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EM-406 : Mfg Process, Tool & Auto NUST : College of EME Mechatronics Department
What is CNC?
Computer Numerical Control
The process of manufacturing machined parts using a computerized controller to command motors which drive each machine axis.
Parsons Corporation. tape-fed machine tool 1951 1952 .History of CNC 1947 John Parsons. Michigan Developed a control system that directed a spindle to many points in succession Servomechanism Laboratory of Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) – Added computer to Parson’s system Cincinnati Milicron Hydro-Tel Vertical Spindle Milling Machine First three-axis numerically controlled.
.History of CNC (Continued) 1954 1957 NC was announced to public First production NC machines were delivered and installed NC machine tools commonly available 1960 A lot of the initial funding for the development of NC machine tools came from the United States Government.
Why CNC machine tools? • Increase production throughput • Improve the quality and accuracy of manufactured parts • Stabilize manufacturing costs • Manufacture complex or otherwise impossible jobs – 2D and 3D contours. .
Integration with Mathematics y x Complex curves and surfaces can be described mathematically .
Vf Vf .Integration with Mathematics (Continued) Vf ≡ feed rate along curve Tangent Or Slope Vf ∆y ∆x Vx = Vy = ∆x ∆x 2 + ∆y 2 ∆x ∆x + ∆y 2 2 Curve to be followed Complex curves can be followed by breaking the curve into a series of small straight lines and using linear interpolation.
productivity. Design changes are facilitated. • More operations can be performed with each setup. and inventory is reduced. since templates and other fixtures are not required. . and less lead time for setup and machining is required compared to conventional methods. • Machine adjustments are easy to make with microcomputers and digital readouts. • Tooling costs are reduced. and product quality. repeatability. reduced scrap loss.Advantages of CNC • Flexibility of operation is improved. as is the ability to produce complex shapes with good dimensional accuracy. and high production rates.
Less paperwork is involved. and the operator has more time to attend to other tasks in the work area. • Required operator skill is less than that for a qualified machinist. .Advantages of CNC (Continued) • Programs can be prepared rapidly and can be recalled at any time utilizing microprocessors. • Faster prototype production is possible.
. High preventative maintenance since breakdowns are costly. Special maintenance with trained personnel. The need and cost for programming and computer time.Limitations of CNC • • • • Relatively high initial cost of the equipment.
Anatomy of a CNC Machine (3-Axis Vertical Mill) Chang. Figure 9.8 .
Anatomy of a CNC Machine (Horzontal Drilling Machine) .
Degarmo. Figure 29-10. .Operational Features of CNC Machine A CNC control system includes a velocity loop within an axis drive system and a position loop external to the axis drive system.
Recirculating Ball Screws A .Ball Screw B – Linear Bearings Microcomputer Controlled X-Y Table .
Recirculating Ball Screws (Purpose) Transform rotational motion of the motor into translational motion of the nut attached to the machine table. Advantages of Recirculating Ball Screws Pneumatic Ball ACME Fluid Belt. Rack & Cam Screws Screws Power Chain Pinion Followers Cylinders Inexpensive Low Power Use Low Maintenance High Accuracy High Repeatability High Efficiency High Load Capacity Compact Size .
Recirculating Ball Screws (Continued) Recirculating Ball Screws are generally preloaded to give zero backlash. .
l Vf ≡ Feed Velocity Vf n= l in => min = rev min in rev D [ [ ] [ ] ] .Recirculating Ball Screws (Rotational to Linear Velocity Conversion) Lead – distance the nut moves parallel to the screw axis when the screw is given one revolution.
Recirculating Ball Screws (Positioning Resolution) æ 1 ö u = l ⋅θ ⋅ç ÷ è 360 ø u ≡ axial displacement [in] l ≡ ball screw lead [in/rev] θ ≡ rotation angle [degrees] æ 1 ö ÷ ≡ converts revolutions ç è 360 ø ù to degrees érev ê degreesú û ë l D .
125 in/rev.Recirculating Ball Screws (Positioning Resolution Example) l = 0.0052 in .125 in ) ⋅ (15 degrees) ⋅ æ rev ç 360 degrees ÷ è ø = 0.125 in θ = 15 degrees u = l ⋅θ ⋅ 1 ( 360) Example A ball screw has a lead of 0. What is the distance that the nut will travel if the screw is turned 15 degrees? ö u = (0.
Recirculating Ball Screws (Lead Screw Resolution) l = 0.00035 in/degree θ .125 in/rev ) ⋅ æ rev ç 360 degrees ÷ è ø θ u = 0.125 in u =l⋅ 1 360 θ ( ) The positioning resolution of a ball screw is directly proportional to the smallest angle that the motor can turn. u ö = (0.
For each pulse it receives. the drive unit manipulates the motor voltage and current.15 . The lead screw converts the rotary motion of the motor shaft into linear motion of the workpiece. digital control of the position of a workpiece in a numerical control machine.Stepping Motors A stepping motor provides open-loop. causing the motor shaft to rotate by a fixed angle (one step). Figure 10. The drive unit receives a direction input (cw or ccw) and pulse inputs.
386. the stator windings and the permanent magnet. 200 step hybrid motor cross section Figure 1. Bateson.12 .8 degree stepping motor is the predominant standard for industrial automation. Ø The 1. usually in the rotor. Ø Hybrid stepping motors are used when small step angles are required.Stepping Motors (Full Step Operation) Ø Hybrid stepping motors have a variable-reluctance rotor with a permanent magnet in its magnetic path. Ø The term hybrid refers to the use of two sources of magnetic field.
Stepping Motors (Angular Positioning) 360 degrees ∆θ = N steps N = 200 360 deg ∆θ = = 1.8 deg/step 200 steps .
Stepping Motors (Lead Screw Positioning Resolution) u = l ⋅θ ⋅ 1 ( 360) ∆θ = 360 N Example l ∆u = N Increased resolution can be obtained using a technique known as microstepping.125 in/rev ∆u = 200steps/rev = 0.125 in/rev N = 200 steps/rev 0.000625 in/step . l = 0.
1/16. and 1/125 of a full step are most commonly used. ∆θ = 360 N*m m=number of microsteps per full step . Microstep sizes of 1/10.Stepping Motors (Microstepping Operation) The rotor can be positioned in partial steps by simultaneously controlling the currents supplied to the stator phase windings. 1/32.
0000195 in/microstep .Stepping Motors (Lead Screw Positioning Resolution) u = l ⋅θ ⋅ 1 ( 360) 360 ∆θ = N*m Example m = 32 microsteps/steps l ∆u = N⋅m l = 0.125 ∆u = 200 ⋅ 32 = 0.125 in/rev N = 200 steps/rev 0.
0001 in or better. • CNC machines typically have resolutions of 0. • The smallest angle is controlled by the motor step size. .Summary • The positioning resolution of a ball screw drive mechanism is directly proportional to the smallest angle that the motor can turn. • Microsteps can be used to decrease the motor step size.
What is the position resolution of the machine? How many microsteps will the motor have to undergo in order to move the mill table attached to the ball screw 1.125 inch lead recirculating ball screws that are driven by a 200 step hybrid step step motor with 125 microsteps per step.0 in? .Assignment A CNC mill has 0.