Whitman College 85911615.

doc 7/20/08

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Baudrillard K Neg
Baudrillard K Neg.......................................................................................................................................................1

Baudrillard K Neg..........................................................................................................................1
1NC (1/1)....................................................................................................................................................................4

1NC (1/1).........................................................................................................................................4
Links – Policy Debate – Disneyland (1/2)..................................................................................................................5

Links – Policy Debate – Disneyland (1/2)....................................................................................5
Links – Policy Debate – Disneyland (2/2)..................................................................................................................6

Links – Policy Debate – Disneyland (2/2)....................................................................................6
Links – Policy Debate – Hyperreal Communication (1/2)..........................................................................................7

Links – Policy Debate – Hyperreal Communication (1/2).........................................................7
Links – Policy Debate – Hyperreal Communication (2/2)..........................................................................................8

Links – Policy Debate – Hyperreal Communication (2/2).........................................................8
Links – Leadership type Impacts – Saving Private Ryan (1/2).................................................................................10

Links – Leadership type Impacts – Saving Private Ryan (1/2)...............................................10
Links – Leadership type Impacts – Saving Private Ryan (2/2).................................................................................11

Links – Leadership type Impacts – Saving Private Ryan (2/2)...............................................11
Links – War Scenarios..............................................................................................................................................12

Links – War Scenarios.................................................................................................................12
Links – Preventing the “Real” War...........................................................................................................................13

Links – Preventing the “Real” War...........................................................................................13
Links – Rights/Revolution/Hippie Shit.....................................................................................................................14

Links – Rights/Revolution/Hippie Shit......................................................................................14
Links – Micropolitics................................................................................................................................................15

Links – Micropolitics...................................................................................................................15
Links – Leftist Politics..............................................................................................................................................16

Links – Leftist Politics.................................................................................................................16
Links – Alternative Energy – Tech/R&D.................................................................................................................17

Links – Alternative Energy – Tech/R&D..................................................................................17
Links – Alternative Energy – Nuclear Energy (1/2).................................................................................................18

Links – Alternative Energy – Nuclear Energy (1/2).................................................................18
Links – Alternative Energy – Nuclear Energy (1/2).................................................................................................19

Links – Alternative Energy – Nuclear Energy (1/2).................................................................19
Links – Preservation/Nature/Environment/Ecology (1/3)........................................................................................20

Links – Preservation/Nature/Environment/Ecology (1/3)........................................................20

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Links – Preservation/Nature/Environment/Ecology (2/3)........................................................................................21

Links – Preservation/Nature/Environment/Ecology (2/3)........................................................21
Links – Preservation/Nature/Environment/Ecology (3/3)........................................................................................22

Links – Preservation/Nature/Environment/Ecology (3/3)........................................................22
Impacts – War (1/2)..................................................................................................................................................23

Impacts – War (1/2).....................................................................................................................23
Impacts – War (2/2)..................................................................................................................................................24

Impacts – War (2/2).....................................................................................................................24
Impacts – Fascism.....................................................................................................................................................25

Impacts – Fascism........................................................................................................................25
Impacts – Violence....................................................................................................................................................26

Impacts – Violence.......................................................................................................................26
Impacts – Annihilation of Difference Impact...........................................................................................................28

Impacts – Annihilation of Difference Impact............................................................................28
Impacts – Cuomo – Ecological Destruction..............................................................................................................29

Impacts – Cuomo – Ecological Destruction...............................................................................29
Alternative – Strategy of the Object – The Children................................................................................................30

Alternative – Strategy of the Object – The Children................................................................30
Alternative – Fatal Strategies Alternative.................................................................................................................31

Alternative – Fatal Strategies Alternative.................................................................................31
Alternative – Strategy of the Object Alternative.......................................................................................................32

Alternative – Strategy of the Object Alternative......................................................................32
A2 Perm....................................................................................................................................................................33

A2 Perm........................................................................................................................................33
A2 Perm – Ironic Strategies Can’t Include the Subject............................................................................................34

A2 Perm – Ironic Strategies Can’t Include the Subject...........................................................34
AT: Passivity Bad/Whatever Else the 2AC Says......................................................................................................35

AT: Passivity Bad/Whatever Else the 2AC Says.......................................................................35
A2 “You Deny the Reality of War”..........................................................................................................................36

A2 “You Deny the Reality of War”............................................................................................36
A2 “You Deny the Reality of War”..........................................................................................................................37

A2 “You Deny the Reality of War”............................................................................................37
A2 Reformism...........................................................................................................................................................38

A2 Reformism...............................................................................................................................38
A2 Reformism...........................................................................................................................................................39

A2 Reformism...............................................................................................................................39

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A2 Sign production/Culture Crash Link Turn..........................................................................................................40

A2 Sign production/Culture Crash Link Turn.........................................................................40
A2 “The Case Impacts Still Happen”.......................................................................................................................41

A2 “The Case Impacts Still Happen”.........................................................................................41

Whitman College 85911615.doc 7/20/08

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1NC (1/1)
While ecology and limitations on consumption are laudable goals insofar as they solve problems like the exhaustion of resources, this responsible stewardship is inherently bound up with an unpredictable and uncontrollable underside – the development of renewables is a liberation of the forces of energy that amounts to a limitless proliferation culminating in the devouring of the very agents of that energy. Technologized energy is a Pandora’s box that we can have no fantasies of control over – it exceeds and defies attempts at containment. Jean Baudrillard, Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School, 1993, The Transparency of Evil, p. 103-05
The dangers threatening the human species are thus less risks of default (exhaustion of natural resources, dilapidation of the environment, etc.) than risks of excess: runaway energy flows, chain reactions, or frenzied autonomous developments. This distinction is a vital one, for while risks of default can be addressed by a New Political Ecology, the basic assumptions of which are by now generally accepted (indeed, they are already written into the International Rights of the Species), there is absolutely nothing to counter this other immanent logic, this speeding-up of everything, which plays double or nothing with nature. In the first case, the restoration of equilibrium to our ecological niche is still possible, the energies in play could still be rebalanced; in the second case, however, we are confronted by a development that is irretrievably out of balance. In the first case ethical principles may be brought to bear: a teleology that transcends the material process involved — even if merely the goal of survival — may come into play; in the second case, however, a process whose only goal is limitless proliferation will inevitably absorb all transcendence and devour all agents thereof. A full-blown and planet-wide schizophrenia, therefore, now rules: even as all sorts of ecological measures are being taken, even as a strategy for the proper use of the world, for an ideal interaction with the world, is being deployed, there is a simultaneous proliferation of enterprises of destruction, a total unleashing of the performance principle. And the very same forces often contribute to both trends. Furthermore, though the end-point of the first tendency seems fairly clear — to wit, the saving of our species by means of ecological conviviality — we know absolutely nothing about the secret destination of the second. But surely this acceleration, this excentric motion, must
have an end, must imply a destiny for the human species, a different symbolic relationship with the world that is much more complex and ambiguous than a relationship of balance and interaction? This too would be a vital destination — but it would involve a total risk. If such a destination has indeed been chosen for us, it is obvious that ecology’s rational deities will be powerless against the throwing of technology and energy into the struggle for an unpredictable goal, in a sort of Great Game whose rules are unknown to us. Even now we have no protection against the perverse effects of security, control and crime-prevention measures. We already know to what dangerous extremities we are led by prophylaxis in every sphere: social, medical, economic or political. In the name of the highest possible degree of security, an endemic terror may well be instituted that is in every way as dangerous as the epidemic threat of catastrophe. One thing is certain: in view of the complexity of the initial conditions and the potential reversibility of all the effects, we should entertain no illusions about the effectiveness of any kind of rational intervention. In the face of a process which so far surpasses the ‘individual or collective will of the players, we have no choice but to accept that any distinction between good and evil (and by extension here any possibility of assessing the ‘right level’ of technological development) can have the slightest validity only within the tiny marginal sphere contributed by our rational model. Inside these bounds, ethical reflection and practical determinations are feasible; beyond them, at the level of the overall process

which we have ourselves set in motion, but which from now on marches on independently of us with the ineluctability of a natural catastrophe, there reigns — for better or worse — the inseparability of good and evil, and hence the impossibility of mobilizing the one without the other. This is, properly speaking, the theorem of the accursed share. There is no point whatsoever in wondering whether things ought to be thus: they simply are thus, and to fail to acknowledge it is to fall utterly prey to illusion. None of this invalidates whatever may be possible in
the ethical, ecological or economic sphere of our life — but it does totally relativize the impact of such efforts upon the symbolic level, which is the level of destiny.

<<Insert More Links Here, choose wisely based off of whether it is a more critical or a more policy oriented affirmative>>

Embalmed and pacified. it is a deterrence machine set up in order to rejuvenate the fiction of the real in the opposite camp. Marin did it very well in Utopiques. . Whence the possibility of an ideological analysis of Disneyland (L.that it is that of the adults themselves who come here to act the child in order to foster illusion as to their real childishness. is a fiction factory whose function is to reify the world outside. one is altogether abandoned at the exit. Whence the debility of this imaginary. everywhere in Disneyland the objective profile of America. The contrast with the absolute solitude of the parking lot. solitude is directed at a single gadget: the automobile. and thus of saving the reality principle. 12-14 Disneyland is a perfect model of all the entangled orders of simulacra. who awaits his resurrection through an increase of 180 degrees centigrade. One parks outside and stand in line inside.. The violence of the real world is sustained by policy simulation. Or. the Future World. and to conceal the fact that true childishness is everywhere. Enchanted Village. Magic Mountain. needs this old imaginary like a sympathetic nervous system made up of childhood signals and faked phantasms. All its values are exalted by the miniature and the comic strip. rather: inside. But what attracts the crowds the most is without a doubt the social microcosm.Whitman College 85911615. Policy hacks come to the imaginary realm of debate to convince themselves that all that stuff they hear on CNN is reality.is total.a veritable concentration camp.a city of incredible proportions but without space. Debate. this city. Disneyland is presented as imaginary in order to make us believe that the rest is real. Certainly. of its constraints and joys. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. Thus. without dimension. childlike world is found to have been conceived and realize by a man who is himself now cryogenized: Walt Disney. like Disneyland. and in the sufficient and excessive number of gadgets necessary to create the multitudinous effect. which is no longer anything but an immense scenario and a perpetual pan shot. its infantile degeneration. however. By an extraordinary coincidence (but this derives without a doubt from the enchantment inherent to this universe. all of “real” America that is Disneyland (a bit like prisons are there to hide that it is the social in its entirety. jeux d’espace [Utopias. as much as cinema studios. but belong to the hyperreal order and to the order of simulation. idealized transposition of a contradictory reality. In fact. is drawn. Simulacra and Simulation. but this makes something else and this “ideological” blanket functions as a cover for a simulation of the third order: Disneyland exists in order to hide that it is the “real” country. in the “real” world. etc. This imaginary world is supposed to ensure the success of the operation. that is carceral). miniaturized pleasure of real America. Marine World: Los Angeles is surrounded by these imaginary stations that feed reality. panegyric of American values. the Frontier. 1981. the energy of the real to a city whose mystery is precisely that of no longer being anything but a network of incessant. a whole panoply of gadgets magnetizes the crowd in directed flows outside. This world wants to be childish in order to make us believe that the adults are elsewhere. unreal circulation. The imaginary of Disneyland is neither true nor false. The only phantasmagoria in this imaginary world lies in the tenderness and warmth of the crowd. this frozen.doc 7/20/08 5 File Title Links – Policy Debate – Disneyland (1/2) Policy debate is about imagining the world of the plan. the religious. As much as electrical and atomic power stations. p. It is no longer a question of a false representation of reality (ideology) but of concealing the fact that the real is no longer real. international politics is just as much of a game as debate. down to the morphology of individuals and of the crowd. in its banal omnipresence. It is first of all a play of illusions and phantasms: the Pirates. Disneyland is not the only one. whereas all of Los Angeles and the America that surrounds it are no longer real. Jean Baudrillard. play of space]): digest of the American way of life.

or lost sociality. to the improbable luxurious materialization of life and to undiscoverable contradictions. in the guise of ecology. in the sophisticated confines of a triumphal market economy is reinvented a penury/sign. the historical. a penury/simulacrum. . psychic. vanished savage naturalness: natural food.Whitman College 85911615. whose visible signs would be those of this strange obesity. One reinvents penury. but they go jogging. that secretes penury. asceticism. which proliferate in California. adds a final esoteric aureole to the triumph of an esoteric culture. But all the sexual. is verified. or the lost taste for food. the phantasms. or the incredible coexistence of the most bizarre theories and practices. and not of nature at all. Nevertheless. heaven. somatic recycling institutes. yoga. etc. or lost bodies. but there are institutes for that. fairylike. Disneyland is the prototype of this new function. belonging to the same order. and even here. which correspond to the improbable coalition of luxury. but there is contactotherapy. Everywhere today one must recycle waste. Marshall Sahlins’s idea that it is the economy of the market. Everywhere one recycles lost faculties. maybe a mental catastrophe. and the dreams. of energy crises and the critique of capital.doc 7/20/08 6 File Title Links – Policy Debate – Disneyland (2/2) Disneyland: a space of the regeneration of the imaginary as waste-treatment plants are elsewhere. but at a secondary level: here. the first great toxic excrement of a hyperreal civilization. They no longer walk. a simulated behavior of the underdeveloped (including the adoption of Marxist tenets) that. health food. They no longer touch each other. People no longer look at each other. and money. legendary imaginary of children and adults is a waste product. On a mental level. a mental implosion and involution without prececedent lies in wait for a system of the kink.

participation at every level. And this is only the macroscopic extension of the implosion of meaning at the microscopic level of the sign. it is a circular process—that of simulation. p. to avoid the brutal desimulation that would confront us in the face of the obvious reality of a radical loss of meaning. . Rather than creating communication. the opposite occurs. without which the credibility of our social organization would collapse. the pressure of information pursues an irresistible destructuration of the social. It is useless to ask if it is the loss of communication that produces this escalation in the simulacrum. to short-circuit in advance any possibility of communication (precession of the model that calls an end to the real). you are the event.tying news articles together to create the most accurate representation possible of the real world and then combine them into a coherent and logical story. but still. to total entropy. or that it neutralizes them. 1981. The loss of meaning is directly linked to the dissolving. opens onto an excess of wealth and social purpose. in each one of us. which means that you reproduce your harms Jean Baudrillard. corresponds to this simulation of meaning and of communication in which this system encloses us. blackmail through speech: “You are concerned. it exhausts itself in the staging of meaning.” A sort of inverse simulation in the masses. which is redistributed in all the interstices of the social—just as consensus would have it that material production. Everywhere information is thought to produce an accelerated circulation of meaning. of the implosion of the social in the masses. Useless to ask which is the first term. Rather than producing meaning. The hyperreality of communication and of meaning. faith in information attach themselves to this tautological proof that the system gives of itself by doubling the signs of an unlocatable reality.” More and more information is invaded by this kind of phantom content. listeners who call in. not only communication but the social functions in a closed circuit.. despite its dysfunctions and irrationalities. the integrated circuit of the negative.Whitman College 85911615. Thus the media are producers not of socialization. the fact is that it is collapsing. and even if the waste is enormous. One both believes and doesn’t. this awakening dream of communication. in a sort of nebulous state dedicated not to a surplus of innovation. on the contrary. One does not ask oneself. 2. which as one knows. the mass media. to deterrence they respond with disaffection. that is how the real is abolished. Whoever is underexposed to the media is dissocialized or virtually asocial. as a lure— to which the force of myth is attached. it exhausts itself in the act of staging communication. a general consensus would have it that nevertheless. The third hypothesis is the most interesting but flies in the face of every commonly held opinion. and for this very reason: because where we think that information produces meaning. Myth exists. but of exactly the opposite. but less. this homeopathic grafting. Thus. as a whole. To this tautology of the system the masses respond with ambivalence. Simulacra and Simulation. dissuasive action of information. Belief. In fact. Behind this exacerbated mise-en-scene of communication. this information ritual becomes encoded in the real. The nondirective interview. More real than the real. our intense analysis of the world does not produce more understanding. But one can believe that this belief is as ambiguous as that which was attached to myths in ancient societies. and the mass media. but one must guard against thinking that people believe in it: this is the trap of critical thinking that can only be exercised if it presupposes the naïveté and stupidity of the masses. Well. This coherence and logic is the fundamental myth of modernity. A circular arrangement through which one stages the desire of the audience. very much on the contrary. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. Moreover.doc 7/20/08 7 File Title Links – Policy Debate – Hyperreal Communication (1/2) Policy debate is intricately tied to the workings of mass media. Immense energies are deployed to hold this simulacrum at bay. “I know very well. A gigantic process of simulation that is very familiar. the media. the antitheater of communication. Information devours its own content. there is a rigorous and necessary correlation between the two. It devours communication and the social. 1. We are all complicitous in this myth. Thus information dissolves meaning and dissolves the social. to the extent that information is directly destructive of meaning and signification. is never anything but the recycling in the negative of the traditional institution. speech. or with an always enigmatic belief. It is the alpha and omega of our modernity. there is none. And for two reasons. that of the hyperreal. Everywhere socialization is measured by the exposure to media messages. but. a plus value of meaning homologous to the economic one that results from the accelerated rotation of capital Information is thought to create communication. there be an excess of meaning. 79-82 Or. or whether it is the simulacrum that is there first for dissuasive ends. etc.

Whitman College 85911615. . one could still expect to manipulate the medium in its form and to transform the real by using the impact of the medium as form. That is—and this is where McLuhan’s formula leads. anti-media. A serious problem for all counter-information. But there is something even more serious. in the same movement. Only the medium can make an event—whatever the contents. in which even the definition and distinct action of the medium can no longer by determined. revolutionary use value of the medium as such. the implosion of the medium itself in the real. whether they are conformist or subversive. That means that all contents of meaning are absorbed in the only dominant form of the medium. the implosion of the medium and of the real in a sort of hyperreal nebula. pirate-radios. there is perhaps still a subversive. pushed to its limit—there is not only an implosion of the message in the medium. etc. the medium is the message. which McLuhan himself did not see. there is. If all the content is wiped out. Because beyond this neutralization of all content.doc 7/20/08 8 File Title Links – Policy Debate – Hyperreal Communication (2/2) This implosion should be analyzed according to McLuhan’s formula. the consequences of which have yet to be exhausted.

Whitman College 85911615.doc 7/20/08 9 File Title .

” Same misunderstanding. denser. Anything serves to escape this void. emptied of substance and legalized in their superficial exercise. Whence the omnipresence of fascism and of war in retro—a coincidence. everything is equivalent and is mixed indiscriminately in the same morose and funereal exaltation. fascism. unreality. which is dubbed peaceful coexistence on a global level. it is naïve to conclude that the evocation of fascism signals a current renewal of fascism (it is precisely because one is no longer there. the cinema is fascinated by itself as a lost object as much as it (and we) are fascinated by the real as a lost referent. etc. traversed by currents. which is still less amusing. It is by the virtue of this fact that it takes the place of myths on the screen. retro fashions—no longer so much because people believe in them or still place some hope in the them. but precisely. History is our lost referential. but emptied of references. Simulacra and Simulation. a retro politics. There is however a privileging of the immediately preceding era (fascism. when at least life and death were at stake. Post-history has rendered power useless. Cinema plagiarizes itself. and pacified monotony on the quotidian level—this history exorcised by a slowly or brutally congealing society celebrates its resurrection in force on the screen. according to the same process that used to make lost myths live again. in the euphoric or catastrophic expectation of a revolution—today one has the impression that history has retreated. that is to say our myth. In a violent and contemporary period of history (let’s say between the two world wars and the cold war).Whitman College 85911615. Thus the fetishized history will preferably be the one immediately preceding our “irreferential” era. because one is in something else. It is the golden age of despotic and legendary resurrections. lived in the march of history. only nostalgia endlessly accumulates: war. with the air of a game and a field of adventure. 1981. 43-48. The great event of this period. it is history itself that invades the cinema according to the same scenario—the historical stake chased from our lives by this sort of immense neutralization. more confused essence). Myth. This trauma (loss of referentials) is similar to the discovery of the difference between the sexes in children. as profound. war. chased from the real by the violence of history. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. Hypotyposis and specularity. remakes its classics. The affirmative simply recycles the signs of power. it is for this reason that fascism can again become fascinating in its filtered cruelty. One can explain it by evoking the Freudian theory of fetishism (perhaps also a retro hypothesis). more perverse. that is. these death pangs of the real and of the rational that open onto an age of simulation. is this decline of strong referentials. cinema also approaches an absolute correspondence with itself—and this is not contradictory: it is the very definition of the hyperreal. the great trauma.: all of this is logical. recopies itself. as irreversible: the fetishization of an object intervenes to obscure this unbearable discovery. same mystification. p. Whereas so many generations.” as one congratulated oneself on the “entrance of politics into the university. aestheticized by retro)… Concurrently with this effort toward an absolute correspondence with the real. posthumous liberalization. an affinity that is not at all political. full dramatic relation. . the panoply of events. it is a myth that invades cinema as imaginary content. It is unto this void that the phantasms of a past history recede. remakes the silent film more perfectly than the original. “Entering another round of Saving Private Ryan” is a perfect example of how neoconservative leadership impact authors write under the naïve hallucination of ideology and power. in the same retro fascination. at least there was violence (albeit fascist). leaving behind it an indifferent nebula. says Freud. retroactivates its original myths. the period immediately following the war—the innumerable films that play on these themes for us have a closer. or the revolutionary struggles. The cinema and the imaginary (the novelistic. and particularly the last. The politics that enter the university are those that come from history. this hemorrhage of values—it is in proportion to this distress that all content can be evoked pell-mell. dialectical. but simply to resurrect the period whet at least there was history. that all previous history is resurrected in bulk—a controlling idea no longer selects. The illusion would be to congratulate oneself on this “awareness of history on the part of the cinema. finds refuge in cinema. they just can’t get over it. this kind of politics is like sexuality or permanent education (or like social security in its time). this object is not just any object. Today. this leukemia of history and of politics. the pageantry of the belle époque.doc 7/20/08 10 File Title Links – Leadership type Impacts – Saving Private Ryan (1/2) It should be a measure of Khalizad’s argument that he depends on cinema to make it for him. it is often the last object perceived before the traumatic discovery. including the delirious use of its own technique) used to have a lively. it is naïve to conclude that the evocation of fascism and of war in retro—a coincidence. as serious. the mythical. ideologies. Jean Baudrillard. and affinity that is not at all political.

negative relation: it results from the loss of specificity of one and of the other. and it itself is lost therein. The cold collage. if one can call it that.doc 7/20/08 11 File Title Links – Leadership type Impacts – Saving Private Ryan (2/2) The relation that is being formed today between the cinema and the real is an inverse. The age of history. It is this fabulous character. History is a strong myth. . all its technology in the service of reanimating what it itself contributed to liquidating. which was substituted for all other value—we are all complicitous in this. to a particular scene of the past or of the present. and this is irreversible. the last great myth. the mythical energy of an event or of a narrative. “objective form at the expense of the myths that once traversed it. that today seems to be increasingly lost. Behind a performative and demonstrative logic: the obsession with real time or with the minute quotidianeity of Jeanne Hilmann doing the dishes). the asexual nuptials of two cold media that evolve in an asymptotic line toward each other: the cinema attempting to abolish itself in the cinematographic (or televised) hyperreal. Today cinema can place all its talent. this negative and implacable fidelity to the materiality of the past. Because cinema itself contributed to the disappearance of history. is also the age of the novel. It only resurrects ghosts. It is a myth that at once subtended the possibility of an “objective” enchainment of events and causes and the possibility of a narrative enchainment of discourse. to the restitution of an absolute simulacrum of the past or the present. along with the unconscious. Photography and cinema contributed in large part to the secularization of history.Whitman College 85911615. perhaps. to fixing it in its visible. and to the advent of the archive. the cool promiscuity.

and the same nonsignifying furor. his film is really the extension of the war through other means. And all of a sudden. of the carpet of bombs in the strip of film… .the explosions. global event. the film becomes war.but one can always retrieve a tiny little idea that is not nasty. and one can even rejoice in this monstrous trick (exactly as with Wagner). The real war is waged by Coppola as it is by Westmoreland: without counting the inspired irony of having forests and Philippine villages napalmed to retrace the hell of South Vietnam. p. In this sense. Jean Baudrillard. Simulacra and Simulation. but that of the film strictly speaking)? But there is no answer. their methods. The war as entrenchment. excessive deployment of a power already filming itself as it unfolded. the sacrificial. their power. test the impact of a cinema that has become an immeasurable machinery of special effects. and the remarkable paranoia that from the beginning conceived of this film as a historical. either about the war nr about cinema (at least the latter) if one has not grasped this lack of distinction that is no longer either an ideological or a moral one. he hits us with that. a psychotropic dream that had the goal neither of a victory nor of a policy at stake. irrational in political terms: the Americans and the Vietnamese are already reconciled. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. there is no possible verdict. no critical sense. as technological and psychedelic fantasy.Whitman College 85911615. the same excess of means.doc 7/20/08 12 File Title Links – War Scenarios Like special effects in war cinema. that this film is part of the war—if the Americans (seemingly) lost the other one. and make him crush the Vietnamese village to the sound of Wagner’s music—those are not critical. in which. 59-60. the sacrificial joy of so many millions spent. But there it is. the two are joined by their common hemorrhage into technology. but rather. the war as a succession of special effects. the war become film even before being filmed. and one can say to oneself: how is such a horror possible (not that of the war. No real distance. that is not a value judgment. they are part of the special effect. of such a holocaust of means. that nothing separates them. the pinnacle of this failed war. Coppola can certainly deck out his helicopter captain in a ridiculous hat of the light cavalry. Apocalypse Now is a global victory. of the immanence of a thing in its very revolution. exactly as if they had annihilated the jungle and the towns. One has understood nothing. and its apotheosis. right after the end of the hostilities the Americans offered economic aid. and for Americans it was primarily that: a test site. no desire for “raising consciousness” in relation to the war: and in a sense this is the brutal quality of this film—not being rotten with the moral psychology of war. 1981. with the same retro megalomania. of so many misadventures. the affirmative impact evidence traces out the mass destruction/mass spectacle of war-. because the film is a phase of this war without end) what was already crazy about this war. Coppola makes his film like the Americans made war—in this sense. In fact. a baroque dream of napalm and o the tropics. The war became film. but one of the reversibility of both destruction and production. it is there. would not fundamentally have existed—and it is necessary for us to believe in this: the war in Vietnam “in itself” perhaps in fact never happened. they certainly won this one. It reassures us that war is indeed an extension of politics by other means. distant signs. This exercise in the simulated effects of war is indistinguishable from the means of war and the war itself. a gigantic territory in which to test their arms. with the same clownish effect in overdrive. equal or superior to that of the Pentagon and of governments.. it is bewildering. the film is not without interest: it retrospectively illuminates (not even retrospectively. The war abolishes itself in its technological test. the war in Vietnam would have been nothing other than what it is. it is the best possible testimonial— with the same immoderation. and he himself makes movies in the same way. the same monstrous candor… and the same success. they are immersed in the machinery. it is a dream. perhaps waiting for nothing but consecration by a superfilm. the omnipresence of these reassurances is proof that modern warfare is simply an exercise in special effects. in the mind of the creator. exactly as they are making their film today. Coppola does nothing but that: test cinema’s power of intervention. which completes the mass-spectacle effect of this war. Cinematographic power equal and superior to that of the industrial and military complexes. but that tells you the war in Vietnam and this film are cut from the same cloth. of the organic metabolism of all the technologies. one of good and evil. the orgasmic sacrifice of industrial means. One revisits everything through cinema and one begins again: the Molochian joy of filming.

the asymptotic form which allows a brush with war but no encounter. then of the distinction between winners and losers (the winner readily becomes the hostage of the loser: the Stockholm syndrome). the privilege of real war. the military personnel do not know what to make of their real function. The Gulf War Did Not Take Place. to the catastrophe of the real. the disappearance of the symbolic passage to the act. It is neither the strong form nor the degree zero of war. to which belong those in Eastern Europe as well as the Gulf War. It is the de-intensified state of war. The obsession with the real only strengthens the passage to the virtual. unlike the Aristotelian. then distilled one by one in the exchange. We are no longer in a logic of the passage from virtual to actual but in a hyperrealist logic of the deterrence of the real by the virtual. as though the fiction of an earthquake were created by manipulating the measuring instruments. and we are confronted with a virtual apocalypse. according to which no available weapon will not one day be used and such a concentration of force cannot but lead to conflict. There will never be a monument to the unknown hostage. the cosmetically treated spectre of its death. into the virtual impossibility of war which translates into the paltry fantasia where adversaries compete in de-escalation. Jean Baudrillard. Deterrence has passed by that way and it spares no one. a hegemony ultimately much more dangerous than real apocalypse. not their real death. it is their virtual death that is at issue. with every pleasure which is too real. thus to a psychotic process. that of the right to war under the green light of the UN and with an abundance of precautions and concessions. we have fallen into soft war. p. By dint of dreaming of pure war. . No more than the politicians. this is an Aristotelian logic which is no longer our own. their function of death and destruction. War has not escaped this virtualisation which is like a surgical operation. The most widespread belief is in a logical progression from virtual to actual. Moreover. Since it never began. Our virtual has definitively overtaken the actual and we must be content with this extreme virtuality which. everyone is too ashamed of him: the collective shame which attaches to the hostage reflects the absolute degradation of real hostility (war) into virtual hospitality (Saddam Hussein’s “guests”). and its even more deceptive televisual subterfuge (as we saw at Timisoara). Extracted like molecules in an experimental process. 1995. We should have been suspicious about the disappearance of the declaration of war. the Gulf War would not even reach two or three. like every real event moreover. We prefer the exile of the virtual. Even the military has lost the privilege of use value. It is the bellicose equivalent of safe sex: make war like love with a condom! On the Richter scale. of an orbital war purged of all local and political peripeteias. with every real violence. the transparent degree which allows war to be seen from the depths of the darkroom. In this process. this war is therefore interminable. Everything is therefore transposed into the virtual. which already presaged the disappearance of the end of hostilities. The build-up is unreal. as though the irruption or the event of war had become obscene and insupportable. However. no longer sustainable. then of operations themselves. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. of which television is the universal mirror. the hostages are once again revealing. Peripeteias of an anorexic history or an anorexic war which can no longer devour the enemy because it is incapable of conceiving the enemy as worthy of being challenged or annihilated — and God knows Saddam Hussein is worthy of neither challenge nor annihilation — and thus devours itself. Against this obsession with the real we have created a gigantic apparatus of simulation which allows us to pass to the act “in vitro” (this is true even of procreation). The passage to action suffers widespread infamy: it supposedly corresponds to a brutal lifting of repression. they never die: at best they disappear.doc 7/20/08 13 File Title Links – Preventing the “Real” War The affirmative engages in an obsessive quest to limit the outbreak of real war – this buys into an outdated logic that believes the real emerges from the virtual. the aim of which is to present a face-lifted war.Whitman College 85911615. with every real event. It seems that this obsession with the passage to action today governs all our behaviour: obsession with every real. a logic of weak events. 26-28 We are in neither a logic of war nor a logic of peace but in a logic of deterrence which has wound its way inexorably through forty years of cold war to a denouement in our current events. That’s no longer the case in an age of simulation. deters any passage to action. but the weak or phthisical [sic] degree. They are pledged to the decoy of war as the others are to the decoy of power.

to override their own logic not in the sense of creating sheer redundancy. Rather than a mortal mode of disappearance. the moment of liberation in every sphere. p. therefore. the chips are down. the rational. The Transparency of Evil: Essays on Extreme Phenomena. and since we can no longer.doc 7/20/08 14 File Title Links – Rights/Revolution/Hippie Shit The Revolution –liberation in every sphere – has already happened. Instead. so that it can go into orbit. as a result of their transfer into the secondary existence of simulation. Jean Baudrillard Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. wherein paradoxically we must continue to live as though they had not been. and because what haunts and obsesses us is being thus ahead of all the results . yet which we must continue to reproduce in a sort of inescapable indifference. all the desires that we had been pursuing. by becoming saturated or transparent. Your calls for liberation. children’s liberation. of development as of the crisis of development. The state of utopia realized. nourish the hope of realizing them. The fact is that the revolution has well and truly happened. liberation of the forces of production. and we find ourselves faced collectively with the big question: WHAT DO WE DO NOW THE ORGY IS OVER? Now all we can do is simulate the orgy. liberation of art. Nothing is truly reflected any more whether in a mirror or in the abyssal realm (which is merely the endless reduplication of consciousness). but in the sense of an increase in power. simulate liberation. signs. A centripetal compulsion coexists with a decentredness of all systems. Nothing (not even God) now disappears by coming to an end. liberation of unconscious drives. The assumption of all models of representation. With the benefit of a little hindsight. There is no longer any such thing as a revolution of values — merely a circumvention or involution of values. a fantastic potentialization whereby their own very existence is put at risk. The logic of viral dispersal in networks is no longer a logic of value. all the forms. of all utopias realized. we may say that the unavoidable goal of all liberation is to foster and provision circulatory networks.. things disappear through proliferation or contamination. We have pursued every avenue in the production and effective overproduction of objects. images and dreams which are now behind us. 1993. we can only ‘hyper-realize’ them through interminable simulation. I would describe it as ‘after the orgy’. then. liberation of the forces of destruction. a fractal mode of dispersal. women’s liberation. therefore. accelerating. The orgy in question was the moment when modernity exploded upon us. because of extenuation or extermination. as of all models of anti-representation. freedom and revolution are prime examples of the simulation of values continuing in endless cycles of reiteration. Everywhere what has been liberated has been liberated so that it can enter a state of pure circulation. to the principle of uncertainty. The fate of the things liberated is an incessant commutation. sexual liberation. phantasies. Now everything has been liberated. — — . ideologies and satisfactions. neither. or as a result of the epidemic of simulation.the very availability of all the signs. of criticism as of anti-criticism. because all the goals of liberation are already behind us. We live amid the interminable reproduction of ideals. but not in the way we expected. and these things are thus subject to increasing indeterminacy. an internal metastasis or fevered endogenic virulence which creates a tendency for systems to explode beyond their own limits. This was a total orgy —an orgy of the real.Whitman College 85911615. Political liberation. We may pretend to carry on in the same direction. messages. No true revolution of values can ever take place. But since they have. But that’s all they are – simulation. But what can we do? This is the state of simulation. by dying. but in reality we are accelerating in a void. is it a logic of equivalence. whether actually or potentially. a state in which we are obliged to replay all scenarios precisely because they have all taken place already. the sexual. 3-5 If I were asked to characterize the present state of affairs.

All at once. nothing is political any more. When everything is political. Total metonymy. the perfect realization of the whole tendency of modernity. When everything is aesthetic. the sphere of mass processes. 1993. in sex. Perhaps our melancholy stems from this. But they cannot exist where contamination is possible between any discipline and any other. Fundamentally.7-10 The possibility of metaphor is disappearing in every sphere.. it was aesthetic. sport. at the fractal. substitution is possible between any sphere and any other: there is a total confusion of types. the word itself is meaningless. especially since 1968. every facial expression. and all kinds of activity in what is conventionally referred to as culture a sort of all-pervasive media.if everything is political. is no longer located in sport as such. sex becomes transsexuality all converge in a transversal and universal process wherein no discourse may have a metaphorical relationship to another. micrological and non-human level. rather as water ‘remembers’ molecules no matter how diluted.doc 7/20/08 15 File Title Links – Micropolitics There is no political activism anymore. their annihilation by virtue of their very success. for metaphor still had its beauty. and sex loses its determinants. with the disappearance of sexual difference and hence of sexuality per se. then nothing can be because there are no longer any referentials designating what the political even is. but instead in business. and it is not just everyday life but also madness.. Everything is aesthetic. Politics is no longer restricted to the political sphere.and advertising-led semiologization: ‘culture degree Xerox’. and every article of clothing until none of it has any meaning anymore. Each category is generalized to the greatest possible extent. Everything is sexual. and eventually manifested in the viral explosion of AIDS. for everything is affected simultaneously and under the same terms by the virulence in question. affecting all disciplines as they lose their specificity and partake of a process of confusion and contagion — a viral loss of determinacy which is the prime event among all the new events that assail us.. knowledge everything is interpreted in terms of phantasies. because for there to be metaphor. sex in advertising and porn. in politics. This is an aspect of a general tendency towards transsexuality which extends well beyond sex. its venting through all the trivial variants of sexual incantation. and the negation of that idea and that tendency. but infects every sphere economics. in terms of repression. so that it eventually loses all specificity and is reabsorbed by all the other categories. This paradoxical state of affairs. metonymy replacing the whole as well as the components. and occasioning a general commutability of terms has built its house upon the disillusion of metaphor. playing as it did upon difference. p. Sex is no longer located in sex itself. Today. Economics becomes transeconomics. Likewise everything has become sexual. Pundits analyze every gesture. after all. — — — . it’s only inane babble. that the essential confusion of the epidemic takes hold. meanwhile. Perhaps we still have a memory of sex. and sexual stereotypy reigns in every last corner. Likewise. Everything is political. The real loss of immunity concerns sex as a whole. but elsewhere everywhere else. that are politicized as they enter the sphere of liberation. by virtue of their extension beyond their own bounds this state of affairs is epitomized by a single figure: the transpolitical. by the chain reaction we have been discussing. the corpuscular memory of an earlier life. can hardly retain the features of a face.Whitman College 85911615. Each category thus passes through a phase transition during which its essence is diluted in homeopathic doses. and upon the illusion of difference. nothing is beautiful or ugly any more.~ — — — decompensation through its general spread into all areas of life. AIDS is the reflection not so much of an excess of sex or sexual pleasure as of sex’s — . everything is now aestheticized: politics is aestheticized in the spectacle. When everything is sexual. It is in this diffraction of the sexual reality principle. or the colour of someone’s eyes). in the general style of performance. language. The law that is imposed on us is the law of the confusion of categories. too. as by its childish notion of self-transcendence. by haphazard and senseless proliferation and metastasis. science. leaving a trace so small as to be indiscernible. Jean Baudrillard Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. So what we are left with is the simple imprint of a faceless sexuality infinitely watered down in a broth of politics. The viral analogy is not an importation from biology. anything can be an object of desire: power. aesthetics becomes transaesthetics. even desire. The Transparency of Evil: Essays on Extreme Phenomena. All these domains are affected by sport’s criteria of ‘excellence’. Thus every individual category is subject to contamination. the media. like the ‘memory of water’. effort and record-breaking. and art itself disappears. infinitesimal relative to the total solution. the transsexual. in fact. nothing is sexual any more. then — viral by definition (or lack of definition). Everything has acquired a political meaning. differential fields and distinct objects must exist. the transaesthetic. which is simultaneously the complete actualization of an idea. But that is the whole point: this is only a molecular memory. and not a memory of forms or singularities (water. Sport itself. until it finally disappears. just like the aff. art. media and communications.

doc 7/20/08 16 File Title Links – Leftist Politics All that power asks of us is that we subject it to ideological analysis. and liquidated.” Power floats like money. or the prophecy. p. simulation corresponds to a short circuit of reality and to its duplication through signs. by demented people.. he can only accumulate against himself the signs of reversion through murder. These staged presidential assassinations are revealing because they signal the status of all negativity in the West political opposition. to constitute a mortal enough danger to the group to be one day relieved of his duties. a shimmering. he is immunized by his impotence. that we revive it through the negative. ephemeral vision of “good government”. chance. Criticism and negativity alone still secrete a phantom of the reality of power. Simulacra and Simulation. The Watergate scandal was in fact the greatest of windfalls for the power of the American presidency. Rather than adopting the strategy of the affirmative and decrying the abuses of power. Jean Baudrillard. this changes nothing: the leftist penchant for detecting a rightist conspiracy beneath this brings out a false problem—the function of bringing depth to. of savage rituals). Nixon has nevertheless arrived at the goal of which all power dreams: to be taken seriously enough. because this system that is dying from being dispossessed of its death expects nothing but that from us: that we give the system back its death. One must not resist this process by trying to confront the system and destroy it. denounce. that is they are discourses of truth. Watergate is still a mechanism for the ritual murder of power (the American institution of the presidency is much more thrilling in this regard than the European: it surrounds itself with all the violence and vicissitudes of primitive powers. against power has always been fulfilled. but for how much longer? The deterioration of all power is irresistibly pursued-. which infuriates him. In the same way. unbalanced person (and thought it is perhaps true that presidents are assassinated by unbalanced types. Ford doesn’t even have this opportunity anymore: a simulacrum of an already dead power. of its fundamental irresponsibility. it is the system itself that deploys against its own structures this violence that annuls all substance and all finality. . it is no longer a question of the ideology of power.it reinjected a fiction of legitimacy.always good for countering the mortal blows of simulation. 1981. If they become weak for one reason or another. it is always a false problem to wish to restore the truth beneath the simulacrum. But already impeachment is no longer assassination: it happens via the Constitution. even and especially if they are revolutionary. we should instead let power work on us in mute silence. etc. but of the scenario of power. Nixon.” critical discourse. etc. It is always the goal of the ideological analysis to restore the objective process. This is why in the end power is so much in tune with ideological discourses and discourses on ideology. crazy people.Whitman College 85911615.in fact. End of revolutionary praxis. who nonetheless carry out a social function as fundamental as that of presidents). to a dying system of democratic values. like language.it is not so much the “revolutionary forces” that accelerate this process (often it is quite the opposite). from primitive societies to the present. Fresh blood. exposing it to its own lack of substance and reality. It is no longer a question of the ideology of work. was nevertheless ritually put to death by Watergate. like theory. Ideology only corresponds to a corruption of reality through signs.the traditional ethic that would obscure the “real” process of work and the “objective” process of exploitation—but of the scenario of work. Curiously. or neurotics. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School.that we take it seriously enough to oppose it.—a simulacral contrast through which power attempts to break the vicious circle of its nonexistence. power has no other recourse but to artificially revive and hallucinate them. who was not even found worthy of dying at the hands of the most insignificant. It is in this way that the Spanish executions still serve as a stimulant to Western liberal democracy. end of the dialectic. 24-25. the “Left. of its “suspension.

is it not the object which dupes us and mocks our objective pretensions to analyse it? Scientists themselves are not. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. ironically undecidable. Heidegger: ‘When we look into the ambiguous essence of technology. it is not we who are winning out over the world. And would put in its place a conception of the gigantic objective irony of this whole process. Even if the two hypotheses are simultaneously valid. from this point on. p. and we are merely the operators. we behold the constellation. of all our artificial productions. by the unbridled virtuality we see outrunning the laws of physics and metaphysics. a nuance of play and distantiation. 1996. It is at the point where the political authorities think they are manipulating them that the masses impose their clandestine strategy of neutralization and destabilization. it seems. now it is the object which is ‘losing’ us. from the retrospective nostalgia for being and from all unhappy critique in terms of alienation and disenchantment. The Japanese sense the presence of a divinity in every industrial object. . The naive illusion about the media is that the political authorities use them to manipulate or mystify the masses. that sacred presence has been reduced to a tiny ironic glimmer. for its part. therefore.Whitman College 85911615. in fact. but the world which is winning out over us. far from admitting this. and by which the mystery (of the continuation of the Nothing) conceals itself beneath the universal banality of information. For us. The illusion of technology makes us believe we’re in control and not the other way around. the irony of the world. Though this is. It seems. Jean Baudrillard. we labour under the subjective illusion of technology. a spiritual form. then. one might say what Canetti says of animals: that behind each of them there is a hidden someone thumbing his nose at us. bringing about our ruin. We very much labour under the illusion that the aim of technology is to be an extension of man and his power.doc 7/20/08 17 File Title Links – Alternative Energy – Tech/R&D The Affirmative opposes fossil fuels. the irresistible impression remains that something eludes us — not because we seem to have lost it (the real?). Irony as universal form of disillusionment. Once we lived in the age of the lost object. Through the media. but also as the universal form of the stratagem by which the world hides behind the radical illusion of technology. in effect. All our technologies might. this is still the end of media Reason. none the less. It seems that technology has taken into itself all the illusion it has caused us to lose. We should instead adopt an ironic stance towards technology. the end of political Reason. the stellar course of the mystery. similar to the one that prevails in the media sphere. At the same time as reaching a paroxystic stage. 71-73 At the peak of our technological performance. Everything which will be done or said in the media sphere is. whereas in fact the world is using this machinery to impose itself. The opposite hypothesis is more subtle. which would not be far from radical snobbery. an ironic phase of technology? A proposition which would deliver us from the Heideggerian vision of technology as the final phase of metaphysics. is altering its determinations. but labors under the illusion that we can create new and better energy technology. it is the masses who definitively modify the exercise of power (or what sees itself as such). has passed into things. from the post-historical snobbery Kojeve spoke of. be said to be the instrument of a world which we believe we rule. An objective illusion. this operating principle is thwarted by its very extension. It is the logic of the system which. The Perfect Crime. Can one advance the hypothesis that beyond the objective and critical phase there is an ironic phase of science. things have also reached a parodic one. The same hypothesis holds for the object of science. but the object which thinks us. Through the most refined procedures we deploy to pin it down. The Evil Spirit keeps watch beneath artefacts and. But today. that though the illusion of the world has been lost. behind which lurks the evil genius of technology which sees to it itself that the mystery of the world is well—guarded. It is no longer we who think the object. and that what we have in return for the loss of illusion is the emergence of an objective irony of this world. carrying it beyond itself. but because we are no longer in a position to see it: that.

There is no longer a subject of deterrence. equivalent signs. Jean Baudrillard. and violence remain. And the progressive satellization of the whole planet through this hypermodel of security. and political desert. Pacification does not distinguish between the civil and the military: everywhere where irreversible apparatuses of control are elaborated. freezes them all. will not take place. every finality. rather. p. It is not the direct threat of atomic destruction that paralyzes our lives. the balance of terror is never anything but the spectacular slope of a system of deterrence that has insinuated itself from the inside into all the cracks of daily life. it is deterrence that gives them leukemia. Atomic war. The political stake is dead. Deterrence precludes war—the archaic violence of expanding systems. for installing a universal security system. only simulacra of conflicts and carefully circumscribed stakes remain. indifferent. a universal lockup and control system whose deterrent effect is not at all aimed at an atomic clash (which was never in question. and thanks to Damocles’ nuclear sword. in forms that are not threatening to the order of things. The whole originality of the situation lies in the improbability of destruction. is the perfection of the best system of control that has ever existed. “objective. No strategy is possible any longer. a simulacrum that dominates everything and reduces all “ground-level” events to being nothing but ephemeral scenarios. The same goes for peaceful nuclear power stations. any more than floating capital has a real referent of production) that circulates in nuclear orbit suffices to control all the violence and potential conflicts around the world. Thus the money of destruction (without any reference to real destruction. through the sophistication of weapons (a sophistication that surpasses any possible objective to such an extent that it is itself a symptom of nullity). Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. transforming the life left us into survival. However. No longer can nay revolt. Simulacra and Simulation. every confrontation contract in proportion to this blackmail that interrupts.Whitman College 85911615. the gravity of their exercise and the discourse of their “strategy” are at stake). . but it is precisely at this level that there are no strategic stakes. The balance of terror is the terror of balance. like the Trojan War. of the violence without consequences that reigns throughout the world. Only the signs of power. except without a doubt in the very initial stages of the cold war. The risk of nuclear annihilation only serves as a pretext. implosive violence of metastable systems or systems in involution. and around it grows the historical. Deterrence is not a strategy. 1981. nor an adversary nor a strategy—it is a planetary structure of the annihilation of stakes. any story be deployed according to its own logic because it risks annihilation. A gigantic involution that makes every conflict. and the unknown is precisely that variable of simulation which makes of the atomic arsenal itself a hyperreal form. of the aleatory apparatus of all the choices that are made for us. Deterrence itself is the neutral. Nuclear suspension only serves to seal the trivialized system of deterrence that is at the heart of the media. revolutions and political subjectivity is no longer possible. at the much greater probability of any real event. Everything freezes under the lack of possibility engendered by the civilian and military nuclear umbrella. it is the system of deterrence that grows. What is hatched in the shadow of this mechanism with the pretext of a maximal. The most insignificant of our behaviors is regulated by neutralized. social. everywhere where the notion of security becomes omnipotent.doc 7/20/08 18 File Title Links – Alternative Energy – Nuclear Energy (1/2) Nuclear energy cements a system of deterrence. into a stake without stakes. and escalation is only a puerile game given over to the military. when one still confused the nuclear apparatus with conventional war) but. politics. of anything that would be an event in the general system and upset its balance. Massive war. 32-35.not even into a life insurance policy: into a policy that already has no value). neutralizes. everywhere where the norm replaces the old arsenal of laws and violence (including war). it circulates and is exchanged between nuclear protagonists exactly as is international capital in the orbital zone of monetary speculation whose fluctuations suffice to control all global exchanges.” threat. by zero-sum signs like those that regulate the “strategy of games” (but the true equation is elsewhere. And this deterrence comes from the fact that even the real atomic clash is precluded—precluded like the eventuality of the real in a system of signs. The whole world pretends to believe in the reality of this threat (this is understandable on the part of the military. The apotheosis of simulation: the nuclear.

doc 7/20/08 19 File Title Links – Alternative Energy – Nuclear Energy (1/2) The “space race” played exactly the same role as nuclear escalation. Their truth is to be the models of simulation. rather. implosive. The vertigo of a world without flaws. is the function of the space program. this is the total universe of the norm—the Law no longer exists. Fascination with the maximal norm and the mastery of probability: Vertigo of the model. A universe purged of all threat of meaning. stupefies. energy. it is the same model of programmatic infallibility. fascinates. Trajectory. ultimately. the model vectors of a system of planetary control (where even the superpowers of this scenario are not free—the whole world is satellized). physiology. we are dumbfounded by the perfection of the programming and the technical manipulation. with its aura of violence. nor military and strategic superiority. Here as well. still taps a perverse imaginary. and makes every imaginary involute. in a state of asepsis and weightlessness—it is this very perfection that is fascinating. or complexity in a sociality illuminated by the norm. which unites with the model of death. the fulfillment of an earlier dream). Now. doomed to the descriptive transparency of mechanisms of information. . with its aura of transgression. it is the operational immanence of every detail that is law. The exaltation of the crowds was not a response to the event of landing on the moon or of sending a man into space (this would be. of contradiction. if order. of satellization of which the lunar module is the perfect embryo? Programmed microcosm. irreversible process: the generalized deterrence of chance. or to develop concurrently as a form of “peaceful coexistence. the spatial and nuclear models do not have their own ends: neither the discovery of the moon. moreover this is the essence of socialization. but which has now entered its accelerated phase. rupture.Whitman College 85911615. of accident. toward a limit that one believed would be explosive (revolution). the norm fixes. This is why the space program was so easily able to replace it in the 1960s (Kennedy/Khrushchev). One no longer fantasizes about the minutiae of a program. of finality. Just watching it produces vertigo. In fact. of transversality. by the immanent wonder of the programmed unfolding of events. environment—nothing can be left to contingencies. nothing will be left to chance. of the conquest of the moon. which began centuries ago. where nothing can be left to chance. calculation.” Because what. of maximum security and deterrence that today controls the spread of the social. There lies the true nuclear fallout: the meticulous operation of the social. rather. of the launching of satellites if not the institution of a model of universal gravitation. psychology. but which for the moment is translated by an inverse. Because if the law. but without fear or drive.

In order for ethnology to live. historical retrospection. protected to death. that of the simulacrum. is everywhere now. customs fossilized alive as in a snapshot. and science itself has become pure simulation. Clastres are various witnesses. But in the same breath ethnology grants us its only and final lesson. and ethnologists. and o the resurrection of differences. 1981. what a triumph for this science that seemed dedicated to their destruction! Of course. in a world completely cataloged and analyzed. This at the suggestion of the anthropologists themselves. in the metropolises.it attains its pure form. of the blackmail of the real. This model thus grants itself the luxury to incarnate itself beyond itself in the “brute” reality of these Indians it has entirely reinvented. The same holds true at Cruesot. sterilized. were the first victims. lost to science. like mummies in the open air. 7-11. where they had lived for eight centuries without any contact with the rest of the species. an entire culture. the logical evolution of a science is to distance itself increasingly from its object. the object takes its revenge for being “discovered” and with its death defies the science that wants to grasp it.Savages who are indebted to ethnology for still being Savages: what a turn of events. be applied to all living things and make itself invisible. It erases the memory of environmental destruction and replaces it with a museum-theme park version of nature. but intact in its “virginity. p. of the hallucination of truth.simulacral Indians who at last proclaim the universal truth of ethnology. living metallurgic zones. Indians who have again become what they were. the day when the Philippine government decided to return the few dozen Tasaday who had just been discovered in the depths of the jungle.a murder of which the Savages. or of antiethnology. again becomes the model of simulation of all the possible Indians from before ethnology. to their primitive state. Thus ethnology. . No one can touch them anymore: as in a mine the vein is closed down. these savages are posthumous: frozen. cryogenized. its object falls back into Hades. In any case. out of the reach of colonizers. science can’t help but die contaminated by the death of this object that is its inverse mirror. and children included. Jean Baudrillard. like Eurydice. like and omnipresent fourth dimension. but the object will be safe. and. rather than circumscribing itself as an objective science. its object must die. We have all become living specimens in the spectral light of ethnology. The Tasaday. the secret that kills it (and which the Savages knew better than it did): the vengeance of the dead. languages. The museum. will today. by dying.” It is not a question of sacrifice (science never sacrifices itself. Castaneda. It is against this hell of the paradox that the ethnologists wished to protect themselves by cordoning off the Tasaday with virgin forest. everywhere. The confinement of the scientific object is equal to the confinement of the mad and the dead. instead of being circumscribed as a geometric site. all so that we may all believe again that things are as they should be. and by the pitiless reversal that the dead object exerts on it? Like Orpheus. We are all Tasadays. men women. frozen in their natural element. in the glass coffin of the virgin forest.it is here. like a dimension of life. in the White community. Here begins an antiethnology that will never end and to which Jaulin. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. tourists. but that for a long time has extended to all Western societies. It is thus very naïve to look for ethnology in the Savages or in some Third World.Whitman College 85911615. until it dispenses with it entirely: its autonomy is only rendered even more fantastic. Simulacra and Simulation.gestures. they have become referential simulacra. an eternal guarantee. of the murder of every symbolic form and of its hysterical.doc 7/20/08 20 File Title Links – Preservation/Nature/Environment/Ecology (1/3) Your attempt to preserve nature only models the environment after a simulation of how we believe it once was. Preserving the idea of an ideal nature will only expose the preserved object to a slowed down purification and a sterilized death. in a world of simulation. as “historical” witnesses of their period entire working-class neighborhoods. it is always murderous). it always turns around too soon. liberated from its object. under the sign of dead differences. who were seeing the indigenous people disintegrate immediately upon contact. Doesn’t all science live on this paradoxical slope to which it is doomed by the evanescence of its object in its very apprehensions. at the level of the “open” museum where one museumified in situ. Science loses precious capital there. The Indian thus returned to the ghetto. noblesse oblige. which is nothing but the pure form of triumphal ethnology. then artificially resurrected under the auspices of the real. Ethnology brushed up against its paradoxical death in 1971. will provide a perfect alibi. And just as all of society is irremediably contaminated by this mirror of madness that it has held up to itself. but of the simulated sacrifice of its object in order to save its reality principle.

one forbade visitors to enter the Lascaux caves. a visible continuum. a visible myth of origin. But mostly because our culture dreams. Ramses does not signify anything for us. after it was left to rot for several dozen years in the depths of a museum. Because finally we have never believed in them. It is possible that the memory of the original grottoes is itself stamped in the minds of future generations. there was a moment of stupor and bewilderment before the very possibility of escaping the universal law of the Gospel. that is to say. but from now on there is no longer any difference the duplication suffices to render both artificial. our order. Nothing changes when society breaks the mirror of madness (abolishes the asylums. Only absolute secrecy assured them this millennial power. We require a visible past. behind this defunct power that it tries to annex. To this end they must be exhumed and given military honors. demuseumification is nothing but another spiral in artificiality. and museums.doc 7/20/08 21 File Title Links – Preservation/Nature/Environment/Ecology (2/3) It is science that masters the objects. etc.Whitman College 85911615. We only know how a place our science in service of repairing the mummy. Well.) and to bend down before the “differences.) nor when science seems to break the mirror of its objectivity (effacing itself before its object. to an order of history. according to an unconscious reversion. of an order that would have had nothing to do with it. etc. only the mummy is of an inestimable worth because it is what guarantees that accumulation has meaning. science. their reimportation to the original site is even more artificial: it is a total simulacrum that links up with “reality” through a complete circumvolution. ours. which would suffice to slowly exterminate them. the Savage fiction everywhere. to conceal that it is this world. if the Cloisters in New York are an artificial mosaic of all cultures (following a logic of the capitalist centralization of value). The cloister should have stayed in New York in its simulated environment. Our entire linear and accumulative culture collapses if we cannot stockpile the past in plain view. but it s the objects that invest it with depth. In the same way science and technology were recently mobilized to save the mummy of Ramses II. which reassures us about our end. . Why Because Ramses was a great despotic and military figure? Certainly. master over putrefaction and death. which only knows how to condemn what preceded it to decay and death and subsequently to try to revive it with science. that is to say restoring a visible order. As ethnology collapses in its classical institution. There were two possible responses: either admit that this Law was not universal. Thus it would have been enough to exhume Ramses to ensure his extermination by museumification. Witness the cloister of Saint-Michel de Cuxa. To this end the pharaohs must be brought out of their tomb and the mummies out of their silence. which is devastated by difference and by death. if the exportation of the cornices was in effect an arbitrary at. or exterminate the Indians to efface the evidence.” And everyone is supposed to applaud this restitution (as they did “the experimental campaign to take back the sidewalks” on the Champs Elysees!).” The form produced by confinement is followed by an innumerable. whereas embalming was a mythical effort that strove to immortalize a hidden dimension. and then one visits the reconstituted whole).the mastery over putrefaction that signified the mastery of the complete cycle of exchanged with death. They are prey to both science and worms. which only gives a dead and circular response to a dead and circular interrogation. and it dreams of it because it exterminated it by exhuming it as its own past. Irreparable violence toward all secrets. which plays at extricating itself from its object to better secure itself in its pure form. And just as with ethnology. In the same way. but an exact replica was constructed five hundred meters from it. those (human?) beings who had never known the word of Christ. but out of sight and far from the light of day. with the pretext of saving the original. The West is seized with panic at the thought of not being able to save what the symbolic order had been able to conserve for forty centuries. diffracted. or even simply discovering them. Whence this historic scene of the reception of the mummy at the Orly airport. so that everyone could see them (one glances through a peephole at the authentic cave. In general. Thus at the beginning of colonization. slowed-down mechanism. which no longer masters anything. the violence of a civilization without secrets. as in Castaneda. Because mummies don’t rot from worms: they die from being transplanted from a slow order of the symbolic. which one will repatriate at great cost from the Cloisters in New York to reinstall it in “its original site. We are fascinated by Ramses as Renaissance Christians were by the American Indians. one contented oneself with converting them. which at least fooled no one. gives speech back to the insane. hatred of a whole civilization for its own foundation. which has again become savage in its way. it survives in an antiethnology whose task it is to reinject the difference fiction.

) Everywhere we live in a universe strangely similar to the original. In this way. and better than when they were alive. This is presented as proof of the superiority of civilization it will produce more Indians that they themselves were able to do. the imminence of their death. But this doubling does not signify. like the faces in funeral homes. more authentic.doc 7/20/08 22 File Title Links – Preservation/Nature/Environment/Ecology (3/3) Repatriating it is nothing but a supplementary subterfuge. They even flatter themselves for doing better. acting as if nothing had happened and indulging in retrospective hallucination.they are already purged of their death. (With sinister derision. rests on the limitation of the group and the refusal of any “unlimited” increase. as it did traditionally. their demographic “promotion is just another step toward symbolic extermination. . One effaces everything and starts over. as can be seen in Ishi’s case.Whitman College 85911615. for exceeding the original number. like all tribal culture. this overproduction is again a means of destroying them: for Indian culture.things are doubled by their own scenario. In the same way. Americans flatter themselves for having brought the population of Indians back to pre-Conquest levels. more cheerful. in the light of their model.

It is even more effective than capitalism in the liquidation of “savage” and archaic precapitalist structures. and of the installation of this deterrent authority. Simulacra and Simulation. “The North Vietnamese were advised to countenance a scenario for liquidating the American presence in the course of which. whatever its allegiance. it could be trusted. precapitalist structures. The best example can only be that of the war in Vietnam. The stake is thus that of a political relay. 36-39. they are no longer anything but the duplex effect of simulation at the summit. Communist r capitalist. the two adversaries are fundamentally in solidarity against something else. so ferocious. war exists in order to reassure us of the existence of ideological stakes. spectacular death apparatus. That theirs is a Communist order is not serious in the end: it had proved itself. or division of labor between two adversaries (who may even consent to enormous sacrifices for it) for the very end of reshaping and domesticating social relations. p. Total complicity. every form of exchange. subtly. but whose objective outcome in war. It marked the arrival of China to peaceful coexistence. Jean Baudrillard. that is what must be abolished. nothing was objectively at stake but the verisimilitude of the final montage. This same reduction of forces can be seen on the field. unnamed. 1981. the ideological seriousness of war. the war could stop: it had attained its objective. . The other aspect of this war and of all wars today: behind the armed violence. so long. and to annihilate the presence of anything that would disrupt the global system of deterrence. of course. This objective is always fulfilled. took place. What meaning did this war have.” This scenario: the extremely harsh bombardments of Hanoi. vanish from one day to the net as if by magic? Why did this American defeat (the largest reversal in the history of the USA) have no internal repercussions in America? If it had really signified the failure of the planetary strategy of the United States. never spoken. communitarian. the reality of antagonistic causes. given the global process of the contiguity and simultaneity of data. Rather. But. so hard. Their untenable character must not conceal the fact that they were nothing but a simulacrum to enable the Vietnamese to seem to countenance a compromise and for Nixon to make the Americans swallow the withdrawal of their troops. misfortunes are even more numerous. The moralists of war. despite this deterrence by the orbital power—the nuclear or molecular code—events continue at ground level. the transition from a radical alternative to political alternation in a system now essentially regulated (the normalization of Peking-Washington relations): this was what was at stake in the war in Vietnam. behind this simulacrum of fighting to the earth and of ruthless global stakes. which is played out as such (or else one could never send people to get themselves killed in this kind of thing). the murderous antagonism of the adversaries—which seems a matter of life and death. Tribal. This war. demobilized so easily.and war itself. and in this sense. is total liquidation. just like that of the charting of territories and disciplinary sociality. they no longer have any meaning. it would necessarily have completely disrupted its internal balance and the American political system. with the equal complicity of the two adversaries. Something else. even a Communist one. When at last the war had passed into the hands of regular troops in the North and escaped that of the resistance. As soon as the Vietnamese had proved that they were no longer the carriers of an unpredictable subversion. That is why it was deescalated. one could let them take over.Whitman College 85911615. The nonintervention of China obtained and secured after many years. of symbolic organization. in its immense. the shift from a global strategy of revolution to one of shared forces and empires. was nothing but a crucial episode of peaceful coexistence. remained unliquidated. China’s apprenticeship to a global modus Vivendi. is nothing but the medium of this process of the terrorist rationalization of the social—the murder on which sociality will be founded. and the dead and former combatants are worth the same as in other wars.doc 7/20/08 23 File Title Impacts – War (1/2) War no longer has an ideological purpose. because it took place at the intersection of a maximum historical and “revolutionary” stake. one must save face. Yet. the holders of high wartime values should not be too discouraged: the war is no less atrocious for being only a simulacrum—the flesh suffers just the same. What no longer exists is the adversity of the adversaries. at bottom. And the war ended “spontaneously” when this objective was achieved. of language. Same scenario in the Algerian war. The war lasted as long as elements irreducible to a healthy politics and discipline of power. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. that is the object of murder in war-. Nothing of the sort occurred. then. The game was already won. and wasn’t its unfolding a means of sealing the end of history in the decisive and culminating historic event of our era? Why did this war. the USA pulled out of Vietnam but won the war.

a spiral of delay. to a second existence as the referential of cruelty). Many other events (the oil crisis. All the events are to be read backward. catastrophes and crises destined to maintain a historical investment under hypnosis. There also. the retro. in a profound indifference to their consequences (but this is because there are none: they exhaust themselves in their spectacular promotion)—all “newsreel” footage thus gives the sinister impression of kitsch. and we only have a right to the retro. the two differential poles implode into each other. of retro and porno at the same time—doubtless everyone knows this. that there was an end to war at the heart of war itself. except as artificial occurrences—abstract. of the reality of the stakes. it is that at every moment war and peace are equivalent. the pacification (or the deterrence) that dominates us today is beyond war and peace. the last gasp of an ideality of the body. In any case. that all these events succeed each other without logic.doc 7/20/08 24 File Title Impacts – War (2/2) And also the reality of victory or defeat. in the most contradictory. and even all real writing of cruelty has disappeared. of the lost “difference” of Savages) that all these things arrived too late. that it was finished well before it started. and as artifacts of history. Thus one can completely miss the truth of a war: namely. and that perhaps it never started. never existed. with a history of delay. in the cold light of deterrence (including Artaud. All dramaturgy.” said Orwell. by a moribund ethnology. that they long ago exhausted their meaning and only live from an artificial effervescence of signs. complete equivalence. to the phantom. who has the right like everything else to his revival. of blood. toward a reabsorption of all the stakes without a trace of blood. which was still an attempt to create a dramaturgy of life. parodic rehabilitation of all lost referentials. etc. of the objectivity of facts.) never started. Simulation is the master. For us the trick has been played. The media and the official news service are only there to maintain the illusion of an actuality.Whitman College 85911615. posthumous rediscovery of the gulags and Soviet dissidents like the almost contemporary discovery. “War is peace. ersatz. and no one really accepts it. The reality of simulation is unbearable—crueler than Artaud’s Theater of Cruelty. or one becomes aware (as with the Communists “in power” in Italy. . Everything still unfolds around us. of violence in a system that was already taking it away. war being a process that triumphs well beyond these appearances. or recycle one another—a simultaneity of contradictions that is at once the parody and the end of every dialectic.

everything seems to escape this catastrophe of value. the historical revolution. of a “political aesthetic of death” at a time when the processes of the disenchantment of value and of collective values. Simulacra and Simulation. Hell of simulation. which seizes the occasion to regenerate its own flagging humanism and whose indignant protest in turn consolidates Franco’s regime by uniting the Spanish masses against this foreign intervention? Where is the truth of all that. 48 Fascism itself. reversibilized from the right to the left. and as if involuntarily wanting what it wants. the discourse of desire to that of power.Whitman College 85911615. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. 18. people. 1981. Who will unravel this imbroglio? The Gordian knot can at least be cut. The Mobius strip. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. Formerly the discourse on history derived its power from violently opposing itself to that of nature. eventually benefitting all ideological positions. the masses may turn to the extreme valorization of race. nationality. of the whole system. Yet again. which is no longer one of torture. before thinking that we now take pleasure in capital. maleficent. today both are dissolved in the same type of demand. this neutralization and pacification of life. nor the Deleuzian one of despotic paranoia). can already be interpreted as the “irrational” excess of mythic and political referentials. irrational. 1981.today they exchange their signifiers and their scenarios. All the referentials combine their discourses in a circular. a torsion that is like that of the evil spirit of commutation. the infinity of capital folded back on its own surface: transfinite? And is it not the same for desire and the libidinal space? Conjunction of desire and the law. Fascism is the logical result of hyperreality. elusive twisting o meaning—where even the condemned at Burgos are still a gift from Franco to Western democracy. a “vicious” curvature of a political space that is henceforth magnetized. nor the Reichian one of the sexual repression of the masses. of the operationalization of all social and individual life already makes itself strongly felt in the West. p.). . the reinjection of death. race. etc. when such collusions admirably knot themselves together without the knowledge of their authors? Conjunction of the system and of is extreme alternative like the two sides of a curved mirror. Jean Baudrillard. Simulacra and Simulation. an enigmatic reversal that brings desire “revolutionary in itself. even if it is a profound. said Lyotard. including paranoid reactionaries Jean Baudrillard. results in a supplementary spiral without the reversibility of surfaces being resolved (here the reversible continuity of hypotheses). the mystery of its appearance and of its collective energy. p.doc 7/20/08 25 File Title Impacts – Fascism Political subjectivity circles around. if one divides it. which deepened in the West. Overwhelming versatility of desire in Deleuze. but of the subtle. sex and work were fiercely opposed terms. etc.” to desire its own repression and to invest in paranoid and fascist systems? A malign torsion that returns this revolution of desire to the same fundamental ambiguity as the other. its terror is on the level of this other terror that is the confusion of the real and the rational. and it is a response to that. Mobian compulsion. the mad intensification of collective value (blood. circularized. the final pleasure as the metamorphosis of the law (which is why it is so widely the order of the day): only capital takes pleasure. Fascism’s cruelty. of the rational secularization and unidimensionalization of all life. with which no interpretation has been able to come to grips (neither the Marxist one of political manipulation by dominant classes. it would not have tapped into this massive energy if it hadn’t been a resistance to something much worse.in a world without value or political referentials. Not so long ago. demented resistance. Fascism is a resistance to this.

the opposite is also true (and this reversibility itself is part of the apparatus of simulation and the impotence of power): namely. because if it is practically impossible to isolate the process of simulation. on causes and ends. without wishing it. But this does not make them harmless. it is there that we must aim at order.in short. a referential order that can only reign over the referential. The established order can do nothing against it. because the law is a simulacrum of the second order. beyond rational distinctions upon which the whole of the social and power depend. and hence no repression either. Organize a fake holdup. It is necessary to see in this impossibility of isolating the process of simulation the weight of an order that cannot see and conceive of anything but the real. Simulacra and Simulation. and that is the most serious crime. airplane hijackings. 19-23. When in doubt. as such it is as serious as the simulation of crime. Illusion is no longer possible. and no longer at all to their “real” end. crises. anticipated in their presentation and their possible consequences. The challenge of simulation is never admitted by power. This is certainly why order always opts for the real. You won’t be able to do it: the network of artificial signs will become inextricably mixed up with real elements (a policeman will really fire on sight. p. the signs do not lean to one side or another. it is now impossible to isolate the process of the real. demonstrations. a determined power that can only reign over a determined world. Thus. For example: it would be interesting to see whether the repressive apparatus would not react more violently to a simulated holdup than to a real holdup. whereas the former attacks the reality principle itself. But the difficulty is proportional to the danger.Whitman College 85911615. the right to property. etc. How to feign a violation and put it to the test? Simulate a robbery in a large store: how to persuade security that it is a simulated robbery? There is no “objective” difference: the gestures. beyond true and false. Demand a ransom. This is how all the holdups.doc 7/20/08 26 File Title Impacts – Violence Just because everything is a simulation doesn’t mean that violence doesn’t happen. power itself ends by being . whereas simulation is of the third order.). The violence of the real is reinjected everywhere into a society that cannot accept appearances at face value. but indefinitely refracted by each other (just like so-called historical events: strikes. one will actually pay you the phony ransom). above and beyond its object. But this becomes more and more difficult. it is as hyperreal events. On the contrary. and take the most trustworthy hostage. against this nebula whose weight no longer obeys the laws of gravitation of the real. Simulation is infinitely more dangerous because it always leaves open to supposition that.” in order to test the reaction of the apparatus to a perfect simulacrum. no longer with a specific content or end. a client of the bank will faint and die of a heart attack. 1981. etc. Transgression and violence are less serious because they only contest the distribution of the real. will either be punished less severely (because it has no “consequences”) or punished as an offense against the judicial system (for example if one sets in motion a police operation “for nothing”)—but never as simulation since it is precisely as such that no equivalence with the real is possible. The impossibility of rediscovering an absolute level of the real is of the same order as the impossibility of staging illusion. beyond equivalences. or to prove the real. through the force of inertia of the real that surrounds us. where they function as a group of signs dedicated exclusively to their recurrence as signs. because it cancels out the difference upon which the law is based. it is the threat of simulation that inspires violence. are now in some sense simulation holdups in that they are already inscribed in the decoding and orchestration rituals of the media. it always prefers this hypothesis (as in the army one prefers to take the simulator for a real madman). The simulation of an offense. and make it so that the operation creates as much commotion as possible. Jean Baudrillard. one of whose functions is precisely to devour any attempt at simulation. of hypersimulation or offensive simulation that is posed here. in short. so that no human life will be in danger (or one lapses into the criminal). in the real. the signs are the same as for a real robbery. In short. because it cannot function anywhere else. How can the simulation of virtue be punished? However. Parody renders submission and transgression equivalent. Indeed. law and order themselves might be nothing but simulation. remain close to the “truth. will before institutions and justice come into play. It is the whole political problem of parody. Because the latter does nothing but disturb the order of things. To the established order they are always of the order of the real. if it is established as such. to the established order itself. lacking the real. you will immediately find yourself once again. Verify that your weapons are harmless. because the real is no longer possible. but that cannot do anything against this indefinite recurrence of simulation. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. to reduce very thing to the real—that is. it is in this sense that they cannot be controlled by an order that can only exert itself on the real and the rational.

but also. of the gravity of the economy and the finalities of production. power plays at the real. disintegrating all the contradictions by dint of producing equivalent signs. that overdose of a strong referential in a society that cannot terminate its mourning. abstraction. economic. why not? That of desire. Well. which increases as it disappears. all real equivalence of the states and the omnipotence of manipulation. And as soon as it wishes to combat this disastrous spiral by secreting as last glimmer of reality. and dedicated to the effects of power and mass simulation). power played at deterrence and simulation. Thus everywhere the hyperrealism of simulation is translated by the hallucinatory resemblance of the real to itself. everyone unloads it on everyone else) and the panicked nostalgia over its loss. And at the same time. Hyperreality and simulation are deterrents of every principle and every objective. but it is not longer anything but its scaled-down refraction (thus hyperrealists fix a real from which all meaning and charm. Today when the danger comes at it from simulation (that of being dissolved in the play of signs). it does nothing but multiply the signs and accelerate the play of simulation. to persuade us to f the reality of the social. its only strategy against this defection is to reinject the real and the referential everywhere.. Whence the characteristic hysteria of our times: that of the production and reproduction of the real. social. The only weapon of power. disconnection. that shattered every ideal distinction between true and false. Capital was the first to play at deterrence. When it has totally disappeared. the iron law of its power. on which to establish a last glimmer of power. That is why today this “material” production is that of the hyperreal itself. that of the belle époque of political economy. Because in the end. has for a long time had no specific meaning. And in the end the game of power becomes nothing but the critical obsession with power—obsession with its death. today it is this same logic that is even more set against capital. is to restore the real that escapes it. and if it is the one that fostered reality. deterritorialization. One remains among principles.Whitman College 85911615. . it was also the first to liquidate it by exterminating all use value. But it is too late. For power. “Take your desires for reality!” can be understood as the ultimate slogan of power since in a nonreferential world. the whole discourse of traditional production. obsession with its survival. it is a question of life and death. good and evil. etc.doc 7/20/08 27 File Title dismantled in this space and becoming a simulation of power (disconnected from its ends and its objectives. Power itself has for a long time produced nothing but the signs of its resemblance. The melancholy of societies without power this has already stirred up fascism. and political stakes. As long as the historical threat came at it from the real. all depth and energy of representation have vanished in a hallucinatory resemblance). The other production.a whole world adheres to it more or less in terror of the collapse of the political. the reality principle. plays at remanufacturing artificial. and to overproduce. plays at crisis. To this end it prefers the discourse of crisis. What every society looks for in continuing to produce. and among those power is always in the right. of every human objective. another figure of power comes into play: that of a collective demand for signs of power. throughout its history it was capital that first fed on the destructuration of every referential. in order to establish a radical law of equivalence and exchange. It retains all the features. they turn against power the deterrent that it used so well for such a long time. that of values and commodities. we will logically be under the total hallucination of power—a haunting memory that is already rid of it (no one wants it anymore. even the confusion of the reality principle and the principle of desire is less dangerous than contagious hyperreality.

1996. not to mention racial and linguistic differences. No longer threatened by them. rather. The best strategy for bringing about someone’s ruin is to eliminate everything which threatens him. negativity. but the object of that mastery. that of the subject without object. means to be dispossessed of the other. wars without enemy. it cannot but destroy itself (by ‘depredation’. as it were). rooting out evil in all its forms. passions without object. we have unleashed positivity. thus causing him to lose all his defences. Death being the great natural predator. strangeness). and it is this strategy we are applying to ourselves. we have at the same time — by a perverse. The Perfect Crime. By setting off the chain reaction of the positive. we are eliminating ourselves. a species we attempt at all costs to immortalize and wrest away from death — as we do with all our replacement technologies for the body’s organs — is doomed to disappear. Even in devitalized substances: in sugar without calories. This paradigm of the subject without object. as had the metamorphoses of evil which follow the advances of reason about like a shadow. By eliminating the work of the negative. effects without causes. no more hostile environments — no environment at all any longer. Being deprived of the other is worse than alienation: a lethal change. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. This had escaped us. and that is what has become lethal today. to lose all otherness. violence. the finality of that mastery. of the subject without other. masters without slaves. there are two apparently synonymous terms with a very significant distinction between them. Now. total performance. . ‘Verfremdung’ means becoming other. time without memory. it is much more serious to be dispossessed of the other than of oneself. is the product.doc 7/20/08 28 File Title Impacts – Annihilation of Difference Impact The quest to obliterate all that differs and replace it with the image of the same leads uncontestably to the destruction of everything. have disappeared. Jean Baudrillard. 112-14 In German. We have fought negativity and death. of an ultrapositivity of which it is the lethal embodiment. or the slaves without masters we have become. p. The two are conjoined today in the modern form of voluntary servitude: enslavement to data systems and calculation systems – total efficiency. salt without sodium. We have become masters – at least virtual masters – of this world. but perfectly coherent effect — released an intense viral pathology. death. And of a slave without a master? He ends up exploiting himself. by liquidation of the dialectical opposition itself. What becomes of a master without a slave? He ends up terrorizing himself. A tragic destiny for individuals and for our — self-programming and selfreferential — systems: no more adversaries. no more exteriority. far from being negative. The project of eliminating the external environment under the logic of calculation embodies this process.Whitman College 85911615. can be seen in all that has lost its shadow and become transparent to itself. An irrevocable destabilization. of the same without other — definitive stasis and metastasis of the Same. life without spice. by contrast. by eliminating all singularities in order to radiate total positivity. becoming estranged from oneself— alienation in the literal sense. ‘Entfremdung’. This is like wresting a species away from its natural predators. By eliminating the other in all its forms (illness. For a virus.

and the Clean Air Act (CAA). says in reference to the Farallon de Medinilla closure. The base released some 5." and because it is so directly tied to other forms of ecological and social violence. King 1990. portions of the Endangered Species Act.C. a 34-square-mile multi-use training facility in Cape Cod. Charles W “The price of preparing for war” Environmental Health Perspectives http://www.gov/articlerender. . airmen. because I believe these effects to be significant to feminists for two basic reasons. The DOD acknowledges that these laws have never been shown to have interfered with specific military training. . and Liability Act (CER-CLA). Hypatia Special Issues: Women and Violence Volume 11 Number 4. these flights emitted 75 tons of nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds. As of this publication. The Massachusetts Military Reservation. the Sierra Army Depot. That closure followed a lawsuit filed by the Center for Biological Diversity alleging that bombing at the range was killing protected migratory birds. the Comprehensive Environmental Response. focus on the practical. if women's oppression is connected to the unjustified destruction of nature. which generate smog. and perchlorate into the area’s sole aquifer. “We don’t feel it’s wise to wait for that kind of train wreck to see if we are going to lose in litigation. located 55 miles northeast of Reno.doc 7/20/08 29 File Title Impacts – Cuomo – Ecological Destruction Treating war as an event ignores the environmental effects of this mentality and the continuation of military based ecological destruction Chris J. cultural constructions associate women with nature and help justify the mistreatment of both. copper. a drinking water source for up to 500. For instance. jet fuel.” including the case at Eagle River Flats and the Navy’s 2002 temporary closure of its Farallon de Medinilla live-fire training range in the Pacific.000 military flights contributed to the heavy air traffic over Washington.4 million pounds of toxic chemicals that year. As evidence of the need to act now. pg. as Karen Warren argues. an environmental lawyer with the DOD General Counsel’s office. Cuomo. including Vandana Shiva and Maria Mies (1993). . Joe Willging. online I turn now to a discussion of the environmental effects of war. 1996. Plumwood 1993). in 1996. the DOD is seeking changes through the RRPI to certain hazardous waste laws—specifically. assistant professor of philosophy and women’s studies at the university of Cincinnati. feminists must be against oppression in any form.nih. Because military ecological destruction occurs primarily "during peacetime. Others. the DOD points to a number of lawsuits and “close calls. Many feminists and ecological feminists have discussed these problematic conceptual connections as created or fueled by the dichotomous thinking discussed above (Griffin 1989. Though women are no more essentially connected to nature than any other organic beings. sailors. RDX. In 1999. is slowly leaching solvents. it is arguable that the ecological effects of war and militarism are feminist issues. Compensation. Now. more than 50. both environmental and living Schmidt.Whitman College 85911615. You can’t do that if you introduce artificialities into training. Military aircraft from DOD facilities also generate noise and air pollution.” . including aluminum. Cuomo 1992. The DOD argues that even the threat of interference by hazardous waste litigation justifies its aims.pubmedcentral. according to the EPA Toxics Release Inventory.000 people at the height of tourist season. In any case. the most recent year for which data are available. including the oppression of nature. for instance. and the Marine Mammal Protection Act. We want to maintain the ability to use those ranges in the optimum way based on military readiness considerations. or material connections between environmental degradation and women's oppression. not on other considerations. Warren 1990. Military training negatively affects the surrounding areas. and Marines into combat environments in the absolute best-prepared way we can. Our job is to send soldiers. but says it can’t afford to wait until training is shut down before it acts. attention to the ecological impacts of war further illustrates the limitations of only thinking of war in terms of events. or if. According to the Democratic Committee on Energy and Commerce. the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). was California’s leading air polluter. Congress has approved legislation requested by the DOD amending the Migratory Bird Protection Act. D. and zinc fumes.fcgi?artid=1253681 December 2004 Nearly 1 in 10 Americans live within 10 miles of a DOD Superfund site—a sometimes perilous proximity.

idiocy. even more serious today. 1981. and even if w are still confronted with it. the maximum production of meaning. participating. just as obstinately. To a system whose argument is oppression and repression. p. the strategic resistance is the liberating claim of subjecthood But this strategy is more reflective of the earlier phase of the system. When all the revolutions have already taken place. obedient. free and conscious. because it was ushered in by that phase of the system which prevails. deciding. The subject-resistance is today unilaterally valorized and viewed as positive—just as in the political sphere only the practices of freedom. total dependence. emancipation.” indeed a “raising of the unconscious” of subjects and of the masses. speaking. conforming objects. and to a contradictory demand he responds with a double strategy. and efficaciously. Simulacra and Simulation. expressing ourselves at whatever cost. to the constant ultimatum we are given to constitute ourselves as pure objects. without absorbing it. exactly the opposite: childishness. inert. But this is to ignore the equal. and to constitute themselves as submissive.Whitman College 85911615. . hyperconformism. passivity. revolutionaries. whose imperative today is precisely the overproduction and regeneration of meaning and of speech. in short. We are face to face with this system in a double situation and insoluble double bind— exactly like children faced with the demands of the adult world. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. producing. emancipation. playing the game—a form of blackmail and ultimatum just as serious as the other. it is no longer the strategic terrain: the current argument of the system is to maximize speech. which is a form of refusal and of non-reception. Children are simultaneously required to constitute themselves as autonomous subjects. a total claim to subjecthood. All the movements that only play on liberation. refusing to continue on as living alibis for the violence of the real Jean Baudrillard. and without a doubt superior.doc 7/20/08 30 File Title Alternative – Strategy of the Object – The Children The system demands that we constitute ourselves as subjects. to reflecting meaning. voters. It blackmails us into becoming policymakers. The liberating practices respond to one of the aspects of the system. To choose the wrong strategy is a serious matter. This strategy (if one can still speak of strategy) prevails today. of liberating ourselves. To the demand of being an object. do not see that they are going in the direction of the system. that of constituting ourselves as subjects. The child resists on all levels. etc. of the renunciation of the subject position and of meaning— precisely the practices of the masses—that we bury under the derisory terms of alienation and passivity. 84-86 With one caution. an object’s resistance. he opposes all the practices of disobedience. of revolt. that is to say. impact of all the object practices. of the word based on “consciousness raising. of the group. of emancipation. Thus the strategic resistance is that of the refusal of meaning and of the spoken word—or of the hyperconformist simulation of the very mechanisms of the system. expression. like a mirror. responsible. on the resurrection of a subject of history. but they do not respond at all to the other demand. To the demand of being a subject he opposes. Neither strategy has ore objective value than the other. It is the strategy of the masses: it is equivalent to returning to the system its own logic by doubling it. and the constitution of a political subject are seen as valuable and subversive. of voting. the strategic ground is to passively absorb appearances.

Whitman College 85911615. Nothing can guarantee us a fatality. by which the object is taken in the very game that we wanted to make it play — doubling the ante somehow. What remains but to pass on the side of the object. It’s the object.doc 7/20/08 31 File Title Alternative – Fatal Strategies Alternative All of today’s critical radicality has ultimately proven useless. Fatality. From seduction we look for surprise. We invent all these strategies in the hope of having them result in the unexpected event. in unravelling desire. yielding to history. in the irony of the aleatory. It’s true that this is a difficult and obscure route: to side with the object. like the real is hyper-real. in saving and eternalizing a moment of our lives. But the rules of its game. must itself be hyper-moral. and compensates us in advance for the cruelest losses. a strategy precisely with no object. a fatal strategy in that the subject thereby succumbs to the surpassing of its own objectives. Fatal Strategies. and now that the critical spirit has found its summer home in socialism. hardly answers. Truth only complicates things. what can we do about it? After the art of survival. is seductive. and runs the risk of what it describes — but the risk is to be taken. At the end of all that. if the object is ingenious. There are not enough means in the world for us to be able to dispose of ends. therefore. The strategy of the object allows everything to unfold to it in a fatal and ingenious way Jean Baudrillard. and one only. no final process. If there be a morality. and they can change without notice. if it is an ironic one? Of course it exists. Chance is also one. It’s the effect of a sovereign object that recreates in you an original confusion and seeks to surprise you. that we all thought we answered. to which destiny. What is more. but against all science. there is something stupid about our current situation. It’s what peeks through the heart of more banal strategies. and on the side of its eccentric and precious effects. escalating the bidding on the strategic limits it will tolerate. to take up the cause of the object. which is itself the denouement of language immanent to language (that is the fatal: the same sign presiding over a life’s crystallization and its resolution. it too must be engaged in the eccentric cycle of its effects. The only way out is the fatal strategy of the object. and even at the molecular level. The hypothesis of a fatal strategy must itself be fatal. in turn. but a moral ecstasy. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. of its fickleness toward objective laws. for each of us. But it’s certain nevertheless that in disobeying laws. the conjunction of these two terms is paradoxical: how could there be fatality if there is strategy? That’s just the point: the enigma is that fatality is at the heart of every strategy. The object (the Sphinx). even less a strategy. now that all negativity seems resolved in a world that pretends to realize itself. subtler than man. Its failure today awakens passions that are much more subtle. Likewise with the joke. which just makes it more tragic and more seductive. Everything must unfold in a fatal and ingenious way. That also is a challenge — eventually it threatens absurdity. From strategy we expect control. The discovery of a hidden rule of the game is dazzling. it would rather figure in our calculations as a sarcastic variable. no objective. a dream inverse to its dream of totalization. as everyone knows. and the one has never been able to erase the other. must itself be a special effect. Today it’s man that poses to the Sphinx — the inhuman — the question of the inhuman. 184-85 188-191 if the object is fatal. could not be insensible. 1990. of the indifference of the world toward our affairs. irony (of the Witz*) is the objective form of this denouement. At the heart of banal strategies is the fiery desire of fatal strategies. installing thereby a strategy that doesn’t have its own ends: a “playful” strategy that stills the play of the subject. There’s something stupid in the raw event. now that all critical radicality has become useless. And. history itself has withdrawn. But simply to delineate this other logic. And if the Last Judgement consists. the ironic art of disappearance? The subject has always dreamed of this. The real we invent wholly in the hope of seeing it result in a prodigious artifice. Quite the contrary. just as everything was caught from the start in an original subversion. another axiom: nothing mystical in this. the conditions according to which it accepts playing? No one knows them. it answers secretly to some enigma. Today. God himself is forced to employ a trial-and-error method. if it exists. Levi-Strauss claimed that the symbolic order had left us. Even predestination is a form of ironic subversion of fatality. I fall on the joke. Everything is expiated in one way or another. There’s something stupid in the current forms of truth and objectivity that a superior irony could spare us. nothing of the otherworldly delirium of a subjectivity trapped and escaping headlong into a paroxysmal inventory. of the fatal. To find another rule. Everything is headed somewhere. If I look for a fatal connection in language. And of course fatality exists too. What remains but to side with this enigma? Everything can be summed up in this: let’s believe for a single instant the hypothesis that there is a fatal and enigmatic bias in the order of things. The difference is that the irony of fatality is greater than the irony of chance. too. and therefore the impossibility of deciphering a word that plays the game of meaning all too well). whose fatality would be a strategy —something like the rule of another game. and leave it to the equations to verify themselves. no one is capable of articulating a final process. From any object we hope for a blind response that hampers our projects. unravel those other strategies. In language become pure object. No one knows what a strategy is. Today. says Canetti. In any case. with whom do we share this ironic end? . simultaneously — there’s no paradox involved in this. the question Oedipus thought he answered. redoubling and escalating the stakes are spirited forms of denouement. of its fatal effects (fatality is only the absolute liberty of effects )? Semiorrhage. like the discovery of a hidden rule. p. The interesting thing about this is the inexorable logical process that is visible here. What’s the use of trying to establish chance as an objective process. Basically. as in the Witz. Seduction is fatal. at the knotting of the intrigue and its denouement). leave the field open to objective irony. and the effects of desire are largely depleted — what remains but to bring things back to their enigmatic ground zero? Now the enigma is inverted: once it was the Sphinx that posed men the question of man. We are accomplices in this excess of finality that is there in the object (this can be the excess of meaning. the object mocks the laws we attach to it. must be no longer a moral stasis. Everywhere.

there I agree with you. Thus.com/2002_Volume_15/15_3/Article_4. it is clear that it no longer has any finality in itself. We are all inside it. We witness the loss of subjectivity on the one hand. Why not! It is.doc 7/20/08 32 File Title Alternative – Strategy of the Object Alternative Fatal strategies demand that we abandon the subject as an agent of politics. Well. Summer 2002. and yet it is used in such a way that subjectivity is undermined. we do not have an objective discourse available in the sense I intend it. at the same time. and there is there. and adopt the seemingly paradoxical strategy of the object Jean Baudrillard. there has to be a subject of the strategy. it is a secret. a reversibility that is in the order of things. Fatal strategy for me is a strategy of the object. to what extent does it retain today martial connotations which complicate its sense even more? JEAN BAUDRILLARD: Yes. But clearly. one can still use this term in a metaphorical sense perhaps. but which would be the discourse of the object. effectively. online: http://www. and this is. or placed in a context where it is made volatile or fragile. one will always remain between the two. accessed March 5. a kind of metaphorical transfer of things. if it is contrary to a truth principle. because. the fact of speaking of the strategy of objects is a paradox. truly delirious. But somewhere there is a logic in the unfolding of things. as discourse itself is so grounded in subjectivity in this sense. It is truly unreadable. But I like to bring these two terms together all the same to create a clash between them. Regardless. which has nothing to do with scientificity. even if it is a crazy logic. At this point it has to be said that this supposes such relativity in the subject-object relation that it is that which becomes fatal. it is deployed within space. But it no longer means anything great in my opinion. Illusion. And the fact that it is no longer the subject that possesses things when. Which means nothing. fatal. But I am not the one who is going to say that. I think that there is a rule. But all the same. at the moment. It has form. the way that the discourse of sense tries to describe non-sense. If the strategy has to become logistically chancy. I like to apply things that are paradoxical. there is only a strategy of the subject. decisive and determinant way. no more subjectivity. Thus fatal strategy is. I also speak of objective illusion. Let us call it strategy. it is no longer a strategy properly speaking. and perhaps even its reference to a finality. The term strategy represents an opportunity because it is apt. to be sure! How could an object have a strategy? It would be absurd. What we have is the event itself. though not in the sense of subjects. cannot be based on objectivity.Whitman College 85911615. for there to be a strategy. 2005 CTHEORY: How is the concept of strategy used? It is implicit that it connotes a form of subjectivity. someone who has a will. That is not possible. It is a type of fatal process. an expression which describes a process. if not a strategy. a process in which there is certainly no more subject. we do not have it. When I use it in the expression "fatal strategies". it speaks to the imaginary.montrealserai. But. but it has certainly lost its military reference. It has a form of mastery and. a representation of the outcome.htm. Moreover. strategy being originally a military metaphor. It is a nice term. There has to be a finality. . the flow of the world itself. at least a rule of the game. and the intervention of the object itself in the game in a fatal. There will not be any objectivity there in the scientific sense of the term. all the same. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. but we are nevertheless a vectorial element of the thing. properly speaking.

” Furthermore there is no liberation but this one: in the deepening of negative conditions. then one understands nothing of this collective brutishness. subversive passion. opposed to all will for knowledge and power: tenacious. this derision. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. but it isn’t perhaps indifferent to the fact of making a spectacle of itself in natural disasters. objective information. to attain ecstasy in a scene instead of being produced as something really happening. if one doesn’t understand this. because it is made up of all the elements of happiness and distraction. deep in man’s heart. Another form of fundamental cynicism: this will to spectacle and illusion. To occur is necessary. All forms that tend to project a dazzling and miraculous liberty are only revolutionary homilies. simulating passion. the only fatal strategy. this production which is not at all a representation.Whitman College 85911615. that means that things are meaningless unless transfigured by this illusion. We think of nature as indifferent. Things can only happen in this excessive manner. and particularly in the effects of their disappearance. Fatal Strategies. 1990. Prodigious form that moralists have always condemned. How could we suppose that people were going to disavow their daily life and look for an alternative to it? On the contrary. All strategies that promise liberation from anything are illusions. it haunts nonetheless the process of events. the bitter and triumphal foreboding that there’s no escaping this. to be commuted into spectacle. It could mean the ecstatic deepening of anything. For example. 184-85 gender modified When I speak of the object and its fatal strategies. seal the monotony of it with an even greater monotony. as it were. This hyper-banality is the equivalent of fatality. instead they want to find a fatal distraction. The important point is the predestination of vacations to boredom. only a fatal logic wins its battle with power precisely because it’s not a battle but a radical passivity. the will to disdain their causes and to lose ourselves in their effects. I’m not joking: people are not looking for amusement. but it’s here only to signify this passion of passions. Liberating logic is basically understood only by a few. .doc 7/20/08 33 File Title A2 Perm The strategy of the object is our fatal strategy. but their prodigious and eccentric form. but in the magic of their effect — there only they appear great and do themselves the luxury of existing. that is to say. and it certainly is to the passions and enterprises of [hu]man. the most secret facts and thoughts. I’m speaking also of people and their inhuman strategies. seductive passion. increase is salvation and ecstasy. essentially it is fatal logic that wins out. which is a grand act of self-surpassing. p. in a distant echo of original sin. a drive for pure event. to be in ecstasy is absolutely vital. plunge into it to the point of ecstasy. This is something of a parable. This is the only solution to the problem of “voluntary servitude. Jean Baudrillard. Boredom is not the problem — the essential point is the increase of boredom. not in the hold of representation. a human being can find in a vacation a greater boredom than in everyday life — a redoubled boredom. they’ll make a destiny out of it: intensify it while seeming to do the opposite. for here is where things cynically subvert themselves from their beginnings and their ends. There is. even the increase of oppression and abjection that works like the liberating ecstasy of abjection — just as the absolute commodity works like the liberating form of the commodity.

It alone is the guardian of the mystery. The critical function of the subject has given way to the ironic function of the object. The Perfect Crime. superconductive of illusion and non-meaning. At the heart of our universe of signs there is an evil genius of advertising. No longer any need for a critical consciousness to hold up the mirror of its double to the world: our modern world swallowed its double when it lost its shadow. all too visible sequencing. All metaphysics is swept away by this turnabout in which the subject is no longer the master of representation (‘I’ll be your mirror’). and the irony of that incorporated double shines out at every moment in every fragment of our signs. by their very existence. but it is no longer ours to exercise. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. which can’t be combined with the affirmative. that of the artificial. of our objects. which of itself creates a parody effect. A scriptwriter of genius (capital itself?) has dragged the world into a phantasmagoria of which we are all the fascinated victims. but the operator of the objective irony of the world. This is exemplified by the 1AC – they criticize the given meanings of SUVs and expose them as false. but that of the absolute commodity. For it is no longer a function of the subject. through the spectrum of the sign and the commodity. henceforth. . of our models. the object which refracts the subject and imposes upon it its presence and its random form. although they will try to claim otherwise.e. Its essence is promotional. exorbitated — i. p. in a poetic unreality. objects. Once they have passed through the medium or through the image. perform an artificial and ironic function. 1996. This is all part of their visible. The aura of our world is no longer sacred. its discontinuity its fragmentation. they discard their meanings effortlessly.” We should abandon all hopes of finding any meaning at all in these systems of signs – only doing that allows the strategy of the object. it is an objective function. its stereophony and its artificial instantaneity.doc 7/20/08 34 File Title A2 Perm – Ironic Strategies Can’t Include the Subject Stances of irony are purely stances of the object. Stripped of all illusion by technology. We no longer have the sacred horizon of appearances. thus positively identifying their meanings as “not the given ones. as the Surrealists did: things move to shed an ironic light on themselves all on their own.Whitman College 85911615. It is the power of the object which cuts a swathe through the very artifice we have imposed on it. There is something of revenge in this: the object becomes a strange attractor. No longer any need to confront objects with the absurdity of their functions. Jean Baudrillard. stripped of all connotation of meaning and value. Our strategies are incompatible fundamentally because the affirmative. which has annihilated all others. still believes in identifiable meanings of particular signs. taken out of the orbit of the subject — it is then that it becomes a pure object. in which the absence and transparency of the subject is reflected. It is. 73-74 Irony is the only spiritual form in the modern world. object world which surrounds us. a trickster who has absorbed the drollery of the commodity and its mise en scene.

ironic challenge. heirs to the philosophers of the Enlightenment in their contempt of the masses) are only good basically for this: to administer by delegation. But perhaps our true unconscious is in this ironic power of withdrawal. in a paradoxical mode. the object-masses. a sad vision of the unconscious (repressed). the status of these “privileged” classes. toward the secret finalities of the very masses they despise. Fatal Strategies. it would be interesting to conceive of the masses. of non-desire. alienated way. absorption then expulsion of all powers. they act like Brummel and sovereignly delegate the faculty of choice to someone else. to recall Veblen’s concept. or secret ruse. 98-99 The masses know that they know nothing and they have no desire to know. If only for the sake of change. illusive. whose will would have been diverted. But they’re not that at all: the masses are very snobbish. non-knowledge. 1990. Vicarious*. Our unconscious might not be composed of desires properly sworn to the sad destiny of repression. . It might not even be repressed at all. silence. liberatory gesture. subjectively.Whitman College 85911615. this tedious business of power and will. The assumption of the alienated masses is something made by the affirmative. That couldn’t be further from the truth. by proxy. All mediators (political. allusive strategy. without their realizing it. We reproach them vigorously for these signs of stupidity and passivity. p. since these masses coexist in us with the intelligent and voluntary being who condemns and scorns them. Upon our entire philosophy lies the heavy weight of these sad correlations.doc 7/20/08 35 File Title AT: Passivity Bad/Whatever Else the 2AC Says Their arguments assume we embrace the masses’ passivity in a sad. sovereign lack of will. intellectual. corresponding to an unconscious that is finally ironic. It would instead be made up out of what’s left after this joyous expulsion of all encumbering superstructures of being and will. We live all of this. No one knows what the true opposite of consciousness is — unless it be this unconscious of repression that psychoanalysis has imposed upon us. not us – we affirm the masses’ passivity and lack of choice as a joyous. joyous and seductive. in a sort of game of irresponsibility. a strategy that eludes capture by power. of all enlightenment and depths of meaning. because of an insistance which is thereby bathed in the light of a ridiculous looking halo. to relieve the masses of this transendence for their greater pleasure. Jean Baudrillard. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. wills. We always had a sad vision of the masses (alienated). and they don’t want power. as possessing a delusive. The masses know they are powerless. and then to reward them with the spectacle of it.

The final irony of the whole episode is that. Norris points to the figure of Chomsky as someone who is both a defender of Enlightenment ideals in morality and the philosophy of language. Paul Patton. Baudrillard argues. a lever of last resort employed only to the extent that is necessary to bring the recalcitrant party into line. The crucial stake in the Gulf affair. a model of the liberal and critical intellectual.Whitman College 85911615. the Gulf War did not take place.” (86) This is not war. In several respects. However. In the past. The imbalance of military means was such that this was not a conflict in which the survival of both sides was in play. that it was a hoax like the moon landing or something. The claim that war itself has become virtual does not mean that military conflicts do not occur: they do and with increasing frequency and savagery in the New World Order. and the fate of their technologically inferior tanks. A perfect semblance of victory for the Americans was exchanged for the perfect semblance of defeat for Iraq. . From a political point of view. or who. and the extensive use of electronic warfare. located for the most part in a political and military third world. All that is singular and irreducible must be reduced and absorbed. and even if it were. which means it defies the logic of their criticism. very little changed as a result of the military conflict. Rather. They are police operations rather than wars. The same Americans who had systematically destroyed Iraq’s power grid and transport infrastructure now refused to enforce the law of democracy and the New World Order where this would entail intervening in the internal affairs of a sovereign state. The Iraqi regime was allowed to remain intact. The disparity between US and Iraqi forces with regard to method and military technology was so great that direct engagement rarely took place. it involves two sides in combat. the use of force remains carefully circumscribed. Where they do involve first world powers such as the US or UK. the US and its allies sought a rapid conflict based upon airpower. The rights of Kuwait may have been restored. Yet Chomsky has also questioned whether what took place in the Gulf in 1990-1 was a war. 1995. but rather that what took place was not a war. running towards the television journalists in order to surrender or immobilised beside their tanks .”20 He goes on to describe the successive phases of the conflict as involving varieties of state terrorism practised on both sides. an exercise in domination rather than an act of war. and it is this failure of communication which leads to the use of force. The Gulf War Did Not Take Place. and its army permitted to crush the Kurdish and Shiite rebellions... lobotomised. and the short-Lived political and economic benefits at home. p. it was no longer clear what had been gained by the sacrifice of so many lives. apart from the massive damage and suffering inflicted upon Iraq. can this be called a war?” (6 7—8) In his defence of the rationalist outlook which rejects the postmodern reduction of truth to consensus belief. operate according to different rules. say. like Saddam Hussein. a dual relation between warring parties. and a form of slaughter practised by US and UK air and ground forces upon Iraqi soldiers and civilians. it is because they are in conflict with third world forces who do not recognise that the rules of the game have changed. This is the law of democracy and the New World Order. They are the consequences of a law of uneven development. and a staunch critic of US foreign policy. was the subordination of Islam to the global order: “Our wars thus have less to do with the confrontation of warriors than with the domestication of the refractory forces on the planet . war has always involved an antagonistic and destructive confrontation between adversaries. The almost complete absence of any engagement by Iraqi planes. Other commentators have argued that the disparity between the aims. it is as though it never happened. and when it did the outcome was entirely predictable. 1720 Does the refusal of the critical strategy which seeks to re-establish the truth of what happened commit Baudrillard to the irrationalist denial that any military engagement took place? Alternatively. this was not the case in the Gulf conflict. testify to the one-sided nature of the conflict: “it is as though the Iraqis were electrocuted.. deterrence breaks down for lack of any common ground. but an entirely asymmetrical operation. methods and military technology of the two sides was so great that what occurred cannot be considered an adversarial encounter. He writes: “As I understand the concept ‘war’. does the fact of military conflict constitute a refutation of the hypothesis that there was no Gulf War? It does only if we accept that what did take place out there in the desert beyond the reach of the TV cameras was in fact a war.(71) In short. Baudrillard’s argument in “The Gulf War did not take place” is not that nothing took place. In these cases. shooting at each other. Whereas Iraq was disposed to fight in the manner of its previous war with Iran. Lecturer in Philosophy at the University of Sydney. like the persistence of sweatshops alongside fully automated production facilities. and prepared to tolerate the massive casualties which would result from a ground-based war of attrition. That did not happen in the Gulf. The image of a just war fought between the forces of freedom and those of tyranny dissolved in the moral ambiguities of the postconflict period. but in exchange for the rights of minorities in Iraq. what took place was not a war in any traditional logic.doc 7/20/08 36 File Title A2 “You Deny the Reality of War” Our argument is not that nothing happened in the Gulf.. But these are secondary phenomena. high-technology intelligence and weapons systems. in the case of the Gulf conflict.

assistant professor of philosophy and women’s studies at the university of Cincinnati.doc 7/20/08 37 File Title A2 “You Deny the Reality of War” Treating war as an event disables challenges to state sponsored violence and militarism Chris J. to maintain this false belief. state-sponsored violence is happening nearly all over. and who do not regularly encounter the realities of militarism. Seeing war as necessarily embedded in constant military presence draws attention to the fact that horrific. political concern only regarding armed conflict. It is particularly easy for those whose lives are shaped by the safety of privilege. and at that point it is difficult not to respond in ways that make resisters drop all other political priorities. or when the stability of privilege is directly threatened. Antiwar resistance is then mobilized when the "real" violence finally occurs. pg. the polar opposite of war. 1996.Whitman College 85911615. omnipresent systems of domination and oppression that so often function as givens in most people's lives. online Ethical approaches that do not attend to the ways in which warfare and military practices are woven into the very fabric of life in twenty-first century technological states lead to crisis-based politics and analyses. . Cuomo. Crisis-driven attention to declarations of war might actually keep resisters complacent about and complicitous in the general presence of global militarism. and that it is perpetrated by military institutions and other militaristic agents of the state. Hypatia Special Issues: Women and Violence Volume 11 Number 4. all of the time. Neglecting the omnipresence of militarism allows the false belief that the absence of declared armed conflicts is peace. creates forms of resistance to militarism that are merely exercises in crisis control. The belief that militarism is an ethical. crisis-based ethics and politics are problematic because they distract attention from the need for sustained resistance to the enmeshed. For any feminism that aims to resist oppression and create alternative social and political options.

In these circumstances. If. but free promiscuity. religious or sexist violence. gulag and the more recent Third World catastrophes is thus to serve as the support of this Denkverbot by constantly reminding us how things may have been much worse: "Just look around and see for yourself what will happen if we follow your radical notions!" And it is exactly the same thing that the demand for "scientific objectivity" means: the moment one seriously questions the existing liberal consensus. denouncing and boycotting companies which do not respect ecological conditions or which use child labor) ..com/replenin. Habermas designated the present era as that of the neue Undurchsichtlichkeit . etc. it means: say and write whatever you want . sexism. the actual freedom of thought means the freedom to question the predominant liberal-democratic "postideological" consensus . violations of human rights. really changing. All the frenetic humanitarian. which precludes any serious questioning of how this liberal-democratic order is complicit in the phenomena it officially condemns. provocations in the style of the notorious "Sensation" exhibitions ARE the norm.1 More than ever. the prohibition to think. and. things will remain the same!" . accessed January 28.one should also ask how it effectively functions IN these very struggles.Whitman College 85911615. In sex. state or corporate funds for a multidisciplinary research into how to fight the new forms of ethnic. This is the point on which one cannot and should not concede: today. no matter how radical. but to question the hegemonic ideological coordinates. 2001. globally. 2004 What are we to say to this? Again. The problem is that all this occurs against the background of a fundamental Denkverbot. This kind of activity provides the perfect example of interpassivity2: of doing things not to achieve something. In short. but also in our megalopolises. the effectively hegemonic attitude is not patriarchal repression. the example of the art fully integrated into the establishment. any serious attempt to imagine a society whose socio-political order would be different. between the rich and the poor. solicited even. the shattering impact of the digitalization of our daily lives. one follows a direct call to act. in art. today. Today's liberal-democratic hegemony is sustained by a kind of unwritten Denkverbot similar to the infamous Berufsverbot in Germany of the late 60s .or it means nothing. professor of philosophy at the university of Ljubljana." as Lenin himself would have put it. which are all not only tolerated. the answer is immediately: "Benevolent as it is.. Slavoj Zizek. the reduction of freedom is presented to us as the arrival of new freedoms. but even supported by the media. politically correct. one should be especially careful not to confuse the ruling ideology with ideology which SEEMS to dominate. One is therefore tempted to turn around Marx's thesis 11: the first task today is precisely NOT to succumb to the temptation to act. to directly intervene and change things (which then inevitably ends in a cul de sac of debilitating impossibility: "what can one do against the global capital?").” http://lacan. So everything is allowed.doc 7/20/08 38 File Title A2 Reformism Particularized demands for change. “Repeating Lenin. Greenpeace. as a critical topic: the prospects of a global ecological catastrophe. but to PREVENT from something really happening..it will be an act WITHIN the hegemonic ideological coordinates: those who "really want to do something to help people" get involved in (undoubtedly honorable) exploits like Medecins sans frontiere. antifeminism. one should bear in mind Walter Benjamin's reminder that it is not enough to ask how a certain theory (or art) declares itself to stay with regard to social struggles . More then ever. are performed against the backdrop of the neoliberal-democratic order and are tolerated as long as they fail to fundamentally change hegemonic ideology. there is nothing easier today than to get international. our daily experience is mystifying: modernization generates new obscurantisms. "Fidelity to the democratic consensus" means the acceptance of the present liberal-parlamentary consensus. homophobia. of course.the new opacity. this act will not be performed in an empty space . activity fits the formula of "Let's go on changing something all the time so that. this will necessarily end in a new Gulag!" The ideological function of the constant reference to the holocaust. even if they seemingly enter the economic territory (say.they are tolerated and supported as long as they do not get too close to a certain limit. the problem resides in the implicit qualifications which can be easily discerned by the "concrete analysis of the concrete situation.on condition that what you do does not effectively question or disturb the predominant political consensus. the growing violence not only in the far-away countries. one is accused of abandoning scientific objectivity for the outdated ideological positions.the moment one shows a minimal sign of engaging in political projects that aim to seriously challenge the existing order. feminist and anti-racist campaigns.htm. the gap between the First and the Third World.

it is no longer really the real.as the most beautiful allegory of simulation. that is to say of an operation of deterring every real process via its operational double. It is a hyperreal. a material more malleable that meaning. all of the real. lobbyists. nor even parody. nor does it survive it. Because it is with this same imperialism that present-day simulators attempt to make the real. Only the allegory of the Empire. to all combinatory algebra. remains. But it is no longer a question of either maps o territories. Borge’s fable is unusable. It is the generation by models of a real without origin or reality: a hyperreal. which simultaneously culminates in and is engulfed by the cartographer’s mad project of the ideal coextensivity of map and territory.precession of simulacra.that engenders the territory. No more imaginary coextensivity: it is genetic miniaturization that is the dimension of simulation. because no imaginary envelops it anymore. No more mirror of being and appearances. and from any distinction between the real and the imaginary. It is produced from cable television pundits. little by little. or a substance. It is all of metaphysics that is lost. that constituted the charm of abstraction. 1981. In fact. disappears in the simulation whose operation is nuclear and genetic. this fable has now come full circle for us. A hyperreal henceforth sheltered from the imaginary. today it is the territory whose shreds slowly rot across the extent of the map. Simulacra and Simulation. In fact. perhaps. produced from the radiating synthesis of combinatory models in a hyperspace without atmosphere. matrices. Political reality is now purely operational. to all binary oppositions. a referential being. 1-3 If once we were able to view the Borges fable in which the cartographers of the Empire draw up a map so detailed that it ends up covering the territory exactly(the decline of the Empire witnesses the fraying of this map. nor that of truth. between one and the other. Jean Baudrillard. The territory no longer precedes the map. This imaginary of representation. It is no longer anything but operational. Never again will the real have the chance to produce itself. that no longer even gives the event of death a chance.Whitman College 85911615. and not the map. and memory banks. p. . demographics. Because it is difference that constitutes the poetry of the map and the charm of the territory. from countless PACs.doc 7/20/08 39 File Title A2 Reformism Reform doesn’t exist anymore. nor duplication. metastable.the metaphysical beauty of this ruined abstraction testifying to a pride equal to the Empire and rotting like a carcass. the magic of the concept and the charm of the real. It no longer needs to be rational. Something has disappeared: the sovereign difference.and it can be reproduced an indefinite number of times from these. though some shreds are still discernible in the deserts. returning to the substance of the soil. and interest groups. By crossing into a space whose curvature is no longer that of the real. All the revolutions and reforms have already happenedthen the neo-conservatives pushed back. It is the real. It is no longer a question of imitation. and possesses nothing but the discrete charm of second-order simulacra. on massive servers. The desert of the real itself. a programmatic.such is the vital function of the model in a system of death. and if one must return to the fable. even inverted. now we live in a hyper-pluralist stasis. Simulation is no longer that of a territory. It is nevertheless the map that precedes the territory. whose vestiges persist here and there in the deserts that are no longer those of the Empire. Today abstraction is no longer that of the map. leaving room only for the orbital recurrence of models and for the simulated generation of differences. coincide with their models of simulation. the double. The real is produced from miniaturized cells.worse: with their artificial resurrection in the systems of signs. It is a question of substituting the signs of the real for the real. because it not longer measures itself against either an ideal or negative instance. perfectly descriptive machine that offers all the signs of the real and short-circuits all its vicissitudes. of the real and its concept. no longer at all spectacular or discursive. the era of simulation is inaugurated by a liquidation of all referentials. or rather of anticipated resurrection. the mirror. and its fall into ruins. in that tit lends itself to all systems of equivalences. or the concept. but ours. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. a bit as the double ends by being confused with the real through aging). models of control.

models. Jean Baudrillard. something must change: the projection.doc 7/20/08 40 File Title A2 Sign production/Culture Crash Link Turn Just because you accelerate the process of sign creation doesn’t mean that you collapse signification itself. in the imaginary as well. or to transferring it into a hyperreal of simulation. when the map covers the whole territory. of lived experience. The everydayness of the terrestrial habitat itself elevated to the rank of cosmic value. Thus in Simulacra by Philip K. of their original process. registered. derealized in advance. can only try to reconstruct invitro. but reconstituted. There is a hemorrhaging of reality as in internal coherence of a limited universe. of the quotidian. to reinvent the real as fiction. Witness this two bedroom/kitchen/shower put into orbit. the imaginary from the givens of the real. but a desperate rehallucination of the past. Dick. a reversal is produced— something else takes place. The proliferation of signs leads to the hallucination and revisiting of impacts in their hyperrealized forms. and they are two versions of the same general process of implosion that follows the gigantic process of explosion and expansion characteristic of past centuries. the extrapolation. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. the war of Secession. 1981. but without substance. once the limits of this universe recede into infinity. reconstituted as an animal or vegetal reserve. saturated. The process will. sometimes down to disquietingly strange details. but of values. of the banal. Classical science fiction was that of an expanding universe. mental. the people. the conquest of space constitutes an irreversible crossing toward the loss of the terrestrial referential. emptied of meaning. p. be the opposite: it will be to put decentered situations. down to the smallest details. It is no longer possible to fabricate the unreal from the real. brought to light with a transparent precision. signs. the end of the phantasm. in its artificial resurrection of “historical” worlds. cosmic) of science fiction has ceased to function. the events. We can no longer imagine any other universe: the grace of transcendence was taken away from us in that respect too. 123-124 Perhaps science fiction from the cybernetic and hyperreal era can only exhaust itself. The conquest of space that follows that of the planet is equal to derealizing (dematerializing) human space. the end of science fiction—the era of hyperreality begins. and thus one available to the imaginary. hypostatized in space. mapped. precisely because it has disappeared from our life. but hallucinatory with retrospective truth. not only of merchandise. hyperrealized. Hallucination of the real. the sort of pantographic excess that constituted the charm of science fiction are all impossible. Simulacra and Simulation.the satellization of the real in the transcendence of space—it is the end of metaphysics. in which fiction will never again be a mirror held toward the future. leaving no room for the imaginary—it is not exactly because of this that the exploratory universe (technical. This is also true of geographic and spatial exploration: when there is no longer any virgin territory. When a system reaches its own limits and becomes saturated. There is no relationship of cause and effect there: it is not because terrestrial space today is virtually coded. . something like the principle of reality disappears. the ideologies of the past. Gigantic hologram in three dimensions. raised to a spatial power (one could say) with the most recent lunar module. of lived experience. models of simulation in place and to contrive to give them the feeling of the real. From then onward. has thus in a sense closed up again in universalizing itself—a universal market. But the two are narrowly linked. counterparts to the more terrestrial forms of exploration and colonization of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.Whitman College 85911615. rather. the perimeters of a prior world. Until now we have always had a reserve of the imaginary—now the coefficient of reality is proportional to the reserve of the imaginary that gives it its specific weight. besides it forged its path in the narratives of spatial exploration. In this way.

unusable. Entry into the atomic club.Whitman College 85911615. what strategy. censure. p. so many neutron bombs knocking out all historic virulence. what power. what subject would exist behind this enclosure. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School. self-deterrence always grow more rapidly than the forces or the weapons at our disposal: this is the secret of the social order. very quickly effaces (as unionization does in the working world) any inclination toward violent intervention. they deter themselves. it absorbs all living energy. this vast saturation of a system by its own forces. In this sense. and bombs to ever latitude. control. of their own deterrence. It is thus perfectly probable that one day we will see nuclear powers export atomic reactors. of a reversion of energies toward a minimal threshold). Control by the threat will be replaced by the more effective strategy of pacification through the bomb and through the possession of the bomb. Therein lies the whole process of deterrence. will buy the virus of deterrence. nonexplosive—except for the possibility of an explosion toward the center.doc 7/20/08 41 File Title A2 “The Case Impacts Still Happen” Deterrence makes your massive impacts impossible Jean Baudrillard. it freezes everything around it. Responsibility. now neutralized. This was already the aporia of the modern revolution. It is still the absolute paradox of the nuclear. believing that they are buying their independent striking force. “real” use of it (as the Americans did in Hiroshima—but precisely only they had the right to this “use value” of the bomb. that is to say in the sense of a reversion of the whole cycle toward a minimal point. all of those who have acquired it since will be deterred from using by the very fact of possessing it). 39-40 This is why nuclear proliferation does not increase the risk of either an atomic clash or an accident— save in the interval when the “young” powers could be tempted to make a nondeterrant. 1981. weapons. One can no longer imagine what project. The same goes for the atomic reactors that we have already sent them. so prettily named. Simulacra and Simulation. [40] The nuclear is at once the culminating point of available energy and the maximization of energy control systems. Lockdown and control increase in direct proportion to (and undoubtedly even faster than) liberating potentialities. of an implosion where all these energies would be abolished in a catastrophic process (in the literal sense. Energies freeze in their own fire. all risk of explosion. unintelligible. Thus the very possibility of paralyzing a whole country by flicking a switch makes it so that the electrical engineers will never use this weapon: the whole myth of the total and revolutionary strike crumbles at the very moment when the means are available—but alas precisely because those means are available. The “little” powers. the nuclear everywhere inaugurates an accelerated process of implosion. .

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