fetishism (perhaps also a retro hypothesis). remakes the silent film more perfectly than the original. according to the same process that used to make lost myths live again. ideologies. it is naïve to conclude that the evocation of fascism signals a current renewal of fascism (it is precisely because one is no longer there. because one is in something else. says Freud. the pageantry of the belle époque. at least there was violence (albeit fascist). which is still less amusing. The illusion would be to congratulate oneself on this “awareness of history on the part of the cinema. everything is equivalent and is mixed indiscriminately in the same morose and funereal exaltation. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. that is to say our myth.” Same misunderstanding. that is. p. but emptied of references. they just can’t get over it.: all of this is logical. aestheticized by retro)… Concurrently with this effort toward an absolute correspondence with the real. it is for this reason that fascism can again become fascinating in its filtered cruelty. and particularly the last. The affirmative simply recycles the signs of power. dialectical. in the same retro fascination.

the last great myth. and this is irreversible. is also the age of the novel. if one can call it that. which was substituted for all other value—we are all complicitous in this. Because cinema itself contributed to the disappearance of history. The cold collage. to the restitution of an absolute simulacrum of the past or the present. the mythical energy of an event or of a narrative. The age of history. and to the advent of the archive. that today seems to be increasingly lost. Photography and cinema contributed in large part to the secularization of history. to fixing it in its visible. History is a strong myth. It only resurrects ghosts. and it itself is lost therein. perhaps. . the cool promiscuity. negative relation: it results from the loss of specificity of one and of the other. Today cinema can place all its talent. along with the unconscious. It is this fabulous character. the asexual nuptials of two cold media that evolve in an asymptotic line toward each other: the cinema attempting to abolish itself in the cinematographic (or televised) hyperreal. all its technology in the service of reanimating what it itself contributed to liquidating. It is a myth that at once subtended the possibility of an “objective” enchainment of events and causes and the possibility of a narrative enchainment of discourse. Behind a performative and demonstrative logic: the obsession with real time or with the minute quotidianeity of Jeanne Hilmann doing the dishes).Whitman College 85911615. to a particular scene of the past or of the present.doc 7/20/08 11 File Title Links – Leadership type Impacts – Saving Private Ryan (2/2) The relation that is being formed today between the cinema and the real is an inverse. “objective form at the expense of the myths that once traversed it. this negative and implacable fidelity to the materiality of the past.

the sacrificial joy of so many millions spent. but rather. Apocalypse Now is a global victory. in which. of such a holocaust of means. with the same retro megalomania. a baroque dream of napalm and o the tropics. the orgasmic sacrifice of industrial means. the sacrificial. their power. Coppola makes his film like the Americans made war—in this sense. it is a dream. The war as entrenchment. Cinematographic power equal and superior to that of the industrial and military complexes. One has understood nothing. no critical sense. but one of the reversibility of both destruction and production. the same monstrous candor… and the same success. and its apotheosis. and the remarkable paranoia that from the beginning conceived of this film as a historical. the same excess of means. and one can say to oneself: how is such a horror possible (not that of the war.the explosions. And all of a sudden. he hits us with that. of the organic metabolism of all the technologies. because the film is a phase of this war without end) what was already crazy about this war. One revisits everything through cinema and one begins again: the Molochian joy of filming. and he himself makes movies in the same way. with the same clownish effect in overdrive. one of good and evil. the pinnacle of this failed war. and one can even rejoice in this monstrous trick (exactly as with Wagner). equal or superior to that of the Pentagon and of governments. the war in Vietnam would have been nothing other than what it is.doc 7/20/08 12 File Title Links – War Scenarios Like special effects in war cinema. and for Americans it was primarily that: a test site. But there it is. The real war is waged by Coppola as it is by Westmoreland: without counting the inspired irony of having forests and Philippine villages napalmed to retrace the hell of South Vietnam. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. but that of the film strictly speaking)? But there is no answer.but one can always retrieve a tiny little idea that is not nasty. it is the best possible testimonial— with the same immoderation. either about the war nr about cinema (at least the latter) if one has not grasped this lack of distinction that is no longer either an ideological or a moral one. Simulacra and Simulation. right after the end of the hostilities the Americans offered economic aid. as technological and psychedelic fantasy. the film is not without interest: it retrospectively illuminates (not even retrospectively. test the impact of a cinema that has become an immeasurable machinery of special effects. their methods. and make him crush the Vietnamese village to the sound of Wagner’s music—those are not critical. would not fundamentally have existed—and it is necessary for us to believe in this: the war in Vietnam “in itself” perhaps in fact never happened. the war as a succession of special effects. of so many misadventures. that is not a value judgment. which completes the mass-spectacle effect of this war. In fact. excessive deployment of a power already filming itself as it unfolded. irrational in political terms: the Americans and the Vietnamese are already reconciled. Coppola does nothing but that: test cinema’s power of intervention. there is no possible verdict. a psychotropic dream that had the goal neither of a victory nor of a policy at stake. they are immersed in the machinery. It reassures us that war is indeed an extension of politics by other means. but that tells you the war in Vietnam and this film are cut from the same cloth. distant signs. it is there. The war became film. and the same nonsignifying furor. in the mind of the creator.. they are part of the special effect. exactly as if they had annihilated the jungle and the towns. the war become film even before being filmed. of the immanence of a thing in its very revolution. exactly as they are making their film today. Coppola can certainly deck out his helicopter captain in a ridiculous hat of the light cavalry. of the carpet of bombs in the strip of film… . the two are joined by their common hemorrhage into technology. that this film is part of the war—if the Americans (seemingly) lost the other one. p. his film is really the extension of the war through other means. The war abolishes itself in its technological test. the film becomes war. global event. This exercise in the simulated effects of war is indistinguishable from the means of war and the war itself. Jean Baudrillard. no desire for “raising consciousness” in relation to the war: and in a sense this is the brutal quality of this film—not being rotten with the moral psychology of war. they certainly won this one. it is bewildering. the omnipresence of these reassurances is proof that modern warfare is simply an exercise in special effects. perhaps waiting for nothing but consecration by a superfilm. 1981. 59-60. that nothing separates them. the affirmative impact evidence traces out the mass destruction/mass spectacle of war-.Whitman College 85911615. a gigantic territory in which to test their arms. In this sense. No real distance.

Whitman College 85911615. then of the distinction between winners and losers (the winner readily becomes the hostage of the loser: the Stockholm syndrome). no longer sustainable. They are pledged to the decoy of war as the others are to the decoy of power. their function of death and destruction. which already presaged the disappearance of the end of hostilities. It is the de-intensified state of war. not their real death. with every real event. Even the military has lost the privilege of use value. the privilege of real war. that of the right to war under the green light of the UN and with an abundance of precautions and concessions. the asymptotic form which allows a brush with war but no encounter. It is the bellicose equivalent of safe sex: make war like love with a condom! On the Richter scale. Since it never began.doc 7/20/08 13 File Title Links – Preventing the “Real” War The affirmative engages in an obsessive quest to limit the outbreak of real war – this buys into an outdated logic that believes the real emerges from the virtual. Moreover. the disappearance of the symbolic passage to the act. By dint of dreaming of pure war. The most widespread belief is in a logical progression from virtual to actual. There will never be a monument to the unknown hostage. Against this obsession with the real we have created a gigantic apparatus of simulation which allows us to pass to the act “in vitro” (this is true even of procreation). 1995. everyone is too ashamed of him: the collective shame which attaches to the hostage reflects the absolute degradation of real hostility (war) into virtual hospitality (Saddam Hussein’s “guests”). they never die: at best they disappear. as though the irruption or the event of war had become obscene and insupportable. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. according to which no available weapon will not one day be used and such a concentration of force cannot but lead to conflict. It is neither the strong form nor the degree zero of war. the hostages are once again revealing. No more than the politicians. The obsession with the real only strengthens the passage to the virtual. deters any passage to action. this is an Aristotelian logic which is no longer our own. However. then of operations themselves. unlike the Aristotelian. the cosmetically treated spectre of its death. a hegemony ultimately much more dangerous than real apocalypse. but the weak or phthisical [sic] degree. Jean Baudrillard. like every real event moreover. The build-up is unreal. We are no longer in a logic of the passage from virtual to actual but in a hyperrealist logic of the deterrence of the real by the virtual. and its even more deceptive televisual subterfuge (as we saw at Timisoara). we have fallen into soft war. It seems that this obsession with the passage to action today governs all our behaviour: obsession with every real. That’s no longer the case in an age of simulation. Extracted like molecules in an experimental process. the military personnel do not know what to make of their real function. the aim of which is to present a face-lifted war. then distilled one by one in the exchange. of which television is the universal mirror. 26-28 We are in neither a logic of war nor a logic of peace but in a logic of deterrence which has wound its way inexorably through forty years of cold war to a denouement in our current events. thus to a psychotic process. We should have been suspicious about the disappearance of the declaration of war. to the catastrophe of the real. War has not escaped this virtualisation which is like a surgical operation. with every pleasure which is too real. The Gulf War Did Not Take Place. The passage to action suffers widespread infamy: it supposedly corresponds to a brutal lifting of repression. into the virtual impossibility of war which translates into the paltry fantasia where adversaries compete in de-escalation. with every real violence. Deterrence has passed by that way and it spares no one. In this process. a logic of weak events. Everything is therefore transposed into the virtual. Our virtual has definitively overtaken the actual and we must be content with this extreme virtuality which. it is their virtual death that is at issue. p. the transparent degree which allows war to be seen from the depths of the darkroom. this war is therefore interminable. of an orbital war purged of all local and political peripeteias. to which belong those in Eastern Europe as well as the Gulf War. the Gulf War would not even reach two or three. . We prefer the exile of the virtual. as though the fiction of an earthquake were created by manipulating the measuring instruments. and we are confronted with a virtual apocalypse. Peripeteias of an anorexic history or an anorexic war which can no longer devour the enemy because it is incapable of conceiving the enemy as worthy of being challenged or annihilated — and God knows Saddam Hussein is worthy of neither challenge nor annihilation — and thus devours itself.

The fact is that the revolution has well and truly happened. by dying. so that it can go into orbit. ideologies and satisfactions. Rather than a mortal mode of disappearance. wherein paradoxically we must continue to live as though they had not been. the rational. We live amid the interminable reproduction of ideals. freedom and revolution are prime examples of the simulation of values continuing in endless cycles of reiteration. but in the sense of an increase in power. sexual liberation. whether actually or potentially. The logic of viral dispersal in networks is no longer a logic of value. nourish the hope of realizing them. simulate liberation. all the desires that we had been pursuing. Jean Baudrillard Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. signs. a state in which we are obliged to replay all scenarios precisely because they have all taken place already. neither. but not in the way we expected. the sexual. images and dreams which are now behind us. children’s liberation. as of all models of anti-representation. messages. I would describe it as ‘after the orgy’. all the forms. we may say that the unavoidable goal of all liberation is to foster and provision circulatory networks. and these things are thus subject to increasing indeterminacy. or as a result of the epidemic of simulation. a fractal mode of dispersal. because of extenuation or extermination. and we find ourselves faced collectively with the big question: WHAT DO WE DO NOW THE ORGY IS OVER? Now all we can do is simulate the orgy. but in reality we are accelerating in a void. — — . liberation of the forces of destruction. as a result of their transfer into the secondary existence of simulation. 1993. There is no longer any such thing as a revolution of values — merely a circumvention or involution of values. With the benefit of a little hindsight. women’s liberation. Political liberation. accelerating. But since they have. liberation of art.the very availability of all the signs. We may pretend to carry on in the same direction.. yet which we must continue to reproduce in a sort of inescapable indifference. to override their own logic not in the sense of creating sheer redundancy. The Transparency of Evil: Essays on Extreme Phenomena. things disappear through proliferation or contamination. Instead. and because what haunts and obsesses us is being thus ahead of all the results . But what can we do? This is the state of simulation. and since we can no longer. an internal metastasis or fevered endogenic virulence which creates a tendency for systems to explode beyond their own limits. But that’s all they are – simulation. because all the goals of liberation are already behind us. therefore. then.Whitman College 85911615. Everywhere what has been liberated has been liberated so that it can enter a state of pure circulation. is it a logic of equivalence. The assumption of all models of representation. by becoming saturated or transparent. Nothing (not even God) now disappears by coming to an end. Nothing is truly reflected any more whether in a mirror or in the abyssal realm (which is merely the endless reduplication of consciousness). p.doc 7/20/08 14 File Title Links – Rights/Revolution/Hippie Shit The Revolution –liberation in every sphere – has already happened. phantasies. a fantastic potentialization whereby their own very existence is put at risk. of criticism as of anti-criticism. liberation of unconscious drives. we can only ‘hyper-realize’ them through interminable simulation. No true revolution of values can ever take place. We have pursued every avenue in the production and effective overproduction of objects. This was a total orgy —an orgy of the real. the moment of liberation in every sphere. The orgy in question was the moment when modernity exploded upon us. Now everything has been liberated. liberation of the forces of production. therefore. the chips are down. to the principle of uncertainty. The state of utopia realized. of development as of the crisis of development. Your calls for liberation. A centripetal compulsion coexists with a decentredness of all systems. 3-5 If I were asked to characterize the present state of affairs. of all utopias realized. The fate of the things liberated is an incessant commutation.

Today. nothing is political any more. knowledge everything is interpreted in terms of phantasies. and occasioning a general commutability of terms has built its house upon the disillusion of metaphor.Whitman College 85911615. its venting through all the trivial variants of sexual incantation. after all. in the general style of performance. and every article of clothing until none of it has any meaning anymore. affecting all disciplines as they lose their specificity and partake of a process of confusion and contagion — a viral loss of determinacy which is the prime event among all the new events that assail us. and upon the illusion of difference. by virtue of their extension beyond their own bounds this state of affairs is epitomized by a single figure: the transpolitical..doc 7/20/08 15 File Title Links – Micropolitics There is no political activism anymore. every facial expression. which is simultaneously the complete actualization of an idea. When everything is sexual. especially since 1968. Likewise. Jean Baudrillard Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. Fundamentally. then nothing can be because there are no longer any referentials designating what the political even is. sex becomes transsexuality all converge in a transversal and universal process wherein no discourse may have a metaphorical relationship to another. at the fractal. nothing is beautiful or ugly any more. Thus every individual category is subject to contamination. playing as it did upon difference. and sex loses its determinants. but elsewhere everywhere else. or the colour of someone’s eyes). Sport itself. language. in politics. The viral analogy is not an importation from biology. like the ‘memory of water’. When everything is aesthetic. science. then — viral by definition (or lack of definition). but infects every sphere economics.if everything is political. micrological and non-human level. the media. their annihilation by virtue of their very success. Everything is political. effort and record-breaking. that are politicized as they enter the sphere of liberation. AIDS is the reflection not so much of an excess of sex or sexual pleasure as of sex’s — . the perfect realization of the whole tendency of modernity. but instead in business. p. in terms of repression. Each category thus passes through a phase transition during which its essence is diluted in homeopathic doses. rather as water ‘remembers’ molecules no matter how diluted. substitution is possible between any sphere and any other: there is a total confusion of types. so that it eventually loses all specificity and is reabsorbed by all the other categories. and not a memory of forms or singularities (water. art. can hardly retain the features of a face. the word itself is meaningless. But they cannot exist where contamination is possible between any discipline and any other. for everything is affected simultaneously and under the same terms by the virulence in question. with the disappearance of sexual difference and hence of sexuality per se.~ — — — decompensation through its general spread into all areas of life. and sexual stereotypy reigns in every last corner. for metaphor still had its beauty. It is in this diffraction of the sexual reality principle. by haphazard and senseless proliferation and metastasis. This paradoxical state of affairs. Each category is generalized to the greatest possible extent. Total metonymy. So what we are left with is the simple imprint of a faceless sexuality infinitely watered down in a broth of politics. infinitesimal relative to the total solution. All these domains are affected by sport’s criteria of ‘excellence’. Likewise everything has become sexual. because for there to be metaphor. But that is the whole point: this is only a molecular memory. All at once.. Everything is sexual. it was aesthetic. media and communications. sex in advertising and porn. Economics becomes transeconomics. everything is now aestheticized: politics is aestheticized in the spectacle. by the chain reaction we have been discussing. 1993. too.and advertising-led semiologization: ‘culture degree Xerox’. is no longer located in sport as such. and art itself disappears. that the essential confusion of the epidemic takes hold. in sex. even desire. The real loss of immunity concerns sex as a whole. Pundits analyze every gesture. Sex is no longer located in sex itself. the corpuscular memory of an earlier life. nothing is sexual any more.. Everything is aesthetic. — — — . Everything has acquired a political meaning. leaving a trace so small as to be indiscernible. aesthetics becomes transaesthetics. anything can be an object of desire: power. differential fields and distinct objects must exist. just like the aff. The Transparency of Evil: Essays on Extreme Phenomena. Politics is no longer restricted to the political sphere. Perhaps we still have a memory of sex.7-10 The possibility of metaphor is disappearing in every sphere. and it is not just everyday life but also madness. and all kinds of activity in what is conventionally referred to as culture a sort of all-pervasive media. in fact. metonymy replacing the whole as well as the components. it’s only inane babble. The law that is imposed on us is the law of the confusion of categories. the transaesthetic. the sphere of mass processes. This is an aspect of a general tendency towards transsexuality which extends well beyond sex. meanwhile. sport. until it finally disappears. the transsexual. When everything is political. and eventually manifested in the viral explosion of AIDS. Perhaps our melancholy stems from this. as by its childish notion of self-transcendence. and the negation of that idea and that tendency.

it reinjected a fiction of legitimacy.” Power floats like money. he can only accumulate against himself the signs of reversion through murder.it is not so much the “revolutionary forces” that accelerate this process (often it is quite the opposite).. a shimmering. etc. Nixon has nevertheless arrived at the goal of which all power dreams: to be taken seriously enough. he is immunized by his impotence. exposing it to its own lack of substance and reality. It is in this way that the Spanish executions still serve as a stimulant to Western liberal democracy. The Watergate scandal was in fact the greatest of windfalls for the power of the American presidency. it is no longer a question of the ideology of power. It is always the goal of the ideological analysis to restore the objective process. even and especially if they are revolutionary. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. or neurotics. simulation corresponds to a short circuit of reality and to its duplication through signs. Rather than adopting the strategy of the affirmative and decrying the abuses of power. Fresh blood.doc 7/20/08 16 File Title Links – Leftist Politics All that power asks of us is that we subject it to ideological analysis. this changes nothing: the leftist penchant for detecting a rightist conspiracy beneath this brings out a false problem—the function of bringing depth to. denounce.that we take it seriously enough to oppose it.always good for countering the mortal blows of simulation. like theory. 24-25.the traditional ethic that would obscure the “real” process of work and the “objective” process of exploitation—but of the scenario of work. Ideology only corresponds to a corruption of reality through signs. of its “suspension. Criticism and negativity alone still secrete a phantom of the reality of power. ephemeral vision of “good government”. to a dying system of democratic values. One must not resist this process by trying to confront the system and destroy it. End of revolutionary praxis.—a simulacral contrast through which power attempts to break the vicious circle of its nonexistence. from primitive societies to the present. 1981. These staged presidential assassinations are revealing because they signal the status of all negativity in the West political opposition. because this system that is dying from being dispossessed of its death expects nothing but that from us: that we give the system back its death. Jean Baudrillard. against power has always been fulfilled. it is always a false problem to wish to restore the truth beneath the simulacrum. to constitute a mortal enough danger to the group to be one day relieved of his duties. Curiously. by demented people. who was not even found worthy of dying at the hands of the most insignificant. .in fact. or the prophecy. Nixon. which infuriates him. it is the system itself that deploys against its own structures this violence that annuls all substance and all finality. p. but of the scenario of power. chance. was nevertheless ritually put to death by Watergate. we should instead let power work on us in mute silence. the “Left. But already impeachment is no longer assassination: it happens via the Constitution. like language. etc.” critical discourse. but for how much longer? The deterioration of all power is irresistibly pursued-. Ford doesn’t even have this opportunity anymore: a simulacrum of an already dead power. of its fundamental irresponsibility.Whitman College 85911615. This is why in the end power is so much in tune with ideological discourses and discourses on ideology. unbalanced person (and thought it is perhaps true that presidents are assassinated by unbalanced types. If they become weak for one reason or another. that is they are discourses of truth. of savage rituals). and liquidated. who nonetheless carry out a social function as fundamental as that of presidents). power has no other recourse but to artificially revive and hallucinate them. It is no longer a question of the ideology of work. Watergate is still a mechanism for the ritual murder of power (the American institution of the presidency is much more thrilling in this regard than the European: it surrounds itself with all the violence and vicissitudes of primitive powers. end of the dialectic. crazy people. Simulacra and Simulation. In the same way. that we revive it through the negative.

and we are merely the operators. it is not we who are winning out over the world. is it not the object which dupes us and mocks our objective pretensions to analyse it? Scientists themselves are not. Once we lived in the age of the lost object. Through the most refined procedures we deploy to pin it down. . from the post-historical snobbery Kojeve spoke of. Jean Baudrillard. We should instead adopt an ironic stance towards technology. the irresistible impression remains that something eludes us — not because we seem to have lost it (the real?). has passed into things. a spiritual form. which would not be far from radical snobbery. the end of political Reason. It is the logic of the system which. far from admitting this. it seems. Everything which will be done or said in the media sphere is. similar to the one that prevails in the media sphere. it is the masses who definitively modify the exercise of power (or what sees itself as such). none the less. but labors under the illusion that we can create new and better energy technology. but because we are no longer in a position to see it: that. It seems that technology has taken into itself all the illusion it has caused us to lose. and by which the mystery (of the continuation of the Nothing) conceals itself beneath the universal banality of information. It is no longer we who think the object. The opposite hypothesis is more subtle. the stellar course of the mystery. It is at the point where the political authorities think they are manipulating them that the masses impose their clandestine strategy of neutralization and destabilization. carrying it beyond itself. But today. therefore. An objective illusion. from this point on. All our technologies might. The Evil Spirit keeps watch beneath artefacts and. we behold the constellation. from the retrospective nostalgia for being and from all unhappy critique in terms of alienation and disenchantment. for its part. we labour under the subjective illusion of technology. but the world which is winning out over us. that sacred presence has been reduced to a tiny ironic glimmer. For us. behind which lurks the evil genius of technology which sees to it itself that the mystery of the world is well—guarded. things have also reached a parodic one. Can one advance the hypothesis that beyond the objective and critical phase there is an ironic phase of science. of all our artificial productions. whereas in fact the world is using this machinery to impose itself. that though the illusion of the world has been lost. Irony as universal form of disillusionment. Even if the two hypotheses are simultaneously valid. 71-73 At the peak of our technological performance.doc 7/20/08 17 File Title Links – Alternative Energy – Tech/R&D The Affirmative opposes fossil fuels. And would put in its place a conception of the gigantic objective irony of this whole process. this is still the end of media Reason. by the unbridled virtuality we see outrunning the laws of physics and metaphysics. now it is the object which is ‘losing’ us. The naive illusion about the media is that the political authorities use them to manipulate or mystify the masses. Through the media. Heidegger: ‘When we look into the ambiguous essence of technology. It seems. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. and that what we have in return for the loss of illusion is the emergence of an objective irony of this world. At the same time as reaching a paroxystic stage. bringing about our ruin. but the object which thinks us. The illusion of technology makes us believe we’re in control and not the other way around. an ironic phase of technology? A proposition which would deliver us from the Heideggerian vision of technology as the final phase of metaphysics. in effect. ironically undecidable. this operating principle is thwarted by its very extension. a nuance of play and distantiation. 1996. The Japanese sense the presence of a divinity in every industrial object. is altering its determinations. then. We very much labour under the illusion that the aim of technology is to be an extension of man and his power. The Perfect Crime. the irony of the world. The same hypothesis holds for the object of science. Though this is. but also as the universal form of the stratagem by which the world hides behind the radical illusion of technology. in fact. be said to be the instrument of a world which we believe we rule. one might say what Canetti says of animals: that behind each of them there is a hidden someone thumbing his nose at us.Whitman College 85911615. p.

of anything that would be an event in the general system and upset its balance. by zero-sum signs like those that regulate the “strategy of games” (but the true equation is elsewhere. any more than floating capital has a real referent of production) that circulates in nuclear orbit suffices to control all the violence and potential conflicts around the world. Deterrence precludes war—the archaic violence of expanding systems. only simulacra of conflicts and carefully circumscribed stakes remain. 1981. and thanks to Damocles’ nuclear sword. Atomic war. the gravity of their exercise and the discourse of their “strategy” are at stake). it is the system of deterrence that grows. “objective. the balance of terror is never anything but the spectacular slope of a system of deterrence that has insinuated itself from the inside into all the cracks of daily life. The political stake is dead. What is hatched in the shadow of this mechanism with the pretext of a maximal. everywhere where the norm replaces the old arsenal of laws and violence (including war).” threat. The same goes for peaceful nuclear power stations. in forms that are not threatening to the order of things. politics. like the Trojan War. A gigantic involution that makes every conflict. everywhere where the notion of security becomes omnipotent. The whole originality of the situation lies in the improbability of destruction. Only the signs of power. rather. The whole world pretends to believe in the reality of this threat (this is understandable on the part of the military. social. into a stake without stakes. Deterrence is not a strategy. except without a doubt in the very initial stages of the cold war. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. every finality. 32-35. and political desert. freezes them all. nor an adversary nor a strategy—it is a planetary structure of the annihilation of stakes. at the much greater probability of any real event. and violence remain. The most insignificant of our behaviors is regulated by neutralized. Simulacra and Simulation. a universal lockup and control system whose deterrent effect is not at all aimed at an atomic clash (which was never in question. Massive war. Everything freezes under the lack of possibility engendered by the civilian and military nuclear umbrella.not even into a life insurance policy: into a policy that already has no value). equivalent signs. will not take place. through the sophistication of weapons (a sophistication that surpasses any possible objective to such an extent that it is itself a symptom of nullity). The balance of terror is the terror of balance. And the progressive satellization of the whole planet through this hypermodel of security. a simulacrum that dominates everything and reduces all “ground-level” events to being nothing but ephemeral scenarios.doc 7/20/08 18 File Title Links – Alternative Energy – Nuclear Energy (1/2) Nuclear energy cements a system of deterrence. No strategy is possible any longer. neutralizes. It is not the direct threat of atomic destruction that paralyzes our lives. Pacification does not distinguish between the civil and the military: everywhere where irreversible apparatuses of control are elaborated. However. transforming the life left us into survival. Jean Baudrillard. The risk of nuclear annihilation only serves as a pretext.Whitman College 85911615. for installing a universal security system. Deterrence itself is the neutral. And this deterrence comes from the fact that even the real atomic clash is precluded—precluded like the eventuality of the real in a system of signs. of the aleatory apparatus of all the choices that are made for us. No longer can nay revolt. implosive violence of metastable systems or systems in involution. it is deterrence that gives them leukemia. . Nuclear suspension only serves to seal the trivialized system of deterrence that is at the heart of the media. There is no longer a subject of deterrence. revolutions and political subjectivity is no longer possible. and escalation is only a puerile game given over to the military. is the perfection of the best system of control that has ever existed. Thus the money of destruction (without any reference to real destruction. any story be deployed according to its own logic because it risks annihilation. but it is precisely at this level that there are no strategic stakes. it circulates and is exchanged between nuclear protagonists exactly as is international capital in the orbital zone of monetary speculation whose fluctuations suffice to control all global exchanges. every confrontation contract in proportion to this blackmail that interrupts. The apotheosis of simulation: the nuclear. of the violence without consequences that reigns throughout the world. and the unknown is precisely that variable of simulation which makes of the atomic arsenal itself a hyperreal form. indifferent. when one still confused the nuclear apparatus with conventional war) but. p. and around it grows the historical.

toward a limit that one believed would be explosive (revolution). of contradiction. nothing will be left to chance. where nothing can be left to chance. Fascination with the maximal norm and the mastery of probability: Vertigo of the model. or to develop concurrently as a form of “peaceful coexistence. ultimately. Trajectory. calculation. which unites with the model of death. fascinates. with its aura of violence. still taps a perverse imaginary. of satellization of which the lunar module is the perfect embryo? Programmed microcosm.” Because what. . which began centuries ago. Just watching it produces vertigo. and makes every imaginary involute. it is the same model of programmatic infallibility. irreversible process: the generalized deterrence of chance. energy. rupture. Because if the law. doomed to the descriptive transparency of mechanisms of information. the fulfillment of an earlier dream). the norm fixes. rather. The exaltation of the crowds was not a response to the event of landing on the moon or of sending a man into space (this would be. Here as well. of accident.doc 7/20/08 19 File Title Links – Alternative Energy – Nuclear Energy (1/2) The “space race” played exactly the same role as nuclear escalation. Now. stupefies. but without fear or drive. This is why the space program was so easily able to replace it in the 1960s (Kennedy/Khrushchev).Whitman College 85911615. A universe purged of all threat of meaning. physiology. by the immanent wonder of the programmed unfolding of events. of the conquest of the moon. is the function of the space program. One no longer fantasizes about the minutiae of a program. if order. Their truth is to be the models of simulation. with its aura of transgression. the model vectors of a system of planetary control (where even the superpowers of this scenario are not free—the whole world is satellized). in a state of asepsis and weightlessness—it is this very perfection that is fascinating. but which for the moment is translated by an inverse. moreover this is the essence of socialization. or complexity in a sociality illuminated by the norm. the spatial and nuclear models do not have their own ends: neither the discovery of the moon. this is the total universe of the norm—the Law no longer exists. but which has now entered its accelerated phase. psychology. In fact. implosive. of finality. There lies the true nuclear fallout: the meticulous operation of the social. The vertigo of a world without flaws. rather. of the launching of satellites if not the institution of a model of universal gravitation. it is the operational immanence of every detail that is law. of transversality. we are dumbfounded by the perfection of the programming and the technical manipulation. nor military and strategic superiority. environment—nothing can be left to contingencies. of maximum security and deterrence that today controls the spread of the social.

men women.it is here. Simulacra and Simulation. living metallurgic zones. an entire culture. again becomes the model of simulation of all the possible Indians from before ethnology. In order for ethnology to live. be applied to all living things and make itself invisible. 1981.simulacral Indians who at last proclaim the universal truth of ethnology. in the metropolises. at the level of the “open” museum where one museumified in situ. is everywhere now. it is always murderous). of the murder of every symbolic form and of its hysterical. 7-11. which is nothing but the pure form of triumphal ethnology. Clastres are various witnesses. But in the same breath ethnology grants us its only and final lesson. its object must die. and o the resurrection of differences. the object takes its revenge for being “discovered” and with its death defies the science that wants to grasp it. sterilized. who were seeing the indigenous people disintegrate immediately upon contact. lost to science. out of the reach of colonizers. We have all become living specimens in the spectral light of ethnology. Indians who have again become what they were. languages. We are all Tasadays. its object falls back into Hades. but intact in its “virginity. Ethnology brushed up against its paradoxical death in 1971. like and omnipresent fourth dimension. or of antiethnology. were the first victims. as “historical” witnesses of their period entire working-class neighborhoods.a murder of which the Savages. it always turns around too soon. like Eurydice. Here begins an antiethnology that will never end and to which Jaulin. under the sign of dead differences.Savages who are indebted to ethnology for still being Savages: what a turn of events. and ethnologists. It is against this hell of the paradox that the ethnologists wished to protect themselves by cordoning off the Tasaday with virgin forest. This at the suggestion of the anthropologists themselves. all so that we may all believe again that things are as they should be. The Tasaday. .gestures. Doesn’t all science live on this paradoxical slope to which it is doomed by the evanescence of its object in its very apprehensions. Thus ethnology. cryogenized. No one can touch them anymore: as in a mine the vein is closed down. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. and science itself has become pure simulation. to their primitive state. frozen in their natural element. these savages are posthumous: frozen. will provide a perfect alibi. where they had lived for eight centuries without any contact with the rest of the species. protected to death. in the White community. p. the secret that kills it (and which the Savages knew better than it did): the vengeance of the dead. in a world completely cataloged and analyzed. of the blackmail of the real. tourists. liberated from its object. and by the pitiless reversal that the dead object exerts on it? Like Orpheus. historical retrospection. It is thus very naïve to look for ethnology in the Savages or in some Third World. like a dimension of life. The Indian thus returned to the ghetto. and.it attains its pure form. Science loses precious capital there. the logical evolution of a science is to distance itself increasingly from its object. they have become referential simulacra.” It is not a question of sacrifice (science never sacrifices itself. This model thus grants itself the luxury to incarnate itself beyond itself in the “brute” reality of these Indians it has entirely reinvented. but the object will be safe. Preserving the idea of an ideal nature will only expose the preserved object to a slowed down purification and a sterilized death. customs fossilized alive as in a snapshot. Jean Baudrillard. then artificially resurrected under the auspices of the real. in the glass coffin of the virgin forest. The museum. that of the simulacrum. everywhere. the day when the Philippine government decided to return the few dozen Tasaday who had just been discovered in the depths of the jungle. and children included. It erases the memory of environmental destruction and replaces it with a museum-theme park version of nature. will today. And just as all of society is irremediably contaminated by this mirror of madness that it has held up to itself. noblesse oblige. science can’t help but die contaminated by the death of this object that is its inverse mirror.doc 7/20/08 20 File Title Links – Preservation/Nature/Environment/Ecology (1/3) Your attempt to preserve nature only models the environment after a simulation of how we believe it once was. rather than circumscribing itself as an objective science. of the hallucination of truth. like mummies in the open air. but of the simulated sacrifice of its object in order to save its reality principle. in a world of simulation. but that for a long time has extended to all Western societies. until it dispenses with it entirely: its autonomy is only rendered even more fantastic. The same holds true at Cruesot. instead of being circumscribed as a geometric site. by dying. In any case.Whitman College 85911615. an eternal guarantee. The confinement of the scientific object is equal to the confinement of the mad and the dead. what a triumph for this science that seemed dedicated to their destruction! Of course. Castaneda.

which one will repatriate at great cost from the Cloisters in New York to reinstall it in “its original site. ours. The cloister should have stayed in New York in its simulated environment. a visible myth of origin. Why Because Ramses was a great despotic and military figure? Certainly. of an order that would have had nothing to do with it. diffracted. but an exact replica was constructed five hundred meters from it.” And everyone is supposed to applaud this restitution (as they did “the experimental campaign to take back the sidewalks” on the Champs Elysees!). etc. demuseumification is nothing but another spiral in artificiality. master over putrefaction and death. if the Cloisters in New York are an artificial mosaic of all cultures (following a logic of the capitalist centralization of value). etc. Ramses does not signify anything for us. which only knows how to condemn what preceded it to decay and death and subsequently to try to revive it with science. hatred of a whole civilization for its own foundation. behind this defunct power that it tries to annex. We are fascinated by Ramses as Renaissance Christians were by the American Indians. it survives in an antiethnology whose task it is to reinject the difference fiction. The West is seized with panic at the thought of not being able to save what the symbolic order had been able to conserve for forty centuries. Only absolute secrecy assured them this millennial power. which at least fooled no one. or even simply discovering them. To this end they must be exhumed and given military honors. but it s the objects that invest it with depth. Irreparable violence toward all secrets. after it was left to rot for several dozen years in the depths of a museum. Because mummies don’t rot from worms: they die from being transplanted from a slow order of the symbolic. which has again become savage in its way. to an order of history. that is to say restoring a visible order. We require a visible past. Because finally we have never believed in them. the violence of a civilization without secrets. slowed-down mechanism. Well. To this end the pharaohs must be brought out of their tomb and the mummies out of their silence. Witness the cloister of Saint-Michel de Cuxa.) nor when science seems to break the mirror of its objectivity (effacing itself before its object. if the exportation of the cornices was in effect an arbitrary at. Whence this historic scene of the reception of the mummy at the Orly airport. and museums. . to conceal that it is this world. one forbade visitors to enter the Lascaux caves.doc 7/20/08 21 File Title Links – Preservation/Nature/Environment/Ecology (2/3) It is science that masters the objects. Thus at the beginning of colonization. They are prey to both science and worms. It is possible that the memory of the original grottoes is itself stamped in the minds of future generations. and then one visits the reconstituted whole). as in Castaneda. there was a moment of stupor and bewilderment before the very possibility of escaping the universal law of the Gospel. And just as with ethnology. our order. or exterminate the Indians to efface the evidence. In general.) and to bend down before the “differences. so that everyone could see them (one glances through a peephole at the authentic cave. We only know how a place our science in service of repairing the mummy. but from now on there is no longer any difference the duplication suffices to render both artificial. which is devastated by difference and by death. As ethnology collapses in its classical institution. which would suffice to slowly exterminate them.the mastery over putrefaction that signified the mastery of the complete cycle of exchanged with death. only the mummy is of an inestimable worth because it is what guarantees that accumulation has meaning. a visible continuum. Our entire linear and accumulative culture collapses if we cannot stockpile the past in plain view. There were two possible responses: either admit that this Law was not universal. In the same way. the Savage fiction everywhere. one contented oneself with converting them.Whitman College 85911615. those (human?) beings who had never known the word of Christ. Nothing changes when society breaks the mirror of madness (abolishes the asylums. which reassures us about our end. which plays at extricating itself from its object to better secure itself in its pure form. gives speech back to the insane. with the pretext of saving the original. according to an unconscious reversion. which no longer masters anything. Thus it would have been enough to exhume Ramses to ensure his extermination by museumification. In the same way science and technology were recently mobilized to save the mummy of Ramses II. But mostly because our culture dreams. science. and it dreams of it because it exterminated it by exhuming it as its own past.” The form produced by confinement is followed by an innumerable. but out of sight and far from the light of day. that is to say. which only gives a dead and circular response to a dead and circular interrogation. their reimportation to the original site is even more artificial: it is a total simulacrum that links up with “reality” through a complete circumvolution. whereas embalming was a mythical effort that strove to immortalize a hidden dimension.

(With sinister derision. Americans flatter themselves for having brought the population of Indians back to pre-Conquest levels. for exceeding the original number.things are doubled by their own scenario.doc 7/20/08 22 File Title Links – Preservation/Nature/Environment/Ecology (3/3) Repatriating it is nothing but a supplementary subterfuge. This is presented as proof of the superiority of civilization it will produce more Indians that they themselves were able to do.Whitman College 85911615. One effaces everything and starts over. as it did traditionally. more cheerful. their demographic “promotion is just another step toward symbolic extermination. more authentic. In this way. this overproduction is again a means of destroying them: for Indian culture. as can be seen in Ishi’s case. But this doubling does not signify. .) Everywhere we live in a universe strangely similar to the original. like the faces in funeral homes. In the same way. the imminence of their death. in the light of their model. like all tribal culture. acting as if nothing had happened and indulging in retrospective hallucination. They even flatter themselves for doing better. rests on the limitation of the group and the refusal of any “unlimited” increase. and better than when they were alive.they are already purged of their death.

. Jean Baudrillard. of language. then. just like that of the charting of territories and disciplinary sociality. the two adversaries are fundamentally in solidarity against something else. because it took place at the intersection of a maximum historical and “revolutionary” stake. and in this sense. at bottom. of course. or division of labor between two adversaries (who may even consent to enormous sacrifices for it) for the very end of reshaping and domesticating social relations. even a Communist one. 36-39. What no longer exists is the adversity of the adversaries. What meaning did this war have. It marked the arrival of China to peaceful coexistence. is total liquidation. The other aspect of this war and of all wars today: behind the armed violence.doc 7/20/08 23 File Title Impacts – War (1/2) War no longer has an ideological purpose. that is what must be abolished. It is even more effective than capitalism in the liquidation of “savage” and archaic precapitalist structures. the shift from a global strategy of revolution to one of shared forces and empires. communitarian. and the dead and former combatants are worth the same as in other wars. When at last the war had passed into the hands of regular troops in the North and escaped that of the resistance. That theirs is a Communist order is not serious in the end: it had proved itself. one could let them take over. Communist r capitalist. The moralists of war. The stake is thus that of a political relay. “The North Vietnamese were advised to countenance a scenario for liquidating the American presence in the course of which. Same scenario in the Algerian war. This same reduction of forces can be seen on the field. they are no longer anything but the duplex effect of simulation at the summit. This war.Whitman College 85911615. the war could stop: it had attained its objective. it could be trusted. remained unliquidated. so ferocious. it would necessarily have completely disrupted its internal balance and the American political system. demobilized so easily. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. 1981. in its immense. they no longer have any meaning. that is the object of murder in war-. misfortunes are even more numerous. war exists in order to reassure us of the existence of ideological stakes. and to annihilate the presence of anything that would disrupt the global system of deterrence. with the equal complicity of the two adversaries. which is played out as such (or else one could never send people to get themselves killed in this kind of thing). As soon as the Vietnamese had proved that they were no longer the carriers of an unpredictable subversion. subtly. Simulacra and Simulation. given the global process of the contiguity and simultaneity of data. is nothing but the medium of this process of the terrorist rationalization of the social—the murder on which sociality will be founded. precapitalist structures. The game was already won. The best example can only be that of the war in Vietnam. Their untenable character must not conceal the fact that they were nothing but a simulacrum to enable the Vietnamese to seem to countenance a compromise and for Nixon to make the Americans swallow the withdrawal of their troops. Yet. The war lasted as long as elements irreducible to a healthy politics and discipline of power. Nothing of the sort occurred. whatever its allegiance. This objective is always fulfilled. That is why it was deescalated. but whose objective outcome in war. the murderous antagonism of the adversaries—which seems a matter of life and death. The nonintervention of China obtained and secured after many years. behind this simulacrum of fighting to the earth and of ruthless global stakes. And the war ended “spontaneously” when this objective was achieved. China’s apprenticeship to a global modus Vivendi. Tribal. never spoken. Total complicity. spectacular death apparatus. one must save face. was nothing but a crucial episode of peaceful coexistence.and war itself. the holders of high wartime values should not be too discouraged: the war is no less atrocious for being only a simulacrum—the flesh suffers just the same. the ideological seriousness of war. took place.” This scenario: the extremely harsh bombardments of Hanoi. despite this deterrence by the orbital power—the nuclear or molecular code—events continue at ground level. the USA pulled out of Vietnam but won the war. nothing was objectively at stake but the verisimilitude of the final montage. the reality of antagonistic causes. and of the installation of this deterrent authority. Rather. every form of exchange. unnamed. But. Something else. and wasn’t its unfolding a means of sealing the end of history in the decisive and culminating historic event of our era? Why did this war. so long. the transition from a radical alternative to political alternation in a system now essentially regulated (the normalization of Peking-Washington relations): this was what was at stake in the war in Vietnam. vanish from one day to the net as if by magic? Why did this American defeat (the largest reversal in the history of the USA) have no internal repercussions in America? If it had really signified the failure of the planetary strategy of the United States. p. of symbolic organization. so hard.

in a profound indifference to their consequences (but this is because there are none: they exhaust themselves in their spectacular promotion)—all “newsreel” footage thus gives the sinister impression of kitsch. of the lost “difference” of Savages) that all these things arrived too late. “War is peace. never existed. The media and the official news service are only there to maintain the illusion of an actuality. by a moribund ethnology.doc 7/20/08 24 File Title Impacts – War (2/2) And also the reality of victory or defeat.) never started. that it was finished well before it started. who has the right like everything else to his revival. or recycle one another—a simultaneity of contradictions that is at once the parody and the end of every dialectic. to a second existence as the referential of cruelty). or one becomes aware (as with the Communists “in power” in Italy. to the phantom. Simulation is the master. the pacification (or the deterrence) that dominates us today is beyond war and peace. and as artifacts of history. that all these events succeed each other without logic. toward a reabsorption of all the stakes without a trace of blood. catastrophes and crises destined to maintain a historical investment under hypnosis. In any case. ersatz. the last gasp of an ideality of the body. complete equivalence. and no one really accepts it. and we only have a right to the retro. posthumous rediscovery of the gulags and Soviet dissidents like the almost contemporary discovery. of the objectivity of facts. For us the trick has been played.Whitman College 85911615. of violence in a system that was already taking it away. that they long ago exhausted their meaning and only live from an artificial effervescence of signs. it is that at every moment war and peace are equivalent. in the cold light of deterrence (including Artaud. in the most contradictory.” said Orwell. Many other events (the oil crisis. the retro. that there was an end to war at the heart of war itself. All the events are to be read backward. All dramaturgy. parodic rehabilitation of all lost referentials. of retro and porno at the same time—doubtless everyone knows this. and that perhaps it never started. of the reality of the stakes. the two differential poles implode into each other. a spiral of delay. except as artificial occurrences—abstract. Everything still unfolds around us. Thus one can completely miss the truth of a war: namely. which was still an attempt to create a dramaturgy of life. of blood. war being a process that triumphs well beyond these appearances. and even all real writing of cruelty has disappeared. The reality of simulation is unbearable—crueler than Artaud’s Theater of Cruelty. etc. . There also. with a history of delay.

the discourse of desire to that of power. Fascism’s cruelty. 1981. All the referentials combine their discourses in a circular. The Mobius strip. this neutralization and pacification of life. circularized. 48 Fascism itself.today they exchange their signifiers and their scenarios. of the operationalization of all social and individual life already makes itself strongly felt in the West.doc 7/20/08 25 File Title Impacts – Fascism Political subjectivity circles around. its terror is on the level of this other terror that is the confusion of the real and the rational. sex and work were fiercely opposed terms. irrational.” to desire its own repression and to invest in paranoid and fascist systems? A malign torsion that returns this revolution of desire to the same fundamental ambiguity as the other. the infinity of capital folded back on its own surface: transfinite? And is it not the same for desire and the libidinal space? Conjunction of desire and the law. which is no longer one of torture. when such collusions admirably knot themselves together without the knowledge of their authors? Conjunction of the system and of is extreme alternative like the two sides of a curved mirror. before thinking that we now take pleasure in capital. Simulacra and Simulation. Simulacra and Simulation. which seizes the occasion to regenerate its own flagging humanism and whose indignant protest in turn consolidates Franco’s regime by uniting the Spanish masses against this foreign intervention? Where is the truth of all that. said Lyotard.). 18. an enigmatic reversal that brings desire “revolutionary in itself. and it is a response to that. even if it is a profound. Hell of simulation. of the rational secularization and unidimensionalization of all life. which deepened in the West. Jean Baudrillard. . 1981. nor the Reichian one of the sexual repression of the masses. results in a supplementary spiral without the reversibility of surfaces being resolved (here the reversible continuity of hypotheses). reversibilized from the right to the left. the mystery of its appearance and of its collective energy. it would not have tapped into this massive energy if it hadn’t been a resistance to something much worse. Fascism is the logical result of hyperreality. the mad intensification of collective value (blood. the reinjection of death. demented resistance. people. Yet again. of a “political aesthetic of death” at a time when the processes of the disenchantment of value and of collective values. race. today both are dissolved in the same type of demand. a “vicious” curvature of a political space that is henceforth magnetized. etc. of the whole system. but of the subtle. Fascism is a resistance to this. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. Not so long ago. Formerly the discourse on history derived its power from violently opposing itself to that of nature. nor the Deleuzian one of despotic paranoia).in a world without value or political referentials. Mobian compulsion.Whitman College 85911615. Who will unravel this imbroglio? The Gordian knot can at least be cut. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. a torsion that is like that of the evil spirit of commutation. the historical revolution. nationality. p. the final pleasure as the metamorphosis of the law (which is why it is so widely the order of the day): only capital takes pleasure. if one divides it. maleficent. Overwhelming versatility of desire in Deleuze. eventually benefitting all ideological positions. etc. with which no interpretation has been able to come to grips (neither the Marxist one of political manipulation by dominant classes. including paranoid reactionaries Jean Baudrillard. the masses may turn to the extreme valorization of race. p. elusive twisting o meaning—where even the condemned at Burgos are still a gift from Franco to Western democracy. can already be interpreted as the “irrational” excess of mythic and political referentials. and as if involuntarily wanting what it wants. everything seems to escape this catastrophe of value.

anticipated in their presentation and their possible consequences. Thus. because it cancels out the difference upon which the law is based. 19-23. Indeed. When in doubt. Simulation is infinitely more dangerous because it always leaves open to supposition that. of hypersimulation or offensive simulation that is posed here. and make it so that the operation creates as much commotion as possible. the right to property. it always prefers this hypothesis (as in the army one prefers to take the simulator for a real madman). to the established order itself. because if it is practically impossible to isolate the process of simulation. in the real. whereas simulation is of the third order. on causes and ends. will before institutions and justice come into play. How can the simulation of virtue be punished? However. against this nebula whose weight no longer obeys the laws of gravitation of the real. beyond equivalences. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. it is there that we must aim at order. or to prove the real. you will immediately find yourself once again. p. The impossibility of rediscovering an absolute level of the real is of the same order as the impossibility of staging illusion. It is the whole political problem of parody. To the established order they are always of the order of the real. it is in this sense that they cannot be controlled by an order that can only exert itself on the real and the rational. Jean Baudrillard. the signs are the same as for a real robbery.in short. remain close to the “truth. In short.” in order to test the reaction of the apparatus to a perfect simulacrum. Parody renders submission and transgression equivalent. etc. Transgression and violence are less serious because they only contest the distribution of the real. beyond rational distinctions upon which the whole of the social and power depend. The simulation of an offense. a client of the bank will faint and die of a heart attack. But this becomes more and more difficult. Illusion is no longer possible. a determined power that can only reign over a determined world. lacking the real. It is necessary to see in this impossibility of isolating the process of simulation the weight of an order that cannot see and conceive of anything but the real. are now in some sense simulation holdups in that they are already inscribed in the decoding and orchestration rituals of the media. But this does not make them harmless. because the law is a simulacrum of the second order. beyond true and false. How to feign a violation and put it to the test? Simulate a robbery in a large store: how to persuade security that it is a simulated robbery? There is no “objective” difference: the gestures. demonstrations. and no longer at all to their “real” end. whereas the former attacks the reality principle itself. it is the threat of simulation that inspires violence. it is now impossible to isolate the process of the real. but indefinitely refracted by each other (just like so-called historical events: strikes. one will actually pay you the phony ransom). a referential order that can only reign over the referential. because it cannot function anywhere else. airplane hijackings. where they function as a group of signs dedicated exclusively to their recurrence as signs. The challenge of simulation is never admitted by power. but that cannot do anything against this indefinite recurrence of simulation. 1981. to reduce very thing to the real—that is. The violence of the real is reinjected everywhere into a society that cannot accept appearances at face value. power itself ends by being . as such it is as serious as the simulation of crime. On the contrary. For example: it would be interesting to see whether the repressive apparatus would not react more violently to a simulated holdup than to a real holdup. so that no human life will be in danger (or one lapses into the criminal). will either be punished less severely (because it has no “consequences”) or punished as an offense against the judicial system (for example if one sets in motion a police operation “for nothing”)—but never as simulation since it is precisely as such that no equivalence with the real is possible. and hence no repression either.). This is how all the holdups. because the real is no longer possible. above and beyond its object. crises. You won’t be able to do it: the network of artificial signs will become inextricably mixed up with real elements (a policeman will really fire on sight. Verify that your weapons are harmless. Demand a ransom. and take the most trustworthy hostage. without wishing it. etc. But the difficulty is proportional to the danger. The established order can do nothing against it. the signs do not lean to one side or another. one of whose functions is precisely to devour any attempt at simulation. Simulacra and Simulation.Whitman College 85911615. in short. law and order themselves might be nothing but simulation. through the force of inertia of the real that surrounds us.doc 7/20/08 26 File Title Impacts – Violence Just because everything is a simulation doesn’t mean that violence doesn’t happen. if it is established as such. no longer with a specific content or end. the opposite is also true (and this reversibility itself is part of the apparatus of simulation and the impotence of power): namely. Because the latter does nothing but disturb the order of things. it is as hyperreal events. and that is the most serious crime. Organize a fake holdup. This is certainly why order always opts for the real.

to persuade us to f the reality of the social. etc.a whole world adheres to it more or less in terror of the collapse of the political. throughout its history it was capital that first fed on the destructuration of every referential. economic. everyone unloads it on everyone else) and the panicked nostalgia over its loss. of every human objective. And in the end the game of power becomes nothing but the critical obsession with power—obsession with its death. why not? That of desire. it is a question of life and death. It retains all the features. That is why today this “material” production is that of the hyperreal itself. But it is too late. the whole discourse of traditional production. power plays at the real. all real equivalence of the states and the omnipotence of manipulation. Well. The other production. we will logically be under the total hallucination of power—a haunting memory that is already rid of it (no one wants it anymore. that of the belle époque of political economy. And as soon as it wishes to combat this disastrous spiral by secreting as last glimmer of reality. plays at remanufacturing artificial.doc 7/20/08 27 File Title dismantled in this space and becoming a simulation of power (disconnected from its ends and its objectives. . that overdose of a strong referential in a society that cannot terminate its mourning.Whitman College 85911615. of the gravity of the economy and the finalities of production. power played at deterrence and simulation. Hyperreality and simulation are deterrents of every principle and every objective. it does nothing but multiply the signs and accelerate the play of simulation. and dedicated to the effects of power and mass simulation). that shattered every ideal distinction between true and false. and political stakes. on which to establish a last glimmer of power. What every society looks for in continuing to produce. has for a long time had no specific meaning. the iron law of its power. Thus everywhere the hyperrealism of simulation is translated by the hallucinatory resemblance of the real to itself. which increases as it disappears. To this end it prefers the discourse of crisis. but also. For power. plays at crisis. The only weapon of power. Whence the characteristic hysteria of our times: that of the production and reproduction of the real. even the confusion of the reality principle and the principle of desire is less dangerous than contagious hyperreality. but it is not longer anything but its scaled-down refraction (thus hyperrealists fix a real from which all meaning and charm. Today when the danger comes at it from simulation (that of being dissolved in the play of signs). disconnection. And at the same time. When it has totally disappeared. obsession with its survival. is to restore the real that escapes it. that of values and commodities. they turn against power the deterrent that it used so well for such a long time. deterritorialization. and to overproduce. social. and if it is the one that fostered reality. all depth and energy of representation have vanished in a hallucinatory resemblance). in order to establish a radical law of equivalence and exchange. Because in the end. Power itself has for a long time produced nothing but the signs of its resemblance. the reality principle. today it is this same logic that is even more set against capital. another figure of power comes into play: that of a collective demand for signs of power. and among those power is always in the right. Capital was the first to play at deterrence. abstraction. The melancholy of societies without power this has already stirred up fascism. As long as the historical threat came at it from the real. disintegrating all the contradictions by dint of producing equivalent signs.. its only strategy against this defection is to reinject the real and the referential everywhere. One remains among principles. “Take your desires for reality!” can be understood as the ultimate slogan of power since in a nonreferential world. good and evil. it was also the first to liquidate it by exterminating all use value.

We have fought negativity and death. but the object of that mastery. By setting off the chain reaction of the positive. it cannot but destroy itself (by ‘depredation’. no more exteriority. An irrevocable destabilization. or the slaves without masters we have become. The Perfect Crime. have disappeared. rooting out evil in all its forms.doc 7/20/08 28 File Title Impacts – Annihilation of Difference Impact The quest to obliterate all that differs and replace it with the image of the same leads uncontestably to the destruction of everything. By eliminating the work of the negative. negativity. salt without sodium. No longer threatened by them. Being deprived of the other is worse than alienation: a lethal change. wars without enemy. rather. and it is this strategy we are applying to ourselves. passions without object. This is like wresting a species away from its natural predators. 112-14 In German. we are eliminating ourselves. The two are conjoined today in the modern form of voluntary servitude: enslavement to data systems and calculation systems – total efficiency. strangeness). Even in devitalized substances: in sugar without calories. we have at the same time — by a perverse. means to be dispossessed of the other. a species we attempt at all costs to immortalize and wrest away from death — as we do with all our replacement technologies for the body’s organs — is doomed to disappear. Now. the finality of that mastery. ‘Entfremdung’. The project of eliminating the external environment under the logic of calculation embodies this process. By eliminating the other in all its forms (illness. becoming estranged from oneself— alienation in the literal sense. The best strategy for bringing about someone’s ruin is to eliminate everything which threatens him. that of the subject without object. time without memory. as had the metamorphoses of evil which follow the advances of reason about like a shadow. For a virus. we have unleashed positivity. of an ultrapositivity of which it is the lethal embodiment. And of a slave without a master? He ends up exploiting himself. This had escaped us. and that is what has become lethal today. of the same without other — definitive stasis and metastasis of the Same. to lose all otherness. p. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. ‘Verfremdung’ means becoming other. by eliminating all singularities in order to radiate total positivity. of the subject without other. far from being negative. We have become masters – at least virtual masters – of this world. 1996. life without spice. total performance. Death being the great natural predator. is the product. by liquidation of the dialectical opposition itself. effects without causes. This paradigm of the subject without object. Jean Baudrillard. by contrast. violence. but perfectly coherent effect — released an intense viral pathology. not to mention racial and linguistic differences. What becomes of a master without a slave? He ends up terrorizing himself. there are two apparently synonymous terms with a very significant distinction between them. no more hostile environments — no environment at all any longer. A tragic destiny for individuals and for our — self-programming and selfreferential — systems: no more adversaries. it is much more serious to be dispossessed of the other than of oneself. masters without slaves. thus causing him to lose all his defences.Whitman College 85911615. can be seen in all that has lost its shadow and become transparent to itself. as it were). death. .

airmen.” . The Massachusetts Military Reservation. these flights emitted 75 tons of nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds. Because military ecological destruction occurs primarily "during peacetime. and the Clean Air Act (CAA). including Vandana Shiva and Maria Mies (1993). the most recent year for which data are available. Military training negatively affects the surrounding areas." and because it is so directly tied to other forms of ecological and social violence.pubmedcentral. feminists must be against oppression in any form. King 1990. according to the EPA Toxics Release Inventory. In 1999. says in reference to the Farallon de Medinilla closure. jet fuel.gov/articlerender. Others.nih. and Liability Act (CER-CLA).000 people at the height of tourist season.Whitman College 85911615. RDX. Charles W “The price of preparing for war” Environmental Health Perspectives http://www. the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). a drinking water source for up to 500. The DOD acknowledges that these laws have never been shown to have interfered with specific military training. As of this publication. . As evidence of the need to act now.fcgi?artid=1253681 December 2004 Nearly 1 in 10 Americans live within 10 miles of a DOD Superfund site—a sometimes perilous proximity. Cuomo 1992. as Karen Warren argues. if women's oppression is connected to the unjustified destruction of nature. . assistant professor of philosophy and women’s studies at the university of Cincinnati. Though women are no more essentially connected to nature than any other organic beings. and Marines into combat environments in the absolute best-prepared way we can. Warren 1990. including aluminum. Many feminists and ecological feminists have discussed these problematic conceptual connections as created or fueled by the dichotomous thinking discussed above (Griffin 1989. because I believe these effects to be significant to feminists for two basic reasons. D. portions of the Endangered Species Act. For instance. . it is arguable that the ecological effects of war and militarism are feminist issues. online I turn now to a discussion of the environmental effects of war. That closure followed a lawsuit filed by the Center for Biological Diversity alleging that bombing at the range was killing protected migratory birds. the DOD is seeking changes through the RRPI to certain hazardous waste laws—specifically. Plumwood 1993). We want to maintain the ability to use those ranges in the optimum way based on military readiness considerations. the Sierra Army Depot.doc 7/20/08 29 File Title Impacts – Cuomo – Ecological Destruction Treating war as an event ignores the environmental effects of this mentality and the continuation of military based ecological destruction Chris J. for instance. You can’t do that if you introduce artificialities into training. and perchlorate into the area’s sole aquifer. both environmental and living Schmidt. an environmental lawyer with the DOD General Counsel’s office. Cuomo. Compensation.” including the case at Eagle River Flats and the Navy’s 2002 temporary closure of its Farallon de Medinilla live-fire training range in the Pacific. the Comprehensive Environmental Response. The base released some 5. or material connections between environmental degradation and women's oppression. was California’s leading air polluter. is slowly leaching solvents. Congress has approved legislation requested by the DOD amending the Migratory Bird Protection Act. sailors.C. According to the Democratic Committee on Energy and Commerce. the DOD points to a number of lawsuits and “close calls. which generate smog. Hypatia Special Issues: Women and Violence Volume 11 Number 4. attention to the ecological impacts of war further illustrates the limitations of only thinking of war in terms of events. In any case. in 1996. and zinc fumes. copper. including the oppression of nature. focus on the practical. Military aircraft from DOD facilities also generate noise and air pollution. Now. “We don’t feel it’s wise to wait for that kind of train wreck to see if we are going to lose in litigation.4 million pounds of toxic chemicals that year. cultural constructions associate women with nature and help justify the mistreatment of both. but says it can’t afford to wait until training is shut down before it acts. a 34-square-mile multi-use training facility in Cape Cod. located 55 miles northeast of Reno. pg. Our job is to send soldiers. Joe Willging. The DOD argues that even the threat of interference by hazardous waste litigation justifies its aims. and the Marine Mammal Protection Act. 1996. more than 50.000 military flights contributed to the heavy air traffic over Washington. or if. not on other considerations.

Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. impact of all the object practices. obedient. Thus the strategic resistance is that of the refusal of meaning and of the spoken word—or of the hyperconformist simulation of the very mechanisms of the system. to reflecting meaning.Whitman College 85911615. exactly the opposite: childishness. To a system whose argument is oppression and repression. and the constitution of a political subject are seen as valuable and subversive. conforming objects. and to constitute themselves as submissive. Neither strategy has ore objective value than the other. of the word based on “consciousness raising. on the resurrection of a subject of history. total dependence. he opposes all the practices of disobedience. We are face to face with this system in a double situation and insoluble double bind— exactly like children faced with the demands of the adult world. whose imperative today is precisely the overproduction and regeneration of meaning and of speech. 1981. Children are simultaneously required to constitute themselves as autonomous subjects. because it was ushered in by that phase of the system which prevails. of the group. inert. free and conscious. playing the game—a form of blackmail and ultimatum just as serious as the other. just as obstinately. 84-86 With one caution. It is the strategy of the masses: it is equivalent to returning to the system its own logic by doubling it. emancipation. This strategy (if one can still speak of strategy) prevails today. expressing ourselves at whatever cost. and even if w are still confronted with it. of liberating ourselves. refusing to continue on as living alibis for the violence of the real Jean Baudrillard. To choose the wrong strategy is a serious matter. The subject-resistance is today unilaterally valorized and viewed as positive—just as in the political sphere only the practices of freedom. etc. p. of emancipation. the maximum production of meaning. It blackmails us into becoming policymakers. and without a doubt superior. of voting. a total claim to subjecthood. hyperconformism. the strategic resistance is the liberating claim of subjecthood But this strategy is more reflective of the earlier phase of the system. When all the revolutions have already taken place. and efficaciously. emancipation. but they do not respond at all to the other demand. Simulacra and Simulation. The child resists on all levels. do not see that they are going in the direction of the system.doc 7/20/08 30 File Title Alternative – Strategy of the Object – The Children The system demands that we constitute ourselves as subjects. . idiocy. expression. and to a contradictory demand he responds with a double strategy. All the movements that only play on liberation. To the demand of being a subject he opposes. responsible. an object’s resistance. of revolt. of the renunciation of the subject position and of meaning— precisely the practices of the masses—that we bury under the derisory terms of alienation and passivity. without absorbing it. revolutionaries. in short. voters.” indeed a “raising of the unconscious” of subjects and of the masses. that is to say. the strategic ground is to passively absorb appearances. producing. it is no longer the strategic terrain: the current argument of the system is to maximize speech. deciding. But this is to ignore the equal. speaking. to the constant ultimatum we are given to constitute ourselves as pure objects. even more serious today. like a mirror. The liberating practices respond to one of the aspects of the system. To the demand of being an object. passivity. participating. that of constituting ourselves as subjects. which is a form of refusal and of non-reception.

But simply to delineate this other logic. and on the side of its eccentric and precious effects. even less a strategy. God himself is forced to employ a trial-and-error method. the object mocks the laws we attach to it. there is something stupid about our current situation. if it exists. 184-85 188-191 if the object is fatal. is seductive. but a moral ecstasy. which just makes it more tragic and more seductive. the question Oedipus thought he answered. The interesting thing about this is the inexorable logical process that is visible here. That also is a challenge — eventually it threatens absurdity. hardly answers. The hypothesis of a fatal strategy must itself be fatal. and one only. whose fatality would be a strategy —something like the rule of another game. must itself be a special effect. And of course fatality exists too. a dream inverse to its dream of totalization. The object (the Sphinx). Everywhere. To find another rule. of its fickleness toward objective laws. At the end of all that. What remains but to side with this enigma? Everything can be summed up in this: let’s believe for a single instant the hypothesis that there is a fatal and enigmatic bias in the order of things. Fatal Strategies. redoubling and escalating the stakes are spirited forms of denouement. history itself has withdrawn. in unravelling desire. simultaneously — there’s no paradox involved in this. the conditions according to which it accepts playing? No one knows them. What remains but to pass on the side of the object. From seduction we look for surprise. If I look for a fatal connection in language. like the real is hyper-real. From strategy we expect control. Quite the contrary. and leave it to the equations to verify themselves. There’s something stupid in the raw event. by which the object is taken in the very game that we wanted to make it play — doubling the ante somehow. a fatal strategy in that the subject thereby succumbs to the surpassing of its own objectives. and therefore the impossibility of deciphering a word that plays the game of meaning all too well). of its fatal effects (fatality is only the absolute liberty of effects )? Semiorrhage. 1990. But the rules of its game. Basically. I fall on the joke. no objective. Seduction is fatal. the conjunction of these two terms is paradoxical: how could there be fatality if there is strategy? That’s just the point: the enigma is that fatality is at the heart of every strategy. but against all science. Today. the ironic art of disappearance? The subject has always dreamed of this. Even predestination is a form of ironic subversion of fatality. another axiom: nothing mystical in this. irony (of the Witz*) is the objective form of this denouement. In any case. must itself be hyper-moral. It’s what peeks through the heart of more banal strategies. There’s something stupid in the current forms of truth and objectivity that a superior irony could spare us. subtler than man. and now that the critical spirit has found its summer home in socialism. if the object is ingenious. to which destiny. if it is an ironic one? Of course it exists. The difference is that the irony of fatality is greater than the irony of chance. yielding to history. If there be a morality. just as everything was caught from the start in an original subversion. Everything is expiated in one way or another. And if the Last Judgement consists. Fatality. and the effects of desire are largely depleted — what remains but to bring things back to their enigmatic ground zero? Now the enigma is inverted: once it was the Sphinx that posed men the question of man. Truth only complicates things. No one knows what a strategy is. as in the Witz. The only way out is the fatal strategy of the object. Its failure today awakens passions that are much more subtle. with whom do we share this ironic end? . must be no longer a moral stasis. We are accomplices in this excess of finality that is there in the object (this can be the excess of meaning. Levi-Strauss claimed that the symbolic order had left us. for each of us. nothing of the otherworldly delirium of a subjectivity trapped and escaping headlong into a paroxysmal inventory. now that all critical radicality has become useless. it answers secretly to some enigma. It’s the object. It’s the effect of a sovereign object that recreates in you an original confusion and seeks to surprise you. But it’s certain nevertheless that in disobeying laws. no final process. it would rather figure in our calculations as a sarcastic variable. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. At the heart of banal strategies is the fiery desire of fatal strategies. now that all negativity seems resolved in a world that pretends to realize itself.doc 7/20/08 31 File Title Alternative – Fatal Strategies Alternative All of today’s critical radicality has ultimately proven useless. What is more. The discovery of a hidden rule of the game is dazzling. We invent all these strategies in the hope of having them result in the unexpected event. and the one has never been able to erase the other. could not be insensible. Today it’s man that poses to the Sphinx — the inhuman — the question of the inhuman. Everything is headed somewhere. The real we invent wholly in the hope of seeing it result in a prodigious artifice. no one is capable of articulating a final process. what can we do about it? After the art of survival. It’s true that this is a difficult and obscure route: to side with the object. too. a strategy precisely with no object. installing thereby a strategy that doesn’t have its own ends: a “playful” strategy that stills the play of the subject. The strategy of the object allows everything to unfold to it in a fatal and ingenious way Jean Baudrillard. In language become pure object. Chance is also one. in saving and eternalizing a moment of our lives. in the irony of the aleatory. like the discovery of a hidden rule. at the knotting of the intrigue and its denouement). it too must be engaged in the eccentric cycle of its effects. of the indifference of the world toward our affairs. escalating the bidding on the strategic limits it will tolerate. What’s the use of trying to establish chance as an objective process. Everything must unfold in a fatal and ingenious way. says Canetti. therefore. as everyone knows.Whitman College 85911615. and even at the molecular level. which is itself the denouement of language immanent to language (that is the fatal: the same sign presiding over a life’s crystallization and its resolution. Nothing can guarantee us a fatality. Likewise with the joke. of the fatal. that we all thought we answered. p. and runs the risk of what it describes — but the risk is to be taken. leave the field open to objective irony. And. There are not enough means in the world for us to be able to dispose of ends. and compensates us in advance for the cruelest losses. to take up the cause of the object. and they can change without notice. in turn. unravel those other strategies. Today. From any object we hope for a blind response that hampers our projects.

Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. the flow of the world itself. but we are nevertheless a vectorial element of the thing. Let us call it strategy. It is a nice term. to what extent does it retain today martial connotations which complicate its sense even more? JEAN BAUDRILLARD: Yes. What we have is the event itself. at the moment. someone who has a will. we do not have it. Thus. We are all inside it. if not a strategy. but which would be the discourse of the object. there I agree with you. as discourse itself is so grounded in subjectivity in this sense. one will always remain between the two. one can still use this term in a metaphorical sense perhaps. a reversibility that is in the order of things. Fatal strategy for me is a strategy of the object. for there to be a strategy. there is only a strategy of the subject. But I am not the one who is going to say that. all the same. a kind of metaphorical transfer of things. the fact of speaking of the strategy of objects is a paradox.htm. no more subjectivity. Regardless. fatal. or placed in a context where it is made volatile or fragile. I like to apply things that are paradoxical. decisive and determinant way. though not in the sense of subjects. But all the same. if it is contrary to a truth principle. online: http://www. At this point it has to be said that this supposes such relativity in the subject-object relation that it is that which becomes fatal. and this is. When I use it in the expression "fatal strategies". we do not have an objective discourse available in the sense I intend it. the way that the discourse of sense tries to describe non-sense. and yet it is used in such a way that subjectivity is undermined.com/2002_Volume_15/15_3/Article_4. it is clear that it no longer has any finality in itself. We witness the loss of subjectivity on the one hand. But clearly. But somewhere there is a logic in the unfolding of things. Moreover. It is truly unreadable. it is a secret. cannot be based on objectivity. properly speaking. Thus fatal strategy is.Whitman College 85911615. 2005 CTHEORY: How is the concept of strategy used? It is implicit that it connotes a form of subjectivity. an expression which describes a process. That is not possible. which has nothing to do with scientificity. but it has certainly lost its military reference. Well. and the intervention of the object itself in the game in a fatal. The term strategy represents an opportunity because it is apt. a representation of the outcome. because. Illusion. to be sure! How could an object have a strategy? It would be absurd. there has to be a subject of the strategy. at the same time. effectively. it speaks to the imaginary. There has to be a finality. If the strategy has to become logistically chancy. it is no longer a strategy properly speaking. Summer 2002. at least a rule of the game. even if it is a crazy logic. and there is there. It is a type of fatal process. There will not be any objectivity there in the scientific sense of the term. And the fact that it is no longer the subject that possesses things when. Which means nothing. truly delirious. But. It has form. and adopt the seemingly paradoxical strategy of the object Jean Baudrillard. and perhaps even its reference to a finality. Why not! It is. It has a form of mastery and. I think that there is a rule. strategy being originally a military metaphor.montrealserai. I also speak of objective illusion. But it no longer means anything great in my opinion. accessed March 5. But I like to bring these two terms together all the same to create a clash between them. a process in which there is certainly no more subject.doc 7/20/08 32 File Title Alternative – Strategy of the Object Alternative Fatal strategies demand that we abandon the subject as an agent of politics. it is deployed within space. .

if one doesn’t understand this. but it isn’t perhaps indifferent to the fact of making a spectacle of itself in natural disasters. There is. in a distant echo of original sin. Things can only happen in this excessive manner. Boredom is not the problem — the essential point is the increase of boredom. deep in man’s heart. to attain ecstasy in a scene instead of being produced as something really happening. Prodigious form that moralists have always condemned. objective information. only a fatal logic wins its battle with power precisely because it’s not a battle but a radical passivity.Whitman College 85911615. All strategies that promise liberation from anything are illusions. that is to say. because it is made up of all the elements of happiness and distraction. to be in ecstasy is absolutely vital. opposed to all will for knowledge and power: tenacious. This is something of a parable. Fatal Strategies. then one understands nothing of this collective brutishness. The important point is the predestination of vacations to boredom. 184-85 gender modified When I speak of the object and its fatal strategies. To occur is necessary. 1990. This is the only solution to the problem of “voluntary servitude. but it’s here only to signify this passion of passions. they’ll make a destiny out of it: intensify it while seeming to do the opposite. as it were. this production which is not at all a representation. I’m speaking also of people and their inhuman strategies. p. not in the hold of representation. essentially it is fatal logic that wins out. the bitter and triumphal foreboding that there’s no escaping this. Jean Baudrillard. and particularly in the effects of their disappearance. Liberating logic is basically understood only by a few. the will to disdain their causes and to lose ourselves in their effects. How could we suppose that people were going to disavow their daily life and look for an alternative to it? On the contrary. the only fatal strategy. I’m not joking: people are not looking for amusement. plunge into it to the point of ecstasy. This hyper-banality is the equivalent of fatality. It could mean the ecstatic deepening of anything. for here is where things cynically subvert themselves from their beginnings and their ends. that means that things are meaningless unless transfigured by this illusion. Another form of fundamental cynicism: this will to spectacle and illusion. seal the monotony of it with an even greater monotony.” Furthermore there is no liberation but this one: in the deepening of negative conditions. simulating passion. All forms that tend to project a dazzling and miraculous liberty are only revolutionary homilies. even the increase of oppression and abjection that works like the liberating ecstasy of abjection — just as the absolute commodity works like the liberating form of the commodity. subversive passion. For example. and it certainly is to the passions and enterprises of [hu]man. this derision. but their prodigious and eccentric form. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. seductive passion. a human being can find in a vacation a greater boredom than in everyday life — a redoubled boredom. increase is salvation and ecstasy.doc 7/20/08 33 File Title A2 Perm The strategy of the object is our fatal strategy. which is a grand act of self-surpassing. . to be commuted into spectacle. instead they want to find a fatal distraction. but in the magic of their effect — there only they appear great and do themselves the luxury of existing. a drive for pure event. it haunts nonetheless the process of events. We think of nature as indifferent. the most secret facts and thoughts.

which of itself creates a parody effect. which can’t be combined with the affirmative. superconductive of illusion and non-meaning. exorbitated — i.doc 7/20/08 34 File Title A2 Perm – Ironic Strategies Can’t Include the Subject Stances of irony are purely stances of the object. This is exemplified by the 1AC – they criticize the given meanings of SUVs and expose them as false. of our objects. and the irony of that incorporated double shines out at every moment in every fragment of our signs. It is. p. It is the power of the object which cuts a swathe through the very artifice we have imposed on it.e. No longer any need for a critical consciousness to hold up the mirror of its double to the world: our modern world swallowed its double when it lost its shadow. objects. At the heart of our universe of signs there is an evil genius of advertising. although they will try to claim otherwise. they discard their meanings effortlessly. This is all part of their visible. perform an artificial and ironic function. still believes in identifiable meanings of particular signs. The critical function of the subject has given way to the ironic function of the object. all too visible sequencing. . that of the artificial. Its essence is promotional. For it is no longer a function of the subject. Stripped of all illusion by technology. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. it is an objective function. object world which surrounds us. as the Surrealists did: things move to shed an ironic light on themselves all on their own. through the spectrum of the sign and the commodity. the object which refracts the subject and imposes upon it its presence and its random form. but the operator of the objective irony of the world. 1996. taken out of the orbit of the subject — it is then that it becomes a pure object. its stereophony and its artificial instantaneity. a trickster who has absorbed the drollery of the commodity and its mise en scene. It alone is the guardian of the mystery. No longer any need to confront objects with the absurdity of their functions. The aura of our world is no longer sacred. Once they have passed through the medium or through the image. but that of the absolute commodity. thus positively identifying their meanings as “not the given ones. There is something of revenge in this: the object becomes a strange attractor.Whitman College 85911615. stripped of all connotation of meaning and value. which has annihilated all others. in which the absence and transparency of the subject is reflected. by their very existence. All metaphysics is swept away by this turnabout in which the subject is no longer the master of representation (‘I’ll be your mirror’). its discontinuity its fragmentation.” We should abandon all hopes of finding any meaning at all in these systems of signs – only doing that allows the strategy of the object. 73-74 Irony is the only spiritual form in the modern world. but it is no longer ours to exercise. in a poetic unreality. Jean Baudrillard. henceforth. The Perfect Crime. of our models. Our strategies are incompatible fundamentally because the affirmative. A scriptwriter of genius (capital itself?) has dragged the world into a phantasmagoria of which we are all the fascinated victims. We no longer have the sacred horizon of appearances.

heirs to the philosophers of the Enlightenment in their contempt of the masses) are only good basically for this: to administer by delegation. corresponding to an unconscious that is finally ironic. sovereign lack of will. p. The assumption of the alienated masses is something made by the affirmative. ironic challenge. But perhaps our true unconscious is in this ironic power of withdrawal. We reproach them vigorously for these signs of stupidity and passivity. wills. It would instead be made up out of what’s left after this joyous expulsion of all encumbering superstructures of being and will. subjectively. of all enlightenment and depths of meaning. intellectual. joyous and seductive. the object-masses. non-knowledge. Our unconscious might not be composed of desires properly sworn to the sad destiny of repression. Upon our entire philosophy lies the heavy weight of these sad correlations. the status of these “privileged” classes. alienated way.Whitman College 85911615. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. this tedious business of power and will. it would be interesting to conceive of the masses. Vicarious*. That couldn’t be further from the truth. But they’re not that at all: the masses are very snobbish. allusive strategy. toward the secret finalities of the very masses they despise. a sad vision of the unconscious (repressed). silence. We always had a sad vision of the masses (alienated). as possessing a delusive.doc 7/20/08 35 File Title AT: Passivity Bad/Whatever Else the 2AC Says Their arguments assume we embrace the masses’ passivity in a sad. by proxy. they act like Brummel and sovereignly delegate the faculty of choice to someone else. whose will would have been diverted. absorption then expulsion of all powers. to recall Veblen’s concept. It might not even be repressed at all. not us – we affirm the masses’ passivity and lack of choice as a joyous. or secret ruse. in a sort of game of irresponsibility. 1990. in a paradoxical mode. The masses know they are powerless. of non-desire. 98-99 The masses know that they know nothing and they have no desire to know. If only for the sake of change. liberatory gesture. a strategy that eludes capture by power. We live all of this. since these masses coexist in us with the intelligent and voluntary being who condemns and scorns them. because of an insistance which is thereby bathed in the light of a ridiculous looking halo. Jean Baudrillard. No one knows what the true opposite of consciousness is — unless it be this unconscious of repression that psychoanalysis has imposed upon us. All mediators (political. and they don’t want power. Fatal Strategies. illusive. and then to reward them with the spectacle of it. . to relieve the masses of this transendence for their greater pleasure. without their realizing it.

That did not happen in the Gulf. In the past. All that is singular and irreducible must be reduced and absorbed. and the fate of their technologically inferior tanks. can this be called a war?” (6 7—8) In his defence of the rationalist outlook which rejects the postmodern reduction of truth to consensus belief. But these are secondary phenomena. They are the consequences of a law of uneven development. A perfect semblance of victory for the Americans was exchanged for the perfect semblance of defeat for Iraq. The Iraqi regime was allowed to remain intact. Other commentators have argued that the disparity between the aims. like Saddam Hussein. and a form of slaughter practised by US and UK air and ground forces upon Iraqi soldiers and civilians. The final irony of the whole episode is that. and its army permitted to crush the Kurdish and Shiite rebellions. In several respects. it is because they are in conflict with third world forces who do not recognise that the rules of the game have changed. The claim that war itself has become virtual does not mean that military conflicts do not occur: they do and with increasing frequency and savagery in the New World Order. and the short-Lived political and economic benefits at home. a lever of last resort employed only to the extent that is necessary to bring the recalcitrant party into line. say. but rather that what took place was not a war. However. The almost complete absence of any engagement by Iraqi planes. it involves two sides in combat. This is the law of democracy and the New World Order. deterrence breaks down for lack of any common ground.doc 7/20/08 36 File Title A2 “You Deny the Reality of War” Our argument is not that nothing happened in the Gulf. an exercise in domination rather than an act of war. The crucial stake in the Gulf affair. testify to the one-sided nature of the conflict: “it is as though the Iraqis were electrocuted.Whitman College 85911615. apart from the massive damage and suffering inflicted upon Iraq.. it is as though it never happened. what took place was not a war in any traditional logic. operate according to different rules. and a staunch critic of US foreign policy. but in exchange for the rights of minorities in Iraq. The imbalance of military means was such that this was not a conflict in which the survival of both sides was in play. in the case of the Gulf conflict. The Gulf War Did Not Take Place. Lecturer in Philosophy at the University of Sydney. very little changed as a result of the military conflict. and prepared to tolerate the massive casualties which would result from a ground-based war of attrition.” (86) This is not war. Where they do involve first world powers such as the US or UK.. running towards the television journalists in order to surrender or immobilised beside their tanks . They are police operations rather than wars. and it is this failure of communication which leads to the use of force. Whereas Iraq was disposed to fight in the manner of its previous war with Iran. The same Americans who had systematically destroyed Iraq’s power grid and transport infrastructure now refused to enforce the law of democracy and the New World Order where this would entail intervening in the internal affairs of a sovereign state. Norris points to the figure of Chomsky as someone who is both a defender of Enlightenment ideals in morality and the philosophy of language. was the subordination of Islam to the global order: “Our wars thus have less to do with the confrontation of warriors than with the domestication of the refractory forces on the planet . and when it did the outcome was entirely predictable. p. . From a political point of view. methods and military technology of the two sides was so great that what occurred cannot be considered an adversarial encounter. the US and its allies sought a rapid conflict based upon airpower. the Gulf War did not take place. but an entirely asymmetrical operation. The rights of Kuwait may have been restored. it was no longer clear what had been gained by the sacrifice of so many lives.. a model of the liberal and critical intellectual. 1995. The image of a just war fought between the forces of freedom and those of tyranny dissolved in the moral ambiguities of the postconflict period. He writes: “As I understand the concept ‘war’. Baudrillard’s argument in “The Gulf War did not take place” is not that nothing took place. and the extensive use of electronic warfare. Baudrillard argues. located for the most part in a political and military third world. this was not the case in the Gulf conflict. or who. like the persistence of sweatshops alongside fully automated production facilities. which means it defies the logic of their criticism. that it was a hoax like the moon landing or something. war has always involved an antagonistic and destructive confrontation between adversaries.(71) In short.”20 He goes on to describe the successive phases of the conflict as involving varieties of state terrorism practised on both sides. high-technology intelligence and weapons systems. Yet Chomsky has also questioned whether what took place in the Gulf in 1990-1 was a war. The disparity between US and Iraqi forces with regard to method and military technology was so great that direct engagement rarely took place. and even if it were. does the fact of military conflict constitute a refutation of the hypothesis that there was no Gulf War? It does only if we accept that what did take place out there in the desert beyond the reach of the TV cameras was in fact a war. In these cases. Paul Patton. 1720 Does the refusal of the critical strategy which seeks to re-establish the truth of what happened commit Baudrillard to the irrationalist denial that any military engagement took place? Alternatively. the use of force remains carefully circumscribed. a dual relation between warring parties.. shooting at each other. Rather. lobotomised.

1996. crisis-based ethics and politics are problematic because they distract attention from the need for sustained resistance to the enmeshed. and at that point it is difficult not to respond in ways that make resisters drop all other political priorities. Neglecting the omnipresence of militarism allows the false belief that the absence of declared armed conflicts is peace. Cuomo. Seeing war as necessarily embedded in constant military presence draws attention to the fact that horrific. and that it is perpetrated by military institutions and other militaristic agents of the state. omnipresent systems of domination and oppression that so often function as givens in most people's lives. the polar opposite of war. Antiwar resistance is then mobilized when the "real" violence finally occurs. For any feminism that aims to resist oppression and create alternative social and political options. . to maintain this false belief. all of the time. It is particularly easy for those whose lives are shaped by the safety of privilege. and who do not regularly encounter the realities of militarism. The belief that militarism is an ethical. online Ethical approaches that do not attend to the ways in which warfare and military practices are woven into the very fabric of life in twenty-first century technological states lead to crisis-based politics and analyses. creates forms of resistance to militarism that are merely exercises in crisis control. Hypatia Special Issues: Women and Violence Volume 11 Number 4. or when the stability of privilege is directly threatened. assistant professor of philosophy and women’s studies at the university of Cincinnati. pg. Crisis-driven attention to declarations of war might actually keep resisters complacent about and complicitous in the general presence of global militarism. state-sponsored violence is happening nearly all over.doc 7/20/08 37 File Title A2 “You Deny the Reality of War” Treating war as an event disables challenges to state sponsored violence and militarism Chris J.Whitman College 85911615. political concern only regarding armed conflict.

.on condition that what you do does not effectively question or disturb the predominant political consensus. violations of human rights. but to question the hegemonic ideological coordinates.the new opacity. and. but even supported by the media. are performed against the backdrop of the neoliberal-democratic order and are tolerated as long as they fail to fundamentally change hegemonic ideology.they are tolerated and supported as long as they do not get too close to a certain limit. one should bear in mind Walter Benjamin's reminder that it is not enough to ask how a certain theory (or art) declares itself to stay with regard to social struggles . In sex. In short. any serious attempt to imagine a society whose socio-political order would be different. really changing. which precludes any serious questioning of how this liberal-democratic order is complicit in the phenomena it officially condemns. More then ever. 2001. there is nothing easier today than to get international. the reduction of freedom is presented to us as the arrival of new freedoms. Habermas designated the present era as that of the neue Undurchsichtlichkeit . but free promiscuity. In these circumstances. the prohibition to think. the actual freedom of thought means the freedom to question the predominant liberal-democratic "postideological" consensus .one should also ask how it effectively functions IN these very struggles. the example of the art fully integrated into the establishment. today. the shattering impact of the digitalization of our daily lives.htm. to directly intervene and change things (which then inevitably ends in a cul de sac of debilitating impossibility: "what can one do against the global capital?"). Today's liberal-democratic hegemony is sustained by a kind of unwritten Denkverbot similar to the infamous Berufsverbot in Germany of the late 60s . antifeminism.." as Lenin himself would have put it. denouncing and boycotting companies which do not respect ecological conditions or which use child labor) . One is therefore tempted to turn around Marx's thesis 11: the first task today is precisely NOT to succumb to the temptation to act. this will necessarily end in a new Gulag!" The ideological function of the constant reference to the holocaust. but also in our megalopolises. 2004 What are we to say to this? Again. but to PREVENT from something really happening. which are all not only tolerated. provocations in the style of the notorious "Sensation" exhibitions ARE the norm. All the frenetic humanitarian. homophobia. the problem resides in the implicit qualifications which can be easily discerned by the "concrete analysis of the concrete situation. between the rich and the poor. globally.the moment one shows a minimal sign of engaging in political projects that aim to seriously challenge the existing order. activity fits the formula of "Let's go on changing something all the time so that. the growing violence not only in the far-away countries. If. it means: say and write whatever you want .or it means nothing. our daily experience is mystifying: modernization generates new obscurantisms. no matter how radical. feminist and anti-racist campaigns. "Fidelity to the democratic consensus" means the acceptance of the present liberal-parlamentary consensus.com/replenin.1 More than ever. the gap between the First and the Third World. state or corporate funds for a multidisciplinary research into how to fight the new forms of ethnic. one is accused of abandoning scientific objectivity for the outdated ideological positions. gulag and the more recent Third World catastrophes is thus to serve as the support of this Denkverbot by constantly reminding us how things may have been much worse: "Just look around and see for yourself what will happen if we follow your radical notions!" And it is exactly the same thing that the demand for "scientific objectivity" means: the moment one seriously questions the existing liberal consensus. “Repeating Lenin. So everything is allowed. accessed January 28. in art. the effectively hegemonic attitude is not patriarchal repression. politically correct.doc 7/20/08 38 File Title A2 Reformism Particularized demands for change. one follows a direct call to act. sexism. of course. the answer is immediately: "Benevolent as it is. Slavoj Zizek. This is the point on which one cannot and should not concede: today.” http://lacan.. This kind of activity provides the perfect example of interpassivity2: of doing things not to achieve something. Greenpeace. professor of philosophy at the university of Ljubljana. things will remain the same!" . one should be especially careful not to confuse the ruling ideology with ideology which SEEMS to dominate. etc. as a critical topic: the prospects of a global ecological catastrophe. even if they seemingly enter the economic territory (say. this act will not be performed in an empty space . The problem is that all this occurs against the background of a fundamental Denkverbot. solicited even. religious or sexist violence.it will be an act WITHIN the hegemonic ideological coordinates: those who "really want to do something to help people" get involved in (undoubtedly honorable) exploits like Medecins sans frontiere.Whitman College 85911615.

It is nevertheless the map that precedes the territory. Something has disappeared: the sovereign difference. a material more malleable that meaning. A hyperreal henceforth sheltered from the imaginary. between one and the other. to all binary oppositions.that engenders the territory. Because it is difference that constitutes the poetry of the map and the charm of the territory. Never again will the real have the chance to produce itself. though some shreds are still discernible in the deserts.such is the vital function of the model in a system of death. perhaps. matrices. In fact. today it is the territory whose shreds slowly rot across the extent of the map. in that tit lends itself to all systems of equivalences. this fable has now come full circle for us. p. In fact. This imaginary of representation. . nor does it survive it. 1981. it is no longer really the real. remains. lobbyists. and from any distinction between the real and the imaginary. Simulation is no longer that of a territory. demographics. or the concept. It is no longer anything but operational. that no longer even gives the event of death a chance. It is the generation by models of a real without origin or reality: a hyperreal. because no imaginary envelops it anymore. Today abstraction is no longer that of the map. and if one must return to the fable. all of the real. because it not longer measures itself against either an ideal or negative instance. Borge’s fable is unusable. and possesses nothing but the discrete charm of second-order simulacra. No more imaginary coextensivity: it is genetic miniaturization that is the dimension of simulation. a referential being. By crossing into a space whose curvature is no longer that of the real. nor that of truth. that is to say of an operation of deterring every real process via its operational double. that constituted the charm of abstraction. Simulacra and Simulation.as the most beautiful allegory of simulation. the double. Because it is with this same imperialism that present-day simulators attempt to make the real. now we live in a hyper-pluralist stasis. It is the real. nor duplication. It is a hyperreal. produced from the radiating synthesis of combinatory models in a hyperspace without atmosphere. a programmatic. the magic of the concept and the charm of the real. even inverted. But it is no longer a question of either maps o territories. to all combinatory algebra.doc 7/20/08 39 File Title A2 Reformism Reform doesn’t exist anymore. nor even parody. Political reality is now purely operational. no longer at all spectacular or discursive. 1-3 If once we were able to view the Borges fable in which the cartographers of the Empire draw up a map so detailed that it ends up covering the territory exactly(the decline of the Empire witnesses the fraying of this map. a bit as the double ends by being confused with the real through aging). or rather of anticipated resurrection. models of control. The real is produced from miniaturized cells.Whitman College 85911615. of the real and its concept.and it can be reproduced an indefinite number of times from these. disappears in the simulation whose operation is nuclear and genetic. leaving room only for the orbital recurrence of models and for the simulated generation of differences.the metaphysical beauty of this ruined abstraction testifying to a pride equal to the Empire and rotting like a carcass. returning to the substance of the soil. and interest groups. It is produced from cable television pundits. Jean Baudrillard. Only the allegory of the Empire. and not the map. and its fall into ruins. which simultaneously culminates in and is engulfed by the cartographer’s mad project of the ideal coextensivity of map and territory. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. but ours. or a substance. and memory banks. The desert of the real itself. metastable. All the revolutions and reforms have already happenedthen the neo-conservatives pushed back.precession of simulacra. the era of simulation is inaugurated by a liquidation of all referentials. The territory no longer precedes the map. coincide with their models of simulation.worse: with their artificial resurrection in the systems of signs. It is a question of substituting the signs of the real for the real. from countless PACs. whose vestiges persist here and there in the deserts that are no longer those of the Empire. It is no longer a question of imitation. perfectly descriptive machine that offers all the signs of the real and short-circuits all its vicissitudes. It is all of metaphysics that is lost. on massive servers. the mirror. No more mirror of being and appearances. little by little. It no longer needs to be rational.

counterparts to the more terrestrial forms of exploration and colonization of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Classical science fiction was that of an expanding universe.doc 7/20/08 40 File Title A2 Sign production/Culture Crash Link Turn Just because you accelerate the process of sign creation doesn’t mean that you collapse signification itself. The everydayness of the terrestrial habitat itself elevated to the rank of cosmic value. but a desperate rehallucination of the past. raised to a spatial power (one could say) with the most recent lunar module.the satellization of the real in the transcendence of space—it is the end of metaphysics. the extrapolation. the perimeters of a prior world. has thus in a sense closed up again in universalizing itself—a universal market. Dick. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. to reinvent the real as fiction. rather. Hallucination of the real. signs. but of values. the imaginary from the givens of the real. But the two are narrowly linked. We can no longer imagine any other universe: the grace of transcendence was taken away from us in that respect too. the conquest of space constitutes an irreversible crossing toward the loss of the terrestrial referential. precisely because it has disappeared from our life. something like the principle of reality disappears. There is a hemorrhaging of reality as in internal coherence of a limited universe. Jean Baudrillard. of the banal. brought to light with a transparent precision. but reconstituted. 123-124 Perhaps science fiction from the cybernetic and hyperreal era can only exhaust itself. leaving no room for the imaginary—it is not exactly because of this that the exploratory universe (technical. in the imaginary as well. p. can only try to reconstruct invitro. of their original process. a reversal is produced— something else takes place. The conquest of space that follows that of the planet is equal to derealizing (dematerializing) human space. down to the smallest details. hypostatized in space. mental. of lived experience. Until now we have always had a reserve of the imaginary—now the coefficient of reality is proportional to the reserve of the imaginary that gives it its specific weight. the end of science fiction—the era of hyperreality begins. This is also true of geographic and spatial exploration: when there is no longer any virgin territory. once the limits of this universe recede into infinity. In this way. but without substance. models. There is no relationship of cause and effect there: it is not because terrestrial space today is virtually coded. emptied of meaning. The process will. Witness this two bedroom/kitchen/shower put into orbit. From then onward. or to transferring it into a hyperreal of simulation. in which fiction will never again be a mirror held toward the future. in its artificial resurrection of “historical” worlds. Simulacra and Simulation. hyperrealized. reconstituted as an animal or vegetal reserve. It is no longer possible to fabricate the unreal from the real. When a system reaches its own limits and becomes saturated. sometimes down to disquietingly strange details. . something must change: the projection. mapped. models of simulation in place and to contrive to give them the feeling of the real. not only of merchandise. the war of Secession. when the map covers the whole territory. and they are two versions of the same general process of implosion that follows the gigantic process of explosion and expansion characteristic of past centuries. besides it forged its path in the narratives of spatial exploration. the ideologies of the past. the events. 1981. and thus one available to the imaginary. of the quotidian. but hallucinatory with retrospective truth.Whitman College 85911615. the sort of pantographic excess that constituted the charm of science fiction are all impossible. the end of the phantasm. be the opposite: it will be to put decentered situations. cosmic) of science fiction has ceased to function. derealized in advance. registered. saturated. Thus in Simulacra by Philip K. The proliferation of signs leads to the hallucination and revisiting of impacts in their hyperrealized forms. of lived experience. Gigantic hologram in three dimensions. the people.

Control by the threat will be replaced by the more effective strategy of pacification through the bomb and through the possession of the bomb. 1981. Thus the very possibility of paralyzing a whole country by flicking a switch makes it so that the electrical engineers will never use this weapon: the whole myth of the total and revolutionary strike crumbles at the very moment when the means are available—but alas precisely because those means are available. One can no longer imagine what project. that is to say in the sense of a reversion of the whole cycle toward a minimal point. In this sense. so prettily named. Lockdown and control increase in direct proportion to (and undoubtedly even faster than) liberating potentialities. unusable. Entry into the atomic club. they deter themselves. Therein lies the whole process of deterrence. The same goes for the atomic reactors that we have already sent them. unintelligible. it absorbs all living energy. Simulacra and Simulation. believing that they are buying their independent striking force. This was already the aporia of the modern revolution. all of those who have acquired it since will be deterred from using by the very fact of possessing it). now neutralized. this vast saturation of a system by its own forces. p. control. Energies freeze in their own fire. what power. of a reversion of energies toward a minimal threshold). will buy the virus of deterrence. all risk of explosion. very quickly effaces (as unionization does in the working world) any inclination toward violent intervention. of their own deterrence. so many neutron bombs knocking out all historic virulence. It is still the absolute paradox of the nuclear. . Responsibility. and bombs to ever latitude. “real” use of it (as the Americans did in Hiroshima—but precisely only they had the right to this “use value” of the bomb. censure. 39-40 This is why nuclear proliferation does not increase the risk of either an atomic clash or an accident— save in the interval when the “young” powers could be tempted to make a nondeterrant. what strategy. it freezes everything around it. [40] The nuclear is at once the culminating point of available energy and the maximization of energy control systems. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. of an implosion where all these energies would be abolished in a catastrophic process (in the literal sense. what subject would exist behind this enclosure.doc 7/20/08 41 File Title A2 “The Case Impacts Still Happen” Deterrence makes your massive impacts impossible Jean Baudrillard. The “little” powers. the nuclear everywhere inaugurates an accelerated process of implosion. weapons. self-deterrence always grow more rapidly than the forces or the weapons at our disposal: this is the secret of the social order. nonexplosive—except for the possibility of an explosion toward the center.Whitman College 85911615. It is thus perfectly probable that one day we will see nuclear powers export atomic reactors.

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