Whitman College 85911615.

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Baudrillard K Neg
Baudrillard K Neg.......................................................................................................................................................1

Baudrillard K Neg..........................................................................................................................1
1NC (1/1)....................................................................................................................................................................4

1NC (1/1).........................................................................................................................................4
Links – Policy Debate – Disneyland (1/2)..................................................................................................................5

Links – Policy Debate – Disneyland (1/2)....................................................................................5
Links – Policy Debate – Disneyland (2/2)..................................................................................................................6

Links – Policy Debate – Disneyland (2/2)....................................................................................6
Links – Policy Debate – Hyperreal Communication (1/2)..........................................................................................7

Links – Policy Debate – Hyperreal Communication (1/2).........................................................7
Links – Policy Debate – Hyperreal Communication (2/2)..........................................................................................8

Links – Policy Debate – Hyperreal Communication (2/2).........................................................8
Links – Leadership type Impacts – Saving Private Ryan (1/2).................................................................................10

Links – Leadership type Impacts – Saving Private Ryan (1/2)...............................................10
Links – Leadership type Impacts – Saving Private Ryan (2/2).................................................................................11

Links – Leadership type Impacts – Saving Private Ryan (2/2)...............................................11
Links – War Scenarios..............................................................................................................................................12

Links – War Scenarios.................................................................................................................12
Links – Preventing the “Real” War...........................................................................................................................13

Links – Preventing the “Real” War...........................................................................................13
Links – Rights/Revolution/Hippie Shit.....................................................................................................................14

Links – Rights/Revolution/Hippie Shit......................................................................................14
Links – Micropolitics................................................................................................................................................15

Links – Micropolitics...................................................................................................................15
Links – Leftist Politics..............................................................................................................................................16

Links – Leftist Politics.................................................................................................................16
Links – Alternative Energy – Tech/R&D.................................................................................................................17

Links – Alternative Energy – Tech/R&D..................................................................................17
Links – Alternative Energy – Nuclear Energy (1/2).................................................................................................18

Links – Alternative Energy – Nuclear Energy (1/2).................................................................18
Links – Alternative Energy – Nuclear Energy (1/2).................................................................................................19

Links – Alternative Energy – Nuclear Energy (1/2).................................................................19
Links – Preservation/Nature/Environment/Ecology (1/3)........................................................................................20

Links – Preservation/Nature/Environment/Ecology (1/3)........................................................20

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Links – Preservation/Nature/Environment/Ecology (2/3)........................................................................................21

Links – Preservation/Nature/Environment/Ecology (2/3)........................................................21
Links – Preservation/Nature/Environment/Ecology (3/3)........................................................................................22

Links – Preservation/Nature/Environment/Ecology (3/3)........................................................22
Impacts – War (1/2)..................................................................................................................................................23

Impacts – War (1/2).....................................................................................................................23
Impacts – War (2/2)..................................................................................................................................................24

Impacts – War (2/2).....................................................................................................................24
Impacts – Fascism.....................................................................................................................................................25

Impacts – Fascism........................................................................................................................25
Impacts – Violence....................................................................................................................................................26

Impacts – Violence.......................................................................................................................26
Impacts – Annihilation of Difference Impact...........................................................................................................28

Impacts – Annihilation of Difference Impact............................................................................28
Impacts – Cuomo – Ecological Destruction..............................................................................................................29

Impacts – Cuomo – Ecological Destruction...............................................................................29
Alternative – Strategy of the Object – The Children................................................................................................30

Alternative – Strategy of the Object – The Children................................................................30
Alternative – Fatal Strategies Alternative.................................................................................................................31

Alternative – Fatal Strategies Alternative.................................................................................31
Alternative – Strategy of the Object Alternative.......................................................................................................32

Alternative – Strategy of the Object Alternative......................................................................32
A2 Perm....................................................................................................................................................................33

A2 Perm........................................................................................................................................33
A2 Perm – Ironic Strategies Can’t Include the Subject............................................................................................34

A2 Perm – Ironic Strategies Can’t Include the Subject...........................................................34
AT: Passivity Bad/Whatever Else the 2AC Says......................................................................................................35

AT: Passivity Bad/Whatever Else the 2AC Says.......................................................................35
A2 “You Deny the Reality of War”..........................................................................................................................36

A2 “You Deny the Reality of War”............................................................................................36
A2 “You Deny the Reality of War”..........................................................................................................................37

A2 “You Deny the Reality of War”............................................................................................37
A2 Reformism...........................................................................................................................................................38

A2 Reformism...............................................................................................................................38
A2 Reformism...........................................................................................................................................................39

A2 Reformism...............................................................................................................................39

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A2 Sign production/Culture Crash Link Turn..........................................................................................................40

A2 Sign production/Culture Crash Link Turn.........................................................................40
A2 “The Case Impacts Still Happen”.......................................................................................................................41

A2 “The Case Impacts Still Happen”.........................................................................................41

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1NC (1/1)
While ecology and limitations on consumption are laudable goals insofar as they solve problems like the exhaustion of resources, this responsible stewardship is inherently bound up with an unpredictable and uncontrollable underside – the development of renewables is a liberation of the forces of energy that amounts to a limitless proliferation culminating in the devouring of the very agents of that energy. Technologized energy is a Pandora’s box that we can have no fantasies of control over – it exceeds and defies attempts at containment. Jean Baudrillard, Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School, 1993, The Transparency of Evil, p. 103-05
The dangers threatening the human species are thus less risks of default (exhaustion of natural resources, dilapidation of the environment, etc.) than risks of excess: runaway energy flows, chain reactions, or frenzied autonomous developments. This distinction is a vital one, for while risks of default can be addressed by a New Political Ecology, the basic assumptions of which are by now generally accepted (indeed, they are already written into the International Rights of the Species), there is absolutely nothing to counter this other immanent logic, this speeding-up of everything, which plays double or nothing with nature. In the first case, the restoration of equilibrium to our ecological niche is still possible, the energies in play could still be rebalanced; in the second case, however, we are confronted by a development that is irretrievably out of balance. In the first case ethical principles may be brought to bear: a teleology that transcends the material process involved — even if merely the goal of survival — may come into play; in the second case, however, a process whose only goal is limitless proliferation will inevitably absorb all transcendence and devour all agents thereof. A full-blown and planet-wide schizophrenia, therefore, now rules: even as all sorts of ecological measures are being taken, even as a strategy for the proper use of the world, for an ideal interaction with the world, is being deployed, there is a simultaneous proliferation of enterprises of destruction, a total unleashing of the performance principle. And the very same forces often contribute to both trends. Furthermore, though the end-point of the first tendency seems fairly clear — to wit, the saving of our species by means of ecological conviviality — we know absolutely nothing about the secret destination of the second. But surely this acceleration, this excentric motion, must
have an end, must imply a destiny for the human species, a different symbolic relationship with the world that is much more complex and ambiguous than a relationship of balance and interaction? This too would be a vital destination — but it would involve a total risk. If such a destination has indeed been chosen for us, it is obvious that ecology’s rational deities will be powerless against the throwing of technology and energy into the struggle for an unpredictable goal, in a sort of Great Game whose rules are unknown to us. Even now we have no protection against the perverse effects of security, control and crime-prevention measures. We already know to what dangerous extremities we are led by prophylaxis in every sphere: social, medical, economic or political. In the name of the highest possible degree of security, an endemic terror may well be instituted that is in every way as dangerous as the epidemic threat of catastrophe. One thing is certain: in view of the complexity of the initial conditions and the potential reversibility of all the effects, we should entertain no illusions about the effectiveness of any kind of rational intervention. In the face of a process which so far surpasses the ‘individual or collective will of the players, we have no choice but to accept that any distinction between good and evil (and by extension here any possibility of assessing the ‘right level’ of technological development) can have the slightest validity only within the tiny marginal sphere contributed by our rational model. Inside these bounds, ethical reflection and practical determinations are feasible; beyond them, at the level of the overall process

which we have ourselves set in motion, but which from now on marches on independently of us with the ineluctability of a natural catastrophe, there reigns — for better or worse — the inseparability of good and evil, and hence the impossibility of mobilizing the one without the other. This is, properly speaking, the theorem of the accursed share. There is no point whatsoever in wondering whether things ought to be thus: they simply are thus, and to fail to acknowledge it is to fall utterly prey to illusion. None of this invalidates whatever may be possible in
the ethical, ecological or economic sphere of our life — but it does totally relativize the impact of such efforts upon the symbolic level, which is the level of destiny.

<<Insert More Links Here, choose wisely based off of whether it is a more critical or a more policy oriented affirmative>>

This imaginary world is supposed to ensure the success of the operation. everywhere in Disneyland the objective profile of America. without dimension. But what attracts the crowds the most is without a doubt the social microcosm. idealized transposition of a contradictory reality. Thus. the Frontier. In fact. It is first of all a play of illusions and phantasms: the Pirates. solitude is directed at a single gadget: the automobile.. Policy hacks come to the imaginary realm of debate to convince themselves that all that stuff they hear on CNN is reality. The violence of the real world is sustained by policy simulation. It is no longer a question of a false representation of reality (ideology) but of concealing the fact that the real is no longer real. The only phantasmagoria in this imaginary world lies in the tenderness and warmth of the crowd.doc 7/20/08 5 File Title Links – Policy Debate – Disneyland (1/2) Policy debate is about imagining the world of the plan. the Future World. Whence the debility of this imaginary. One parks outside and stand in line inside. needs this old imaginary like a sympathetic nervous system made up of childhood signals and faked phantasms.Whitman College 85911615. jeux d’espace [Utopias. however. but this makes something else and this “ideological” blanket functions as a cover for a simulation of the third order: Disneyland exists in order to hide that it is the “real” country. Embalmed and pacified. which is no longer anything but an immense scenario and a perpetual pan shot. the religious. The imaginary of Disneyland is neither true nor false.a veritable concentration camp. it is a deterrence machine set up in order to rejuvenate the fiction of the real in the opposite camp. childlike world is found to have been conceived and realize by a man who is himself now cryogenized: Walt Disney. of its constraints and joys. international politics is just as much of a game as debate. down to the morphology of individuals and of the crowd. Disneyland is not the only one. as much as cinema studios. that is carceral). Simulacra and Simulation. whereas all of Los Angeles and the America that surrounds it are no longer real. and thus of saving the reality principle. and to conceal the fact that true childishness is everywhere. who awaits his resurrection through an increase of 180 degrees centigrade. By an extraordinary coincidence (but this derives without a doubt from the enchantment inherent to this universe. This world wants to be childish in order to make us believe that the adults are elsewhere. like Disneyland. miniaturized pleasure of real America. is a fiction factory whose function is to reify the world outside. All its values are exalted by the miniature and the comic strip. Or. Certainly. in its banal omnipresence. the energy of the real to a city whose mystery is precisely that of no longer being anything but a network of incessant. Disneyland is presented as imaginary in order to make us believe that the rest is real. is drawn. this frozen.a city of incredible proportions but without space. p. Marin did it very well in Utopiques. panegyric of American values. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. rather: inside. Whence the possibility of an ideological analysis of Disneyland (L. this city. all of “real” America that is Disneyland (a bit like prisons are there to hide that it is the social in its entirety. and in the sufficient and excessive number of gadgets necessary to create the multitudinous effect. 12-14 Disneyland is a perfect model of all the entangled orders of simulacra. Enchanted Village. one is altogether abandoned at the exit. but belong to the hyperreal order and to the order of simulation. etc.is total. Debate. Jean Baudrillard. Magic Mountain. unreal circulation. . its infantile degeneration. Marine World: Los Angeles is surrounded by these imaginary stations that feed reality. in the “real” world. The contrast with the absolute solitude of the parking lot. play of space]): digest of the American way of life. 1981. a whole panoply of gadgets magnetizes the crowd in directed flows outside. As much as electrical and atomic power stations.that it is that of the adults themselves who come here to act the child in order to foster illusion as to their real childishness.

Disneyland is the prototype of this new function. etc. heaven. in the sophisticated confines of a triumphal market economy is reinvented a penury/sign. a penury/simulacrum. whose visible signs would be those of this strange obesity. somatic recycling institutes.Whitman College 85911615. but there is contactotherapy. or lost bodies. to the improbable luxurious materialization of life and to undiscoverable contradictions.doc 7/20/08 6 File Title Links – Policy Debate – Disneyland (2/2) Disneyland: a space of the regeneration of the imaginary as waste-treatment plants are elsewhere. which proliferate in California. of energy crises and the critique of capital. adds a final esoteric aureole to the triumph of an esoteric culture. but there are institutes for that. They no longer touch each other. that secretes penury. health food. a mental implosion and involution without prececedent lies in wait for a system of the kink. maybe a mental catastrophe. legendary imaginary of children and adults is a waste product. and even here. and not of nature at all. or lost sociality. vanished savage naturalness: natural food. Marshall Sahlins’s idea that it is the economy of the market. the historical. Everywhere one recycles lost faculties. or the lost taste for food. On a mental level. and the dreams. Everywhere today one must recycle waste. but they go jogging. in the guise of ecology. yoga. psychic. is verified. But all the sexual. Nevertheless. which correspond to the improbable coalition of luxury. and money. but at a secondary level: here. They no longer walk. or the incredible coexistence of the most bizarre theories and practices. . a simulated behavior of the underdeveloped (including the adoption of Marxist tenets) that. belonging to the same order. fairylike. the first great toxic excrement of a hyperreal civilization. asceticism. the phantasms. People no longer look at each other. One reinvents penury.

there be an excess of meaning. it is a circular process—that of simulation.tying news articles together to create the most accurate representation possible of the real world and then combine them into a coherent and logical story. One does not ask oneself. but still. corresponds to this simulation of meaning and of communication in which this system encloses us. the media. or whether it is the simulacrum that is there first for dissuasive ends. 2. “I know very well. and the mass media. that of the hyperreal. A circular arrangement through which one stages the desire of the audience. Myth exists. the fact is that it is collapsing. but less. Simulacra and Simulation. or that it neutralizes them. To this tautology of the system the masses respond with ambivalence. which as one knows. Well. but.” More and more information is invaded by this kind of phantom content. It is the alpha and omega of our modernity. listeners who call in. Everywhere information is thought to produce an accelerated circulation of meaning. Belief. The loss of meaning is directly linked to the dissolving. the antitheater of communication. We are all complicitous in this myth. in each one of us. One both believes and doesn’t. the integrated circuit of the negative. In fact. to the extent that information is directly destructive of meaning and signification. the mass media. which means that you reproduce your harms Jean Baudrillard.. as a lure— to which the force of myth is attached. Behind this exacerbated mise-en-scene of communication. Thus information dissolves meaning and dissolves the social. This coherence and logic is the fundamental myth of modernity. our intense analysis of the world does not produce more understanding. The third hypothesis is the most interesting but flies in the face of every commonly held opinion. speech. to deterrence they respond with disaffection. that is how the real is abolished. And for two reasons. 1. this homeopathic grafting. . this information ritual becomes encoded in the real. Thus the media are producers not of socialization. it exhausts itself in the staging of meaning. Information devours its own content. It devours communication and the social. there is none. Rather than producing meaning. despite its dysfunctions and irrationalities. and even if the waste is enormous. Moreover. is never anything but the recycling in the negative of the traditional institution. in a sort of nebulous state dedicated not to a surplus of innovation. But one can believe that this belief is as ambiguous as that which was attached to myths in ancient societies. blackmail through speech: “You are concerned. The nondirective interview. but of exactly the opposite. to avoid the brutal desimulation that would confront us in the face of the obvious reality of a radical loss of meaning. The hyperreality of communication and of meaning. a general consensus would have it that nevertheless. Rather than creating communication. very much on the contrary. 79-82 Or. p. not only communication but the social functions in a closed circuit. etc. the opposite occurs. this awakening dream of communication. it exhausts itself in the act of staging communication. to total entropy.Whitman College 85911615. Immense energies are deployed to hold this simulacrum at bay. and for this very reason: because where we think that information produces meaning. dissuasive action of information. without which the credibility of our social organization would collapse. faith in information attach themselves to this tautological proof that the system gives of itself by doubling the signs of an unlocatable reality. participation at every level. And this is only the macroscopic extension of the implosion of meaning at the microscopic level of the sign. of the implosion of the social in the masses.” A sort of inverse simulation in the masses. It is useless to ask if it is the loss of communication that produces this escalation in the simulacrum.doc 7/20/08 7 File Title Links – Policy Debate – Hyperreal Communication (1/2) Policy debate is intricately tied to the workings of mass media. A gigantic process of simulation that is very familiar. Everywhere socialization is measured by the exposure to media messages. a plus value of meaning homologous to the economic one that results from the accelerated rotation of capital Information is thought to create communication. Useless to ask which is the first term. Whoever is underexposed to the media is dissocialized or virtually asocial. the pressure of information pursues an irresistible destructuration of the social. which is redistributed in all the interstices of the social—just as consensus would have it that material production. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. to short-circuit in advance any possibility of communication (precession of the model that calls an end to the real). More real than the real. as a whole. 1981. but one must guard against thinking that people believe in it: this is the trap of critical thinking that can only be exercised if it presupposes the naïveté and stupidity of the masses. there is a rigorous and necessary correlation between the two. opens onto an excess of wealth and social purpose. or with an always enigmatic belief. Thus. on the contrary. you are the event.

anti-media. . the consequences of which have yet to be exhausted. there is. But there is something even more serious. etc. the implosion of the medium and of the real in a sort of hyperreal nebula. That means that all contents of meaning are absorbed in the only dominant form of the medium. A serious problem for all counter-information. revolutionary use value of the medium as such. Only the medium can make an event—whatever the contents. pirate-radios. there is perhaps still a subversive. in the same movement. Because beyond this neutralization of all content. That is—and this is where McLuhan’s formula leads. the implosion of the medium itself in the real. which McLuhan himself did not see.Whitman College 85911615. whether they are conformist or subversive.doc 7/20/08 8 File Title Links – Policy Debate – Hyperreal Communication (2/2) This implosion should be analyzed according to McLuhan’s formula. If all the content is wiped out. the medium is the message. in which even the definition and distinct action of the medium can no longer by determined. pushed to its limit—there is not only an implosion of the message in the medium. one could still expect to manipulate the medium in its form and to transform the real by using the impact of the medium as form.

Whitman College 85911615.doc 7/20/08 9 File Title .

same mystification. Anything serves to escape this void. and affinity that is not at all political. The great event of this period. Whereas so many generations. leaving behind it an indifferent nebula. the cinema is fascinated by itself as a lost object as much as it (and we) are fascinated by the real as a lost referent. everything is equivalent and is mixed indiscriminately in the same morose and funereal exaltation. Jean Baudrillard. a retro politics. retroactivates its original myths. chased from the real by the violence of history. as irreversible: the fetishization of an object intervenes to obscure this unbearable discovery. according to the same process that used to make lost myths live again. finds refuge in cinema. ideologies. and particularly the last. In a violent and contemporary period of history (let’s say between the two world wars and the cold war). it is naïve to conclude that the evocation of fascism signals a current renewal of fascism (it is precisely because one is no longer there. fascism. posthumous liberalization. Today. traversed by currents. that all previous history is resurrected in bulk—a controlling idea no longer selects. 43-48. full dramatic relation. it is history itself that invades the cinema according to the same scenario—the historical stake chased from our lives by this sort of immense neutralization. which is dubbed peaceful coexistence on a global level. this kind of politics is like sexuality or permanent education (or like social security in its time). but emptied of references. as serious. denser. including the delirious use of its own technique) used to have a lively. etc. Hypotyposis and specularity. the pageantry of the belle époque. . more confused essence). it is often the last object perceived before the traumatic discovery. Myth. “Entering another round of Saving Private Ryan” is a perfect example of how neoconservative leadership impact authors write under the naïve hallucination of ideology and power. p. The affirmative simply recycles the signs of power. remakes the silent film more perfectly than the original. war. which is still less amusing. at least there was violence (albeit fascist). an affinity that is not at all political. this hemorrhage of values—it is in proportion to this distress that all content can be evoked pell-mell.Whitman College 85911615. these death pangs of the real and of the rational that open onto an age of simulation. that is. and pacified monotony on the quotidian level—this history exorcised by a slowly or brutally congealing society celebrates its resurrection in force on the screen. this object is not just any object. recopies itself. because one is in something else. they just can’t get over it. lived in the march of history. this leukemia of history and of politics. in the euphoric or catastrophic expectation of a revolution—today one has the impression that history has retreated. dialectical. Whence the omnipresence of fascism and of war in retro—a coincidence. but simply to resurrect the period whet at least there was history. it is naïve to conclude that the evocation of fascism and of war in retro—a coincidence.” Same misunderstanding. it is a myth that invades cinema as imaginary content. 1981. The politics that enter the university are those that come from history. remakes its classics. the panoply of events. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. There is however a privileging of the immediately preceding era (fascism. cinema also approaches an absolute correspondence with itself—and this is not contradictory: it is the very definition of the hyperreal. the period immediately following the war—the innumerable films that play on these themes for us have a closer. Thus the fetishized history will preferably be the one immediately preceding our “irreferential” era. The illusion would be to congratulate oneself on this “awareness of history on the part of the cinema. only nostalgia endlessly accumulates: war. aestheticized by retro)… Concurrently with this effort toward an absolute correspondence with the real. Cinema plagiarizes itself. It is by the virtue of this fact that it takes the place of myths on the screen. One can explain it by evoking the Freudian theory of fetishism (perhaps also a retro hypothesis). It is unto this void that the phantasms of a past history recede. retro fashions—no longer so much because people believe in them or still place some hope in the them. Post-history has rendered power useless. This trauma (loss of referentials) is similar to the discovery of the difference between the sexes in children. It is the golden age of despotic and legendary resurrections. The cinema and the imaginary (the novelistic. as profound. that is to say our myth. Simulacra and Simulation. says Freud. when at least life and death were at stake. in the same retro fascination. History is our lost referential.: all of this is logical. but precisely. is this decline of strong referentials. with the air of a game and a field of adventure.” as one congratulated oneself on the “entrance of politics into the university. or the revolutionary struggles. it is for this reason that fascism can again become fascinating in its filtered cruelty. emptied of substance and legalized in their superficial exercise. the great trauma.doc 7/20/08 10 File Title Links – Leadership type Impacts – Saving Private Ryan (1/2) It should be a measure of Khalizad’s argument that he depends on cinema to make it for him. unreality. the mythical. more perverse.

the last great myth.Whitman College 85911615. along with the unconscious. Behind a performative and demonstrative logic: the obsession with real time or with the minute quotidianeity of Jeanne Hilmann doing the dishes). perhaps. to the restitution of an absolute simulacrum of the past or the present. all its technology in the service of reanimating what it itself contributed to liquidating. the asexual nuptials of two cold media that evolve in an asymptotic line toward each other: the cinema attempting to abolish itself in the cinematographic (or televised) hyperreal. The cold collage. and to the advent of the archive. to fixing it in its visible. History is a strong myth. Photography and cinema contributed in large part to the secularization of history. and it itself is lost therein. The age of history. if one can call it that. the cool promiscuity. and this is irreversible.doc 7/20/08 11 File Title Links – Leadership type Impacts – Saving Private Ryan (2/2) The relation that is being formed today between the cinema and the real is an inverse. to a particular scene of the past or of the present. It only resurrects ghosts. this negative and implacable fidelity to the materiality of the past. “objective form at the expense of the myths that once traversed it. negative relation: it results from the loss of specificity of one and of the other. that today seems to be increasingly lost. Because cinema itself contributed to the disappearance of history. Today cinema can place all its talent. which was substituted for all other value—we are all complicitous in this. It is a myth that at once subtended the possibility of an “objective” enchainment of events and causes and the possibility of a narrative enchainment of discourse. the mythical energy of an event or of a narrative. It is this fabulous character. . is also the age of the novel.

No real distance. equal or superior to that of the Pentagon and of governments. but that of the film strictly speaking)? But there is no answer. exactly as they are making their film today. because the film is a phase of this war without end) what was already crazy about this war. of the carpet of bombs in the strip of film… .the explosions. the war as a succession of special effects. Cinematographic power equal and superior to that of the industrial and military complexes. with the same clownish effect in overdrive. they certainly won this one. it is there. p. and one can even rejoice in this monstrous trick (exactly as with Wagner). and he himself makes movies in the same way. Jean Baudrillard.Whitman College 85911615. One has understood nothing. their methods. right after the end of the hostilities the Americans offered economic aid. the film becomes war. and make him crush the Vietnamese village to the sound of Wagner’s music—those are not critical. one of good and evil. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. it is bewildering. the affirmative impact evidence traces out the mass destruction/mass spectacle of war-. Coppola can certainly deck out his helicopter captain in a ridiculous hat of the light cavalry. and its apotheosis. of the organic metabolism of all the technologies. but rather. The war abolishes itself in its technological test. no critical sense. the sacrificial joy of so many millions spent. there is no possible verdict. that is not a value judgment. the omnipresence of these reassurances is proof that modern warfare is simply an exercise in special effects. the same excess of means. but that tells you the war in Vietnam and this film are cut from the same cloth. no desire for “raising consciousness” in relation to the war: and in a sense this is the brutal quality of this film—not being rotten with the moral psychology of war. as technological and psychedelic fantasy. in the mind of the creator. and one can say to oneself: how is such a horror possible (not that of the war. Simulacra and Simulation. Apocalypse Now is a global victory. But there it is. irrational in political terms: the Americans and the Vietnamese are already reconciled. the war in Vietnam would have been nothing other than what it is. It reassures us that war is indeed an extension of politics by other means. in which. The war as entrenchment. and for Americans it was primarily that: a test site. test the impact of a cinema that has become an immeasurable machinery of special effects. exactly as if they had annihilated the jungle and the towns. of the immanence of a thing in its very revolution. the sacrificial. they are part of the special effect. he hits us with that. global event. and the same nonsignifying furor. either about the war nr about cinema (at least the latter) if one has not grasped this lack of distinction that is no longer either an ideological or a moral one. would not fundamentally have existed—and it is necessary for us to believe in this: the war in Vietnam “in itself” perhaps in fact never happened. their power. And all of a sudden. One revisits everything through cinema and one begins again: the Molochian joy of filming. it is the best possible testimonial— with the same immoderation. which completes the mass-spectacle effect of this war. that this film is part of the war—if the Americans (seemingly) lost the other one. a gigantic territory in which to test their arms. and the remarkable paranoia that from the beginning conceived of this film as a historical. distant signs. perhaps waiting for nothing but consecration by a superfilm. his film is really the extension of the war through other means. the two are joined by their common hemorrhage into technology. the orgasmic sacrifice of industrial means. the pinnacle of this failed war. excessive deployment of a power already filming itself as it unfolded. but one of the reversibility of both destruction and production. 1981.but one can always retrieve a tiny little idea that is not nasty. The real war is waged by Coppola as it is by Westmoreland: without counting the inspired irony of having forests and Philippine villages napalmed to retrace the hell of South Vietnam. the same monstrous candor… and the same success. Coppola does nothing but that: test cinema’s power of intervention. In this sense. a baroque dream of napalm and o the tropics.. The war became film. they are immersed in the machinery. In fact. Coppola makes his film like the Americans made war—in this sense. the film is not without interest: it retrospectively illuminates (not even retrospectively. a psychotropic dream that had the goal neither of a victory nor of a policy at stake. of such a holocaust of means. This exercise in the simulated effects of war is indistinguishable from the means of war and the war itself. it is a dream. with the same retro megalomania. the war become film even before being filmed. of so many misadventures. 59-60. that nothing separates them.doc 7/20/08 12 File Title Links – War Scenarios Like special effects in war cinema.

of an orbital war purged of all local and political peripeteias.doc 7/20/08 13 File Title Links – Preventing the “Real” War The affirmative engages in an obsessive quest to limit the outbreak of real war – this buys into an outdated logic that believes the real emerges from the virtual. then distilled one by one in the exchange. They are pledged to the decoy of war as the others are to the decoy of power. a hegemony ultimately much more dangerous than real apocalypse. the hostages are once again revealing. unlike the Aristotelian. with every real violence. with every pleasure which is too real. However. War has not escaped this virtualisation which is like a surgical operation. they never die: at best they disappear. That’s no longer the case in an age of simulation. the Gulf War would not even reach two or three. Extracted like molecules in an experimental process. The most widespread belief is in a logical progression from virtual to actual. We should have been suspicious about the disappearance of the declaration of war. p. It is the de-intensified state of war. The obsession with the real only strengthens the passage to the virtual. to which belong those in Eastern Europe as well as the Gulf War. the disappearance of the symbolic passage to the act. it is their virtual death that is at issue. The Gulf War Did Not Take Place. It is neither the strong form nor the degree zero of war. 1995. their function of death and destruction. It is the bellicose equivalent of safe sex: make war like love with a condom! On the Richter scale. everyone is too ashamed of him: the collective shame which attaches to the hostage reflects the absolute degradation of real hostility (war) into virtual hospitality (Saddam Hussein’s “guests”). There will never be a monument to the unknown hostage. The build-up is unreal. . of which television is the universal mirror. as though the fiction of an earthquake were created by manipulating the measuring instruments. Moreover. a logic of weak events. then of the distinction between winners and losers (the winner readily becomes the hostage of the loser: the Stockholm syndrome). Peripeteias of an anorexic history or an anorexic war which can no longer devour the enemy because it is incapable of conceiving the enemy as worthy of being challenged or annihilated — and God knows Saddam Hussein is worthy of neither challenge nor annihilation — and thus devours itself. It seems that this obsession with the passage to action today governs all our behaviour: obsession with every real. the transparent degree which allows war to be seen from the depths of the darkroom. into the virtual impossibility of war which translates into the paltry fantasia where adversaries compete in de-escalation. thus to a psychotic process. with every real event. Jean Baudrillard. the cosmetically treated spectre of its death. the privilege of real war. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. to the catastrophe of the real. we have fallen into soft war. that of the right to war under the green light of the UN and with an abundance of precautions and concessions. like every real event moreover. No more than the politicians. We prefer the exile of the virtual. Against this obsession with the real we have created a gigantic apparatus of simulation which allows us to pass to the act “in vitro” (this is true even of procreation). Since it never began. according to which no available weapon will not one day be used and such a concentration of force cannot but lead to conflict. this is an Aristotelian logic which is no longer our own. not their real death. no longer sustainable. In this process. as though the irruption or the event of war had become obscene and insupportable. The passage to action suffers widespread infamy: it supposedly corresponds to a brutal lifting of repression. then of operations themselves. Even the military has lost the privilege of use value. Everything is therefore transposed into the virtual. Deterrence has passed by that way and it spares no one. and we are confronted with a virtual apocalypse.Whitman College 85911615. which already presaged the disappearance of the end of hostilities. Our virtual has definitively overtaken the actual and we must be content with this extreme virtuality which. We are no longer in a logic of the passage from virtual to actual but in a hyperrealist logic of the deterrence of the real by the virtual. 26-28 We are in neither a logic of war nor a logic of peace but in a logic of deterrence which has wound its way inexorably through forty years of cold war to a denouement in our current events. and its even more deceptive televisual subterfuge (as we saw at Timisoara). the asymptotic form which allows a brush with war but no encounter. but the weak or phthisical [sic] degree. deters any passage to action. the military personnel do not know what to make of their real function. the aim of which is to present a face-lifted war. this war is therefore interminable. By dint of dreaming of pure war.

But what can we do? This is the state of simulation. women’s liberation. neither. but not in the way we expected. There is no longer any such thing as a revolution of values — merely a circumvention or involution of values. The Transparency of Evil: Essays on Extreme Phenomena. The fate of the things liberated is an incessant commutation.Whitman College 85911615. A centripetal compulsion coexists with a decentredness of all systems. a state in which we are obliged to replay all scenarios precisely because they have all taken place already. and we find ourselves faced collectively with the big question: WHAT DO WE DO NOW THE ORGY IS OVER? Now all we can do is simulate the orgy. and these things are thus subject to increasing indeterminacy. The assumption of all models of representation. Political liberation. phantasies. because all the goals of liberation are already behind us. the sexual. because of extenuation or extermination. the moment of liberation in every sphere. The fact is that the revolution has well and truly happened. This was a total orgy —an orgy of the real. messages. of development as of the crisis of development. Everywhere what has been liberated has been liberated so that it can enter a state of pure circulation.. but in reality we are accelerating in a void. of all utopias realized. yet which we must continue to reproduce in a sort of inescapable indifference. and because what haunts and obsesses us is being thus ahead of all the results . 3-5 If I were asked to characterize the present state of affairs. We may pretend to carry on in the same direction. is it a logic of equivalence. therefore. an internal metastasis or fevered endogenic virulence which creates a tendency for systems to explode beyond their own limits. The logic of viral dispersal in networks is no longer a logic of value. whether actually or potentially. 1993. all the desires that we had been pursuing. Nothing (not even God) now disappears by coming to an end. of criticism as of anti-criticism. The orgy in question was the moment when modernity exploded upon us. to the principle of uncertainty. I would describe it as ‘after the orgy’. liberation of the forces of destruction. liberation of unconscious drives. Your calls for liberation. the chips are down. but in the sense of an increase in power. Jean Baudrillard Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. or as a result of the epidemic of simulation. ideologies and satisfactions. accelerating. the rational. We have pursued every avenue in the production and effective overproduction of objects. as a result of their transfer into the secondary existence of simulation. Instead. wherein paradoxically we must continue to live as though they had not been. things disappear through proliferation or contamination. Now everything has been liberated. then. a fantastic potentialization whereby their own very existence is put at risk. The state of utopia realized. we may say that the unavoidable goal of all liberation is to foster and provision circulatory networks. to override their own logic not in the sense of creating sheer redundancy. liberation of art. a fractal mode of dispersal. so that it can go into orbit. simulate liberation. children’s liberation. therefore. signs. all the forms. p. images and dreams which are now behind us. freedom and revolution are prime examples of the simulation of values continuing in endless cycles of reiteration. nourish the hope of realizing them. we can only ‘hyper-realize’ them through interminable simulation.the very availability of all the signs. and since we can no longer. Nothing is truly reflected any more whether in a mirror or in the abyssal realm (which is merely the endless reduplication of consciousness). by becoming saturated or transparent. We live amid the interminable reproduction of ideals. Rather than a mortal mode of disappearance. But since they have. — — .doc 7/20/08 14 File Title Links – Rights/Revolution/Hippie Shit The Revolution –liberation in every sphere – has already happened. by dying. liberation of the forces of production. With the benefit of a little hindsight. sexual liberation. No true revolution of values can ever take place. But that’s all they are – simulation. as of all models of anti-representation.

and art itself disappears. Everything is political. anything can be an object of desire: power. Each category thus passes through a phase transition during which its essence is diluted in homeopathic doses. The viral analogy is not an importation from biology.and advertising-led semiologization: ‘culture degree Xerox’. But they cannot exist where contamination is possible between any discipline and any other. effort and record-breaking. But that is the whole point: this is only a molecular memory. the media. the word itself is meaningless. When everything is sexual. language. sex becomes transsexuality all converge in a transversal and universal process wherein no discourse may have a metaphorical relationship to another. the transsexual. When everything is aesthetic. its venting through all the trivial variants of sexual incantation. The Transparency of Evil: Essays on Extreme Phenomena. can hardly retain the features of a face. When everything is political. rather as water ‘remembers’ molecules no matter how diluted. playing as it did upon difference. everything is now aestheticized: politics is aestheticized in the spectacle. in the general style of performance. and upon the illusion of difference. All these domains are affected by sport’s criteria of ‘excellence’. and eventually manifested in the viral explosion of AIDS. Sport itself. it’s only inane babble. aesthetics becomes transaesthetics. affecting all disciplines as they lose their specificity and partake of a process of confusion and contagion — a viral loss of determinacy which is the prime event among all the new events that assail us. in terms of repression. Everything is aesthetic. and every article of clothing until none of it has any meaning anymore. that the essential confusion of the epidemic takes hold. Likewise everything has become sexual. knowledge everything is interpreted in terms of phantasies. which is simultaneously the complete actualization of an idea. in fact. Jean Baudrillard Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. Pundits analyze every gesture. Economics becomes transeconomics. because for there to be metaphor. and sexual stereotypy reigns in every last corner. The real loss of immunity concerns sex as a whole.. The law that is imposed on us is the law of the confusion of categories. and the negation of that idea and that tendency. but instead in business. Sex is no longer located in sex itself. Total metonymy. science. in sex. Today. until it finally disappears. p. for everything is affected simultaneously and under the same terms by the virulence in question. art. leaving a trace so small as to be indiscernible. and all kinds of activity in what is conventionally referred to as culture a sort of all-pervasive media. AIDS is the reflection not so much of an excess of sex or sexual pleasure as of sex’s — . every facial expression. after all. is no longer located in sport as such. but infects every sphere economics. their annihilation by virtue of their very success. so that it eventually loses all specificity and is reabsorbed by all the other categories. by haphazard and senseless proliferation and metastasis.~ — — — decompensation through its general spread into all areas of life. and it is not just everyday life but also madness. then — viral by definition (or lack of definition). even desire. Each category is generalized to the greatest possible extent. Everything has acquired a political meaning. or the colour of someone’s eyes). the transaesthetic. So what we are left with is the simple imprint of a faceless sexuality infinitely watered down in a broth of politics. and occasioning a general commutability of terms has built its house upon the disillusion of metaphor. the perfect realization of the whole tendency of modernity. for metaphor still had its beauty. with the disappearance of sexual difference and hence of sexuality per se. the corpuscular memory of an earlier life. just like the aff. too. sex in advertising and porn. All at once. that are politicized as they enter the sphere of liberation. by virtue of their extension beyond their own bounds this state of affairs is epitomized by a single figure: the transpolitical. substitution is possible between any sphere and any other: there is a total confusion of types. meanwhile. 1993. sport.Whitman College 85911615.. nothing is sexual any more. but elsewhere everywhere else. nothing is political any more. differential fields and distinct objects must exist. and not a memory of forms or singularities (water. Likewise. Perhaps our melancholy stems from this. It is in this diffraction of the sexual reality principle. by the chain reaction we have been discussing. media and communications.if everything is political. the sphere of mass processes. — — — . then nothing can be because there are no longer any referentials designating what the political even is. and sex loses its determinants. it was aesthetic.. at the fractal. Everything is sexual. This is an aspect of a general tendency towards transsexuality which extends well beyond sex. Perhaps we still have a memory of sex. Politics is no longer restricted to the political sphere. This paradoxical state of affairs. micrological and non-human level. Fundamentally.7-10 The possibility of metaphor is disappearing in every sphere. like the ‘memory of water’. especially since 1968. in politics.doc 7/20/08 15 File Title Links – Micropolitics There is no political activism anymore. as by its childish notion of self-transcendence. metonymy replacing the whole as well as the components. Thus every individual category is subject to contamination. infinitesimal relative to the total solution. nothing is beautiful or ugly any more.

we should instead let power work on us in mute silence. etc. Fresh blood.that we take it seriously enough to oppose it. Ideology only corresponds to a corruption of reality through signs. power has no other recourse but to artificially revive and hallucinate them. denounce. but of the scenario of power. that we revive it through the negative. If they become weak for one reason or another. like language. to a dying system of democratic values. which infuriates him. This is why in the end power is so much in tune with ideological discourses and discourses on ideology. crazy people. Criticism and negativity alone still secrete a phantom of the reality of power. Ford doesn’t even have this opportunity anymore: a simulacrum of an already dead power. from primitive societies to the present. even and especially if they are revolutionary.it is not so much the “revolutionary forces” that accelerate this process (often it is quite the opposite). Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. It is no longer a question of the ideology of work.the traditional ethic that would obscure the “real” process of work and the “objective” process of exploitation—but of the scenario of work. etc. It is in this way that the Spanish executions still serve as a stimulant to Western liberal democracy. to constitute a mortal enough danger to the group to be one day relieved of his duties. the “Left. or neurotics. End of revolutionary praxis.it reinjected a fiction of legitimacy.” critical discourse. who nonetheless carry out a social function as fundamental as that of presidents). One must not resist this process by trying to confront the system and destroy it. ephemeral vision of “good government”. Nixon has nevertheless arrived at the goal of which all power dreams: to be taken seriously enough. it is the system itself that deploys against its own structures this violence that annuls all substance and all finality. by demented people. These staged presidential assassinations are revealing because they signal the status of all negativity in the West political opposition. of its “suspension. was nevertheless ritually put to death by Watergate. it is always a false problem to wish to restore the truth beneath the simulacrum. because this system that is dying from being dispossessed of its death expects nothing but that from us: that we give the system back its death. In the same way. like theory. but for how much longer? The deterioration of all power is irresistibly pursued-. that is they are discourses of truth. end of the dialectic.” Power floats like money. or the prophecy. .Whitman College 85911615.. who was not even found worthy of dying at the hands of the most insignificant. Nixon. The Watergate scandal was in fact the greatest of windfalls for the power of the American presidency. simulation corresponds to a short circuit of reality and to its duplication through signs.always good for countering the mortal blows of simulation. a shimmering. of its fundamental irresponsibility. 1981. Jean Baudrillard. unbalanced person (and thought it is perhaps true that presidents are assassinated by unbalanced types. and liquidated.in fact. Rather than adopting the strategy of the affirmative and decrying the abuses of power. he can only accumulate against himself the signs of reversion through murder. against power has always been fulfilled.doc 7/20/08 16 File Title Links – Leftist Politics All that power asks of us is that we subject it to ideological analysis. this changes nothing: the leftist penchant for detecting a rightist conspiracy beneath this brings out a false problem—the function of bringing depth to. 24-25. Curiously.—a simulacral contrast through which power attempts to break the vicious circle of its nonexistence. chance. exposing it to its own lack of substance and reality. it is no longer a question of the ideology of power. But already impeachment is no longer assassination: it happens via the Constitution. Simulacra and Simulation. Watergate is still a mechanism for the ritual murder of power (the American institution of the presidency is much more thrilling in this regard than the European: it surrounds itself with all the violence and vicissitudes of primitive powers. p. It is always the goal of the ideological analysis to restore the objective process. of savage rituals). he is immunized by his impotence.

The naive illusion about the media is that the political authorities use them to manipulate or mystify the masses. Through the most refined procedures we deploy to pin it down. in effect. of all our artificial productions. It is no longer we who think the object. the irresistible impression remains that something eludes us — not because we seem to have lost it (the real?). similar to the one that prevails in the media sphere. none the less. ironically undecidable. we behold the constellation. from this point on. The opposite hypothesis is more subtle. Once we lived in the age of the lost object. is it not the object which dupes us and mocks our objective pretensions to analyse it? Scientists themselves are not. that sacred presence has been reduced to a tiny ironic glimmer. but also as the universal form of the stratagem by which the world hides behind the radical illusion of technology. carrying it beyond itself. The Japanese sense the presence of a divinity in every industrial object. The illusion of technology makes us believe we’re in control and not the other way around. Jean Baudrillard. be said to be the instrument of a world which we believe we rule. then. things have also reached a parodic one. The same hypothesis holds for the object of science. but because we are no longer in a position to see it: that. a nuance of play and distantiation. one might say what Canetti says of animals: that behind each of them there is a hidden someone thumbing his nose at us. it is the masses who definitively modify the exercise of power (or what sees itself as such). Though this is. in fact. from the post-historical snobbery Kojeve spoke of. but the object which thinks us. For us. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. and we are merely the operators. Everything which will be done or said in the media sphere is. which would not be far from radical snobbery. it is not we who are winning out over the world. It seems that technology has taken into itself all the illusion it has caused us to lose. for its part. behind which lurks the evil genius of technology which sees to it itself that the mystery of the world is well—guarded. is altering its determinations. 1996. We very much labour under the illusion that the aim of technology is to be an extension of man and his power. Through the media.Whitman College 85911615. But today. The Perfect Crime. An objective illusion. It seems. we labour under the subjective illusion of technology. Irony as universal form of disillusionment. the irony of the world. And would put in its place a conception of the gigantic objective irony of this whole process. and that what we have in return for the loss of illusion is the emergence of an objective irony of this world. It is at the point where the political authorities think they are manipulating them that the masses impose their clandestine strategy of neutralization and destabilization. It is the logic of the system which. p. an ironic phase of technology? A proposition which would deliver us from the Heideggerian vision of technology as the final phase of metaphysics. a spiritual form.doc 7/20/08 17 File Title Links – Alternative Energy – Tech/R&D The Affirmative opposes fossil fuels. far from admitting this. . now it is the object which is ‘losing’ us. 71-73 At the peak of our technological performance. All our technologies might. Even if the two hypotheses are simultaneously valid. this is still the end of media Reason. the stellar course of the mystery. that though the illusion of the world has been lost. this operating principle is thwarted by its very extension. it seems. We should instead adopt an ironic stance towards technology. Heidegger: ‘When we look into the ambiguous essence of technology. At the same time as reaching a paroxystic stage. has passed into things. and by which the mystery (of the continuation of the Nothing) conceals itself beneath the universal banality of information. by the unbridled virtuality we see outrunning the laws of physics and metaphysics. bringing about our ruin. The Evil Spirit keeps watch beneath artefacts and. but labors under the illusion that we can create new and better energy technology. but the world which is winning out over us. from the retrospective nostalgia for being and from all unhappy critique in terms of alienation and disenchantment. whereas in fact the world is using this machinery to impose itself. therefore. Can one advance the hypothesis that beyond the objective and critical phase there is an ironic phase of science. the end of political Reason.

when one still confused the nuclear apparatus with conventional war) but. except without a doubt in the very initial stages of the cold war. through the sophistication of weapons (a sophistication that surpasses any possible objective to such an extent that it is itself a symptom of nullity). Jean Baudrillard. of the aleatory apparatus of all the choices that are made for us. in forms that are not threatening to the order of things. Massive war. Deterrence is not a strategy. It is not the direct threat of atomic destruction that paralyzes our lives. indifferent.Whitman College 85911615. everywhere where the notion of security becomes omnipotent. freezes them all. The balance of terror is the terror of balance. The political stake is dead. Deterrence precludes war—the archaic violence of expanding systems. for installing a universal security system. Atomic war. And this deterrence comes from the fact that even the real atomic clash is precluded—precluded like the eventuality of the real in a system of signs. What is hatched in the shadow of this mechanism with the pretext of a maximal. by zero-sum signs like those that regulate the “strategy of games” (but the true equation is elsewhere. Everything freezes under the lack of possibility engendered by the civilian and military nuclear umbrella. will not take place. and thanks to Damocles’ nuclear sword. only simulacra of conflicts and carefully circumscribed stakes remain. every confrontation contract in proportion to this blackmail that interrupts. is the perfection of the best system of control that has ever existed. The whole originality of the situation lies in the improbability of destruction. it is deterrence that gives them leukemia. Simulacra and Simulation. transforming the life left us into survival. There is no longer a subject of deterrence. everywhere where the norm replaces the old arsenal of laws and violence (including war).doc 7/20/08 18 File Title Links – Alternative Energy – Nuclear Energy (1/2) Nuclear energy cements a system of deterrence. rather. Deterrence itself is the neutral. of anything that would be an event in the general system and upset its balance. any more than floating capital has a real referent of production) that circulates in nuclear orbit suffices to control all the violence and potential conflicts around the world. social. nor an adversary nor a strategy—it is a planetary structure of the annihilation of stakes. p. of the violence without consequences that reigns throughout the world. Thus the money of destruction (without any reference to real destruction. and the unknown is precisely that variable of simulation which makes of the atomic arsenal itself a hyperreal form. “objective. equivalent signs. Nuclear suspension only serves to seal the trivialized system of deterrence that is at the heart of the media. but it is precisely at this level that there are no strategic stakes. The apotheosis of simulation: the nuclear. a universal lockup and control system whose deterrent effect is not at all aimed at an atomic clash (which was never in question. . any story be deployed according to its own logic because it risks annihilation. the gravity of their exercise and the discourse of their “strategy” are at stake). No longer can nay revolt. neutralizes. it circulates and is exchanged between nuclear protagonists exactly as is international capital in the orbital zone of monetary speculation whose fluctuations suffice to control all global exchanges. The whole world pretends to believe in the reality of this threat (this is understandable on the part of the military. A gigantic involution that makes every conflict. and around it grows the historical. revolutions and political subjectivity is no longer possible. the balance of terror is never anything but the spectacular slope of a system of deterrence that has insinuated itself from the inside into all the cracks of daily life. The risk of nuclear annihilation only serves as a pretext. and political desert. 32-35. a simulacrum that dominates everything and reduces all “ground-level” events to being nothing but ephemeral scenarios. 1981. and violence remain.” threat. at the much greater probability of any real event. The same goes for peaceful nuclear power stations. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. it is the system of deterrence that grows. into a stake without stakes. implosive violence of metastable systems or systems in involution. and escalation is only a puerile game given over to the military.not even into a life insurance policy: into a policy that already has no value). like the Trojan War. The most insignificant of our behaviors is regulated by neutralized. politics. every finality. And the progressive satellization of the whole planet through this hypermodel of security. Pacification does not distinguish between the civil and the military: everywhere where irreversible apparatuses of control are elaborated. However. Only the signs of power. No strategy is possible any longer.

Because if the law.doc 7/20/08 19 File Title Links – Alternative Energy – Nuclear Energy (1/2) The “space race” played exactly the same role as nuclear escalation. the spatial and nuclear models do not have their own ends: neither the discovery of the moon. the fulfillment of an earlier dream). with its aura of violence. rather. the model vectors of a system of planetary control (where even the superpowers of this scenario are not free—the whole world is satellized). Just watching it produces vertigo. of transversality. psychology. this is the total universe of the norm—the Law no longer exists. if order. ultimately. One no longer fantasizes about the minutiae of a program. where nothing can be left to chance. energy. There lies the true nuclear fallout: the meticulous operation of the social. The vertigo of a world without flaws. Fascination with the maximal norm and the mastery of probability: Vertigo of the model. of the conquest of the moon. Here as well. irreversible process: the generalized deterrence of chance. In fact. rather. moreover this is the essence of socialization. Now. but which has now entered its accelerated phase. nothing will be left to chance. we are dumbfounded by the perfection of the programming and the technical manipulation. of contradiction. toward a limit that one believed would be explosive (revolution). or to develop concurrently as a form of “peaceful coexistence. Their truth is to be the models of simulation. the norm fixes. stupefies. environment—nothing can be left to contingencies. of the launching of satellites if not the institution of a model of universal gravitation. This is why the space program was so easily able to replace it in the 1960s (Kennedy/Khrushchev). physiology. it is the same model of programmatic infallibility. of maximum security and deterrence that today controls the spread of the social. which began centuries ago. with its aura of transgression. or complexity in a sociality illuminated by the norm. Trajectory. . of accident. A universe purged of all threat of meaning. calculation. of satellization of which the lunar module is the perfect embryo? Programmed microcosm. it is the operational immanence of every detail that is law. implosive. but which for the moment is translated by an inverse. of finality. The exaltation of the crowds was not a response to the event of landing on the moon or of sending a man into space (this would be. fascinates. still taps a perverse imaginary.” Because what. doomed to the descriptive transparency of mechanisms of information. rupture. but without fear or drive. in a state of asepsis and weightlessness—it is this very perfection that is fascinating. and makes every imaginary involute. by the immanent wonder of the programmed unfolding of events. nor military and strategic superiority. which unites with the model of death. is the function of the space program.Whitman College 85911615.

is everywhere now. .Savages who are indebted to ethnology for still being Savages: what a turn of events. Preserving the idea of an ideal nature will only expose the preserved object to a slowed down purification and a sterilized death. where they had lived for eight centuries without any contact with the rest of the species. science can’t help but die contaminated by the death of this object that is its inverse mirror. Castaneda. its object must die. be applied to all living things and make itself invisible. it always turns around too soon. but the object will be safe. to their primitive state. will provide a perfect alibi. in a world completely cataloged and analyzed. at the level of the “open” museum where one museumified in situ. like and omnipresent fourth dimension.” It is not a question of sacrifice (science never sacrifices itself. what a triumph for this science that seemed dedicated to their destruction! Of course.it is here. will today.Whitman College 85911615. Simulacra and Simulation. sterilized. until it dispenses with it entirely: its autonomy is only rendered even more fantastic.a murder of which the Savages. the day when the Philippine government decided to return the few dozen Tasaday who had just been discovered in the depths of the jungle. as “historical” witnesses of their period entire working-class neighborhoods.doc 7/20/08 20 File Title Links – Preservation/Nature/Environment/Ecology (1/3) Your attempt to preserve nature only models the environment after a simulation of how we believe it once was. But in the same breath ethnology grants us its only and final lesson.it attains its pure form. the secret that kills it (and which the Savages knew better than it did): the vengeance of the dead. and science itself has become pure simulation. an eternal guarantee. rather than circumscribing itself as an objective science. and ethnologists. Ethnology brushed up against its paradoxical death in 1971. cryogenized.gestures. it is always murderous). In any case. The Tasaday. The museum. historical retrospection. We are all Tasadays. and. like mummies in the open air. living metallurgic zones. It is against this hell of the paradox that the ethnologists wished to protect themselves by cordoning off the Tasaday with virgin forest. Indians who have again become what they were. of the hallucination of truth. This at the suggestion of the anthropologists themselves. all so that we may all believe again that things are as they should be. the logical evolution of a science is to distance itself increasingly from its object.simulacral Indians who at last proclaim the universal truth of ethnology. and by the pitiless reversal that the dead object exerts on it? Like Orpheus. noblesse oblige. customs fossilized alive as in a snapshot. everywhere. and o the resurrection of differences. This model thus grants itself the luxury to incarnate itself beyond itself in the “brute” reality of these Indians it has entirely reinvented. tourists. in the White community. out of the reach of colonizers. p. like Eurydice. these savages are posthumous: frozen. its object falls back into Hades. in the glass coffin of the virgin forest. by dying. and children included. The same holds true at Cruesot. which is nothing but the pure form of triumphal ethnology. an entire culture. Science loses precious capital there. In order for ethnology to live. but that for a long time has extended to all Western societies. liberated from its object. like a dimension of life. but intact in its “virginity. languages. instead of being circumscribed as a geometric site. 7-11. but of the simulated sacrifice of its object in order to save its reality principle. Thus ethnology. men women. in a world of simulation. The confinement of the scientific object is equal to the confinement of the mad and the dead. It erases the memory of environmental destruction and replaces it with a museum-theme park version of nature. under the sign of dead differences. they have become referential simulacra. frozen in their natural element. of the murder of every symbolic form and of its hysterical. The Indian thus returned to the ghetto. Doesn’t all science live on this paradoxical slope to which it is doomed by the evanescence of its object in its very apprehensions. who were seeing the indigenous people disintegrate immediately upon contact. were the first victims. No one can touch them anymore: as in a mine the vein is closed down. or of antiethnology. that of the simulacrum. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. 1981. We have all become living specimens in the spectral light of ethnology. Clastres are various witnesses. It is thus very naïve to look for ethnology in the Savages or in some Third World. of the blackmail of the real. the object takes its revenge for being “discovered” and with its death defies the science that wants to grasp it. then artificially resurrected under the auspices of the real. again becomes the model of simulation of all the possible Indians from before ethnology. protected to death. And just as all of society is irremediably contaminated by this mirror of madness that it has held up to itself. in the metropolises. Here begins an antiethnology that will never end and to which Jaulin. Jean Baudrillard. lost to science.

which no longer masters anything. which reassures us about our end. their reimportation to the original site is even more artificial: it is a total simulacrum that links up with “reality” through a complete circumvolution. Why Because Ramses was a great despotic and military figure? Certainly. and it dreams of it because it exterminated it by exhuming it as its own past. if the Cloisters in New York are an artificial mosaic of all cultures (following a logic of the capitalist centralization of value). ours. which is devastated by difference and by death. The cloister should have stayed in New York in its simulated environment. of an order that would have had nothing to do with it. to conceal that it is this world.” And everyone is supposed to applaud this restitution (as they did “the experimental campaign to take back the sidewalks” on the Champs Elysees!). But mostly because our culture dreams. To this end the pharaohs must be brought out of their tomb and the mummies out of their silence. whereas embalming was a mythical effort that strove to immortalize a hidden dimension. science. Thus it would have been enough to exhume Ramses to ensure his extermination by museumification. Whence this historic scene of the reception of the mummy at the Orly airport. to an order of history. so that everyone could see them (one glances through a peephole at the authentic cave. those (human?) beings who had never known the word of Christ. but out of sight and far from the light of day. gives speech back to the insane. there was a moment of stupor and bewilderment before the very possibility of escaping the universal law of the Gospel. There were two possible responses: either admit that this Law was not universal. diffracted. one forbade visitors to enter the Lascaux caves. hatred of a whole civilization for its own foundation. And just as with ethnology. it survives in an antiethnology whose task it is to reinject the difference fiction. or exterminate the Indians to efface the evidence. They are prey to both science and worms. but from now on there is no longer any difference the duplication suffices to render both artificial. The West is seized with panic at the thought of not being able to save what the symbolic order had been able to conserve for forty centuries. which at least fooled no one. master over putrefaction and death. We are fascinated by Ramses as Renaissance Christians were by the American Indians. It is possible that the memory of the original grottoes is itself stamped in the minds of future generations. a visible continuum. Irreparable violence toward all secrets. Thus at the beginning of colonization. behind this defunct power that it tries to annex. Well. slowed-down mechanism.the mastery over putrefaction that signified the mastery of the complete cycle of exchanged with death. which only gives a dead and circular response to a dead and circular interrogation. which has again become savage in its way. Ramses does not signify anything for us. the Savage fiction everywhere. Because finally we have never believed in them. with the pretext of saving the original. after it was left to rot for several dozen years in the depths of a museum. or even simply discovering them. but an exact replica was constructed five hundred meters from it. Nothing changes when society breaks the mirror of madness (abolishes the asylums. In the same way science and technology were recently mobilized to save the mummy of Ramses II. Our entire linear and accumulative culture collapses if we cannot stockpile the past in plain view. the violence of a civilization without secrets. which plays at extricating itself from its object to better secure itself in its pure form. which one will repatriate at great cost from the Cloisters in New York to reinstall it in “its original site. according to an unconscious reversion. as in Castaneda. and then one visits the reconstituted whole).” The form produced by confinement is followed by an innumerable. and museums. if the exportation of the cornices was in effect an arbitrary at. Because mummies don’t rot from worms: they die from being transplanted from a slow order of the symbolic. a visible myth of origin.doc 7/20/08 21 File Title Links – Preservation/Nature/Environment/Ecology (2/3) It is science that masters the objects. As ethnology collapses in its classical institution. Only absolute secrecy assured them this millennial power.Whitman College 85911615.) nor when science seems to break the mirror of its objectivity (effacing itself before its object. our order. that is to say restoring a visible order. but it s the objects that invest it with depth. which would suffice to slowly exterminate them. demuseumification is nothing but another spiral in artificiality. In general. In the same way.) and to bend down before the “differences. one contented oneself with converting them. only the mummy is of an inestimable worth because it is what guarantees that accumulation has meaning. Witness the cloister of Saint-Michel de Cuxa. We only know how a place our science in service of repairing the mummy. To this end they must be exhumed and given military honors. We require a visible past. which only knows how to condemn what preceded it to decay and death and subsequently to try to revive it with science. etc. that is to say. . etc.

this overproduction is again a means of destroying them: for Indian culture. They even flatter themselves for doing better. for exceeding the original number. One effaces everything and starts over. their demographic “promotion is just another step toward symbolic extermination. in the light of their model. and better than when they were alive. the imminence of their death. rests on the limitation of the group and the refusal of any “unlimited” increase. as can be seen in Ishi’s case. more cheerful.doc 7/20/08 22 File Title Links – Preservation/Nature/Environment/Ecology (3/3) Repatriating it is nothing but a supplementary subterfuge.Whitman College 85911615. In this way.they are already purged of their death. This is presented as proof of the superiority of civilization it will produce more Indians that they themselves were able to do. as it did traditionally. more authentic. In the same way. .things are doubled by their own scenario. like all tribal culture. But this doubling does not signify. acting as if nothing had happened and indulging in retrospective hallucination. (With sinister derision.) Everywhere we live in a universe strangely similar to the original. Americans flatter themselves for having brought the population of Indians back to pre-Conquest levels. like the faces in funeral homes.

whatever its allegiance. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. This same reduction of forces can be seen on the field. that is what must be abolished. nothing was objectively at stake but the verisimilitude of the final montage. The moralists of war. the ideological seriousness of war. which is played out as such (or else one could never send people to get themselves killed in this kind of thing). This objective is always fulfilled. despite this deterrence by the orbital power—the nuclear or molecular code—events continue at ground level. remained unliquidated. so hard. The best example can only be that of the war in Vietnam. the USA pulled out of Vietnam but won the war. The game was already won. That theirs is a Communist order is not serious in the end: it had proved itself. the murderous antagonism of the adversaries—which seems a matter of life and death. unnamed. Their untenable character must not conceal the fact that they were nothing but a simulacrum to enable the Vietnamese to seem to countenance a compromise and for Nixon to make the Americans swallow the withdrawal of their troops. The other aspect of this war and of all wars today: behind the armed violence. so ferocious. misfortunes are even more numerous. demobilized so easily. “The North Vietnamese were advised to countenance a scenario for liquidating the American presence in the course of which.doc 7/20/08 23 File Title Impacts – War (1/2) War no longer has an ideological purpose. 1981. and in this sense. in its immense. The nonintervention of China obtained and secured after many years. the holders of high wartime values should not be too discouraged: the war is no less atrocious for being only a simulacrum—the flesh suffers just the same. they no longer have any meaning. It marked the arrival of China to peaceful coexistence. because it took place at the intersection of a maximum historical and “revolutionary” stake. took place. with the equal complicity of the two adversaries. one must save face. and to annihilate the presence of anything that would disrupt the global system of deterrence. is total liquidation. they are no longer anything but the duplex effect of simulation at the summit.Whitman College 85911615. every form of exchange. This war. Jean Baudrillard. precapitalist structures. the two adversaries are fundamentally in solidarity against something else. the transition from a radical alternative to political alternation in a system now essentially regulated (the normalization of Peking-Washington relations): this was what was at stake in the war in Vietnam. spectacular death apparatus. And the war ended “spontaneously” when this objective was achieved.” This scenario: the extremely harsh bombardments of Hanoi. the shift from a global strategy of revolution to one of shared forces and empires. never spoken. Total complicity. war exists in order to reassure us of the existence of ideological stakes. but whose objective outcome in war. As soon as the Vietnamese had proved that they were no longer the carriers of an unpredictable subversion. subtly. It is even more effective than capitalism in the liquidation of “savage” and archaic precapitalist structures. When at last the war had passed into the hands of regular troops in the North and escaped that of the resistance. The stake is thus that of a political relay. and wasn’t its unfolding a means of sealing the end of history in the decisive and culminating historic event of our era? Why did this war. vanish from one day to the net as if by magic? Why did this American defeat (the largest reversal in the history of the USA) have no internal repercussions in America? If it had really signified the failure of the planetary strategy of the United States. that is the object of murder in war-. just like that of the charting of territories and disciplinary sociality. given the global process of the contiguity and simultaneity of data. then. China’s apprenticeship to a global modus Vivendi. at bottom. is nothing but the medium of this process of the terrorist rationalization of the social—the murder on which sociality will be founded. Tribal. What meaning did this war have. The war lasted as long as elements irreducible to a healthy politics and discipline of power. of symbolic organization. But. Communist r capitalist. 36-39. the reality of antagonistic causes. Same scenario in the Algerian war. of course. and the dead and former combatants are worth the same as in other wars. Yet. That is why it was deescalated. so long. of language. the war could stop: it had attained its objective. . Simulacra and Simulation. Nothing of the sort occurred. Rather. What no longer exists is the adversity of the adversaries. it could be trusted. it would necessarily have completely disrupted its internal balance and the American political system. and of the installation of this deterrent authority. or division of labor between two adversaries (who may even consent to enormous sacrifices for it) for the very end of reshaping and domesticating social relations. Something else. behind this simulacrum of fighting to the earth and of ruthless global stakes.and war itself. one could let them take over. p. was nothing but a crucial episode of peaceful coexistence. communitarian. even a Communist one.

of blood. catastrophes and crises destined to maintain a historical investment under hypnosis. in the most contradictory. and no one really accepts it. that there was an end to war at the heart of war itself. complete equivalence. For us the trick has been played. Many other events (the oil crisis. and that perhaps it never started. etc. the last gasp of an ideality of the body. or one becomes aware (as with the Communists “in power” in Italy. of the objectivity of facts. The media and the official news service are only there to maintain the illusion of an actuality.doc 7/20/08 24 File Title Impacts – War (2/2) And also the reality of victory or defeat. toward a reabsorption of all the stakes without a trace of blood. that they long ago exhausted their meaning and only live from an artificial effervescence of signs. in the cold light of deterrence (including Artaud. All dramaturgy. In any case. posthumous rediscovery of the gulags and Soviet dissidents like the almost contemporary discovery. the two differential poles implode into each other.” said Orwell. that it was finished well before it started. by a moribund ethnology. with a history of delay. All the events are to be read backward. a spiral of delay. which was still an attempt to create a dramaturgy of life. to a second existence as the referential of cruelty). and even all real writing of cruelty has disappeared. “War is peace. Everything still unfolds around us. that all these events succeed each other without logic. The reality of simulation is unbearable—crueler than Artaud’s Theater of Cruelty. of the lost “difference” of Savages) that all these things arrived too late. of violence in a system that was already taking it away. never existed. or recycle one another—a simultaneity of contradictions that is at once the parody and the end of every dialectic.) never started. . Simulation is the master. who has the right like everything else to his revival. the retro. war being a process that triumphs well beyond these appearances. parodic rehabilitation of all lost referentials. it is that at every moment war and peace are equivalent.Whitman College 85911615. of retro and porno at the same time—doubtless everyone knows this. to the phantom. and as artifacts of history. There also. and we only have a right to the retro. of the reality of the stakes. Thus one can completely miss the truth of a war: namely. except as artificial occurrences—abstract. the pacification (or the deterrence) that dominates us today is beyond war and peace. ersatz. in a profound indifference to their consequences (but this is because there are none: they exhaust themselves in their spectacular promotion)—all “newsreel” footage thus gives the sinister impression of kitsch.

with which no interpretation has been able to come to grips (neither the Marxist one of political manipulation by dominant classes. the mad intensification of collective value (blood. irrational. sex and work were fiercely opposed terms. Formerly the discourse on history derived its power from violently opposing itself to that of nature. a “vicious” curvature of a political space that is henceforth magnetized. demented resistance. before thinking that we now take pleasure in capital. its terror is on the level of this other terror that is the confusion of the real and the rational. Simulacra and Simulation. Who will unravel this imbroglio? The Gordian knot can at least be cut. of the operationalization of all social and individual life already makes itself strongly felt in the West. etc. race. people. nationality. Mobian compulsion. the discourse of desire to that of power. the historical revolution. Hell of simulation. Fascism is a resistance to this. Yet again. nor the Deleuzian one of despotic paranoia). the mystery of its appearance and of its collective energy. maleficent. Not so long ago. the final pleasure as the metamorphosis of the law (which is why it is so widely the order of the day): only capital takes pleasure. Fascism’s cruelty. of the whole system. Fascism is the logical result of hyperreality. the reinjection of death.doc 7/20/08 25 File Title Impacts – Fascism Political subjectivity circles around. of a “political aesthetic of death” at a time when the processes of the disenchantment of value and of collective values. if one divides it. p. etc. nor the Reichian one of the sexual repression of the masses.” to desire its own repression and to invest in paranoid and fascist systems? A malign torsion that returns this revolution of desire to the same fundamental ambiguity as the other. a torsion that is like that of the evil spirit of commutation. everything seems to escape this catastrophe of value. but of the subtle. 1981. when such collusions admirably knot themselves together without the knowledge of their authors? Conjunction of the system and of is extreme alternative like the two sides of a curved mirror. reversibilized from the right to the left. which deepened in the West. 1981.today they exchange their signifiers and their scenarios. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. it would not have tapped into this massive energy if it hadn’t been a resistance to something much worse. Overwhelming versatility of desire in Deleuze. Jean Baudrillard. even if it is a profound. elusive twisting o meaning—where even the condemned at Burgos are still a gift from Franco to Western democracy. 18. an enigmatic reversal that brings desire “revolutionary in itself. this neutralization and pacification of life. including paranoid reactionaries Jean Baudrillard.in a world without value or political referentials.). The Mobius strip. of the rational secularization and unidimensionalization of all life. the infinity of capital folded back on its own surface: transfinite? And is it not the same for desire and the libidinal space? Conjunction of desire and the law. 48 Fascism itself. p. . All the referentials combine their discourses in a circular. today both are dissolved in the same type of demand. which seizes the occasion to regenerate its own flagging humanism and whose indignant protest in turn consolidates Franco’s regime by uniting the Spanish masses against this foreign intervention? Where is the truth of all that. and as if involuntarily wanting what it wants. the masses may turn to the extreme valorization of race. circularized.Whitman College 85911615. which is no longer one of torture. can already be interpreted as the “irrational” excess of mythic and political referentials. results in a supplementary spiral without the reversibility of surfaces being resolved (here the reversible continuity of hypotheses). Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. Simulacra and Simulation. said Lyotard. and it is a response to that. eventually benefitting all ideological positions.

if it is established as such. You won’t be able to do it: the network of artificial signs will become inextricably mixed up with real elements (a policeman will really fire on sight. a client of the bank will faint and die of a heart attack. This is how all the holdups. no longer with a specific content or end. remain close to the “truth. and no longer at all to their “real” end. and make it so that the operation creates as much commotion as possible. it is in this sense that they cannot be controlled by an order that can only exert itself on the real and the rational.). airplane hijackings. How to feign a violation and put it to the test? Simulate a robbery in a large store: how to persuade security that it is a simulated robbery? There is no “objective” difference: the gestures. one will actually pay you the phony ransom). and hence no repression either. etc. It is necessary to see in this impossibility of isolating the process of simulation the weight of an order that cannot see and conceive of anything but the real. etc. beyond true and false. p. 19-23. The violence of the real is reinjected everywhere into a society that cannot accept appearances at face value. it is the threat of simulation that inspires violence. on causes and ends. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. The established order can do nothing against it. a referential order that can only reign over the referential. How can the simulation of virtue be punished? However. the opposite is also true (and this reversibility itself is part of the apparatus of simulation and the impotence of power): namely. But this does not make them harmless. it always prefers this hypothesis (as in the army one prefers to take the simulator for a real madman). the signs do not lean to one side or another.in short. beyond equivalences. Jean Baudrillard. to reduce very thing to the real—that is.Whitman College 85911615. but indefinitely refracted by each other (just like so-called historical events: strikes. because it cancels out the difference upon which the law is based. lacking the real. In short. This is certainly why order always opts for the real. will before institutions and justice come into play. But the difficulty is proportional to the danger. 1981.doc 7/20/08 26 File Title Impacts – Violence Just because everything is a simulation doesn’t mean that violence doesn’t happen. because it cannot function anywhere else. Demand a ransom. as such it is as serious as the simulation of crime. or to prove the real. it is now impossible to isolate the process of the real. Parody renders submission and transgression equivalent. without wishing it. crises. the signs are the same as for a real robbery. the right to property. because if it is practically impossible to isolate the process of simulation. Simulation is infinitely more dangerous because it always leaves open to supposition that. one of whose functions is precisely to devour any attempt at simulation. in short. beyond rational distinctions upon which the whole of the social and power depend. it is as hyperreal events. power itself ends by being . Illusion is no longer possible. but that cannot do anything against this indefinite recurrence of simulation. it is there that we must aim at order. are now in some sense simulation holdups in that they are already inscribed in the decoding and orchestration rituals of the media. a determined power that can only reign over a determined world. The challenge of simulation is never admitted by power. because the real is no longer possible.” in order to test the reaction of the apparatus to a perfect simulacrum. Organize a fake holdup. so that no human life will be in danger (or one lapses into the criminal). through the force of inertia of the real that surrounds us. will either be punished less severely (because it has no “consequences”) or punished as an offense against the judicial system (for example if one sets in motion a police operation “for nothing”)—but never as simulation since it is precisely as such that no equivalence with the real is possible. The impossibility of rediscovering an absolute level of the real is of the same order as the impossibility of staging illusion. against this nebula whose weight no longer obeys the laws of gravitation of the real. to the established order itself. and that is the most serious crime. Because the latter does nothing but disturb the order of things. To the established order they are always of the order of the real. On the contrary. When in doubt. Verify that your weapons are harmless. But this becomes more and more difficult. above and beyond its object. Transgression and violence are less serious because they only contest the distribution of the real. The simulation of an offense. Indeed. For example: it would be interesting to see whether the repressive apparatus would not react more violently to a simulated holdup than to a real holdup. because the law is a simulacrum of the second order. Thus. It is the whole political problem of parody. law and order themselves might be nothing but simulation. of hypersimulation or offensive simulation that is posed here. Simulacra and Simulation. in the real. where they function as a group of signs dedicated exclusively to their recurrence as signs. and take the most trustworthy hostage. you will immediately find yourself once again. anticipated in their presentation and their possible consequences. demonstrations. whereas the former attacks the reality principle itself. whereas simulation is of the third order.

etc.. even the confusion of the reality principle and the principle of desire is less dangerous than contagious hyperreality. that overdose of a strong referential in a society that cannot terminate its mourning. it does nothing but multiply the signs and accelerate the play of simulation. plays at crisis. its only strategy against this defection is to reinject the real and the referential everywhere. which increases as it disappears. that shattered every ideal distinction between true and false. Thus everywhere the hyperrealism of simulation is translated by the hallucinatory resemblance of the real to itself. social. Capital was the first to play at deterrence. The other production. To this end it prefers the discourse of crisis. The melancholy of societies without power this has already stirred up fascism. today it is this same logic that is even more set against capital. to persuade us to f the reality of the social. all real equivalence of the states and the omnipotence of manipulation. and if it is the one that fostered reality. in order to establish a radical law of equivalence and exchange. Hyperreality and simulation are deterrents of every principle and every objective. power plays at the real. disintegrating all the contradictions by dint of producing equivalent signs. abstraction. And at the same time. As long as the historical threat came at it from the real. everyone unloads it on everyone else) and the panicked nostalgia over its loss. and to overproduce. why not? That of desire. The only weapon of power. When it has totally disappeared.Whitman College 85911615. has for a long time had no specific meaning. it was also the first to liquidate it by exterminating all use value. of the gravity of the economy and the finalities of production. the iron law of its power. disconnection. It retains all the features. another figure of power comes into play: that of a collective demand for signs of power.a whole world adheres to it more or less in terror of the collapse of the political. For power. And as soon as it wishes to combat this disastrous spiral by secreting as last glimmer of reality. and political stakes. obsession with its survival. they turn against power the deterrent that it used so well for such a long time. What every society looks for in continuing to produce. Power itself has for a long time produced nothing but the signs of its resemblance. Because in the end. throughout its history it was capital that first fed on the destructuration of every referential. and dedicated to the effects of power and mass simulation). Whence the characteristic hysteria of our times: that of the production and reproduction of the real. of every human objective. power played at deterrence and simulation. that of the belle époque of political economy. is to restore the real that escapes it. good and evil. That is why today this “material” production is that of the hyperreal itself. deterritorialization. plays at remanufacturing artificial. that of values and commodities. Well.doc 7/20/08 27 File Title dismantled in this space and becoming a simulation of power (disconnected from its ends and its objectives. we will logically be under the total hallucination of power—a haunting memory that is already rid of it (no one wants it anymore. But it is too late. And in the end the game of power becomes nothing but the critical obsession with power—obsession with its death. and among those power is always in the right. “Take your desires for reality!” can be understood as the ultimate slogan of power since in a nonreferential world. on which to establish a last glimmer of power. it is a question of life and death. Today when the danger comes at it from simulation (that of being dissolved in the play of signs). but also. all depth and energy of representation have vanished in a hallucinatory resemblance). . economic. One remains among principles. but it is not longer anything but its scaled-down refraction (thus hyperrealists fix a real from which all meaning and charm. the reality principle. the whole discourse of traditional production.

but perfectly coherent effect — released an intense viral pathology. 112-14 In German. it cannot but destroy itself (by ‘depredation’. Death being the great natural predator. as had the metamorphoses of evil which follow the advances of reason about like a shadow. by eliminating all singularities in order to radiate total positivity. death. The Perfect Crime. Now. And of a slave without a master? He ends up exploiting himself. and that is what has become lethal today. of an ultrapositivity of which it is the lethal embodiment. far from being negative. time without memory. we have unleashed positivity. that of the subject without object. Jean Baudrillard. it is much more serious to be dispossessed of the other than of oneself. salt without sodium. For a virus. Being deprived of the other is worse than alienation: a lethal change. of the subject without other. An irrevocable destabilization. p. violence. as it were). total performance. This had escaped us. becoming estranged from oneself— alienation in the literal sense. What becomes of a master without a slave? He ends up terrorizing himself. is the product. but the object of that mastery. The two are conjoined today in the modern form of voluntary servitude: enslavement to data systems and calculation systems – total efficiency. no more exteriority. ‘Verfremdung’ means becoming other. The project of eliminating the external environment under the logic of calculation embodies this process. By setting off the chain reaction of the positive. we have at the same time — by a perverse. to lose all otherness. can be seen in all that has lost its shadow and become transparent to itself. life without spice. No longer threatened by them. of the same without other — definitive stasis and metastasis of the Same. we are eliminating ourselves. By eliminating the work of the negative. Even in devitalized substances: in sugar without calories. means to be dispossessed of the other. effects without causes. 1996. by contrast. have disappeared. masters without slaves. ‘Entfremdung’. passions without object. By eliminating the other in all its forms (illness. rooting out evil in all its forms. wars without enemy. a species we attempt at all costs to immortalize and wrest away from death — as we do with all our replacement technologies for the body’s organs — is doomed to disappear. . by liquidation of the dialectical opposition itself. the finality of that mastery. and it is this strategy we are applying to ourselves. or the slaves without masters we have become. strangeness). The best strategy for bringing about someone’s ruin is to eliminate everything which threatens him. thus causing him to lose all his defences. not to mention racial and linguistic differences. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. We have fought negativity and death. This is like wresting a species away from its natural predators. rather. A tragic destiny for individuals and for our — self-programming and selfreferential — systems: no more adversaries. there are two apparently synonymous terms with a very significant distinction between them.Whitman College 85911615.doc 7/20/08 28 File Title Impacts – Annihilation of Difference Impact The quest to obliterate all that differs and replace it with the image of the same leads uncontestably to the destruction of everything. no more hostile environments — no environment at all any longer. negativity. This paradigm of the subject without object. We have become masters – at least virtual masters – of this world.

Whitman College 85911615. . a drinking water source for up to 500. and Marines into combat environments in the absolute best-prepared way we can. and the Marine Mammal Protection Act. copper.” including the case at Eagle River Flats and the Navy’s 2002 temporary closure of its Farallon de Medinilla live-fire training range in the Pacific. the DOD points to a number of lawsuits and “close calls. the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Others. online I turn now to a discussion of the environmental effects of war. .000 people at the height of tourist season. 1996. Compensation. “We don’t feel it’s wise to wait for that kind of train wreck to see if we are going to lose in litigation.nih. not on other considerations. D. and the Clean Air Act (CAA). Plumwood 1993). Charles W “The price of preparing for war” Environmental Health Perspectives http://www. Now. the Sierra Army Depot. or if. assistant professor of philosophy and women’s studies at the university of Cincinnati.fcgi?artid=1253681 December 2004 Nearly 1 in 10 Americans live within 10 miles of a DOD Superfund site—a sometimes perilous proximity. Congress has approved legislation requested by the DOD amending the Migratory Bird Protection Act. For instance. and perchlorate into the area’s sole aquifer. which generate smog. sailors.gov/articlerender. Cuomo. attention to the ecological impacts of war further illustrates the limitations of only thinking of war in terms of events. and Liability Act (CER-CLA). for instance. including the oppression of nature. . The base released some 5. RDX. or material connections between environmental degradation and women's oppression.C. but says it can’t afford to wait until training is shut down before it acts. the Comprehensive Environmental Response.doc 7/20/08 29 File Title Impacts – Cuomo – Ecological Destruction Treating war as an event ignores the environmental effects of this mentality and the continuation of military based ecological destruction Chris J. As of this publication. As evidence of the need to act now. if women's oppression is connected to the unjustified destruction of nature. a 34-square-mile multi-use training facility in Cape Cod. pg. portions of the Endangered Species Act. is slowly leaching solvents. Joe Willging. Military aircraft from DOD facilities also generate noise and air pollution. the DOD is seeking changes through the RRPI to certain hazardous waste laws—specifically. was California’s leading air polluter. the most recent year for which data are available. more than 50. The DOD acknowledges that these laws have never been shown to have interfered with specific military training. Hypatia Special Issues: Women and Violence Volume 11 Number 4. Cuomo 1992. airmen. in 1996. says in reference to the Farallon de Medinilla closure. according to the EPA Toxics Release Inventory. Though women are no more essentially connected to nature than any other organic beings. Many feminists and ecological feminists have discussed these problematic conceptual connections as created or fueled by the dichotomous thinking discussed above (Griffin 1989. That closure followed a lawsuit filed by the Center for Biological Diversity alleging that bombing at the range was killing protected migratory birds. these flights emitted 75 tons of nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds. We want to maintain the ability to use those ranges in the optimum way based on military readiness considerations. jet fuel. According to the Democratic Committee on Energy and Commerce. both environmental and living Schmidt. In any case. The Massachusetts Military Reservation. In 1999. cultural constructions associate women with nature and help justify the mistreatment of both. located 55 miles northeast of Reno. an environmental lawyer with the DOD General Counsel’s office." and because it is so directly tied to other forms of ecological and social violence.pubmedcentral.000 military flights contributed to the heavy air traffic over Washington. feminists must be against oppression in any form. including aluminum.4 million pounds of toxic chemicals that year. focus on the practical. You can’t do that if you introduce artificialities into training.” . The DOD argues that even the threat of interference by hazardous waste litigation justifies its aims. because I believe these effects to be significant to feminists for two basic reasons. Warren 1990. it is arguable that the ecological effects of war and militarism are feminist issues. including Vandana Shiva and Maria Mies (1993). King 1990. as Karen Warren argues. Military training negatively affects the surrounding areas. Our job is to send soldiers. and zinc fumes. Because military ecological destruction occurs primarily "during peacetime.

revolutionaries. of the renunciation of the subject position and of meaning— precisely the practices of the masses—that we bury under the derisory terms of alienation and passivity. and even if w are still confronted with it. conforming objects. and to a contradictory demand he responds with a double strategy. playing the game—a form of blackmail and ultimatum just as serious as the other. 84-86 With one caution. and efficaciously. of revolt. to the constant ultimatum we are given to constitute ourselves as pure objects. but they do not respond at all to the other demand. participating. expressing ourselves at whatever cost. inert. We are face to face with this system in a double situation and insoluble double bind— exactly like children faced with the demands of the adult world. voters. of the word based on “consciousness raising. To the demand of being an object. and the constitution of a political subject are seen as valuable and subversive. exactly the opposite: childishness. When all the revolutions have already taken place. impact of all the object practices. he opposes all the practices of disobedience. of emancipation. and to constitute themselves as submissive. without absorbing it. expression. total dependence. that of constituting ourselves as subjects. Neither strategy has ore objective value than the other. to reflecting meaning. producing. idiocy. the strategic ground is to passively absorb appearances. which is a form of refusal and of non-reception. because it was ushered in by that phase of the system which prevails. a total claim to subjecthood. To choose the wrong strategy is a serious matter. even more serious today. the strategic resistance is the liberating claim of subjecthood But this strategy is more reflective of the earlier phase of the system. Thus the strategic resistance is that of the refusal of meaning and of the spoken word—or of the hyperconformist simulation of the very mechanisms of the system. in short. do not see that they are going in the direction of the system. etc. obedient. Children are simultaneously required to constitute themselves as autonomous subjects. It is the strategy of the masses: it is equivalent to returning to the system its own logic by doubling it. It blackmails us into becoming policymakers.Whitman College 85911615. emancipation.doc 7/20/08 30 File Title Alternative – Strategy of the Object – The Children The system demands that we constitute ourselves as subjects. p. of voting. emancipation. But this is to ignore the equal. speaking. an object’s resistance. passivity. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. on the resurrection of a subject of history.” indeed a “raising of the unconscious” of subjects and of the masses. of liberating ourselves. The liberating practices respond to one of the aspects of the system. Simulacra and Simulation. and without a doubt superior. refusing to continue on as living alibis for the violence of the real Jean Baudrillard. of the group. 1981. just as obstinately. deciding. The subject-resistance is today unilaterally valorized and viewed as positive—just as in the political sphere only the practices of freedom. the maximum production of meaning. that is to say. To a system whose argument is oppression and repression. The child resists on all levels. hyperconformism. free and conscious. . it is no longer the strategic terrain: the current argument of the system is to maximize speech. To the demand of being a subject he opposes. whose imperative today is precisely the overproduction and regeneration of meaning and of speech. responsible. This strategy (if one can still speak of strategy) prevails today. All the movements that only play on liberation. like a mirror.

And of course fatality exists too. and the one has never been able to erase the other. and they can change without notice. But the rules of its game. the ironic art of disappearance? The subject has always dreamed of this. a fatal strategy in that the subject thereby succumbs to the surpassing of its own objectives. Even predestination is a form of ironic subversion of fatality. It’s what peeks through the heart of more banal strategies. What’s the use of trying to establish chance as an objective process. for each of us. if the object is ingenious. as in the Witz. The real we invent wholly in the hope of seeing it result in a prodigious artifice. installing thereby a strategy that doesn’t have its own ends: a “playful” strategy that stills the play of the subject. Seduction is fatal. but against all science. There’s something stupid in the raw event. must itself be hyper-moral. Basically. In any case. But it’s certain nevertheless that in disobeying laws. From seduction we look for surprise. history itself has withdrawn. The difference is that the irony of fatality is greater than the irony of chance. it too must be engaged in the eccentric cycle of its effects. a strategy precisely with no object. p. must be no longer a moral stasis. another axiom: nothing mystical in this. From any object we hope for a blind response that hampers our projects. and therefore the impossibility of deciphering a word that plays the game of meaning all too well). like the discovery of a hidden rule. with whom do we share this ironic end? . what can we do about it? After the art of survival. Quite the contrary. like the real is hyper-real. just as everything was caught from the start in an original subversion. could not be insensible. in turn. Fatal Strategies. There are not enough means in the world for us to be able to dispose of ends. Truth only complicates things. in the irony of the aleatory. of the fatal. It’s true that this is a difficult and obscure route: to side with the object. no final process. there is something stupid about our current situation. as everyone knows. it would rather figure in our calculations as a sarcastic variable. If there be a morality. 184-85 188-191 if the object is fatal. of the indifference of the world toward our affairs. It’s the object. but a moral ecstasy. Nothing can guarantee us a fatality. unravel those other strategies. Today. The strategy of the object allows everything to unfold to it in a fatal and ingenious way Jean Baudrillard. whose fatality would be a strategy —something like the rule of another game. 1990. And if the Last Judgement consists. and compensates us in advance for the cruelest losses. and runs the risk of what it describes — but the risk is to be taken. But simply to delineate this other logic. hardly answers. and the effects of desire are largely depleted — what remains but to bring things back to their enigmatic ground zero? Now the enigma is inverted: once it was the Sphinx that posed men the question of man. What is more. no one is capable of articulating a final process. must itself be a special effect.Whitman College 85911615. Fatality. no objective. if it is an ironic one? Of course it exists. If I look for a fatal connection in language. the conditions according to which it accepts playing? No one knows them. irony (of the Witz*) is the objective form of this denouement. From strategy we expect control. Today. yielding to history. We are accomplices in this excess of finality that is there in the object (this can be the excess of meaning. Levi-Strauss claimed that the symbolic order had left us. now that all critical radicality has become useless. And. What remains but to pass on the side of the object. escalating the bidding on the strategic limits it will tolerate. if it exists. God himself is forced to employ a trial-and-error method. The object (the Sphinx). Everything must unfold in a fatal and ingenious way. Its failure today awakens passions that are much more subtle. at the knotting of the intrigue and its denouement). The interesting thing about this is the inexorable logical process that is visible here. To find another rule. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. a dream inverse to its dream of totalization. What remains but to side with this enigma? Everything can be summed up in this: let’s believe for a single instant the hypothesis that there is a fatal and enigmatic bias in the order of things. too.doc 7/20/08 31 File Title Alternative – Fatal Strategies Alternative All of today’s critical radicality has ultimately proven useless. redoubling and escalating the stakes are spirited forms of denouement. Everything is expiated in one way or another. Likewise with the joke. leave the field open to objective irony. and even at the molecular level. in unravelling desire. It’s the effect of a sovereign object that recreates in you an original confusion and seeks to surprise you. The discovery of a hidden rule of the game is dazzling. That also is a challenge — eventually it threatens absurdity. and on the side of its eccentric and precious effects. At the heart of banal strategies is the fiery desire of fatal strategies. and now that the critical spirit has found its summer home in socialism. which is itself the denouement of language immanent to language (that is the fatal: the same sign presiding over a life’s crystallization and its resolution. now that all negativity seems resolved in a world that pretends to realize itself. Today it’s man that poses to the Sphinx — the inhuman — the question of the inhuman. the object mocks the laws we attach to it. to take up the cause of the object. by which the object is taken in the very game that we wanted to make it play — doubling the ante somehow. Everything is headed somewhere. the question Oedipus thought he answered. and leave it to the equations to verify themselves. is seductive. to which destiny. of its fickleness toward objective laws. We invent all these strategies in the hope of having them result in the unexpected event. There’s something stupid in the current forms of truth and objectivity that a superior irony could spare us. No one knows what a strategy is. simultaneously — there’s no paradox involved in this. subtler than man. that we all thought we answered. in saving and eternalizing a moment of our lives. At the end of all that. and one only. therefore. In language become pure object. Everywhere. it answers secretly to some enigma. even less a strategy. Chance is also one. of its fatal effects (fatality is only the absolute liberty of effects )? Semiorrhage. nothing of the otherworldly delirium of a subjectivity trapped and escaping headlong into a paroxysmal inventory. The hypothesis of a fatal strategy must itself be fatal. The only way out is the fatal strategy of the object. says Canetti. the conjunction of these two terms is paradoxical: how could there be fatality if there is strategy? That’s just the point: the enigma is that fatality is at the heart of every strategy. which just makes it more tragic and more seductive. I fall on the joke.

at the moment. there I agree with you. It is a type of fatal process. fatal. But all the same. even if it is a crazy logic. someone who has a will. and yet it is used in such a way that subjectivity is undermined.com/2002_Volume_15/15_3/Article_4.Whitman College 85911615.montrealserai. When I use it in the expression "fatal strategies". because. and this is. to what extent does it retain today martial connotations which complicate its sense even more? JEAN BAUDRILLARD: Yes. it is a secret. But I like to bring these two terms together all the same to create a clash between them. Why not! It is. to be sure! How could an object have a strategy? It would be absurd.htm. if not a strategy. I like to apply things that are paradoxical. We are all inside it. there has to be a subject of the strategy. a representation of the outcome. and there is there. a reversibility that is in the order of things. At this point it has to be said that this supposes such relativity in the subject-object relation that it is that which becomes fatal. cannot be based on objectivity. But it no longer means anything great in my opinion. There will not be any objectivity there in the scientific sense of the term. truly delirious. but which would be the discourse of the object. there is only a strategy of the subject. which has nothing to do with scientificity. That is not possible. It is a nice term. though not in the sense of subjects. but we are nevertheless a vectorial element of the thing. The term strategy represents an opportunity because it is apt. no more subjectivity. Thus fatal strategy is. I also speak of objective illusion. an expression which describes a process.doc 7/20/08 32 File Title Alternative – Strategy of the Object Alternative Fatal strategies demand that we abandon the subject as an agent of politics. But somewhere there is a logic in the unfolding of things. it is no longer a strategy properly speaking. 2005 CTHEORY: How is the concept of strategy used? It is implicit that it connotes a form of subjectivity. one will always remain between the two. But. for there to be a strategy. Which means nothing. There has to be a finality. We witness the loss of subjectivity on the one hand. Thus. one can still use this term in a metaphorical sense perhaps. It has form. strategy being originally a military metaphor. the way that the discourse of sense tries to describe non-sense. I think that there is a rule. it is deployed within space. Let us call it strategy. Well. If the strategy has to become logistically chancy. It has a form of mastery and. And the fact that it is no longer the subject that possesses things when. it speaks to the imaginary. Regardless. but it has certainly lost its military reference. and adopt the seemingly paradoxical strategy of the object Jean Baudrillard. it is clear that it no longer has any finality in itself. the fact of speaking of the strategy of objects is a paradox. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. decisive and determinant way. Fatal strategy for me is a strategy of the object. and perhaps even its reference to a finality. if it is contrary to a truth principle. Summer 2002. at the same time. effectively. But clearly. or placed in a context where it is made volatile or fragile. we do not have it. and the intervention of the object itself in the game in a fatal. . accessed March 5. properly speaking. It is truly unreadable. online: http://www. But I am not the one who is going to say that. a kind of metaphorical transfer of things. a process in which there is certainly no more subject. the flow of the world itself. Moreover. all the same. Illusion. as discourse itself is so grounded in subjectivity in this sense. we do not have an objective discourse available in the sense I intend it. at least a rule of the game. What we have is the event itself.

instead they want to find a fatal distraction. the most secret facts and thoughts. For example. All forms that tend to project a dazzling and miraculous liberty are only revolutionary homilies. This hyper-banality is the equivalent of fatality. increase is salvation and ecstasy. even the increase of oppression and abjection that works like the liberating ecstasy of abjection — just as the absolute commodity works like the liberating form of the commodity. the bitter and triumphal foreboding that there’s no escaping this. Fatal Strategies. deep in man’s heart. this derision. 184-85 gender modified When I speak of the object and its fatal strategies.doc 7/20/08 33 File Title A2 Perm The strategy of the object is our fatal strategy. . to be commuted into spectacle. Boredom is not the problem — the essential point is the increase of boredom. plunge into it to the point of ecstasy. Jean Baudrillard. the only fatal strategy. and particularly in the effects of their disappearance. This is something of a parable. simulating passion. a drive for pure event. if one doesn’t understand this. the will to disdain their causes and to lose ourselves in their effects. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. This is the only solution to the problem of “voluntary servitude. but it’s here only to signify this passion of passions. All strategies that promise liberation from anything are illusions. 1990. The important point is the predestination of vacations to boredom. I’m not joking: people are not looking for amusement. opposed to all will for knowledge and power: tenacious. There is. subversive passion. it haunts nonetheless the process of events. seal the monotony of it with an even greater monotony. seductive passion. essentially it is fatal logic that wins out. only a fatal logic wins its battle with power precisely because it’s not a battle but a radical passivity. and it certainly is to the passions and enterprises of [hu]man. Another form of fundamental cynicism: this will to spectacle and illusion.” Furthermore there is no liberation but this one: in the deepening of negative conditions. a human being can find in a vacation a greater boredom than in everyday life — a redoubled boredom. to be in ecstasy is absolutely vital. that means that things are meaningless unless transfigured by this illusion. because it is made up of all the elements of happiness and distraction. It could mean the ecstatic deepening of anything. but in the magic of their effect — there only they appear great and do themselves the luxury of existing. in a distant echo of original sin. How could we suppose that people were going to disavow their daily life and look for an alternative to it? On the contrary. but their prodigious and eccentric form. Liberating logic is basically understood only by a few. they’ll make a destiny out of it: intensify it while seeming to do the opposite. to attain ecstasy in a scene instead of being produced as something really happening. I’m speaking also of people and their inhuman strategies. Things can only happen in this excessive manner. that is to say. p. but it isn’t perhaps indifferent to the fact of making a spectacle of itself in natural disasters. We think of nature as indifferent. not in the hold of representation. then one understands nothing of this collective brutishness. for here is where things cynically subvert themselves from their beginnings and their ends. which is a grand act of self-surpassing. this production which is not at all a representation. Prodigious form that moralists have always condemned. To occur is necessary. objective information.Whitman College 85911615. as it were.

of our objects. p.e. It alone is the guardian of the mystery. they discard their meanings effortlessly. For it is no longer a function of the subject. There is something of revenge in this: the object becomes a strange attractor. the object which refracts the subject and imposes upon it its presence and its random form. objects. 73-74 Irony is the only spiritual form in the modern world. which can’t be combined with the affirmative. through the spectrum of the sign and the commodity. The critical function of the subject has given way to the ironic function of the object. No longer any need to confront objects with the absurdity of their functions. but the operator of the objective irony of the world. Jean Baudrillard. of our models. a trickster who has absorbed the drollery of the commodity and its mise en scene. We no longer have the sacred horizon of appearances. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. It is. Its essence is promotional. thus positively identifying their meanings as “not the given ones. in a poetic unreality. All metaphysics is swept away by this turnabout in which the subject is no longer the master of representation (‘I’ll be your mirror’). This is exemplified by the 1AC – they criticize the given meanings of SUVs and expose them as false. At the heart of our universe of signs there is an evil genius of advertising. This is all part of their visible. which has annihilated all others. taken out of the orbit of the subject — it is then that it becomes a pure object. No longer any need for a critical consciousness to hold up the mirror of its double to the world: our modern world swallowed its double when it lost its shadow. Once they have passed through the medium or through the image. by their very existence. all too visible sequencing. its discontinuity its fragmentation.” We should abandon all hopes of finding any meaning at all in these systems of signs – only doing that allows the strategy of the object. Our strategies are incompatible fundamentally because the affirmative. it is an objective function. stripped of all connotation of meaning and value.Whitman College 85911615. object world which surrounds us. and the irony of that incorporated double shines out at every moment in every fragment of our signs. but that of the absolute commodity. superconductive of illusion and non-meaning. The Perfect Crime. henceforth. exorbitated — i. that of the artificial. It is the power of the object which cuts a swathe through the very artifice we have imposed on it. 1996. A scriptwriter of genius (capital itself?) has dragged the world into a phantasmagoria of which we are all the fascinated victims. perform an artificial and ironic function. in which the absence and transparency of the subject is reflected.doc 7/20/08 34 File Title A2 Perm – Ironic Strategies Can’t Include the Subject Stances of irony are purely stances of the object. Stripped of all illusion by technology. but it is no longer ours to exercise. although they will try to claim otherwise. still believes in identifiable meanings of particular signs. as the Surrealists did: things move to shed an ironic light on themselves all on their own. its stereophony and its artificial instantaneity. The aura of our world is no longer sacred. which of itself creates a parody effect. .

a strategy that eludes capture by power. not us – we affirm the masses’ passivity and lack of choice as a joyous. p. liberatory gesture. it would be interesting to conceive of the masses. a sad vision of the unconscious (repressed). as possessing a delusive. The masses know they are powerless. since these masses coexist in us with the intelligent and voluntary being who condemns and scorns them. 98-99 The masses know that they know nothing and they have no desire to know. ironic challenge. alienated way. of non-desire. intellectual. Jean Baudrillard. or secret ruse. If only for the sake of change. and they don’t want power. and then to reward them with the spectacle of it. allusive strategy. heirs to the philosophers of the Enlightenment in their contempt of the masses) are only good basically for this: to administer by delegation. wills. because of an insistance which is thereby bathed in the light of a ridiculous looking halo. We always had a sad vision of the masses (alienated). silence. sovereign lack of will. absorption then expulsion of all powers.Whitman College 85911615. But they’re not that at all: the masses are very snobbish. It might not even be repressed at all. Vicarious*. joyous and seductive. . Our unconscious might not be composed of desires properly sworn to the sad destiny of repression. whose will would have been diverted. corresponding to an unconscious that is finally ironic. We reproach them vigorously for these signs of stupidity and passivity. illusive. this tedious business of power and will. All mediators (political. Fatal Strategies. subjectively. No one knows what the true opposite of consciousness is — unless it be this unconscious of repression that psychoanalysis has imposed upon us. to recall Veblen’s concept. toward the secret finalities of the very masses they despise. It would instead be made up out of what’s left after this joyous expulsion of all encumbering superstructures of being and will. But perhaps our true unconscious is in this ironic power of withdrawal. of all enlightenment and depths of meaning. in a sort of game of irresponsibility. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. the object-masses.doc 7/20/08 35 File Title AT: Passivity Bad/Whatever Else the 2AC Says Their arguments assume we embrace the masses’ passivity in a sad. The assumption of the alienated masses is something made by the affirmative. non-knowledge. without their realizing it. the status of these “privileged” classes. Upon our entire philosophy lies the heavy weight of these sad correlations. by proxy. 1990. That couldn’t be further from the truth. to relieve the masses of this transendence for their greater pleasure. We live all of this. in a paradoxical mode. they act like Brummel and sovereignly delegate the faculty of choice to someone else.

The rights of Kuwait may have been restored. the US and its allies sought a rapid conflict based upon airpower. it involves two sides in combat. high-technology intelligence and weapons systems. 1720 Does the refusal of the critical strategy which seeks to re-establish the truth of what happened commit Baudrillard to the irrationalist denial that any military engagement took place? Alternatively. He writes: “As I understand the concept ‘war’.. and its army permitted to crush the Kurdish and Shiite rebellions. Whereas Iraq was disposed to fight in the manner of its previous war with Iran. In several respects. or who. it is as though it never happened.” (86) This is not war. apart from the massive damage and suffering inflicted upon Iraq. and even if it were. a lever of last resort employed only to the extent that is necessary to bring the recalcitrant party into line. can this be called a war?” (6 7—8) In his defence of the rationalist outlook which rejects the postmodern reduction of truth to consensus belief. deterrence breaks down for lack of any common ground. located for the most part in a political and military third world. That did not happen in the Gulf. But these are secondary phenomena. The same Americans who had systematically destroyed Iraq’s power grid and transport infrastructure now refused to enforce the law of democracy and the New World Order where this would entail intervening in the internal affairs of a sovereign state. like Saddam Hussein. The crucial stake in the Gulf affair. Lecturer in Philosophy at the University of Sydney. A perfect semblance of victory for the Americans was exchanged for the perfect semblance of defeat for Iraq. 1995. and a form of slaughter practised by US and UK air and ground forces upon Iraqi soldiers and civilians. which means it defies the logic of their criticism. The almost complete absence of any engagement by Iraqi planes. Rather. The image of a just war fought between the forces of freedom and those of tyranny dissolved in the moral ambiguities of the postconflict period. like the persistence of sweatshops alongside fully automated production facilities. and the extensive use of electronic warfare. In the past. lobotomised. p. . The disparity between US and Iraqi forces with regard to method and military technology was so great that direct engagement rarely took place. does the fact of military conflict constitute a refutation of the hypothesis that there was no Gulf War? It does only if we accept that what did take place out there in the desert beyond the reach of the TV cameras was in fact a war. methods and military technology of the two sides was so great that what occurred cannot be considered an adversarial encounter. and the short-Lived political and economic benefits at home. All that is singular and irreducible must be reduced and absorbed. Baudrillard’s argument in “The Gulf War did not take place” is not that nothing took place. and the fate of their technologically inferior tanks. what took place was not a war in any traditional logic. In these cases. the Gulf War did not take place. the use of force remains carefully circumscribed. it is because they are in conflict with third world forces who do not recognise that the rules of the game have changed. Where they do involve first world powers such as the US or UK. a dual relation between warring parties. and when it did the outcome was entirely predictable. an exercise in domination rather than an act of war.(71) In short. in the case of the Gulf conflict. Yet Chomsky has also questioned whether what took place in the Gulf in 1990-1 was a war. and prepared to tolerate the massive casualties which would result from a ground-based war of attrition. and it is this failure of communication which leads to the use of force. This is the law of democracy and the New World Order. Norris points to the figure of Chomsky as someone who is both a defender of Enlightenment ideals in morality and the philosophy of language. The Iraqi regime was allowed to remain intact. They are the consequences of a law of uneven development. was the subordination of Islam to the global order: “Our wars thus have less to do with the confrontation of warriors than with the domestication of the refractory forces on the planet .doc 7/20/08 36 File Title A2 “You Deny the Reality of War” Our argument is not that nothing happened in the Gulf. say. The Gulf War Did Not Take Place.Whitman College 85911615. war has always involved an antagonistic and destructive confrontation between adversaries. The final irony of the whole episode is that. However. very little changed as a result of the military conflict.. The imbalance of military means was such that this was not a conflict in which the survival of both sides was in play. From a political point of view. Other commentators have argued that the disparity between the aims. testify to the one-sided nature of the conflict: “it is as though the Iraqis were electrocuted. this was not the case in the Gulf conflict. They are police operations rather than wars.. but in exchange for the rights of minorities in Iraq. but rather that what took place was not a war. The claim that war itself has become virtual does not mean that military conflicts do not occur: they do and with increasing frequency and savagery in the New World Order. Paul Patton. shooting at each other. running towards the television journalists in order to surrender or immobilised beside their tanks . a model of the liberal and critical intellectual. but an entirely asymmetrical operation. Baudrillard argues.”20 He goes on to describe the successive phases of the conflict as involving varieties of state terrorism practised on both sides. and a staunch critic of US foreign policy.. it was no longer clear what had been gained by the sacrifice of so many lives. operate according to different rules. that it was a hoax like the moon landing or something.

the polar opposite of war. political concern only regarding armed conflict. It is particularly easy for those whose lives are shaped by the safety of privilege. or when the stability of privilege is directly threatened. state-sponsored violence is happening nearly all over. . pg. 1996.Whitman College 85911615. creates forms of resistance to militarism that are merely exercises in crisis control. Hypatia Special Issues: Women and Violence Volume 11 Number 4. Crisis-driven attention to declarations of war might actually keep resisters complacent about and complicitous in the general presence of global militarism. online Ethical approaches that do not attend to the ways in which warfare and military practices are woven into the very fabric of life in twenty-first century technological states lead to crisis-based politics and analyses. Seeing war as necessarily embedded in constant military presence draws attention to the fact that horrific. The belief that militarism is an ethical. to maintain this false belief. and at that point it is difficult not to respond in ways that make resisters drop all other political priorities. all of the time. For any feminism that aims to resist oppression and create alternative social and political options. Neglecting the omnipresence of militarism allows the false belief that the absence of declared armed conflicts is peace. assistant professor of philosophy and women’s studies at the university of Cincinnati.doc 7/20/08 37 File Title A2 “You Deny the Reality of War” Treating war as an event disables challenges to state sponsored violence and militarism Chris J. omnipresent systems of domination and oppression that so often function as givens in most people's lives. crisis-based ethics and politics are problematic because they distract attention from the need for sustained resistance to the enmeshed. Cuomo. and that it is perpetrated by military institutions and other militaristic agents of the state. and who do not regularly encounter the realities of militarism. Antiwar resistance is then mobilized when the "real" violence finally occurs.

but to PREVENT from something really happening. between the rich and the poor. politically correct. the gap between the First and the Third World.the moment one shows a minimal sign of engaging in political projects that aim to seriously challenge the existing order. but to question the hegemonic ideological coordinates.or it means nothing. today. activity fits the formula of "Let's go on changing something all the time so that. one should be especially careful not to confuse the ruling ideology with ideology which SEEMS to dominate. the actual freedom of thought means the freedom to question the predominant liberal-democratic "postideological" consensus .the new opacity. accessed January 28. "Fidelity to the democratic consensus" means the acceptance of the present liberal-parlamentary consensus. This kind of activity provides the perfect example of interpassivity2: of doing things not to achieve something. So everything is allowed.. professor of philosophy at the university of Ljubljana. denouncing and boycotting companies which do not respect ecological conditions or which use child labor) . Habermas designated the present era as that of the neue Undurchsichtlichkeit .htm. the prohibition to think.1 More than ever. any serious attempt to imagine a society whose socio-political order would be different. antifeminism. If.com/replenin. which are all not only tolerated.they are tolerated and supported as long as they do not get too close to a certain limit. provocations in the style of the notorious "Sensation" exhibitions ARE the norm. but even supported by the media. Slavoj Zizek. which precludes any serious questioning of how this liberal-democratic order is complicit in the phenomena it officially condemns. there is nothing easier today than to get international.on condition that what you do does not effectively question or disturb the predominant political consensus. our daily experience is mystifying: modernization generates new obscurantisms. homophobia. This is the point on which one cannot and should not concede: today.” http://lacan. 2004 What are we to say to this? Again. the reduction of freedom is presented to us as the arrival of new freedoms. it means: say and write whatever you want ..it will be an act WITHIN the hegemonic ideological coordinates: those who "really want to do something to help people" get involved in (undoubtedly honorable) exploits like Medecins sans frontiere. the shattering impact of the digitalization of our daily lives. one should bear in mind Walter Benjamin's reminder that it is not enough to ask how a certain theory (or art) declares itself to stay with regard to social struggles . In sex. one is accused of abandoning scientific objectivity for the outdated ideological positions. All the frenetic humanitarian. the problem resides in the implicit qualifications which can be easily discerned by the "concrete analysis of the concrete situation. globally. and. the growing violence not only in the far-away countries. as a critical topic: the prospects of a global ecological catastrophe. in art. even if they seemingly enter the economic territory (say. of course. this act will not be performed in an empty space . “Repeating Lenin.one should also ask how it effectively functions IN these very struggles. One is therefore tempted to turn around Marx's thesis 11: the first task today is precisely NOT to succumb to the temptation to act. Today's liberal-democratic hegemony is sustained by a kind of unwritten Denkverbot similar to the infamous Berufsverbot in Germany of the late 60s . the effectively hegemonic attitude is not patriarchal repression. In short. 2001." as Lenin himself would have put it. gulag and the more recent Third World catastrophes is thus to serve as the support of this Denkverbot by constantly reminding us how things may have been much worse: "Just look around and see for yourself what will happen if we follow your radical notions!" And it is exactly the same thing that the demand for "scientific objectivity" means: the moment one seriously questions the existing liberal consensus. violations of human rights. really changing. but free promiscuity. In these circumstances. this will necessarily end in a new Gulag!" The ideological function of the constant reference to the holocaust. The problem is that all this occurs against the background of a fundamental Denkverbot.doc 7/20/08 38 File Title A2 Reformism Particularized demands for change. etc. the example of the art fully integrated into the establishment. the answer is immediately: "Benevolent as it is. no matter how radical. are performed against the backdrop of the neoliberal-democratic order and are tolerated as long as they fail to fundamentally change hegemonic ideology. one follows a direct call to act. sexism. but also in our megalopolises. state or corporate funds for a multidisciplinary research into how to fight the new forms of ethnic. things will remain the same!" . More then ever. Greenpeace. to directly intervene and change things (which then inevitably ends in a cul de sac of debilitating impossibility: "what can one do against the global capital?"). feminist and anti-racist campaigns.Whitman College 85911615. solicited even. religious or sexist violence..

The real is produced from miniaturized cells. leaving room only for the orbital recurrence of models and for the simulated generation of differences. 1981. Simulation is no longer that of a territory.and it can be reproduced an indefinite number of times from these.as the most beautiful allegory of simulation. . little by little. that no longer even gives the event of death a chance. or the concept. even inverted. But it is no longer a question of either maps o territories. Today abstraction is no longer that of the map. a bit as the double ends by being confused with the real through aging). nor even parody. and interest groups. Political reality is now purely operational. It is all of metaphysics that is lost. Because it is with this same imperialism that present-day simulators attempt to make the real. on massive servers. which simultaneously culminates in and is engulfed by the cartographer’s mad project of the ideal coextensivity of map and territory. in that tit lends itself to all systems of equivalences. coincide with their models of simulation. whose vestiges persist here and there in the deserts that are no longer those of the Empire. or a substance. Because it is difference that constitutes the poetry of the map and the charm of the territory.such is the vital function of the model in a system of death. Only the allegory of the Empire. today it is the territory whose shreds slowly rot across the extent of the map. the magic of the concept and the charm of the real. matrices. a referential being. nor that of truth. remains. the mirror. 1-3 If once we were able to view the Borges fable in which the cartographers of the Empire draw up a map so detailed that it ends up covering the territory exactly(the decline of the Empire witnesses the fraying of this map. produced from the radiating synthesis of combinatory models in a hyperspace without atmosphere.the metaphysical beauty of this ruined abstraction testifying to a pride equal to the Empire and rotting like a carcass. a material more malleable that meaning. and possesses nothing but the discrete charm of second-order simulacra. but ours. and its fall into ruins. between one and the other. It is nevertheless the map that precedes the territory. In fact. demographics. now we live in a hyper-pluralist stasis. The territory no longer precedes the map. and if one must return to the fable. It is no longer a question of imitation.Whitman College 85911615. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. Simulacra and Simulation. disappears in the simulation whose operation is nuclear and genetic. that constituted the charm of abstraction. It no longer needs to be rational. or rather of anticipated resurrection. perfectly descriptive machine that offers all the signs of the real and short-circuits all its vicissitudes. the double. returning to the substance of the soil. nor does it survive it. Jean Baudrillard. that is to say of an operation of deterring every real process via its operational double. and memory banks. nor duplication. No more mirror of being and appearances. because it not longer measures itself against either an ideal or negative instance. It is a hyperreal. It is no longer anything but operational. to all binary oppositions.doc 7/20/08 39 File Title A2 Reformism Reform doesn’t exist anymore. No more imaginary coextensivity: it is genetic miniaturization that is the dimension of simulation. the era of simulation is inaugurated by a liquidation of all referentials. this fable has now come full circle for us. models of control. It is the real. This imaginary of representation. all of the real. metastable. and not the map. It is a question of substituting the signs of the real for the real. p. because no imaginary envelops it anymore.precession of simulacra. of the real and its concept. a programmatic. and from any distinction between the real and the imaginary. Something has disappeared: the sovereign difference. to all combinatory algebra. perhaps. By crossing into a space whose curvature is no longer that of the real. it is no longer really the real. A hyperreal henceforth sheltered from the imaginary. lobbyists. It is produced from cable television pundits. Borge’s fable is unusable. It is the generation by models of a real without origin or reality: a hyperreal.that engenders the territory. In fact. though some shreds are still discernible in the deserts. All the revolutions and reforms have already happenedthen the neo-conservatives pushed back. The desert of the real itself. Never again will the real have the chance to produce itself.worse: with their artificial resurrection in the systems of signs. no longer at all spectacular or discursive. from countless PACs.

can only try to reconstruct invitro. not only of merchandise. the conquest of space constitutes an irreversible crossing toward the loss of the terrestrial referential. or to transferring it into a hyperreal of simulation. sometimes down to disquietingly strange details. the imaginary from the givens of the real. When a system reaches its own limits and becomes saturated. In this way. leaving no room for the imaginary—it is not exactly because of this that the exploratory universe (technical. of their original process. the perimeters of a prior world. of the banal. in its artificial resurrection of “historical” worlds. signs.the satellization of the real in the transcendence of space—it is the end of metaphysics. This is also true of geographic and spatial exploration: when there is no longer any virgin territory. .doc 7/20/08 40 File Title A2 Sign production/Culture Crash Link Turn Just because you accelerate the process of sign creation doesn’t mean that you collapse signification itself. From then onward. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. Until now we have always had a reserve of the imaginary—now the coefficient of reality is proportional to the reserve of the imaginary that gives it its specific weight. hypostatized in space. but a desperate rehallucination of the past. Witness this two bedroom/kitchen/shower put into orbit. the events. It is no longer possible to fabricate the unreal from the real. besides it forged its path in the narratives of spatial exploration. hyperrealized. p. Jean Baudrillard. There is a hemorrhaging of reality as in internal coherence of a limited universe. rather. models of simulation in place and to contrive to give them the feeling of the real. be the opposite: it will be to put decentered situations. but hallucinatory with retrospective truth. 123-124 Perhaps science fiction from the cybernetic and hyperreal era can only exhaust itself. The everydayness of the terrestrial habitat itself elevated to the rank of cosmic value. 1981. has thus in a sense closed up again in universalizing itself—a universal market. The process will. and thus one available to the imaginary. but without substance. something must change: the projection. Thus in Simulacra by Philip K. mental. precisely because it has disappeared from our life. The conquest of space that follows that of the planet is equal to derealizing (dematerializing) human space. Classical science fiction was that of an expanding universe. of lived experience. Hallucination of the real. down to the smallest details. We can no longer imagine any other universe: the grace of transcendence was taken away from us in that respect too. once the limits of this universe recede into infinity. the war of Secession. something like the principle of reality disappears. Simulacra and Simulation. a reversal is produced— something else takes place. the end of science fiction—the era of hyperreality begins. reconstituted as an animal or vegetal reserve. raised to a spatial power (one could say) with the most recent lunar module. The proliferation of signs leads to the hallucination and revisiting of impacts in their hyperrealized forms. the sort of pantographic excess that constituted the charm of science fiction are all impossible. the ideologies of the past. cosmic) of science fiction has ceased to function. brought to light with a transparent precision. but of values. But the two are narrowly linked. when the map covers the whole territory. emptied of meaning. There is no relationship of cause and effect there: it is not because terrestrial space today is virtually coded. of the quotidian. in the imaginary as well. in which fiction will never again be a mirror held toward the future. saturated. to reinvent the real as fiction.Whitman College 85911615. but reconstituted. derealized in advance. mapped. and they are two versions of the same general process of implosion that follows the gigantic process of explosion and expansion characteristic of past centuries. of lived experience. the people. the extrapolation. registered. models. counterparts to the more terrestrial forms of exploration and colonization of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. the end of the phantasm. Gigantic hologram in three dimensions. Dick.

Energies freeze in their own fire. self-deterrence always grow more rapidly than the forces or the weapons at our disposal: this is the secret of the social order. it freezes everything around it. weapons. believing that they are buying their independent striking force. Therein lies the whole process of deterrence. unintelligible. 1981. of an implosion where all these energies would be abolished in a catastrophic process (in the literal sense. all of those who have acquired it since will be deterred from using by the very fact of possessing it). this vast saturation of a system by its own forces. control. In this sense. of a reversion of energies toward a minimal threshold). It is thus perfectly probable that one day we will see nuclear powers export atomic reactors. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. Lockdown and control increase in direct proportion to (and undoubtedly even faster than) liberating potentialities. “real” use of it (as the Americans did in Hiroshima—but precisely only they had the right to this “use value” of the bomb. p. Control by the threat will be replaced by the more effective strategy of pacification through the bomb and through the possession of the bomb. nonexplosive—except for the possibility of an explosion toward the center. the nuclear everywhere inaugurates an accelerated process of implosion. One can no longer imagine what project. so prettily named.doc 7/20/08 41 File Title A2 “The Case Impacts Still Happen” Deterrence makes your massive impacts impossible Jean Baudrillard. It is still the absolute paradox of the nuclear. Thus the very possibility of paralyzing a whole country by flicking a switch makes it so that the electrical engineers will never use this weapon: the whole myth of the total and revolutionary strike crumbles at the very moment when the means are available—but alas precisely because those means are available. that is to say in the sense of a reversion of the whole cycle toward a minimal point. what subject would exist behind this enclosure. Responsibility. will buy the virus of deterrence. now neutralized.Whitman College 85911615. The “little” powers. they deter themselves. all risk of explosion. it absorbs all living energy. very quickly effaces (as unionization does in the working world) any inclination toward violent intervention. 39-40 This is why nuclear proliferation does not increase the risk of either an atomic clash or an accident— save in the interval when the “young” powers could be tempted to make a nondeterrant. of their own deterrence. censure. This was already the aporia of the modern revolution. Entry into the atomic club. and bombs to ever latitude. so many neutron bombs knocking out all historic virulence. what strategy. Simulacra and Simulation. what power. . unusable. [40] The nuclear is at once the culminating point of available energy and the maximization of energy control systems. The same goes for the atomic reactors that we have already sent them.

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