This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
1 File Title
Baudrillard K Neg
Baudrillard K Neg.......................................................................................................................................................1
Baudrillard K Neg..........................................................................................................................1
Links – Policy Debate – Disneyland (1/2)..................................................................................................................5
Links – Policy Debate – Disneyland (1/2)....................................................................................5
Links – Policy Debate – Disneyland (2/2)..................................................................................................................6
Links – Policy Debate – Disneyland (2/2)....................................................................................6
Links – Policy Debate – Hyperreal Communication (1/2)..........................................................................................7
Links – Policy Debate – Hyperreal Communication (1/2).........................................................7
Links – Policy Debate – Hyperreal Communication (2/2)..........................................................................................8
Links – Policy Debate – Hyperreal Communication (2/2).........................................................8
Links – Leadership type Impacts – Saving Private Ryan (1/2).................................................................................10
Links – Leadership type Impacts – Saving Private Ryan (1/2)...............................................10
Links – Leadership type Impacts – Saving Private Ryan (2/2).................................................................................11
Links – Leadership type Impacts – Saving Private Ryan (2/2)...............................................11
Links – War Scenarios..............................................................................................................................................12
Links – War Scenarios.................................................................................................................12
Links – Preventing the “Real” War...........................................................................................................................13
Links – Preventing the “Real” War...........................................................................................13
Links – Rights/Revolution/Hippie Shit.....................................................................................................................14
Links – Rights/Revolution/Hippie Shit......................................................................................14
Links – Micropolitics................................................................................................................................................15
Links – Micropolitics...................................................................................................................15
Links – Leftist Politics..............................................................................................................................................16
Links – Leftist Politics.................................................................................................................16
Links – Alternative Energy – Tech/R&D.................................................................................................................17
Links – Alternative Energy – Tech/R&D..................................................................................17
Links – Alternative Energy – Nuclear Energy (1/2).................................................................................................18
Links – Alternative Energy – Nuclear Energy (1/2).................................................................18
Links – Alternative Energy – Nuclear Energy (1/2).................................................................................................19
Links – Alternative Energy – Nuclear Energy (1/2).................................................................19
Links – Preservation/Nature/Environment/Ecology (1/3)........................................................................................20
Links – Preservation/Nature/Environment/Ecology (1/3)........................................................20
Whitman College 85911615.doc 7/20/08
2 File Title
Links – Preservation/Nature/Environment/Ecology (2/3)........................................................................................21
Links – Preservation/Nature/Environment/Ecology (2/3)........................................................21
Links – Preservation/Nature/Environment/Ecology (3/3)........................................................................................22
Links – Preservation/Nature/Environment/Ecology (3/3)........................................................22
Impacts – War (1/2)..................................................................................................................................................23
Impacts – War (1/2).....................................................................................................................23
Impacts – War (2/2)..................................................................................................................................................24
Impacts – War (2/2).....................................................................................................................24
Impacts – Fascism.....................................................................................................................................................25
Impacts – Fascism........................................................................................................................25
Impacts – Violence....................................................................................................................................................26
Impacts – Violence.......................................................................................................................26
Impacts – Annihilation of Difference Impact...........................................................................................................28
Impacts – Annihilation of Difference Impact............................................................................28
Impacts – Cuomo – Ecological Destruction..............................................................................................................29
Impacts – Cuomo – Ecological Destruction...............................................................................29
Alternative – Strategy of the Object – The Children................................................................................................30
Alternative – Strategy of the Object – The Children................................................................30
Alternative – Fatal Strategies Alternative.................................................................................................................31
Alternative – Fatal Strategies Alternative.................................................................................31
Alternative – Strategy of the Object Alternative.......................................................................................................32
Alternative – Strategy of the Object Alternative......................................................................32
A2 Perm – Ironic Strategies Can’t Include the Subject............................................................................................34
A2 Perm – Ironic Strategies Can’t Include the Subject...........................................................34
AT: Passivity Bad/Whatever Else the 2AC Says......................................................................................................35
AT: Passivity Bad/Whatever Else the 2AC Says.......................................................................35
A2 “You Deny the Reality of War”..........................................................................................................................36
A2 “You Deny the Reality of War”............................................................................................36
A2 “You Deny the Reality of War”..........................................................................................................................37
A2 “You Deny the Reality of War”............................................................................................37
Whitman College 85911615.doc 7/20/08
3 File Title
A2 Sign production/Culture Crash Link Turn..........................................................................................................40
A2 Sign production/Culture Crash Link Turn.........................................................................40
A2 “The Case Impacts Still Happen”.......................................................................................................................41
A2 “The Case Impacts Still Happen”.........................................................................................41
Whitman College 85911615.doc 7/20/08
4 File Title
While ecology and limitations on consumption are laudable goals insofar as they solve problems like the exhaustion of resources, this responsible stewardship is inherently bound up with an unpredictable and uncontrollable underside – the development of renewables is a liberation of the forces of energy that amounts to a limitless proliferation culminating in the devouring of the very agents of that energy. Technologized energy is a Pandora’s box that we can have no fantasies of control over – it exceeds and defies attempts at containment. Jean Baudrillard, Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School, 1993, The Transparency of Evil, p. 103-05
The dangers threatening the human species are thus less risks of default (exhaustion of natural resources, dilapidation of the environment, etc.) than risks of excess: runaway energy flows, chain reactions, or frenzied autonomous developments. This distinction is a vital one, for while risks of default can be addressed by a New Political Ecology, the basic assumptions of which are by now generally accepted (indeed, they are already written into the International Rights of the Species), there is absolutely nothing to counter this other immanent logic, this speeding-up of everything, which plays double or nothing with nature. In the first case, the restoration of equilibrium to our ecological niche is still possible, the energies in play could still be rebalanced; in the second case, however, we are confronted by a development that is irretrievably out of balance. In the first case ethical principles may be brought to bear: a teleology that transcends the material process involved — even if merely the goal of survival — may come into play; in the second case, however, a process whose only goal is limitless proliferation will inevitably absorb all transcendence and devour all agents thereof. A full-blown and planet-wide schizophrenia, therefore, now rules: even as all sorts of ecological measures are being taken, even as a strategy for the proper use of the world, for an ideal interaction with the world, is being deployed, there is a simultaneous proliferation of enterprises of destruction, a total unleashing of the performance principle. And the very same forces often contribute to both trends. Furthermore, though the end-point of the first tendency seems fairly clear — to wit, the saving of our species by means of ecological conviviality — we know absolutely nothing about the secret destination of the second. But surely this acceleration, this excentric motion, must
have an end, must imply a destiny for the human species, a different symbolic relationship with the world that is much more complex and ambiguous than a relationship of balance and interaction? This too would be a vital destination — but it would involve a total risk. If such a destination has indeed been chosen for us, it is obvious that ecology’s rational deities will be powerless against the throwing of technology and energy into the struggle for an unpredictable goal, in a sort of Great Game whose rules are unknown to us. Even now we have no protection against the perverse effects of security, control and crime-prevention measures. We already know to what dangerous extremities we are led by prophylaxis in every sphere: social, medical, economic or political. In the name of the highest possible degree of security, an endemic terror may well be instituted that is in every way as dangerous as the epidemic threat of catastrophe. One thing is certain: in view of the complexity of the initial conditions and the potential reversibility of all the effects, we should entertain no illusions about the effectiveness of any kind of rational intervention. In the face of a process which so far surpasses the ‘individual or collective will of the players, we have no choice but to accept that any distinction between good and evil (and by extension here any possibility of assessing the ‘right level’ of technological development) can have the slightest validity only within the tiny marginal sphere contributed by our rational model. Inside these bounds, ethical reflection and practical determinations are feasible; beyond them, at the level of the overall process
which we have ourselves set in motion, but which from now on marches on independently of us with the ineluctability of a natural catastrophe, there reigns — for better or worse — the inseparability of good and evil, and hence the impossibility of mobilizing the one without the other. This is, properly speaking, the theorem of the accursed share. There is no point whatsoever in wondering whether things ought to be thus: they simply are thus, and to fail to acknowledge it is to fall utterly prey to illusion. None of this invalidates whatever may be possible in
the ethical, ecological or economic sphere of our life — but it does totally relativize the impact of such efforts upon the symbolic level, which is the level of destiny.
<<Insert More Links Here, choose wisely based off of whether it is a more critical or a more policy oriented affirmative>>
Marin did it very well in Utopiques. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. it is a deterrence machine set up in order to rejuvenate the fiction of the real in the opposite camp. The contrast with the absolute solitude of the parking lot. Certainly. All its values are exalted by the miniature and the comic strip. p. Marine World: Los Angeles is surrounded by these imaginary stations that feed reality. As much as electrical and atomic power stations. but this makes something else and this “ideological” blanket functions as a cover for a simulation of the third order: Disneyland exists in order to hide that it is the “real” country. Thus.a veritable concentration camp. Policy hacks come to the imaginary realm of debate to convince themselves that all that stuff they hear on CNN is reality. Whence the possibility of an ideological analysis of Disneyland (L. Jean Baudrillard. a whole panoply of gadgets magnetizes the crowd in directed flows outside. Debate. as much as cinema studios. is drawn. and thus of saving the reality principle. The violence of the real world is sustained by policy simulation. 1981.is total. play of space]): digest of the American way of life. who awaits his resurrection through an increase of 180 degrees centigrade.Whitman College 85911615. and to conceal the fact that true childishness is everywhere. panegyric of American values. this frozen. Disneyland is presented as imaginary in order to make us believe that the rest is real. The imaginary of Disneyland is neither true nor false. It is no longer a question of a false representation of reality (ideology) but of concealing the fact that the real is no longer real. Embalmed and pacified. But what attracts the crowds the most is without a doubt the social microcosm. like Disneyland. needs this old imaginary like a sympathetic nervous system made up of childhood signals and faked phantasms. the energy of the real to a city whose mystery is precisely that of no longer being anything but a network of incessant. international politics is just as much of a game as debate. Magic Mountain. is a fiction factory whose function is to reify the world outside. 12-14 Disneyland is a perfect model of all the entangled orders of simulacra. One parks outside and stand in line inside.that it is that of the adults themselves who come here to act the child in order to foster illusion as to their real childishness. in its banal omnipresence.a city of incredible proportions but without space. its infantile degeneration. Simulacra and Simulation. rather: inside. It is first of all a play of illusions and phantasms: the Pirates. idealized transposition of a contradictory reality. down to the morphology of individuals and of the crowd. Or. By an extraordinary coincidence (but this derives without a doubt from the enchantment inherent to this universe. jeux d’espace [Utopias. the Future World. without dimension. this city. of its constraints and joys. the religious.. which is no longer anything but an immense scenario and a perpetual pan shot. everywhere in Disneyland the objective profile of America. however. and in the sufficient and excessive number of gadgets necessary to create the multitudinous effect. In fact. . etc. Whence the debility of this imaginary. solitude is directed at a single gadget: the automobile. in the “real” world. but belong to the hyperreal order and to the order of simulation. all of “real” America that is Disneyland (a bit like prisons are there to hide that it is the social in its entirety. the Frontier. childlike world is found to have been conceived and realize by a man who is himself now cryogenized: Walt Disney. whereas all of Los Angeles and the America that surrounds it are no longer real. one is altogether abandoned at the exit. that is carceral). This world wants to be childish in order to make us believe that the adults are elsewhere. The only phantasmagoria in this imaginary world lies in the tenderness and warmth of the crowd. This imaginary world is supposed to ensure the success of the operation. Enchanted Village. Disneyland is not the only one. unreal circulation.doc 7/20/08 5 File Title Links – Policy Debate – Disneyland (1/2) Policy debate is about imagining the world of the plan. miniaturized pleasure of real America.
People no longer look at each other. is verified. etc. or lost bodies. a mental implosion and involution without prececedent lies in wait for a system of the kink. a simulated behavior of the underdeveloped (including the adoption of Marxist tenets) that. in the sophisticated confines of a triumphal market economy is reinvented a penury/sign. Marshall Sahlins’s idea that it is the economy of the market. They no longer walk. health food. which proliferate in California. in the guise of ecology. but they go jogging. psychic. of energy crises and the critique of capital. adds a final esoteric aureole to the triumph of an esoteric culture. or the lost taste for food. heaven. somatic recycling institutes.Whitman College 85911615. but there are institutes for that. One reinvents penury. But all the sexual.doc 7/20/08 6 File Title Links – Policy Debate – Disneyland (2/2) Disneyland: a space of the regeneration of the imaginary as waste-treatment plants are elsewhere. Everywhere today one must recycle waste. asceticism. to the improbable luxurious materialization of life and to undiscoverable contradictions. . legendary imaginary of children and adults is a waste product. On a mental level. and the dreams. yoga. whose visible signs would be those of this strange obesity. Everywhere one recycles lost faculties. belonging to the same order. the historical. They no longer touch each other. and money. vanished savage naturalness: natural food. Disneyland is the prototype of this new function. but at a secondary level: here. but there is contactotherapy. and even here. which correspond to the improbable coalition of luxury. a penury/simulacrum. Nevertheless. fairylike. the first great toxic excrement of a hyperreal civilization. and not of nature at all. or lost sociality. that secretes penury. maybe a mental catastrophe. or the incredible coexistence of the most bizarre theories and practices. the phantasms.
It devours communication and the social. p. to short-circuit in advance any possibility of communication (precession of the model that calls an end to the real). corresponds to this simulation of meaning and of communication in which this system encloses us. to deterrence they respond with disaffection. in each one of us. which means that you reproduce your harms Jean Baudrillard. It is the alpha and omega of our modernity. this homeopathic grafting. Thus. there is a rigorous and necessary correlation between the two.Whitman College 85911615. 1981. Belief. Immense energies are deployed to hold this simulacrum at bay. the integrated circuit of the negative. very much on the contrary. the media. but still. We are all complicitous in this myth. In fact. This coherence and logic is the fundamental myth of modernity. as a lure— to which the force of myth is attached. that of the hyperreal.” More and more information is invaded by this kind of phantom content. Rather than producing meaning. Whoever is underexposed to the media is dissocialized or virtually asocial. blackmail through speech: “You are concerned. . listeners who call in. Useless to ask which is the first term. despite its dysfunctions and irrationalities. Thus information dissolves meaning and dissolves the social. Everywhere socialization is measured by the exposure to media messages. it exhausts itself in the staging of meaning. The loss of meaning is directly linked to the dissolving. you are the event. But one can believe that this belief is as ambiguous as that which was attached to myths in ancient societies. the opposite occurs. without which the credibility of our social organization would collapse. the fact is that it is collapsing. A circular arrangement through which one stages the desire of the audience. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. Myth exists. More real than the real. but less. it exhausts itself in the act of staging communication.. it is a circular process—that of simulation. our intense analysis of the world does not produce more understanding. Rather than creating communication. to total entropy. One does not ask oneself. which as one knows. Everywhere information is thought to produce an accelerated circulation of meaning. this information ritual becomes encoded in the real. Thus the media are producers not of socialization. which is redistributed in all the interstices of the social—just as consensus would have it that material production. this awakening dream of communication. the pressure of information pursues an irresistible destructuration of the social. and even if the waste is enormous.” A sort of inverse simulation in the masses.doc 7/20/08 7 File Title Links – Policy Debate – Hyperreal Communication (1/2) Policy debate is intricately tied to the workings of mass media. “I know very well. there be an excess of meaning. The nondirective interview. on the contrary. but of exactly the opposite. not only communication but the social functions in a closed circuit. Information devours its own content. Behind this exacerbated mise-en-scene of communication. The hyperreality of communication and of meaning. or whether it is the simulacrum that is there first for dissuasive ends. the antitheater of communication. but. the mass media. or that it neutralizes them. opens onto an excess of wealth and social purpose. Moreover. as a whole. a plus value of meaning homologous to the economic one that results from the accelerated rotation of capital Information is thought to create communication. It is useless to ask if it is the loss of communication that produces this escalation in the simulacrum. or with an always enigmatic belief. One both believes and doesn’t. speech. to the extent that information is directly destructive of meaning and signification. there is none. dissuasive action of information.tying news articles together to create the most accurate representation possible of the real world and then combine them into a coherent and logical story. 79-82 Or. The third hypothesis is the most interesting but flies in the face of every commonly held opinion. and for this very reason: because where we think that information produces meaning. A gigantic process of simulation that is very familiar. participation at every level. that is how the real is abolished. is never anything but the recycling in the negative of the traditional institution. in a sort of nebulous state dedicated not to a surplus of innovation. To this tautology of the system the masses respond with ambivalence. 1. And for two reasons. but one must guard against thinking that people believe in it: this is the trap of critical thinking that can only be exercised if it presupposes the naïveté and stupidity of the masses. and the mass media. Well. 2. etc. to avoid the brutal desimulation that would confront us in the face of the obvious reality of a radical loss of meaning. a general consensus would have it that nevertheless. faith in information attach themselves to this tautological proof that the system gives of itself by doubling the signs of an unlocatable reality. of the implosion of the social in the masses. And this is only the macroscopic extension of the implosion of meaning at the microscopic level of the sign. Simulacra and Simulation.
Because beyond this neutralization of all content. anti-media.doc 7/20/08 8 File Title Links – Policy Debate – Hyperreal Communication (2/2) This implosion should be analyzed according to McLuhan’s formula. That means that all contents of meaning are absorbed in the only dominant form of the medium. the implosion of the medium and of the real in a sort of hyperreal nebula. whether they are conformist or subversive. which McLuhan himself did not see. Only the medium can make an event—whatever the contents. one could still expect to manipulate the medium in its form and to transform the real by using the impact of the medium as form. there is perhaps still a subversive. A serious problem for all counter-information. pirate-radios. That is—and this is where McLuhan’s formula leads. . revolutionary use value of the medium as such. in which even the definition and distinct action of the medium can no longer by determined. in the same movement. If all the content is wiped out. the implosion of the medium itself in the real. pushed to its limit—there is not only an implosion of the message in the medium. But there is something even more serious. there is. etc. the consequences of which have yet to be exhausted. the medium is the message.Whitman College 85911615.
Whitman College 85911615.doc 7/20/08 9 File Title .
“Entering another round of Saving Private Ryan” is a perfect example of how neoconservative leadership impact authors write under the naïve hallucination of ideology and power. this kind of politics is like sexuality or permanent education (or like social security in its time). emptied of substance and legalized in their superficial exercise. it is often the last object perceived before the traumatic discovery.doc 7/20/08 10 File Title Links – Leadership type Impacts – Saving Private Ryan (1/2) It should be a measure of Khalizad’s argument that he depends on cinema to make it for him. the cinema is fascinated by itself as a lost object as much as it (and we) are fascinated by the real as a lost referent. that all previous history is resurrected in bulk—a controlling idea no longer selects.” Same misunderstanding.Whitman College 85911615. remakes the silent film more perfectly than the original. an affinity that is not at all political. retro fashions—no longer so much because people believe in them or still place some hope in the them. only nostalgia endlessly accumulates: war. 1981.” as one congratulated oneself on the “entrance of politics into the university.: all of this is logical. Post-history has rendered power useless. these death pangs of the real and of the rational that open onto an age of simulation. according to the same process that used to make lost myths live again. finds refuge in cinema. The illusion would be to congratulate oneself on this “awareness of history on the part of the cinema. aestheticized by retro)… Concurrently with this effort toward an absolute correspondence with the real. Jean Baudrillard. but emptied of references. denser. the period immediately following the war—the innumerable films that play on these themes for us have a closer. It is by the virtue of this fact that it takes the place of myths on the screen. the panoply of events. . 43-48. it is for this reason that fascism can again become fascinating in its filtered cruelty. chased from the real by the violence of history. The politics that enter the university are those that come from history. more confused essence). Thus the fetishized history will preferably be the one immediately preceding our “irreferential” era. It is unto this void that the phantasms of a past history recede. which is still less amusing. as irreversible: the fetishization of an object intervenes to obscure this unbearable discovery. the mythical. Whence the omnipresence of fascism and of war in retro—a coincidence. and particularly the last. in the same retro fascination. recopies itself. which is dubbed peaceful coexistence on a global level. because one is in something else. war. The great event of this period. This trauma (loss of referentials) is similar to the discovery of the difference between the sexes in children. Simulacra and Simulation. dialectical. lived in the march of history. and affinity that is not at all political. including the delirious use of its own technique) used to have a lively. full dramatic relation. a retro politics. unreality. cinema also approaches an absolute correspondence with itself—and this is not contradictory: it is the very definition of the hyperreal. this leukemia of history and of politics. it is history itself that invades the cinema according to the same scenario—the historical stake chased from our lives by this sort of immense neutralization. One can explain it by evoking the Freudian theory of fetishism (perhaps also a retro hypothesis). The cinema and the imaginary (the novelistic. Hypotyposis and specularity. History is our lost referential. or the revolutionary struggles. and pacified monotony on the quotidian level—this history exorcised by a slowly or brutally congealing society celebrates its resurrection in force on the screen. retroactivates its original myths. fascism. in the euphoric or catastrophic expectation of a revolution—today one has the impression that history has retreated. Anything serves to escape this void. but simply to resurrect the period whet at least there was history. In a violent and contemporary period of history (let’s say between the two world wars and the cold war). but precisely. that is to say our myth. as serious. Myth. that is. this hemorrhage of values—it is in proportion to this distress that all content can be evoked pell-mell. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. is this decline of strong referentials. as profound. Cinema plagiarizes itself. with the air of a game and a field of adventure. The affirmative simply recycles the signs of power. Whereas so many generations. the pageantry of the belle époque. remakes its classics. everything is equivalent and is mixed indiscriminately in the same morose and funereal exaltation. There is however a privileging of the immediately preceding era (fascism. says Freud. it is naïve to conclude that the evocation of fascism signals a current renewal of fascism (it is precisely because one is no longer there. it is naïve to conclude that the evocation of fascism and of war in retro—a coincidence. at least there was violence (albeit fascist). this object is not just any object. traversed by currents. when at least life and death were at stake. It is the golden age of despotic and legendary resurrections. Today. p. etc. it is a myth that invades cinema as imaginary content. ideologies. they just can’t get over it. the great trauma. more perverse. same mystification. posthumous liberalization. leaving behind it an indifferent nebula.
It only resurrects ghosts. to the restitution of an absolute simulacrum of the past or the present. and to the advent of the archive. .Whitman College 85911615.doc 7/20/08 11 File Title Links – Leadership type Impacts – Saving Private Ryan (2/2) The relation that is being formed today between the cinema and the real is an inverse. It is this fabulous character. the mythical energy of an event or of a narrative. perhaps. “objective form at the expense of the myths that once traversed it. Photography and cinema contributed in large part to the secularization of history. is also the age of the novel. this negative and implacable fidelity to the materiality of the past. if one can call it that. which was substituted for all other value—we are all complicitous in this. Behind a performative and demonstrative logic: the obsession with real time or with the minute quotidianeity of Jeanne Hilmann doing the dishes). History is a strong myth. along with the unconscious. to fixing it in its visible. the asexual nuptials of two cold media that evolve in an asymptotic line toward each other: the cinema attempting to abolish itself in the cinematographic (or televised) hyperreal. Today cinema can place all its talent. the cool promiscuity. the last great myth. The cold collage. to a particular scene of the past or of the present. The age of history. that today seems to be increasingly lost. Because cinema itself contributed to the disappearance of history. all its technology in the service of reanimating what it itself contributed to liquidating. It is a myth that at once subtended the possibility of an “objective” enchainment of events and causes and the possibility of a narrative enchainment of discourse. and this is irreversible. and it itself is lost therein. negative relation: it results from the loss of specificity of one and of the other.
which completes the mass-spectacle effect of this war. the affirmative impact evidence traces out the mass destruction/mass spectacle of war-. and the same nonsignifying furor. of the organic metabolism of all the technologies.but one can always retrieve a tiny little idea that is not nasty. would not fundamentally have existed—and it is necessary for us to believe in this: the war in Vietnam “in itself” perhaps in fact never happened. it is a dream. Coppola does nothing but that: test cinema’s power of intervention. Apocalypse Now is a global victory. it is bewildering. it is the best possible testimonial— with the same immoderation. One revisits everything through cinema and one begins again: the Molochian joy of filming. This exercise in the simulated effects of war is indistinguishable from the means of war and the war itself. with the same clownish effect in overdrive.the explosions. but rather. but one of the reversibility of both destruction and production. in the mind of the creator. either about the war nr about cinema (at least the latter) if one has not grasped this lack of distinction that is no longer either an ideological or a moral one. The war abolishes itself in its technological test. the film becomes war. exactly as if they had annihilated the jungle and the towns. they certainly won this one. 1981.Whitman College 85911615. because the film is a phase of this war without end) what was already crazy about this war. the orgasmic sacrifice of industrial means. a psychotropic dream that had the goal neither of a victory nor of a policy at stake. one of good and evil. no desire for “raising consciousness” in relation to the war: and in a sense this is the brutal quality of this film—not being rotten with the moral psychology of war. the omnipresence of these reassurances is proof that modern warfare is simply an exercise in special effects. Jean Baudrillard.. of so many misadventures. a baroque dream of napalm and o the tropics. exactly as they are making their film today. No real distance. of the immanence of a thing in its very revolution. they are part of the special effect. that this film is part of the war—if the Americans (seemingly) lost the other one. but that of the film strictly speaking)? But there is no answer. the sacrificial. the sacrificial joy of so many millions spent. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. the two are joined by their common hemorrhage into technology. equal or superior to that of the Pentagon and of governments. no critical sense. the war as a succession of special effects. perhaps waiting for nothing but consecration by a superfilm. The war as entrenchment. that nothing separates them. a gigantic territory in which to test their arms. and he himself makes movies in the same way. with the same retro megalomania. and make him crush the Vietnamese village to the sound of Wagner’s music—those are not critical. they are immersed in the machinery. the war in Vietnam would have been nothing other than what it is. test the impact of a cinema that has become an immeasurable machinery of special effects. there is no possible verdict. distant signs. The real war is waged by Coppola as it is by Westmoreland: without counting the inspired irony of having forests and Philippine villages napalmed to retrace the hell of South Vietnam. irrational in political terms: the Americans and the Vietnamese are already reconciled. the same monstrous candor… and the same success. the same excess of means. the pinnacle of this failed war. and its apotheosis. of the carpet of bombs in the strip of film… . and one can even rejoice in this monstrous trick (exactly as with Wagner). Simulacra and Simulation. p. it is there. The war became film. their power. their methods. 59-60. in which. One has understood nothing. In fact. but that tells you the war in Vietnam and this film are cut from the same cloth. And all of a sudden. his film is really the extension of the war through other means. and one can say to oneself: how is such a horror possible (not that of the war. In this sense. right after the end of the hostilities the Americans offered economic aid.doc 7/20/08 12 File Title Links – War Scenarios Like special effects in war cinema. excessive deployment of a power already filming itself as it unfolded. that is not a value judgment. and for Americans it was primarily that: a test site. Cinematographic power equal and superior to that of the industrial and military complexes. and the remarkable paranoia that from the beginning conceived of this film as a historical. of such a holocaust of means. the film is not without interest: it retrospectively illuminates (not even retrospectively. Coppola can certainly deck out his helicopter captain in a ridiculous hat of the light cavalry. Coppola makes his film like the Americans made war—in this sense. he hits us with that. the war become film even before being filmed. It reassures us that war is indeed an extension of politics by other means. as technological and psychedelic fantasy. But there it is. global event.
26-28 We are in neither a logic of war nor a logic of peace but in a logic of deterrence which has wound its way inexorably through forty years of cold war to a denouement in our current events. this war is therefore interminable. The build-up is unreal. then of operations themselves. The most widespread belief is in a logical progression from virtual to actual. We prefer the exile of the virtual. We should have been suspicious about the disappearance of the declaration of war. p. their function of death and destruction. Peripeteias of an anorexic history or an anorexic war which can no longer devour the enemy because it is incapable of conceiving the enemy as worthy of being challenged or annihilated — and God knows Saddam Hussein is worthy of neither challenge nor annihilation — and thus devours itself. Extracted like molecules in an experimental process. a hegemony ultimately much more dangerous than real apocalypse. the aim of which is to present a face-lifted war. It is the bellicose equivalent of safe sex: make war like love with a condom! On the Richter scale. the asymptotic form which allows a brush with war but no encounter. It is the de-intensified state of war.Whitman College 85911615. We are no longer in a logic of the passage from virtual to actual but in a hyperrealist logic of the deterrence of the real by the virtual. That’s no longer the case in an age of simulation. as though the fiction of an earthquake were created by manipulating the measuring instruments. The Gulf War Did Not Take Place. the hostages are once again revealing. a logic of weak events. then distilled one by one in the exchange. to the catastrophe of the real. Everything is therefore transposed into the virtual. then of the distinction between winners and losers (the winner readily becomes the hostage of the loser: the Stockholm syndrome). not their real death. everyone is too ashamed of him: the collective shame which attaches to the hostage reflects the absolute degradation of real hostility (war) into virtual hospitality (Saddam Hussein’s “guests”). The passage to action suffers widespread infamy: it supposedly corresponds to a brutal lifting of repression. the transparent degree which allows war to be seen from the depths of the darkroom. the cosmetically treated spectre of its death. this is an Aristotelian logic which is no longer our own. The obsession with the real only strengthens the passage to the virtual. By dint of dreaming of pure war. which already presaged the disappearance of the end of hostilities. as though the irruption or the event of war had become obscene and insupportable. but the weak or phthisical [sic] degree. according to which no available weapon will not one day be used and such a concentration of force cannot but lead to conflict. No more than the politicians. It is neither the strong form nor the degree zero of war. the Gulf War would not even reach two or three. the privilege of real war. 1995. with every pleasure which is too real. Against this obsession with the real we have created a gigantic apparatus of simulation which allows us to pass to the act “in vitro” (this is true even of procreation). Deterrence has passed by that way and it spares no one. Jean Baudrillard. and we are confronted with a virtual apocalypse. we have fallen into soft war. They are pledged to the decoy of war as the others are to the decoy of power.doc 7/20/08 13 File Title Links – Preventing the “Real” War The affirmative engages in an obsessive quest to limit the outbreak of real war – this buys into an outdated logic that believes the real emerges from the virtual. they never die: at best they disappear. Moreover. with every real violence. no longer sustainable. of an orbital war purged of all local and political peripeteias. It seems that this obsession with the passage to action today governs all our behaviour: obsession with every real. There will never be a monument to the unknown hostage. Since it never began. . the military personnel do not know what to make of their real function. deters any passage to action. War has not escaped this virtualisation which is like a surgical operation. In this process. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. Our virtual has definitively overtaken the actual and we must be content with this extreme virtuality which. to which belong those in Eastern Europe as well as the Gulf War. thus to a psychotic process. it is their virtual death that is at issue. into the virtual impossibility of war which translates into the paltry fantasia where adversaries compete in de-escalation. with every real event. and its even more deceptive televisual subterfuge (as we saw at Timisoara). like every real event moreover. of which television is the universal mirror. the disappearance of the symbolic passage to the act. Even the military has lost the privilege of use value. that of the right to war under the green light of the UN and with an abundance of precautions and concessions. However. unlike the Aristotelian.
Everywhere what has been liberated has been liberated so that it can enter a state of pure circulation. 1993. yet which we must continue to reproduce in a sort of inescapable indifference. nourish the hope of realizing them. because of extenuation or extermination. The assumption of all models of representation. Now everything has been liberated. so that it can go into orbit. liberation of art. The Transparency of Evil: Essays on Extreme Phenomena. phantasies. This was a total orgy —an orgy of the real. as of all models of anti-representation.. The logic of viral dispersal in networks is no longer a logic of value. because all the goals of liberation are already behind us. The fact is that the revolution has well and truly happened. by becoming saturated or transparent. The state of utopia realized. A centripetal compulsion coexists with a decentredness of all systems. the rational. then. whether actually or potentially. ideologies and satisfactions. all the forms. things disappear through proliferation or contamination. as a result of their transfer into the secondary existence of simulation. we can only ‘hyper-realize’ them through interminable simulation. But that’s all they are – simulation. therefore. We may pretend to carry on in the same direction. simulate liberation. of all utopias realized. accelerating. But what can we do? This is the state of simulation. and because what haunts and obsesses us is being thus ahead of all the results . but in the sense of an increase in power. the chips are down. Political liberation. — — . is it a logic of equivalence. but not in the way we expected. but in reality we are accelerating in a void. an internal metastasis or fevered endogenic virulence which creates a tendency for systems to explode beyond their own limits. children’s liberation. or as a result of the epidemic of simulation. and we find ourselves faced collectively with the big question: WHAT DO WE DO NOW THE ORGY IS OVER? Now all we can do is simulate the orgy. by dying. Instead. to the principle of uncertainty. Rather than a mortal mode of disappearance. The fate of the things liberated is an incessant commutation. images and dreams which are now behind us. No true revolution of values can ever take place. and these things are thus subject to increasing indeterminacy. Your calls for liberation. wherein paradoxically we must continue to live as though they had not been. We live amid the interminable reproduction of ideals. therefore. we may say that the unavoidable goal of all liberation is to foster and provision circulatory networks. the sexual. Nothing (not even God) now disappears by coming to an end. sexual liberation. Nothing is truly reflected any more whether in a mirror or in the abyssal realm (which is merely the endless reduplication of consciousness). a state in which we are obliged to replay all scenarios precisely because they have all taken place already. to override their own logic not in the sense of creating sheer redundancy. women’s liberation. The orgy in question was the moment when modernity exploded upon us. There is no longer any such thing as a revolution of values — merely a circumvention or involution of values. a fantastic potentialization whereby their own very existence is put at risk. the moment of liberation in every sphere. With the benefit of a little hindsight. liberation of unconscious drives. freedom and revolution are prime examples of the simulation of values continuing in endless cycles of reiteration.the very availability of all the signs.Whitman College 85911615. messages. I would describe it as ‘after the orgy’. Jean Baudrillard Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. all the desires that we had been pursuing. 3-5 If I were asked to characterize the present state of affairs. liberation of the forces of production. of criticism as of anti-criticism. But since they have. liberation of the forces of destruction. We have pursued every avenue in the production and effective overproduction of objects. p. a fractal mode of dispersal. and since we can no longer.doc 7/20/08 14 File Title Links – Rights/Revolution/Hippie Shit The Revolution –liberation in every sphere – has already happened. of development as of the crisis of development. signs. neither.
especially since 1968. for everything is affected simultaneously and under the same terms by the virulence in question. aesthetics becomes transaesthetics. Pundits analyze every gesture. so that it eventually loses all specificity and is reabsorbed by all the other categories. The Transparency of Evil: Essays on Extreme Phenomena. by the chain reaction we have been discussing. When everything is political. but elsewhere everywhere else. then — viral by definition (or lack of definition). and it is not just everyday life but also madness. nothing is sexual any more. the word itself is meaningless. that are politicized as they enter the sphere of liberation. Likewise everything has become sexual. just like the aff. the corpuscular memory of an earlier life. The viral analogy is not an importation from biology. Politics is no longer restricted to the political sphere. knowledge everything is interpreted in terms of phantasies. and not a memory of forms or singularities (water. which is simultaneously the complete actualization of an idea. So what we are left with is the simple imprint of a faceless sexuality infinitely watered down in a broth of politics. This is an aspect of a general tendency towards transsexuality which extends well beyond sex.. language. but instead in business. art. All these domains are affected by sport’s criteria of ‘excellence’. Jean Baudrillard Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. metonymy replacing the whole as well as the components. The law that is imposed on us is the law of the confusion of categories. the perfect realization of the whole tendency of modernity. its venting through all the trivial variants of sexual incantation. in sex. it was aesthetic. Likewise. or the colour of someone’s eyes). nothing is political any more. media and communications. until it finally disappears. at the fractal. 1993.Whitman College 85911615. Perhaps our melancholy stems from this.~ — — — decompensation through its general spread into all areas of life. Each category is generalized to the greatest possible extent. as by its childish notion of self-transcendence. All at once. p. When everything is aesthetic. Perhaps we still have a memory of sex. micrological and non-human level. Sex is no longer located in sex itself. Thus every individual category is subject to contamination. Everything is aesthetic. Each category thus passes through a phase transition during which its essence is diluted in homeopathic doses. science. Everything is sexual. that the essential confusion of the epidemic takes hold. but infects every sphere economics. the transsexual. for metaphor still had its beauty. can hardly retain the features of a face. is no longer located in sport as such. AIDS is the reflection not so much of an excess of sex or sexual pleasure as of sex’s — . and occasioning a general commutability of terms has built its house upon the disillusion of metaphor. the sphere of mass processes..7-10 The possibility of metaphor is disappearing in every sphere. in terms of repression. Sport itself. infinitesimal relative to the total solution. it’s only inane babble. — — — . with the disappearance of sexual difference and hence of sexuality per se. Everything has acquired a political meaning. by haphazard and senseless proliferation and metastasis. everything is now aestheticized: politics is aestheticized in the spectacle. The real loss of immunity concerns sex as a whole.doc 7/20/08 15 File Title Links – Micropolitics There is no political activism anymore. sex becomes transsexuality all converge in a transversal and universal process wherein no discourse may have a metaphorical relationship to another. affecting all disciplines as they lose their specificity and partake of a process of confusion and contagion — a viral loss of determinacy which is the prime event among all the new events that assail us. by virtue of their extension beyond their own bounds this state of affairs is epitomized by a single figure: the transpolitical. But they cannot exist where contamination is possible between any discipline and any other. their annihilation by virtue of their very success. in fact.if everything is political. effort and record-breaking. the transaesthetic. sport. nothing is beautiful or ugly any more. the media. because for there to be metaphor. playing as it did upon difference. and art itself disappears. Fundamentally. and all kinds of activity in what is conventionally referred to as culture a sort of all-pervasive media.and advertising-led semiologization: ‘culture degree Xerox’.. and eventually manifested in the viral explosion of AIDS. Economics becomes transeconomics. in politics. then nothing can be because there are no longer any referentials designating what the political even is. When everything is sexual. anything can be an object of desire: power. It is in this diffraction of the sexual reality principle. and sexual stereotypy reigns in every last corner. Everything is political. and the negation of that idea and that tendency. and upon the illusion of difference. and sex loses its determinants. every facial expression. differential fields and distinct objects must exist. like the ‘memory of water’. and every article of clothing until none of it has any meaning anymore. substitution is possible between any sphere and any other: there is a total confusion of types. in the general style of performance. But that is the whole point: this is only a molecular memory. Total metonymy. Today. This paradoxical state of affairs. leaving a trace so small as to be indiscernible. sex in advertising and porn. meanwhile. too. even desire. rather as water ‘remembers’ molecules no matter how diluted. after all.
Simulacra and Simulation. or the prophecy. who nonetheless carry out a social function as fundamental as that of presidents). he is immunized by his impotence. Ideology only corresponds to a corruption of reality through signs. It is no longer a question of the ideology of work.Whitman College 85911615. to constitute a mortal enough danger to the group to be one day relieved of his duties. this changes nothing: the leftist penchant for detecting a rightist conspiracy beneath this brings out a false problem—the function of bringing depth to. like theory. to a dying system of democratic values. Nixon. because this system that is dying from being dispossessed of its death expects nothing but that from us: that we give the system back its death. he can only accumulate against himself the signs of reversion through murder. power has no other recourse but to artificially revive and hallucinate them. a shimmering. and liquidated. In the same way. Criticism and negativity alone still secrete a phantom of the reality of power.in fact. ephemeral vision of “good government”. It is always the goal of the ideological analysis to restore the objective process. 24-25. that is they are discourses of truth. Curiously. But already impeachment is no longer assassination: it happens via the Constitution. it is no longer a question of the ideology of power.doc 7/20/08 16 File Title Links – Leftist Politics All that power asks of us is that we subject it to ideological analysis. Jean Baudrillard. unbalanced person (and thought it is perhaps true that presidents are assassinated by unbalanced types. Watergate is still a mechanism for the ritual murder of power (the American institution of the presidency is much more thrilling in this regard than the European: it surrounds itself with all the violence and vicissitudes of primitive powers. etc. If they become weak for one reason or another. Rather than adopting the strategy of the affirmative and decrying the abuses of power. .that we take it seriously enough to oppose it. of its “suspension. It is in this way that the Spanish executions still serve as a stimulant to Western liberal democracy. end of the dialectic.the traditional ethic that would obscure the “real” process of work and the “objective” process of exploitation—but of the scenario of work. Nixon has nevertheless arrived at the goal of which all power dreams: to be taken seriously enough.” Power floats like money. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. chance. p. it is always a false problem to wish to restore the truth beneath the simulacrum. who was not even found worthy of dying at the hands of the most insignificant. End of revolutionary praxis. simulation corresponds to a short circuit of reality and to its duplication through signs. One must not resist this process by trying to confront the system and destroy it. 1981. like language. crazy people.always good for countering the mortal blows of simulation.it reinjected a fiction of legitimacy. This is why in the end power is so much in tune with ideological discourses and discourses on ideology. from primitive societies to the present. was nevertheless ritually put to death by Watergate.—a simulacral contrast through which power attempts to break the vicious circle of its nonexistence. of savage rituals). exposing it to its own lack of substance and reality. or neurotics. of its fundamental irresponsibility. but for how much longer? The deterioration of all power is irresistibly pursued-.it is not so much the “revolutionary forces” that accelerate this process (often it is quite the opposite). etc. denounce. by demented people. These staged presidential assassinations are revealing because they signal the status of all negativity in the West political opposition. against power has always been fulfilled.. it is the system itself that deploys against its own structures this violence that annuls all substance and all finality. even and especially if they are revolutionary. but of the scenario of power. The Watergate scandal was in fact the greatest of windfalls for the power of the American presidency. the “Left. we should instead let power work on us in mute silence. Ford doesn’t even have this opportunity anymore: a simulacrum of an already dead power.” critical discourse. Fresh blood. which infuriates him. that we revive it through the negative.
we labour under the subjective illusion of technology. The naive illusion about the media is that the political authorities use them to manipulate or mystify the masses. Through the media. bringing about our ruin. similar to the one that prevails in the media sphere. ironically undecidable. an ironic phase of technology? A proposition which would deliver us from the Heideggerian vision of technology as the final phase of metaphysics. The illusion of technology makes us believe we’re in control and not the other way around. from this point on. Everything which will be done or said in the media sphere is. behind which lurks the evil genius of technology which sees to it itself that the mystery of the world is well—guarded.doc 7/20/08 17 File Title Links – Alternative Energy – Tech/R&D The Affirmative opposes fossil fuels. but the object which thinks us. but because we are no longer in a position to see it: that. by the unbridled virtuality we see outrunning the laws of physics and metaphysics. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. we behold the constellation. a spiritual form. far from admitting this. And would put in its place a conception of the gigantic objective irony of this whole process. Can one advance the hypothesis that beyond the objective and critical phase there is an ironic phase of science. Jean Baudrillard. in fact. then. but labors under the illusion that we can create new and better energy technology. An objective illusion. this is still the end of media Reason. It is at the point where the political authorities think they are manipulating them that the masses impose their clandestine strategy of neutralization and destabilization. from the retrospective nostalgia for being and from all unhappy critique in terms of alienation and disenchantment. All our technologies might. is it not the object which dupes us and mocks our objective pretensions to analyse it? Scientists themselves are not. It seems that technology has taken into itself all the illusion it has caused us to lose. from the post-historical snobbery Kojeve spoke of. It is the logic of the system which. for its part. which would not be far from radical snobbery. 1996. 71-73 At the peak of our technological performance. Once we lived in the age of the lost object. and that what we have in return for the loss of illusion is the emergence of an objective irony of this world. this operating principle is thwarted by its very extension. But today. The Evil Spirit keeps watch beneath artefacts and. now it is the object which is ‘losing’ us. The same hypothesis holds for the object of science. p. At the same time as reaching a paroxystic stage. it is not we who are winning out over the world. things have also reached a parodic one. in effect. that though the illusion of the world has been lost. the stellar course of the mystery. the irresistible impression remains that something eludes us — not because we seem to have lost it (the real?). The Japanese sense the presence of a divinity in every industrial object. whereas in fact the world is using this machinery to impose itself. is altering its determinations. the irony of the world. but also as the universal form of the stratagem by which the world hides behind the radical illusion of technology. be said to be the instrument of a world which we believe we rule. it is the masses who definitively modify the exercise of power (or what sees itself as such). carrying it beyond itself. none the less. . has passed into things. We very much labour under the illusion that the aim of technology is to be an extension of man and his power. The Perfect Crime. Through the most refined procedures we deploy to pin it down. Irony as universal form of disillusionment. Heidegger: ‘When we look into the ambiguous essence of technology. one might say what Canetti says of animals: that behind each of them there is a hidden someone thumbing his nose at us. a nuance of play and distantiation. It seems. Though this is. It is no longer we who think the object. Even if the two hypotheses are simultaneously valid. it seems. The opposite hypothesis is more subtle. For us. that sacred presence has been reduced to a tiny ironic glimmer.Whitman College 85911615. We should instead adopt an ironic stance towards technology. and we are merely the operators. and by which the mystery (of the continuation of the Nothing) conceals itself beneath the universal banality of information. of all our artificial productions. but the world which is winning out over us. therefore. the end of political Reason.
What is hatched in the shadow of this mechanism with the pretext of a maximal. “objective. Nuclear suspension only serves to seal the trivialized system of deterrence that is at the heart of the media. the balance of terror is never anything but the spectacular slope of a system of deterrence that has insinuated itself from the inside into all the cracks of daily life. A gigantic involution that makes every conflict.” threat. like the Trojan War. However. The whole originality of the situation lies in the improbability of destruction.doc 7/20/08 18 File Title Links – Alternative Energy – Nuclear Energy (1/2) Nuclear energy cements a system of deterrence. The political stake is dead. No strategy is possible any longer. The whole world pretends to believe in the reality of this threat (this is understandable on the part of the military. transforming the life left us into survival. social. in forms that are not threatening to the order of things. everywhere where the notion of security becomes omnipotent. indifferent. into a stake without stakes. and escalation is only a puerile game given over to the military. nor an adversary nor a strategy—it is a planetary structure of the annihilation of stakes. it is the system of deterrence that grows. only simulacra of conflicts and carefully circumscribed stakes remain. the gravity of their exercise and the discourse of their “strategy” are at stake). Pacification does not distinguish between the civil and the military: everywhere where irreversible apparatuses of control are elaborated. Simulacra and Simulation. Everything freezes under the lack of possibility engendered by the civilian and military nuclear umbrella. any story be deployed according to its own logic because it risks annihilation. p. and thanks to Damocles’ nuclear sword. implosive violence of metastable systems or systems in involution. but it is precisely at this level that there are no strategic stakes.not even into a life insurance policy: into a policy that already has no value). equivalent signs. Jean Baudrillard. Thus the money of destruction (without any reference to real destruction. through the sophistication of weapons (a sophistication that surpasses any possible objective to such an extent that it is itself a symptom of nullity). at the much greater probability of any real event. Deterrence itself is the neutral. for installing a universal security system. except without a doubt in the very initial stages of the cold war. and the unknown is precisely that variable of simulation which makes of the atomic arsenal itself a hyperreal form. rather. The same goes for peaceful nuclear power stations. of anything that would be an event in the general system and upset its balance. by zero-sum signs like those that regulate the “strategy of games” (but the true equation is elsewhere. any more than floating capital has a real referent of production) that circulates in nuclear orbit suffices to control all the violence and potential conflicts around the world. neutralizes. And this deterrence comes from the fact that even the real atomic clash is precluded—precluded like the eventuality of the real in a system of signs. The risk of nuclear annihilation only serves as a pretext. freezes them all. everywhere where the norm replaces the old arsenal of laws and violence (including war). it is deterrence that gives them leukemia. Massive war. And the progressive satellization of the whole planet through this hypermodel of security. There is no longer a subject of deterrence. 32-35. and violence remain. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. a simulacrum that dominates everything and reduces all “ground-level” events to being nothing but ephemeral scenarios. when one still confused the nuclear apparatus with conventional war) but. every finality. . revolutions and political subjectivity is no longer possible. every confrontation contract in proportion to this blackmail that interrupts. and political desert. Atomic war. politics. Only the signs of power. will not take place. Deterrence precludes war—the archaic violence of expanding systems. 1981. No longer can nay revolt. The most insignificant of our behaviors is regulated by neutralized. The balance of terror is the terror of balance. Deterrence is not a strategy. it circulates and is exchanged between nuclear protagonists exactly as is international capital in the orbital zone of monetary speculation whose fluctuations suffice to control all global exchanges. is the perfection of the best system of control that has ever existed. of the aleatory apparatus of all the choices that are made for us. of the violence without consequences that reigns throughout the world. The apotheosis of simulation: the nuclear. a universal lockup and control system whose deterrent effect is not at all aimed at an atomic clash (which was never in question. It is not the direct threat of atomic destruction that paralyzes our lives. and around it grows the historical.Whitman College 85911615.
of satellization of which the lunar module is the perfect embryo? Programmed microcosm. implosive. with its aura of transgression. which began centuries ago. by the immanent wonder of the programmed unfolding of events. Trajectory. environment—nothing can be left to contingencies. In fact. Because if the law. Now. the spatial and nuclear models do not have their own ends: neither the discovery of the moon. toward a limit that one believed would be explosive (revolution). ultimately. rather. Just watching it produces vertigo. A universe purged of all threat of meaning. of maximum security and deterrence that today controls the spread of the social. of finality. rather. fascinates. There lies the true nuclear fallout: the meticulous operation of the social. which unites with the model of death. is the function of the space program. nor military and strategic superiority.Whitman College 85911615. One no longer fantasizes about the minutiae of a program. but which has now entered its accelerated phase. where nothing can be left to chance. This is why the space program was so easily able to replace it in the 1960s (Kennedy/Khrushchev). . rupture. calculation. nothing will be left to chance. physiology. the model vectors of a system of planetary control (where even the superpowers of this scenario are not free—the whole world is satellized). Here as well. Fascination with the maximal norm and the mastery of probability: Vertigo of the model. and makes every imaginary involute. of the launching of satellites if not the institution of a model of universal gravitation. with its aura of violence. of contradiction. it is the same model of programmatic infallibility. psychology. or to develop concurrently as a form of “peaceful coexistence. this is the total universe of the norm—the Law no longer exists. but which for the moment is translated by an inverse. still taps a perverse imaginary. The exaltation of the crowds was not a response to the event of landing on the moon or of sending a man into space (this would be. the fulfillment of an earlier dream).doc 7/20/08 19 File Title Links – Alternative Energy – Nuclear Energy (1/2) The “space race” played exactly the same role as nuclear escalation. The vertigo of a world without flaws. the norm fixes. of accident. stupefies. Their truth is to be the models of simulation. energy. in a state of asepsis and weightlessness—it is this very perfection that is fascinating. of transversality. doomed to the descriptive transparency of mechanisms of information. or complexity in a sociality illuminated by the norm. moreover this is the essence of socialization. of the conquest of the moon. but without fear or drive. irreversible process: the generalized deterrence of chance.” Because what. if order. we are dumbfounded by the perfection of the programming and the technical manipulation. it is the operational immanence of every detail that is law.
. will today. In any case. is everywhere now. It is thus very naïve to look for ethnology in the Savages or in some Third World.it is here. in the glass coffin of the virgin forest. until it dispenses with it entirely: its autonomy is only rendered even more fantastic. The museum. but that for a long time has extended to all Western societies. Preserving the idea of an ideal nature will only expose the preserved object to a slowed down purification and a sterilized death. We are all Tasadays. customs fossilized alive as in a snapshot. and children included. like and omnipresent fourth dimension. rather than circumscribing itself as an objective science. will provide a perfect alibi. all so that we may all believe again that things are as they should be. and science itself has become pure simulation. and ethnologists.Savages who are indebted to ethnology for still being Savages: what a turn of events. tourists. We have all become living specimens in the spectral light of ethnology. Clastres are various witnesses.Whitman College 85911615. No one can touch them anymore: as in a mine the vein is closed down. science can’t help but die contaminated by the death of this object that is its inverse mirror. its object must die. like Eurydice. Thus ethnology. p. The Tasaday. But in the same breath ethnology grants us its only and final lesson. The confinement of the scientific object is equal to the confinement of the mad and the dead. that of the simulacrum. it is always murderous). they have become referential simulacra. again becomes the model of simulation of all the possible Indians from before ethnology.it attains its pure form. then artificially resurrected under the auspices of the real. sterilized. were the first victims. who were seeing the indigenous people disintegrate immediately upon contact. an entire culture. but the object will be safe. its object falls back into Hades.” It is not a question of sacrifice (science never sacrifices itself. In order for ethnology to live. Science loses precious capital there. in the White community. noblesse oblige. the secret that kills it (and which the Savages knew better than it did): the vengeance of the dead. of the blackmail of the real.doc 7/20/08 20 File Title Links – Preservation/Nature/Environment/Ecology (1/3) Your attempt to preserve nature only models the environment after a simulation of how we believe it once was. the day when the Philippine government decided to return the few dozen Tasaday who had just been discovered in the depths of the jungle. frozen in their natural element. which is nothing but the pure form of triumphal ethnology. historical retrospection. and o the resurrection of differences. And just as all of society is irremediably contaminated by this mirror of madness that it has held up to itself. in the metropolises. languages. Here begins an antiethnology that will never end and to which Jaulin. Castaneda. and by the pitiless reversal that the dead object exerts on it? Like Orpheus. Doesn’t all science live on this paradoxical slope to which it is doomed by the evanescence of its object in its very apprehensions. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. protected to death.a murder of which the Savages. like a dimension of life.gestures. the logical evolution of a science is to distance itself increasingly from its object. it always turns around too soon. Ethnology brushed up against its paradoxical death in 1971.simulacral Indians who at last proclaim the universal truth of ethnology. and. everywhere. but of the simulated sacrifice of its object in order to save its reality principle. It erases the memory of environmental destruction and replaces it with a museum-theme park version of nature. by dying. The Indian thus returned to the ghetto. at the level of the “open” museum where one museumified in situ. be applied to all living things and make itself invisible. 1981. This model thus grants itself the luxury to incarnate itself beyond itself in the “brute” reality of these Indians it has entirely reinvented. The same holds true at Cruesot. the object takes its revenge for being “discovered” and with its death defies the science that wants to grasp it. what a triumph for this science that seemed dedicated to their destruction! Of course. where they had lived for eight centuries without any contact with the rest of the species. as “historical” witnesses of their period entire working-class neighborhoods. these savages are posthumous: frozen. This at the suggestion of the anthropologists themselves. cryogenized. It is against this hell of the paradox that the ethnologists wished to protect themselves by cordoning off the Tasaday with virgin forest. of the hallucination of truth. men women. like mummies in the open air. in a world of simulation. lost to science. Simulacra and Simulation. 7-11. out of the reach of colonizers. to their primitive state. or of antiethnology. liberated from its object. but intact in its “virginity. under the sign of dead differences. Jean Baudrillard. an eternal guarantee. living metallurgic zones. of the murder of every symbolic form and of its hysterical. Indians who have again become what they were. instead of being circumscribed as a geometric site. in a world completely cataloged and analyzed.
but out of sight and far from the light of day. The cloister should have stayed in New York in its simulated environment. which at least fooled no one.the mastery over putrefaction that signified the mastery of the complete cycle of exchanged with death. which is devastated by difference and by death. Only absolute secrecy assured them this millennial power. one forbade visitors to enter the Lascaux caves. which would suffice to slowly exterminate them. the violence of a civilization without secrets.Whitman College 85911615. Nothing changes when society breaks the mirror of madness (abolishes the asylums. Well. but from now on there is no longer any difference the duplication suffices to render both artificial. Ramses does not signify anything for us. a visible continuum.” And everyone is supposed to applaud this restitution (as they did “the experimental campaign to take back the sidewalks” on the Champs Elysees!). Witness the cloister of Saint-Michel de Cuxa. which has again become savage in its way. which only knows how to condemn what preceded it to decay and death and subsequently to try to revive it with science. science. as in Castaneda. slowed-down mechanism. Whence this historic scene of the reception of the mummy at the Orly airport. and it dreams of it because it exterminated it by exhuming it as its own past. behind this defunct power that it tries to annex. We require a visible past. Because mummies don’t rot from worms: they die from being transplanted from a slow order of the symbolic. a visible myth of origin. which only gives a dead and circular response to a dead and circular interrogation. Our entire linear and accumulative culture collapses if we cannot stockpile the past in plain view. ours. to an order of history. The West is seized with panic at the thought of not being able to save what the symbolic order had been able to conserve for forty centuries. and then one visits the reconstituted whole). according to an unconscious reversion. There were two possible responses: either admit that this Law was not universal. there was a moment of stupor and bewilderment before the very possibility of escaping the universal law of the Gospel.) nor when science seems to break the mirror of its objectivity (effacing itself before its object. hatred of a whole civilization for its own foundation. or exterminate the Indians to efface the evidence. But mostly because our culture dreams. Irreparable violence toward all secrets. but an exact replica was constructed five hundred meters from it. Thus it would have been enough to exhume Ramses to ensure his extermination by museumification. or even simply discovering them. whereas embalming was a mythical effort that strove to immortalize a hidden dimension. To this end the pharaohs must be brought out of their tomb and the mummies out of their silence. master over putrefaction and death. our order. As ethnology collapses in its classical institution. only the mummy is of an inestimable worth because it is what guarantees that accumulation has meaning. the Savage fiction everywhere. We are fascinated by Ramses as Renaissance Christians were by the American Indians. with the pretext of saving the original. which plays at extricating itself from its object to better secure itself in its pure form. that is to say. those (human?) beings who had never known the word of Christ. if the Cloisters in New York are an artificial mosaic of all cultures (following a logic of the capitalist centralization of value). They are prey to both science and worms. their reimportation to the original site is even more artificial: it is a total simulacrum that links up with “reality” through a complete circumvolution. diffracted. gives speech back to the insane. etc. but it s the objects that invest it with depth.” The form produced by confinement is followed by an innumerable. of an order that would have had nothing to do with it. Why Because Ramses was a great despotic and military figure? Certainly. And just as with ethnology. We only know how a place our science in service of repairing the mummy. In general. one contented oneself with converting them. which one will repatriate at great cost from the Cloisters in New York to reinstall it in “its original site. demuseumification is nothing but another spiral in artificiality. It is possible that the memory of the original grottoes is itself stamped in the minds of future generations. Thus at the beginning of colonization.doc 7/20/08 21 File Title Links – Preservation/Nature/Environment/Ecology (2/3) It is science that masters the objects. etc. that is to say restoring a visible order. In the same way.) and to bend down before the “differences. which no longer masters anything. to conceal that it is this world. so that everyone could see them (one glances through a peephole at the authentic cave. In the same way science and technology were recently mobilized to save the mummy of Ramses II. which reassures us about our end. Because finally we have never believed in them. . if the exportation of the cornices was in effect an arbitrary at. To this end they must be exhumed and given military honors. after it was left to rot for several dozen years in the depths of a museum. and museums. it survives in an antiethnology whose task it is to reinject the difference fiction.
acting as if nothing had happened and indulging in retrospective hallucination. One effaces everything and starts over. Americans flatter themselves for having brought the population of Indians back to pre-Conquest levels. In this way. for exceeding the original number. more authentic.they are already purged of their death. They even flatter themselves for doing better.) Everywhere we live in a universe strangely similar to the original.doc 7/20/08 22 File Title Links – Preservation/Nature/Environment/Ecology (3/3) Repatriating it is nothing but a supplementary subterfuge. this overproduction is again a means of destroying them: for Indian culture. more cheerful.Whitman College 85911615. the imminence of their death. like all tribal culture.things are doubled by their own scenario. in the light of their model. their demographic “promotion is just another step toward symbolic extermination. (With sinister derision. This is presented as proof of the superiority of civilization it will produce more Indians that they themselves were able to do. rests on the limitation of the group and the refusal of any “unlimited” increase. and better than when they were alive. as can be seen in Ishi’s case. But this doubling does not signify. like the faces in funeral homes. . In the same way. as it did traditionally.
The game was already won. the holders of high wartime values should not be too discouraged: the war is no less atrocious for being only a simulacrum—the flesh suffers just the same. Tribal. the USA pulled out of Vietnam but won the war. Yet.Whitman College 85911615. nothing was objectively at stake but the verisimilitude of the final montage. behind this simulacrum of fighting to the earth and of ruthless global stakes. But. and in this sense. p. 1981. This war. Their untenable character must not conceal the fact that they were nothing but a simulacrum to enable the Vietnamese to seem to countenance a compromise and for Nixon to make the Americans swallow the withdrawal of their troops. Rather. communitarian. the ideological seriousness of war. China’s apprenticeship to a global modus Vivendi. so hard. That theirs is a Communist order is not serious in the end: it had proved itself. so long. “The North Vietnamese were advised to countenance a scenario for liquidating the American presence in the course of which. What no longer exists is the adversity of the adversaries. just like that of the charting of territories and disciplinary sociality. and wasn’t its unfolding a means of sealing the end of history in the decisive and culminating historic event of our era? Why did this war. When at last the war had passed into the hands of regular troops in the North and escaped that of the resistance. it could be trusted. The best example can only be that of the war in Vietnam. It marked the arrival of China to peaceful coexistence. demobilized so easily. misfortunes are even more numerous. The nonintervention of China obtained and secured after many years. whatever its allegiance. precapitalist structures. war exists in order to reassure us of the existence of ideological stakes. and of the installation of this deterrent authority. given the global process of the contiguity and simultaneity of data. The stake is thus that of a political relay. And the war ended “spontaneously” when this objective was achieved. of course. was nothing but a crucial episode of peaceful coexistence. 36-39. This objective is always fulfilled. at bottom. What meaning did this war have. subtly. remained unliquidated. is total liquidation. and the dead and former combatants are worth the same as in other wars. so ferocious. despite this deterrence by the orbital power—the nuclear or molecular code—events continue at ground level. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. took place.and war itself.” This scenario: the extremely harsh bombardments of Hanoi. Communist r capitalist.doc 7/20/08 23 File Title Impacts – War (1/2) War no longer has an ideological purpose. Something else. It is even more effective than capitalism in the liquidation of “savage” and archaic precapitalist structures. it would necessarily have completely disrupted its internal balance and the American political system. but whose objective outcome in war. one must save face. The moralists of war. or division of labor between two adversaries (who may even consent to enormous sacrifices for it) for the very end of reshaping and domesticating social relations. every form of exchange. of symbolic organization. . in its immense. because it took place at the intersection of a maximum historical and “revolutionary” stake. The other aspect of this war and of all wars today: behind the armed violence. The war lasted as long as elements irreducible to a healthy politics and discipline of power. even a Communist one. that is what must be abolished. the murderous antagonism of the adversaries—which seems a matter of life and death. Jean Baudrillard. with the equal complicity of the two adversaries. spectacular death apparatus. they no longer have any meaning. Simulacra and Simulation. That is why it was deescalated. one could let them take over. never spoken. the reality of antagonistic causes. the shift from a global strategy of revolution to one of shared forces and empires. is nothing but the medium of this process of the terrorist rationalization of the social—the murder on which sociality will be founded. As soon as the Vietnamese had proved that they were no longer the carriers of an unpredictable subversion. they are no longer anything but the duplex effect of simulation at the summit. This same reduction of forces can be seen on the field. unnamed. then. the war could stop: it had attained its objective. which is played out as such (or else one could never send people to get themselves killed in this kind of thing). Same scenario in the Algerian war. Nothing of the sort occurred. and to annihilate the presence of anything that would disrupt the global system of deterrence. the two adversaries are fundamentally in solidarity against something else. of language. vanish from one day to the net as if by magic? Why did this American defeat (the largest reversal in the history of the USA) have no internal repercussions in America? If it had really signified the failure of the planetary strategy of the United States. the transition from a radical alternative to political alternation in a system now essentially regulated (the normalization of Peking-Washington relations): this was what was at stake in the war in Vietnam. Total complicity. that is the object of murder in war-.
that they long ago exhausted their meaning and only live from an artificial effervescence of signs. who has the right like everything else to his revival. Thus one can completely miss the truth of a war: namely. in the most contradictory. etc. or recycle one another—a simultaneity of contradictions that is at once the parody and the end of every dialectic. All dramaturgy. and no one really accepts it.Whitman College 85911615. of the objectivity of facts. that there was an end to war at the heart of war itself. and even all real writing of cruelty has disappeared. the last gasp of an ideality of the body. The reality of simulation is unbearable—crueler than Artaud’s Theater of Cruelty. with a history of delay. of the lost “difference” of Savages) that all these things arrived too late. by a moribund ethnology. that all these events succeed each other without logic.) never started. in a profound indifference to their consequences (but this is because there are none: they exhaust themselves in their spectacular promotion)—all “newsreel” footage thus gives the sinister impression of kitsch. The media and the official news service are only there to maintain the illusion of an actuality. of violence in a system that was already taking it away. of blood. and that perhaps it never started. the retro. which was still an attempt to create a dramaturgy of life. catastrophes and crises destined to maintain a historical investment under hypnosis. All the events are to be read backward. to a second existence as the referential of cruelty). a spiral of delay. For us the trick has been played. . the two differential poles implode into each other. in the cold light of deterrence (including Artaud.doc 7/20/08 24 File Title Impacts – War (2/2) And also the reality of victory or defeat. toward a reabsorption of all the stakes without a trace of blood. ersatz. war being a process that triumphs well beyond these appearances. posthumous rediscovery of the gulags and Soviet dissidents like the almost contemporary discovery. Simulation is the master. Many other events (the oil crisis. or one becomes aware (as with the Communists “in power” in Italy.” said Orwell. except as artificial occurrences—abstract. of the reality of the stakes. “War is peace. Everything still unfolds around us. and as artifacts of history. it is that at every moment war and peace are equivalent. that it was finished well before it started. the pacification (or the deterrence) that dominates us today is beyond war and peace. to the phantom. parodic rehabilitation of all lost referentials. of retro and porno at the same time—doubtless everyone knows this. never existed. In any case. complete equivalence. There also. and we only have a right to the retro.
1981. . p. the infinity of capital folded back on its own surface: transfinite? And is it not the same for desire and the libidinal space? Conjunction of desire and the law. before thinking that we now take pleasure in capital. irrational. can already be interpreted as the “irrational” excess of mythic and political referentials. Jean Baudrillard. the final pleasure as the metamorphosis of the law (which is why it is so widely the order of the day): only capital takes pleasure. everything seems to escape this catastrophe of value. the reinjection of death. The Mobius strip.” to desire its own repression and to invest in paranoid and fascist systems? A malign torsion that returns this revolution of desire to the same fundamental ambiguity as the other. Formerly the discourse on history derived its power from violently opposing itself to that of nature. of a “political aesthetic of death” at a time when the processes of the disenchantment of value and of collective values. 1981. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. a “vicious” curvature of a political space that is henceforth magnetized. nor the Reichian one of the sexual repression of the masses. an enigmatic reversal that brings desire “revolutionary in itself. Not so long ago. said Lyotard. Fascism’s cruelty. the mystery of its appearance and of its collective energy. Fascism is a resistance to this.Whitman College 85911615. etc. the historical revolution. and it is a response to that. elusive twisting o meaning—where even the condemned at Burgos are still a gift from Franco to Western democracy. of the rational secularization and unidimensionalization of all life. if one divides it. etc.). which is no longer one of torture. nationality. sex and work were fiercely opposed terms. people. p. Fascism is the logical result of hyperreality. which seizes the occasion to regenerate its own flagging humanism and whose indignant protest in turn consolidates Franco’s regime by uniting the Spanish masses against this foreign intervention? Where is the truth of all that. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. of the operationalization of all social and individual life already makes itself strongly felt in the West. Mobian compulsion. Who will unravel this imbroglio? The Gordian knot can at least be cut. the mad intensification of collective value (blood. the discourse of desire to that of power.today they exchange their signifiers and their scenarios. Simulacra and Simulation. demented resistance. results in a supplementary spiral without the reversibility of surfaces being resolved (here the reversible continuity of hypotheses). circularized. eventually benefitting all ideological positions. 18. All the referentials combine their discourses in a circular. when such collusions admirably knot themselves together without the knowledge of their authors? Conjunction of the system and of is extreme alternative like the two sides of a curved mirror. its terror is on the level of this other terror that is the confusion of the real and the rational. even if it is a profound. but of the subtle.in a world without value or political referentials. a torsion that is like that of the evil spirit of commutation. reversibilized from the right to the left. Hell of simulation. with which no interpretation has been able to come to grips (neither the Marxist one of political manipulation by dominant classes. including paranoid reactionaries Jean Baudrillard. this neutralization and pacification of life. Yet again. maleficent. Overwhelming versatility of desire in Deleuze. the masses may turn to the extreme valorization of race.doc 7/20/08 25 File Title Impacts – Fascism Political subjectivity circles around. which deepened in the West. it would not have tapped into this massive energy if it hadn’t been a resistance to something much worse. 48 Fascism itself. today both are dissolved in the same type of demand. race. of the whole system. Simulacra and Simulation. nor the Deleuzian one of despotic paranoia). and as if involuntarily wanting what it wants.
Verify that your weapons are harmless. crises. and hence no repression either. but that cannot do anything against this indefinite recurrence of simulation. The simulation of an offense. You won’t be able to do it: the network of artificial signs will become inextricably mixed up with real elements (a policeman will really fire on sight. it is now impossible to isolate the process of the real. When in doubt.in short. It is necessary to see in this impossibility of isolating the process of simulation the weight of an order that cannot see and conceive of anything but the real. or to prove the real. in short.doc 7/20/08 26 File Title Impacts – Violence Just because everything is a simulation doesn’t mean that violence doesn’t happen. Simulacra and Simulation. The violence of the real is reinjected everywhere into a society that cannot accept appearances at face value. whereas simulation is of the third order.). The challenge of simulation is never admitted by power. demonstrations. one of whose functions is precisely to devour any attempt at simulation. but indefinitely refracted by each other (just like so-called historical events: strikes. But this does not make them harmless. because the law is a simulacrum of the second order. through the force of inertia of the real that surrounds us. Organize a fake holdup. It is the whole political problem of parody. and no longer at all to their “real” end. Jean Baudrillard. because it cancels out the difference upon which the law is based. it is in this sense that they cannot be controlled by an order that can only exert itself on the real and the rational. one will actually pay you the phony ransom). will before institutions and justice come into play. no longer with a specific content or end. and make it so that the operation creates as much commotion as possible. The impossibility of rediscovering an absolute level of the real is of the same order as the impossibility of staging illusion. the signs are the same as for a real robbery. On the contrary. beyond rational distinctions upon which the whole of the social and power depend. How can the simulation of virtue be punished? However. against this nebula whose weight no longer obeys the laws of gravitation of the real. But this becomes more and more difficult. on causes and ends. To the established order they are always of the order of the real. and take the most trustworthy hostage. to reduce very thing to the real—that is. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. so that no human life will be in danger (or one lapses into the criminal). it is there that we must aim at order. a client of the bank will faint and die of a heart attack. Transgression and violence are less serious because they only contest the distribution of the real. power itself ends by being . This is certainly why order always opts for the real. remain close to the “truth. Simulation is infinitely more dangerous because it always leaves open to supposition that. where they function as a group of signs dedicated exclusively to their recurrence as signs. whereas the former attacks the reality principle itself. it is the threat of simulation that inspires violence. the signs do not lean to one side or another. 19-23. Indeed. it always prefers this hypothesis (as in the army one prefers to take the simulator for a real madman). 1981. a referential order that can only reign over the referential. etc. you will immediately find yourself once again. How to feign a violation and put it to the test? Simulate a robbery in a large store: how to persuade security that it is a simulated robbery? There is no “objective” difference: the gestures. In short.Whitman College 85911615. beyond equivalences. The established order can do nothing against it. For example: it would be interesting to see whether the repressive apparatus would not react more violently to a simulated holdup than to a real holdup. as such it is as serious as the simulation of crime. lacking the real.” in order to test the reaction of the apparatus to a perfect simulacrum. Because the latter does nothing but disturb the order of things. anticipated in their presentation and their possible consequences. will either be punished less severely (because it has no “consequences”) or punished as an offense against the judicial system (for example if one sets in motion a police operation “for nothing”)—but never as simulation since it is precisely as such that no equivalence with the real is possible. because the real is no longer possible. because if it is practically impossible to isolate the process of simulation. airplane hijackings. beyond true and false. Parody renders submission and transgression equivalent. and that is the most serious crime. Demand a ransom. This is how all the holdups. etc. are now in some sense simulation holdups in that they are already inscribed in the decoding and orchestration rituals of the media. p. the right to property. of hypersimulation or offensive simulation that is posed here. But the difficulty is proportional to the danger. Illusion is no longer possible. it is as hyperreal events. because it cannot function anywhere else. law and order themselves might be nothing but simulation. Thus. to the established order itself. the opposite is also true (and this reversibility itself is part of the apparatus of simulation and the impotence of power): namely. a determined power that can only reign over a determined world. in the real. above and beyond its object. without wishing it. if it is established as such.
everyone unloads it on everyone else) and the panicked nostalgia over its loss. What every society looks for in continuing to produce. Whence the characteristic hysteria of our times: that of the production and reproduction of the real. they turn against power the deterrent that it used so well for such a long time. plays at remanufacturing artificial. disconnection. Today when the danger comes at it from simulation (that of being dissolved in the play of signs). it does nothing but multiply the signs and accelerate the play of simulation. but it is not longer anything but its scaled-down refraction (thus hyperrealists fix a real from which all meaning and charm. of the gravity of the economy and the finalities of production. the iron law of its power. has for a long time had no specific meaning. Thus everywhere the hyperrealism of simulation is translated by the hallucinatory resemblance of the real to itself.Whitman College 85911615. throughout its history it was capital that first fed on the destructuration of every referential. but also. power plays at the real. which increases as it disappears. and among those power is always in the right. and to overproduce. Power itself has for a long time produced nothing but the signs of its resemblance.a whole world adheres to it more or less in terror of the collapse of the political. “Take your desires for reality!” can be understood as the ultimate slogan of power since in a nonreferential world. all depth and energy of representation have vanished in a hallucinatory resemblance). the whole discourse of traditional production. today it is this same logic that is even more set against capital. that of the belle époque of political economy. and political stakes. The only weapon of power. another figure of power comes into play: that of a collective demand for signs of power. the reality principle. power played at deterrence and simulation. and dedicated to the effects of power and mass simulation). The other production. That is why today this “material” production is that of the hyperreal itself. plays at crisis. As long as the historical threat came at it from the real. It retains all the features. we will logically be under the total hallucination of power—a haunting memory that is already rid of it (no one wants it anymore. Well. disintegrating all the contradictions by dint of producing equivalent signs. And at the same time. And in the end the game of power becomes nothing but the critical obsession with power—obsession with its death. that overdose of a strong referential in a society that cannot terminate its mourning. that of values and commodities. When it has totally disappeared. The melancholy of societies without power this has already stirred up fascism. obsession with its survival.doc 7/20/08 27 File Title dismantled in this space and becoming a simulation of power (disconnected from its ends and its objectives. But it is too late. etc. on which to establish a last glimmer of power. that shattered every ideal distinction between true and false. deterritorialization. why not? That of desire. And as soon as it wishes to combat this disastrous spiral by secreting as last glimmer of reality. For power. Because in the end. its only strategy against this defection is to reinject the real and the referential everywhere. economic. of every human objective. To this end it prefers the discourse of crisis. abstraction. in order to establish a radical law of equivalence and exchange. it was also the first to liquidate it by exterminating all use value. even the confusion of the reality principle and the principle of desire is less dangerous than contagious hyperreality. to persuade us to f the reality of the social. social. Capital was the first to play at deterrence. Hyperreality and simulation are deterrents of every principle and every objective. good and evil.. it is a question of life and death. . all real equivalence of the states and the omnipotence of manipulation. One remains among principles. and if it is the one that fostered reality. is to restore the real that escapes it.
By eliminating the work of the negative. means to be dispossessed of the other. masters without slaves. An irrevocable destabilization. Being deprived of the other is worse than alienation: a lethal change. by eliminating all singularities in order to radiate total positivity. of the subject without other. The best strategy for bringing about someone’s ruin is to eliminate everything which threatens him. we are eliminating ourselves. passions without object. The project of eliminating the external environment under the logic of calculation embodies this process. salt without sodium. and it is this strategy we are applying to ourselves. life without spice. By setting off the chain reaction of the positive. Death being the great natural predator. rather. it is much more serious to be dispossessed of the other than of oneself. as it were). ‘Verfremdung’ means becoming other. 112-14 In German. a species we attempt at all costs to immortalize and wrest away from death — as we do with all our replacement technologies for the body’s organs — is doomed to disappear. Now. but perfectly coherent effect — released an intense viral pathology. can be seen in all that has lost its shadow and become transparent to itself. . No longer threatened by them. there are two apparently synonymous terms with a very significant distinction between them. strangeness). Even in devitalized substances: in sugar without calories. We have become masters – at least virtual masters – of this world. we have at the same time — by a perverse. What becomes of a master without a slave? He ends up terrorizing himself. 1996. by contrast. that of the subject without object. far from being negative. becoming estranged from oneself— alienation in the literal sense. as had the metamorphoses of evil which follow the advances of reason about like a shadow. no more hostile environments — no environment at all any longer. The Perfect Crime. ‘Entfremdung’. total performance. of an ultrapositivity of which it is the lethal embodiment. effects without causes. wars without enemy. thus causing him to lose all his defences.doc 7/20/08 28 File Title Impacts – Annihilation of Difference Impact The quest to obliterate all that differs and replace it with the image of the same leads uncontestably to the destruction of everything. to lose all otherness. it cannot but destroy itself (by ‘depredation’. p. violence. And of a slave without a master? He ends up exploiting himself. A tragic destiny for individuals and for our — self-programming and selfreferential — systems: no more adversaries. no more exteriority. rooting out evil in all its forms. we have unleashed positivity. For a virus. By eliminating the other in all its forms (illness. We have fought negativity and death. but the object of that mastery. The two are conjoined today in the modern form of voluntary servitude: enslavement to data systems and calculation systems – total efficiency. and that is what has become lethal today. This had escaped us. negativity. This is like wresting a species away from its natural predators. time without memory. This paradigm of the subject without object. by liquidation of the dialectical opposition itself. have disappeared. the finality of that mastery. death. not to mention racial and linguistic differences. Jean Baudrillard.Whitman College 85911615. of the same without other — definitive stasis and metastasis of the Same. or the slaves without masters we have become. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. is the product.
it is arguable that the ecological effects of war and militarism are feminist issues. copper. Warren 1990.gov/articlerender. located 55 miles northeast of Reno. according to the EPA Toxics Release Inventory.000 military flights contributed to the heavy air traffic over Washington. for instance. the DOD is seeking changes through the RRPI to certain hazardous waste laws—specifically. focus on the practical. and zinc fumes. and the Clean Air Act (CAA). and perchlorate into the area’s sole aquifer. King 1990.Whitman College 85911615.000 people at the height of tourist season. . feminists must be against oppression in any form. pg. both environmental and living Schmidt. and Marines into combat environments in the absolute best-prepared way we can. In 1999. We want to maintain the ability to use those ranges in the optimum way based on military readiness considerations. including aluminum. Joe Willging. not on other considerations. a 34-square-mile multi-use training facility in Cape Cod.doc 7/20/08 29 File Title Impacts – Cuomo – Ecological Destruction Treating war as an event ignores the environmental effects of this mentality and the continuation of military based ecological destruction Chris J. Hypatia Special Issues: Women and Violence Volume 11 Number 4. Plumwood 1993). and the Marine Mammal Protection Act. Military aircraft from DOD facilities also generate noise and air pollution.” . Compensation. the Comprehensive Environmental Response. assistant professor of philosophy and women’s studies at the university of Cincinnati. Though women are no more essentially connected to nature than any other organic beings. including the oppression of nature. was California’s leading air polluter. the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Now. Congress has approved legislation requested by the DOD amending the Migratory Bird Protection Act. is slowly leaching solvents. airmen. The DOD acknowledges that these laws have never been shown to have interfered with specific military training. online I turn now to a discussion of the environmental effects of war. the DOD points to a number of lawsuits and “close calls. portions of the Endangered Species Act. or if. Military training negatively affects the surrounding areas. 1996. Cuomo 1992. The DOD argues that even the threat of interference by hazardous waste litigation justifies its aims.nih.4 million pounds of toxic chemicals that year. The Massachusetts Military Reservation. That closure followed a lawsuit filed by the Center for Biological Diversity alleging that bombing at the range was killing protected migratory birds. if women's oppression is connected to the unjustified destruction of nature. or material connections between environmental degradation and women's oppression. the most recent year for which data are available. . . the Sierra Army Depot. as Karen Warren argues. more than 50. an environmental lawyer with the DOD General Counsel’s office. because I believe these effects to be significant to feminists for two basic reasons. which generate smog. Many feminists and ecological feminists have discussed these problematic conceptual connections as created or fueled by the dichotomous thinking discussed above (Griffin 1989. cultural constructions associate women with nature and help justify the mistreatment of both." and because it is so directly tied to other forms of ecological and social violence.” including the case at Eagle River Flats and the Navy’s 2002 temporary closure of its Farallon de Medinilla live-fire training range in the Pacific. Others. Our job is to send soldiers. sailors.pubmedcentral. attention to the ecological impacts of war further illustrates the limitations of only thinking of war in terms of events. a drinking water source for up to 500. As of this publication.fcgi?artid=1253681 December 2004 Nearly 1 in 10 Americans live within 10 miles of a DOD Superfund site—a sometimes perilous proximity. According to the Democratic Committee on Energy and Commerce. For instance. says in reference to the Farallon de Medinilla closure. these flights emitted 75 tons of nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds. jet fuel. but says it can’t afford to wait until training is shut down before it acts. The base released some 5.C. “We don’t feel it’s wise to wait for that kind of train wreck to see if we are going to lose in litigation. You can’t do that if you introduce artificialities into training. Charles W “The price of preparing for war” Environmental Health Perspectives http://www. and Liability Act (CER-CLA). including Vandana Shiva and Maria Mies (1993). D. In any case. Cuomo. Because military ecological destruction occurs primarily "during peacetime. RDX. As evidence of the need to act now. in 1996.
he opposes all the practices of disobedience. inert. Thus the strategic resistance is that of the refusal of meaning and of the spoken word—or of the hyperconformist simulation of the very mechanisms of the system. that is to say. conforming objects. just as obstinately. and efficaciously. It is the strategy of the masses: it is equivalent to returning to the system its own logic by doubling it. responsible. The child resists on all levels. playing the game—a form of blackmail and ultimatum just as serious as the other. impact of all the object practices. refusing to continue on as living alibis for the violence of the real Jean Baudrillard. Simulacra and Simulation. expressing ourselves at whatever cost. emancipation. of liberating ourselves. on the resurrection of a subject of history. But this is to ignore the equal. participating.doc 7/20/08 30 File Title Alternative – Strategy of the Object – The Children The system demands that we constitute ourselves as subjects. emancipation. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. hyperconformism. the maximum production of meaning. Children are simultaneously required to constitute themselves as autonomous subjects. deciding. and to a contradictory demand he responds with a double strategy. do not see that they are going in the direction of the system. and the constitution of a political subject are seen as valuable and subversive. producing. and to constitute themselves as submissive. whose imperative today is precisely the overproduction and regeneration of meaning and of speech. speaking. of the word based on “consciousness raising. of revolt. and even if w are still confronted with it. p.” indeed a “raising of the unconscious” of subjects and of the masses. the strategic resistance is the liberating claim of subjecthood But this strategy is more reflective of the earlier phase of the system. even more serious today. voters. which is a form of refusal and of non-reception. it is no longer the strategic terrain: the current argument of the system is to maximize speech. a total claim to subjecthood. Neither strategy has ore objective value than the other. because it was ushered in by that phase of the system which prevails. obedient. to the constant ultimatum we are given to constitute ourselves as pure objects. of the renunciation of the subject position and of meaning— precisely the practices of the masses—that we bury under the derisory terms of alienation and passivity. without absorbing it. an object’s resistance.Whitman College 85911615. of voting. The subject-resistance is today unilaterally valorized and viewed as positive—just as in the political sphere only the practices of freedom. total dependence. To choose the wrong strategy is a serious matter. to reflecting meaning. It blackmails us into becoming policymakers. To a system whose argument is oppression and repression. exactly the opposite: childishness. 1981. . To the demand of being a subject he opposes. revolutionaries. idiocy. in short. free and conscious. but they do not respond at all to the other demand. of the group. passivity. We are face to face with this system in a double situation and insoluble double bind— exactly like children faced with the demands of the adult world. and without a doubt superior. When all the revolutions have already taken place. The liberating practices respond to one of the aspects of the system. like a mirror. This strategy (if one can still speak of strategy) prevails today. 84-86 With one caution. that of constituting ourselves as subjects. of emancipation. expression. the strategic ground is to passively absorb appearances. All the movements that only play on liberation. etc. To the demand of being an object.
What remains but to side with this enigma? Everything can be summed up in this: let’s believe for a single instant the hypothesis that there is a fatal and enigmatic bias in the order of things. could not be insensible. The difference is that the irony of fatality is greater than the irony of chance. a dream inverse to its dream of totalization. of its fickleness toward objective laws. But the rules of its game. It’s the effect of a sovereign object that recreates in you an original confusion and seeks to surprise you. and even at the molecular level. God himself is forced to employ a trial-and-error method. Levi-Strauss claimed that the symbolic order had left us. Everywhere. now that all critical radicality has become useless. There are not enough means in the world for us to be able to dispose of ends. now that all negativity seems resolved in a world that pretends to realize itself. in turn. and they can change without notice. like the real is hyper-real. it would rather figure in our calculations as a sarcastic variable. The object (the Sphinx). must itself be a special effect. whose fatality would be a strategy —something like the rule of another game. Everything is expiated in one way or another. to which destiny. yielding to history. just as everything was caught from the start in an original subversion. In any case. What’s the use of trying to establish chance as an objective process. Basically. To find another rule. unravel those other strategies. it too must be engaged in the eccentric cycle of its effects. and compensates us in advance for the cruelest losses. Today it’s man that poses to the Sphinx — the inhuman — the question of the inhuman. Quite the contrary. What is more. for each of us. Today. but a moral ecstasy. installing thereby a strategy that doesn’t have its own ends: a “playful” strategy that stills the play of the subject. by which the object is taken in the very game that we wanted to make it play — doubling the ante somehow. and leave it to the equations to verify themselves. of the indifference of the world toward our affairs. Seduction is fatal.Whitman College 85911615. the object mocks the laws we attach to it. At the heart of banal strategies is the fiery desire of fatal strategies. There’s something stupid in the current forms of truth and objectivity that a superior irony could spare us. the question Oedipus thought he answered. a fatal strategy in that the subject thereby succumbs to the surpassing of its own objectives. And. leave the field open to objective irony. If I look for a fatal connection in language. redoubling and escalating the stakes are spirited forms of denouement. If there be a morality. Everything is headed somewhere. From seduction we look for surprise. Chance is also one. There’s something stupid in the raw event. what can we do about it? After the art of survival. We are accomplices in this excess of finality that is there in the object (this can be the excess of meaning. history itself has withdrawn. From any object we hope for a blind response that hampers our projects. No one knows what a strategy is. as everyone knows. and now that the critical spirit has found its summer home in socialism. What remains but to pass on the side of the object. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. even less a strategy. with whom do we share this ironic end? . And of course fatality exists too. But simply to delineate this other logic. no objective. We invent all these strategies in the hope of having them result in the unexpected event. But it’s certain nevertheless that in disobeying laws. another axiom: nothing mystical in this. in the irony of the aleatory. if it exists. the conditions according to which it accepts playing? No one knows them. it answers secretly to some enigma. to take up the cause of the object. in unravelling desire. no one is capable of articulating a final process. The strategy of the object allows everything to unfold to it in a fatal and ingenious way Jean Baudrillard. Fatal Strategies. escalating the bidding on the strategic limits it will tolerate. hardly answers. nothing of the otherworldly delirium of a subjectivity trapped and escaping headlong into a paroxysmal inventory. therefore. The hypothesis of a fatal strategy must itself be fatal. irony (of the Witz*) is the objective form of this denouement. at the knotting of the intrigue and its denouement). that we all thought we answered. I fall on the joke. From strategy we expect control. and one only. is seductive. Even predestination is a form of ironic subversion of fatality. subtler than man. Everything must unfold in a fatal and ingenious way. like the discovery of a hidden rule. the ironic art of disappearance? The subject has always dreamed of this. The discovery of a hidden rule of the game is dazzling. It’s the object. p. Nothing can guarantee us a fatality. simultaneously — there’s no paradox involved in this. At the end of all that. And if the Last Judgement consists. 184-85 188-191 if the object is fatal. if the object is ingenious. It’s true that this is a difficult and obscure route: to side with the object. and on the side of its eccentric and precious effects. of the fatal. and therefore the impossibility of deciphering a word that plays the game of meaning all too well). Likewise with the joke. of its fatal effects (fatality is only the absolute liberty of effects )? Semiorrhage. the conjunction of these two terms is paradoxical: how could there be fatality if there is strategy? That’s just the point: the enigma is that fatality is at the heart of every strategy. and the one has never been able to erase the other. and runs the risk of what it describes — but the risk is to be taken. 1990. if it is an ironic one? Of course it exists. there is something stupid about our current situation. The real we invent wholly in the hope of seeing it result in a prodigious artifice. and the effects of desire are largely depleted — what remains but to bring things back to their enigmatic ground zero? Now the enigma is inverted: once it was the Sphinx that posed men the question of man. which is itself the denouement of language immanent to language (that is the fatal: the same sign presiding over a life’s crystallization and its resolution. says Canetti. Today. as in the Witz. too. must itself be hyper-moral. Truth only complicates things. The interesting thing about this is the inexorable logical process that is visible here. The only way out is the fatal strategy of the object. no final process. in saving and eternalizing a moment of our lives. Its failure today awakens passions that are much more subtle. That also is a challenge — eventually it threatens absurdity. but against all science. must be no longer a moral stasis. a strategy precisely with no object.doc 7/20/08 31 File Title Alternative – Fatal Strategies Alternative All of today’s critical radicality has ultimately proven useless. It’s what peeks through the heart of more banal strategies. Fatality. which just makes it more tragic and more seductive. In language become pure object.
because. to be sure! How could an object have a strategy? It would be absurd. one can still use this term in a metaphorical sense perhaps. and perhaps even its reference to a finality. 2005 CTHEORY: How is the concept of strategy used? It is implicit that it connotes a form of subjectivity. But I like to bring these two terms together all the same to create a clash between them.com/2002_Volume_15/15_3/Article_4. But. Why not! It is. at the moment. That is not possible. Well. it speaks to the imaginary. Thus fatal strategy is. Let us call it strategy. strategy being originally a military metaphor. a process in which there is certainly no more subject. no more subjectivity. at least a rule of the game. There will not be any objectivity there in the scientific sense of the term. effectively. and this is.doc 7/20/08 32 File Title Alternative – Strategy of the Object Alternative Fatal strategies demand that we abandon the subject as an agent of politics. a representation of the outcome. an expression which describes a process. . I like to apply things that are paradoxical. I also speak of objective illusion. to what extent does it retain today martial connotations which complicate its sense even more? JEAN BAUDRILLARD: Yes. it is a secret. the flow of the world itself. Summer 2002. there is only a strategy of the subject. We witness the loss of subjectivity on the one hand. it is deployed within space. if not a strategy.Whitman College 85911615. someone who has a will. even if it is a crazy logic. It has a form of mastery and. we do not have it. which has nothing to do with scientificity. It is a nice term. We are all inside it. we do not have an objective discourse available in the sense I intend it. cannot be based on objectivity. at the same time. there I agree with you. truly delirious. But all the same. the way that the discourse of sense tries to describe non-sense. Which means nothing. Thus. it is clear that it no longer has any finality in itself. But somewhere there is a logic in the unfolding of things. accessed March 5. there has to be a subject of the strategy.montrealserai. It has form. it is no longer a strategy properly speaking. as discourse itself is so grounded in subjectivity in this sense. But I am not the one who is going to say that. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. but we are nevertheless a vectorial element of the thing. There has to be a finality. for there to be a strategy. When I use it in the expression "fatal strategies". but which would be the discourse of the object. But it no longer means anything great in my opinion. Moreover. The term strategy represents an opportunity because it is apt. all the same. fatal. What we have is the event itself. a kind of metaphorical transfer of things. a reversibility that is in the order of things. if it is contrary to a truth principle. online: http://www. though not in the sense of subjects. But clearly. and adopt the seemingly paradoxical strategy of the object Jean Baudrillard. It is truly unreadable. decisive and determinant way. or placed in a context where it is made volatile or fragile. one will always remain between the two. It is a type of fatal process. Illusion.htm. Regardless. the fact of speaking of the strategy of objects is a paradox. And the fact that it is no longer the subject that possesses things when. Fatal strategy for me is a strategy of the object. properly speaking. At this point it has to be said that this supposes such relativity in the subject-object relation that it is that which becomes fatal. and there is there. and yet it is used in such a way that subjectivity is undermined. but it has certainly lost its military reference. I think that there is a rule. and the intervention of the object itself in the game in a fatal. If the strategy has to become logistically chancy.
in a distant echo of original sin. 1990. not in the hold of representation. only a fatal logic wins its battle with power precisely because it’s not a battle but a radical passivity. seal the monotony of it with an even greater monotony. This is something of a parable. subversive passion. increase is salvation and ecstasy. a human being can find in a vacation a greater boredom than in everyday life — a redoubled boredom. this production which is not at all a representation. that is to say. Prodigious form that moralists have always condemned. to attain ecstasy in a scene instead of being produced as something really happening. even the increase of oppression and abjection that works like the liberating ecstasy of abjection — just as the absolute commodity works like the liberating form of the commodity. deep in man’s heart. We think of nature as indifferent. but their prodigious and eccentric form. for here is where things cynically subvert themselves from their beginnings and their ends. seductive passion. plunge into it to the point of ecstasy. but it isn’t perhaps indifferent to the fact of making a spectacle of itself in natural disasters. How could we suppose that people were going to disavow their daily life and look for an alternative to it? On the contrary. and it certainly is to the passions and enterprises of [hu]man. it haunts nonetheless the process of events. Jean Baudrillard. This is the only solution to the problem of “voluntary servitude. which is a grand act of self-surpassing. Things can only happen in this excessive manner. but in the magic of their effect — there only they appear great and do themselves the luxury of existing. then one understands nothing of this collective brutishness. to be commuted into spectacle. Boredom is not the problem — the essential point is the increase of boredom. Liberating logic is basically understood only by a few.” Furthermore there is no liberation but this one: in the deepening of negative conditions. the most secret facts and thoughts. This hyper-banality is the equivalent of fatality.Whitman College 85911615. I’m speaking also of people and their inhuman strategies. if one doesn’t understand this. a drive for pure event. I’m not joking: people are not looking for amusement. It could mean the ecstatic deepening of anything.doc 7/20/08 33 File Title A2 Perm The strategy of the object is our fatal strategy. and particularly in the effects of their disappearance. instead they want to find a fatal distraction. 184-85 gender modified When I speak of the object and its fatal strategies. Fatal Strategies. the bitter and triumphal foreboding that there’s no escaping this. simulating passion. . that means that things are meaningless unless transfigured by this illusion. objective information. as it were. Another form of fundamental cynicism: this will to spectacle and illusion. There is. To occur is necessary. this derision. because it is made up of all the elements of happiness and distraction. All strategies that promise liberation from anything are illusions. but it’s here only to signify this passion of passions. the only fatal strategy. they’ll make a destiny out of it: intensify it while seeming to do the opposite. For example. essentially it is fatal logic that wins out. opposed to all will for knowledge and power: tenacious. to be in ecstasy is absolutely vital. the will to disdain their causes and to lose ourselves in their effects. The important point is the predestination of vacations to boredom. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. p. All forms that tend to project a dazzling and miraculous liberty are only revolutionary homilies.
but it is no longer ours to exercise. The critical function of the subject has given way to the ironic function of the object.Whitman College 85911615. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. still believes in identifiable meanings of particular signs. through the spectrum of the sign and the commodity. henceforth. All metaphysics is swept away by this turnabout in which the subject is no longer the master of representation (‘I’ll be your mirror’).” We should abandon all hopes of finding any meaning at all in these systems of signs – only doing that allows the strategy of the object. There is something of revenge in this: the object becomes a strange attractor. This is exemplified by the 1AC – they criticize the given meanings of SUVs and expose them as false.e. superconductive of illusion and non-meaning. No longer any need for a critical consciousness to hold up the mirror of its double to the world: our modern world swallowed its double when it lost its shadow. but the operator of the objective irony of the world. perform an artificial and ironic function. Our strategies are incompatible fundamentally because the affirmative.doc 7/20/08 34 File Title A2 Perm – Ironic Strategies Can’t Include the Subject Stances of irony are purely stances of the object. No longer any need to confront objects with the absurdity of their functions. which has annihilated all others. it is an objective function. its stereophony and its artificial instantaneity. thus positively identifying their meanings as “not the given ones. although they will try to claim otherwise. by their very existence. in which the absence and transparency of the subject is reflected. as the Surrealists did: things move to shed an ironic light on themselves all on their own. We no longer have the sacred horizon of appearances. p. The aura of our world is no longer sacred. exorbitated — i. It is. Once they have passed through the medium or through the image. This is all part of their visible. objects. At the heart of our universe of signs there is an evil genius of advertising. It is the power of the object which cuts a swathe through the very artifice we have imposed on it. . which of itself creates a parody effect. the object which refracts the subject and imposes upon it its presence and its random form. Jean Baudrillard. taken out of the orbit of the subject — it is then that it becomes a pure object. 1996. 73-74 Irony is the only spiritual form in the modern world. Stripped of all illusion by technology. The Perfect Crime. It alone is the guardian of the mystery. stripped of all connotation of meaning and value. of our models. its discontinuity its fragmentation. all too visible sequencing. they discard their meanings effortlessly. but that of the absolute commodity. a trickster who has absorbed the drollery of the commodity and its mise en scene. object world which surrounds us. in a poetic unreality. A scriptwriter of genius (capital itself?) has dragged the world into a phantasmagoria of which we are all the fascinated victims. that of the artificial. which can’t be combined with the affirmative. Its essence is promotional. For it is no longer a function of the subject. of our objects. and the irony of that incorporated double shines out at every moment in every fragment of our signs.
absorption then expulsion of all powers. of all enlightenment and depths of meaning. as possessing a delusive. 98-99 The masses know that they know nothing and they have no desire to know. a strategy that eludes capture by power. alienated way. without their realizing it.doc 7/20/08 35 File Title AT: Passivity Bad/Whatever Else the 2AC Says Their arguments assume we embrace the masses’ passivity in a sad. of non-desire. in a paradoxical mode. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. allusive strategy. by proxy. the object-masses. to relieve the masses of this transendence for their greater pleasure. That couldn’t be further from the truth. liberatory gesture. But perhaps our true unconscious is in this ironic power of withdrawal. ironic challenge. and then to reward them with the spectacle of it. subjectively. Our unconscious might not be composed of desires properly sworn to the sad destiny of repression. because of an insistance which is thereby bathed in the light of a ridiculous looking halo. sovereign lack of will. in a sort of game of irresponsibility. Jean Baudrillard.Whitman College 85911615. p. non-knowledge. a sad vision of the unconscious (repressed). illusive. not us – we affirm the masses’ passivity and lack of choice as a joyous. Upon our entire philosophy lies the heavy weight of these sad correlations. If only for the sake of change. this tedious business of power and will. Fatal Strategies. We live all of this. The masses know they are powerless. Vicarious*. No one knows what the true opposite of consciousness is — unless it be this unconscious of repression that psychoanalysis has imposed upon us. wills. heirs to the philosophers of the Enlightenment in their contempt of the masses) are only good basically for this: to administer by delegation. But they’re not that at all: the masses are very snobbish. It might not even be repressed at all. The assumption of the alienated masses is something made by the affirmative. We reproach them vigorously for these signs of stupidity and passivity. it would be interesting to conceive of the masses. We always had a sad vision of the masses (alienated). silence. they act like Brummel and sovereignly delegate the faculty of choice to someone else. 1990. to recall Veblen’s concept. . the status of these “privileged” classes. whose will would have been diverted. intellectual. toward the secret finalities of the very masses they despise. or secret ruse. and they don’t want power. since these masses coexist in us with the intelligent and voluntary being who condemns and scorns them. All mediators (political. It would instead be made up out of what’s left after this joyous expulsion of all encumbering superstructures of being and will. corresponding to an unconscious that is finally ironic. joyous and seductive.
and its army permitted to crush the Kurdish and Shiite rebellions. In these cases. shooting at each other. apart from the massive damage and suffering inflicted upon Iraq. The image of a just war fought between the forces of freedom and those of tyranny dissolved in the moral ambiguities of the postconflict period. war has always involved an antagonistic and destructive confrontation between adversaries. . but an entirely asymmetrical operation. That did not happen in the Gulf. very little changed as a result of the military conflict. can this be called a war?” (6 7—8) In his defence of the rationalist outlook which rejects the postmodern reduction of truth to consensus belief. lobotomised. They are the consequences of a law of uneven development. The rights of Kuwait may have been restored. The same Americans who had systematically destroyed Iraq’s power grid and transport infrastructure now refused to enforce the law of democracy and the New World Order where this would entail intervening in the internal affairs of a sovereign state. and even if it were. and it is this failure of communication which leads to the use of force. but rather that what took place was not a war. like Saddam Hussein. running towards the television journalists in order to surrender or immobilised beside their tanks . and a form of slaughter practised by US and UK air and ground forces upon Iraqi soldiers and civilians.. Paul Patton. it was no longer clear what had been gained by the sacrifice of so many lives. high-technology intelligence and weapons systems. Baudrillard’s argument in “The Gulf War did not take place” is not that nothing took place. and when it did the outcome was entirely predictable. Where they do involve first world powers such as the US or UK. located for the most part in a political and military third world. this was not the case in the Gulf conflict. what took place was not a war in any traditional logic. He writes: “As I understand the concept ‘war’. Lecturer in Philosophy at the University of Sydney. However. that it was a hoax like the moon landing or something. and the fate of their technologically inferior tanks.Whitman College 85911615. an exercise in domination rather than an act of war. The final irony of the whole episode is that. Yet Chomsky has also questioned whether what took place in the Gulf in 1990-1 was a war. The claim that war itself has become virtual does not mean that military conflicts do not occur: they do and with increasing frequency and savagery in the New World Order. and prepared to tolerate the massive casualties which would result from a ground-based war of attrition.. In the past. All that is singular and irreducible must be reduced and absorbed. a lever of last resort employed only to the extent that is necessary to bring the recalcitrant party into line. it is as though it never happened. the Gulf War did not take place. The disparity between US and Iraqi forces with regard to method and military technology was so great that direct engagement rarely took place. Rather. 1720 Does the refusal of the critical strategy which seeks to re-establish the truth of what happened commit Baudrillard to the irrationalist denial that any military engagement took place? Alternatively. testify to the one-sided nature of the conflict: “it is as though the Iraqis were electrocuted. From a political point of view.. The crucial stake in the Gulf affair. it involves two sides in combat. in the case of the Gulf conflict. and the extensive use of electronic warfare. Whereas Iraq was disposed to fight in the manner of its previous war with Iran. The imbalance of military means was such that this was not a conflict in which the survival of both sides was in play. The almost complete absence of any engagement by Iraqi planes. The Gulf War Did Not Take Place. The Iraqi regime was allowed to remain intact. does the fact of military conflict constitute a refutation of the hypothesis that there was no Gulf War? It does only if we accept that what did take place out there in the desert beyond the reach of the TV cameras was in fact a war.” (86) This is not war. Norris points to the figure of Chomsky as someone who is both a defender of Enlightenment ideals in morality and the philosophy of language. it is because they are in conflict with third world forces who do not recognise that the rules of the game have changed. and a staunch critic of US foreign policy. deterrence breaks down for lack of any common ground.”20 He goes on to describe the successive phases of the conflict as involving varieties of state terrorism practised on both sides.(71) In short. or who. say.doc 7/20/08 36 File Title A2 “You Deny the Reality of War” Our argument is not that nothing happened in the Gulf. but in exchange for the rights of minorities in Iraq. the US and its allies sought a rapid conflict based upon airpower. a model of the liberal and critical intellectual. was the subordination of Islam to the global order: “Our wars thus have less to do with the confrontation of warriors than with the domestication of the refractory forces on the planet . Other commentators have argued that the disparity between the aims. But these are secondary phenomena. methods and military technology of the two sides was so great that what occurred cannot be considered an adversarial encounter. They are police operations rather than wars. which means it defies the logic of their criticism. a dual relation between warring parties. and the short-Lived political and economic benefits at home. In several respects. p. 1995. operate according to different rules. like the persistence of sweatshops alongside fully automated production facilities. A perfect semblance of victory for the Americans was exchanged for the perfect semblance of defeat for Iraq. This is the law of democracy and the New World Order.. the use of force remains carefully circumscribed. Baudrillard argues.
.doc 7/20/08 37 File Title A2 “You Deny the Reality of War” Treating war as an event disables challenges to state sponsored violence and militarism Chris J. Seeing war as necessarily embedded in constant military presence draws attention to the fact that horrific. assistant professor of philosophy and women’s studies at the university of Cincinnati. The belief that militarism is an ethical. and at that point it is difficult not to respond in ways that make resisters drop all other political priorities. Cuomo. to maintain this false belief. creates forms of resistance to militarism that are merely exercises in crisis control.Whitman College 85911615. online Ethical approaches that do not attend to the ways in which warfare and military practices are woven into the very fabric of life in twenty-first century technological states lead to crisis-based politics and analyses. Antiwar resistance is then mobilized when the "real" violence finally occurs. It is particularly easy for those whose lives are shaped by the safety of privilege. the polar opposite of war. Crisis-driven attention to declarations of war might actually keep resisters complacent about and complicitous in the general presence of global militarism. state-sponsored violence is happening nearly all over. omnipresent systems of domination and oppression that so often function as givens in most people's lives. Hypatia Special Issues: Women and Violence Volume 11 Number 4. or when the stability of privilege is directly threatened. Neglecting the omnipresence of militarism allows the false belief that the absence of declared armed conflicts is peace. all of the time. For any feminism that aims to resist oppression and create alternative social and political options. political concern only regarding armed conflict. 1996. crisis-based ethics and politics are problematic because they distract attention from the need for sustained resistance to the enmeshed. and that it is perpetrated by military institutions and other militaristic agents of the state. pg. and who do not regularly encounter the realities of militarism.
homophobia.or it means nothing. which precludes any serious questioning of how this liberal-democratic order is complicit in the phenomena it officially condemns. there is nothing easier today than to get international. provocations in the style of the notorious "Sensation" exhibitions ARE the norm. today. "Fidelity to the democratic consensus" means the acceptance of the present liberal-parlamentary consensus. but to PREVENT from something really happening. In these circumstances. of course. globally. So everything is allowed. professor of philosophy at the university of Ljubljana. accessed January 28.. and. the effectively hegemonic attitude is not patriarchal repression. Today's liberal-democratic hegemony is sustained by a kind of unwritten Denkverbot similar to the infamous Berufsverbot in Germany of the late 60s . If. politically correct. antifeminism.com/replenin. the shattering impact of the digitalization of our daily lives. things will remain the same!" . Greenpeace.the new opacity. In sex. solicited even. the problem resides in the implicit qualifications which can be easily discerned by the "concrete analysis of the concrete situation.doc 7/20/08 38 File Title A2 Reformism Particularized demands for change. but even supported by the media. no matter how radical.. our daily experience is mystifying: modernization generates new obscurantisms. as a critical topic: the prospects of a global ecological catastrophe. etc. the gap between the First and the Third World. to directly intervene and change things (which then inevitably ends in a cul de sac of debilitating impossibility: "what can one do against the global capital?"). The problem is that all this occurs against the background of a fundamental Denkverbot. sexism. Habermas designated the present era as that of the neue Undurchsichtlichkeit . one is accused of abandoning scientific objectivity for the outdated ideological positions.they are tolerated and supported as long as they do not get too close to a certain limit. activity fits the formula of "Let's go on changing something all the time so that. the growing violence not only in the far-away countries. This kind of activity provides the perfect example of interpassivity2: of doing things not to achieve something. violations of human rights. the prohibition to think.. religious or sexist violence. 2004 What are we to say to this? Again. but also in our megalopolises. one should be especially careful not to confuse the ruling ideology with ideology which SEEMS to dominate. the reduction of freedom is presented to us as the arrival of new freedoms.it will be an act WITHIN the hegemonic ideological coordinates: those who "really want to do something to help people" get involved in (undoubtedly honorable) exploits like Medecins sans frontiere. “Repeating Lenin. feminist and anti-racist campaigns. gulag and the more recent Third World catastrophes is thus to serve as the support of this Denkverbot by constantly reminding us how things may have been much worse: "Just look around and see for yourself what will happen if we follow your radical notions!" And it is exactly the same thing that the demand for "scientific objectivity" means: the moment one seriously questions the existing liberal consensus. in art. any serious attempt to imagine a society whose socio-political order would be different. but to question the hegemonic ideological coordinates. it means: say and write whatever you want .on condition that what you do does not effectively question or disturb the predominant political consensus. this will necessarily end in a new Gulag!" The ideological function of the constant reference to the holocaust. the example of the art fully integrated into the establishment. the answer is immediately: "Benevolent as it is.htm.Whitman College 85911615. This is the point on which one cannot and should not concede: today. the actual freedom of thought means the freedom to question the predominant liberal-democratic "postideological" consensus . this act will not be performed in an empty space . one should bear in mind Walter Benjamin's reminder that it is not enough to ask how a certain theory (or art) declares itself to stay with regard to social struggles . In short. which are all not only tolerated. All the frenetic humanitarian. 2001. one follows a direct call to act. really changing. are performed against the backdrop of the neoliberal-democratic order and are tolerated as long as they fail to fundamentally change hegemonic ideology.the moment one shows a minimal sign of engaging in political projects that aim to seriously challenge the existing order. Slavoj Zizek.” http://lacan. One is therefore tempted to turn around Marx's thesis 11: the first task today is precisely NOT to succumb to the temptation to act.1 More than ever. even if they seemingly enter the economic territory (say. state or corporate funds for a multidisciplinary research into how to fight the new forms of ethnic. denouncing and boycotting companies which do not respect ecological conditions or which use child labor) .one should also ask how it effectively functions IN these very struggles. More then ever." as Lenin himself would have put it. between the rich and the poor. but free promiscuity.
1-3 If once we were able to view the Borges fable in which the cartographers of the Empire draw up a map so detailed that it ends up covering the territory exactly(the decline of the Empire witnesses the fraying of this map. little by little. In fact. a bit as the double ends by being confused with the real through aging). a programmatic. it is no longer really the real.doc 7/20/08 39 File Title A2 Reformism Reform doesn’t exist anymore. No more mirror of being and appearances. By crossing into a space whose curvature is no longer that of the real. though some shreds are still discernible in the deserts. and from any distinction between the real and the imaginary. In fact. perhaps. and if one must return to the fable. Only the allegory of the Empire. Simulacra and Simulation.that engenders the territory. the double.and it can be reproduced an indefinite number of times from these. because it not longer measures itself against either an ideal or negative instance. It is no longer anything but operational. and memory banks. or rather of anticipated resurrection. remains. and its fall into ruins.such is the vital function of the model in a system of death. nor even parody. Something has disappeared: the sovereign difference. demographics. disappears in the simulation whose operation is nuclear and genetic. or a substance. No more imaginary coextensivity: it is genetic miniaturization that is the dimension of simulation. that no longer even gives the event of death a chance. the mirror. now we live in a hyper-pluralist stasis. Because it is with this same imperialism that present-day simulators attempt to make the real. nor duplication. and not the map. a material more malleable that meaning. coincide with their models of simulation. But it is no longer a question of either maps o territories. It is produced from cable television pundits. A hyperreal henceforth sheltered from the imaginary. leaving room only for the orbital recurrence of models and for the simulated generation of differences. all of the real. nor that of truth. a referential being. The real is produced from miniaturized cells. p. the magic of the concept and the charm of the real. All the revolutions and reforms have already happenedthen the neo-conservatives pushed back. of the real and its concept. The territory no longer precedes the map. 1981. in that tit lends itself to all systems of equivalences. the era of simulation is inaugurated by a liquidation of all referentials. It no longer needs to be rational. Because it is difference that constitutes the poetry of the map and the charm of the territory. returning to the substance of the soil. whose vestiges persist here and there in the deserts that are no longer those of the Empire.precession of simulacra. because no imaginary envelops it anymore. It is the real. It is a hyperreal. perfectly descriptive machine that offers all the signs of the real and short-circuits all its vicissitudes. from countless PACs. lobbyists. The desert of the real itself. It is the generation by models of a real without origin or reality: a hyperreal. that is to say of an operation of deterring every real process via its operational double. metastable. Jean Baudrillard. and interest groups. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. It is all of metaphysics that is lost. but ours. and possesses nothing but the discrete charm of second-order simulacra. or the concept. . matrices. this fable has now come full circle for us. to all binary oppositions. that constituted the charm of abstraction. no longer at all spectacular or discursive. Political reality is now purely operational.Whitman College 85911615. even inverted. between one and the other. It is nevertheless the map that precedes the territory. Borge’s fable is unusable.the metaphysical beauty of this ruined abstraction testifying to a pride equal to the Empire and rotting like a carcass.worse: with their artificial resurrection in the systems of signs. Simulation is no longer that of a territory. today it is the territory whose shreds slowly rot across the extent of the map.as the most beautiful allegory of simulation. This imaginary of representation. produced from the radiating synthesis of combinatory models in a hyperspace without atmosphere. Never again will the real have the chance to produce itself. on massive servers. to all combinatory algebra. nor does it survive it. which simultaneously culminates in and is engulfed by the cartographer’s mad project of the ideal coextensivity of map and territory. It is a question of substituting the signs of the real for the real. Today abstraction is no longer that of the map. models of control. It is no longer a question of imitation.
There is no relationship of cause and effect there: it is not because terrestrial space today is virtually coded. 1981. models. In this way. the perimeters of a prior world. once the limits of this universe recede into infinity. Simulacra and Simulation. in its artificial resurrection of “historical” worlds. of the banal. the end of science fiction—the era of hyperreality begins. brought to light with a transparent precision. There is a hemorrhaging of reality as in internal coherence of a limited universe. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. the extrapolation. reconstituted as an animal or vegetal reserve. be the opposite: it will be to put decentered situations. Hallucination of the real. but without substance. can only try to reconstruct invitro. p. mental. but a desperate rehallucination of the past. We can no longer imagine any other universe: the grace of transcendence was taken away from us in that respect too. The everydayness of the terrestrial habitat itself elevated to the rank of cosmic value. The proliferation of signs leads to the hallucination and revisiting of impacts in their hyperrealized forms. signs. Until now we have always had a reserve of the imaginary—now the coefficient of reality is proportional to the reserve of the imaginary that gives it its specific weight. of lived experience. but of values. the ideologies of the past. models of simulation in place and to contrive to give them the feeling of the real. Thus in Simulacra by Philip K. the conquest of space constitutes an irreversible crossing toward the loss of the terrestrial referential. the people. The conquest of space that follows that of the planet is equal to derealizing (dematerializing) human space. of their original process. when the map covers the whole territory. The process will. From then onward. It is no longer possible to fabricate the unreal from the real. raised to a spatial power (one could say) with the most recent lunar module. to reinvent the real as fiction. This is also true of geographic and spatial exploration: when there is no longer any virgin territory. the imaginary from the givens of the real. down to the smallest details. mapped. not only of merchandise. something like the principle of reality disappears. Witness this two bedroom/kitchen/shower put into orbit. hypostatized in space. has thus in a sense closed up again in universalizing itself—a universal market. in which fiction will never again be a mirror held toward the future. hyperrealized. emptied of meaning. Dick.Whitman College 85911615. rather. and thus one available to the imaginary. besides it forged its path in the narratives of spatial exploration. something must change: the projection. the sort of pantographic excess that constituted the charm of science fiction are all impossible. a reversal is produced— something else takes place.doc 7/20/08 40 File Title A2 Sign production/Culture Crash Link Turn Just because you accelerate the process of sign creation doesn’t mean that you collapse signification itself. but reconstituted. of lived experience. counterparts to the more terrestrial forms of exploration and colonization of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Jean Baudrillard. the war of Secession. saturated. the events. but hallucinatory with retrospective truth. Classical science fiction was that of an expanding universe. sometimes down to disquietingly strange details.the satellization of the real in the transcendence of space—it is the end of metaphysics. cosmic) of science fiction has ceased to function. leaving no room for the imaginary—it is not exactly because of this that the exploratory universe (technical. Gigantic hologram in three dimensions. registered. of the quotidian. 123-124 Perhaps science fiction from the cybernetic and hyperreal era can only exhaust itself. and they are two versions of the same general process of implosion that follows the gigantic process of explosion and expansion characteristic of past centuries. or to transferring it into a hyperreal of simulation. in the imaginary as well. precisely because it has disappeared from our life. derealized in advance. . But the two are narrowly linked. the end of the phantasm. When a system reaches its own limits and becomes saturated.
“real” use of it (as the Americans did in Hiroshima—but precisely only they had the right to this “use value” of the bomb. of their own deterrence. Control by the threat will be replaced by the more effective strategy of pacification through the bomb and through the possession of the bomb. The “little” powers. In this sense. The same goes for the atomic reactors that we have already sent them. It is thus perfectly probable that one day we will see nuclear powers export atomic reactors. . Responsibility. all risk of explosion. unintelligible. control. that is to say in the sense of a reversion of the whole cycle toward a minimal point. this vast saturation of a system by its own forces. so prettily named. what subject would exist behind this enclosure. they deter themselves. and bombs to ever latitude. what strategy. Therein lies the whole process of deterrence. One can no longer imagine what project. believing that they are buying their independent striking force. Simulacra and Simulation. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. it absorbs all living energy. p. 1981. nonexplosive—except for the possibility of an explosion toward the center. all of those who have acquired it since will be deterred from using by the very fact of possessing it).Whitman College 85911615. Thus the very possibility of paralyzing a whole country by flicking a switch makes it so that the electrical engineers will never use this weapon: the whole myth of the total and revolutionary strike crumbles at the very moment when the means are available—but alas precisely because those means are available.doc 7/20/08 41 File Title A2 “The Case Impacts Still Happen” Deterrence makes your massive impacts impossible Jean Baudrillard.  The nuclear is at once the culminating point of available energy and the maximization of energy control systems. unusable. of an implosion where all these energies would be abolished in a catastrophic process (in the literal sense. the nuclear everywhere inaugurates an accelerated process of implosion. it freezes everything around it. It is still the absolute paradox of the nuclear. censure. This was already the aporia of the modern revolution. weapons. of a reversion of energies toward a minimal threshold). Lockdown and control increase in direct proportion to (and undoubtedly even faster than) liberating potentialities. very quickly effaces (as unionization does in the working world) any inclination toward violent intervention. self-deterrence always grow more rapidly than the forces or the weapons at our disposal: this is the secret of the social order. will buy the virus of deterrence. Energies freeze in their own fire. so many neutron bombs knocking out all historic virulence. what power. now neutralized. 39-40 This is why nuclear proliferation does not increase the risk of either an atomic clash or an accident— save in the interval when the “young” powers could be tempted to make a nondeterrant. Entry into the atomic club.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.