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# 1

NAME _______________________________________________________________________

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING 150A
Final Exam

This is a closed book, closed notes exam. Graphing calculators are allowed. The appendices
will NOT be collected for grading.

Problem Score
1 / 50
2 / 35
3 / 50
4 / 45
5 / 60
6 / 60
Total / 300

2
Question 1 (50 points)
The reservoir system shown below has the following properties:

Q = 0.012 m
3
/s D = 0.1 m
! = 950 kg/m
3
P
atm
= 101325 Pa
" = 0.0019 Pas g = 9.8 m/s
2

The liquid is incompressible and has a negligible vapor pressure. The globe valve is half open;
the 90
o
elbow is square. The tanks are very large and the pipe is smooth. Note that the figure is
NOT drawn to scale.

Reservoir system:

(a) Compute the power required for the pump.

(b) Determine the maximum distance the pump can be place from the first tank.

10 m
1200 m
100 m 50 m
20 m
Globe valve Pump
Tank #1
Tank #2
P
atm

P
atm

3
Solution to Question 1

a) Use the engineering Bernoulli equation to size the pump:
o
2
2
(I
N
)
2
2
+gb
2
=
o
1
2
(I
N
)
1
2
+gb
1
-_
JP
p
P
2
P
1
+ow
s

-l

= l
,ppc
+l
,]ttngs
=
2(I
N
)

2
I

Icngths
o]ppc
+
1
2
(I
N
)
]
2
K
]]
]ttngs

The fluid is incompressible and exposed to atmospheric pressure:
_
JP
p
P
2
P
1
=
P
2
-P
1
p
=
P
utm
-P
utm
p
= u

The tanks are very large:
(I
N
)
1
= (I
N
)
2
= u ms

The engineering Bernoulli equation between the two tanks reduces to the following:
gb
2
= gb
1
+ow
s

-l

= ow
s

= g(b
2
-b
1
) +l

Calculate the mass flow rate and the velocity in the pipe:
w = p = (9Su kgm
S
)(u.u12 m
S
s) = 11.4 kgs

(I
N
)
p
=

A
=
4
n
2
=
4(u.u12 m
S
s)
n(u.1 m)
2
= 1.SS ms

The Reynolds number in the pipe is:
Re =
p(I
N
)
p

p
=
(9Su kgm
S
)(1.SS ms)(u.1 m)
(u.uu19 Pas)
= 764uu = tuibulent

The friction factor can determined from the f-Re chart or calculated from either the Blasius or
von Krmn-Nikuradse equations. All results are roughly equivalent:

Graph:
Re = 764uu = = u.uu4S

4000 < Re < 10
5
(Blasius):
= u.u79 Re
-14
= u.u79 (764uu)
-14
= u.uu47S

4000 < Re (von Krmn-Nikuradse):

1

= 4.u log
10
(Re) -u.4 =
1

= 4.u log
10
(764uu) -u.4 = = u.uu476

The flow experiences four fittings. First, there is a sudden contraction out of tank #1:
4
A
2
< A
1
=
A
2
A
1
- u

1 -m(A
2
A
1
)
1 -(A
2
A
1
)
2
= [
m
1.2

2
=
1 -u
1 -u
= [
m
1.2

2
= m = 1.2

K
]1
= _
2
m
-
A
2
A
1
-1]
2
= _
2
1.2
-u -1]
2
= u.44

Second, there is a half-open globe valve:
K
]2
= 9.S

Third, there is a square 90
o
elbow:
K
]3
= 1.S

Fourth, there is a sudden expansion into tank #2:
A
1
< A
2
=
A
1
A
2
- u

K
]4
= _1 -
A
1
A
2
]
2
= (1 -u)
2
= 1

Substitute the values into the viscous loss term:
l

= l
,ppc
+l
,]ttngs
=
2(I
N
)

2
I

Icngths
o]ppc
+
1
2
(I
N
)
]
2
K
]]
]ttngs

l
,ppc
=
2(I
N
)

2
I

Icngths
o]ppc
=
2(1.SS ms)
2
(12uu m+Su m)(u.uu47S)
(u.1 m)
= 27.2 m
2
s
2

l
,]ttngs
=
1
2
(I
N
)
]
2
K
]]
]ttngs
=
1
2
(1.SS ms)
2
(u.44 +9.S +1.S +1) = 14.S m
2
s
2

l

= l
,ppc
+l
,]ttngs
= 27 m
2
s
2
+14.S m
2
s
2
= 291.S m
2
s
2

The pump size is:
ow
s

= g(b
2
-b
1
) +l

= (9. ms
2
)(7u m-1u m) +291.S m
2
s
2
= 79.S m
2
s
2

w
s

= wow
s

= (11.4 kgs)(79.S m
2
s
2
) = 1uu26 = 1u k = 1S.4

(b) Use the engineering Bernoulli equation to determine the maximum distance the pump can be
place from the first tank.
5
o
p
2
(I
N
)
p
2
+gb
p
=
o
1
2
(I
N
)
1
2
+gb
1
-_
JP
p
P

P
1
+ow
s

-l

= l
,ppc
+l
,]ttngs
=
2(I
N
)

2
I

Icngths
o]ppc
+
1
2
(I
N
)
]
2
K
]]
]ttngs

Applying the same assumptions as before with # = 1, the engineering Bernoulli equation between
the first tanks and the pump reduces to the following:
1
2
(I
N
)
p
2
= gb
1
-
P
p
-P
utm
p
-l

Since the vapor pressure is negligible Set the pressure at the pump equal to zero to find the
maximum distance the pump can be placed from the first tank:
1
2
(I
N
)
p
2
= gb
1
-
P
utm
p
-l

= gb
1
+
P
utm
p
-l
,ppc
-l
,]ttngs

Assume the pump is placed after the globe valve, but before the 90
o
elbow. The flow experience
two fittings. First, there is a sudden contraction out of tank#1:
K
]1
= u.44

Second, there is a half-open globe valve:
K
]2
= 9.S

Substitute the values into the fittings viscous loss term:
l
,]ttngs
=
1
2
(I
N
)
]
2
K
]]
]ttngs
=
1
2
(1.SS ms)
2
(u.44 +9.S) = 11.6 m
2
s
2

Solve for the piping viscous loss term:
l
,ppc
= gb
1
-
1
2
(I
N
)
p
2
+
P
utm
p
-l
,]ttngs

l
,ppc
= (9. ms
2
)(1u m) -
1
2
(1.SS ms)
2
+
1u1S2S Pa
9Su kgm
S
-11.6 m
2
s
2
= 191.9 m
2
s
2

From the piping viscous loss term, determine the length:
l
,ppc
=
2(I
N
)

2
I

Icngths
o]ppc
=
2(1.SS ms)
2
I(u.uu47S)
(u.1 m)
= 191.9 m
2
s
2
I = 6S m

The maximum distance is after the globe valve (100 m) and before the 90
o
elbow; therefore the
previous assumption is correct and the answer is valid.

6
Question 2 (35 points)
An incompressible, Newtonian fluid steadily flows past an eccentrically placed cylinder as
shown in the figure below. Far from the cylinder, the fluid velocity field is fully developed and
described by a parabolic flow:

() = - ( -

)
2

The cylinder is very long with a radius a. The cylinder rotates about its axis with a constant
angular velocity \$ in the direction of increasing !. For simplicity, wall effects are not explicitly
considered and the Reynolds number is assumed to be low.

Parabolic flow past an eccentrically placed rotating cylinder:

The goal of this problem is to setup, but NOT solve for, the velocity field of the fluid around the
cylinder: List all assumptions in the problem, clearly expressing what the assumptions mean
mathematically. Postulate the form of the velocity field around the cylinder in cylindrical
coordinates (r, !, z). Simplify the continuity and Navier-Stokes equations. Give boundary
conditions.

Conversion between Cartesian and cylindrical coordinates:

= os

os +

sn
= sn

= -

sn +

os
=

7
Governing Equations for Question 2:

Continuity Equation for an Incompressible Fluid in Cylindrical Coordinates

=
1

) +
1

= u

Navier-Stokes Equations for an Incompressible, Newtonian Fluid in Cylindrical Coordinates

r component:

p

= -

)_ +
1

2
-
2

2
_

% component:

p _

] = -
1

)_ +
1

2
+
2

2
_

z component:

p _

] = -

+ _
1

] +
1

2
+

2
_

Energy Equation for a Pure Incompressible, Newtonian Fluid with
Constant Thermal Conductivity in Cylindrical Coordinates

pC
p
_
I

] =
= k _
1

_
I

] +
1

2

2
I

2
+

2
I

2
_ + q + p1

8
Solution to Question 2

The following assumptions are used:
Newtonian => viscosity constant, no change in &
Incompressible => density constant, no change in !
Steady state => no time dependence, '/'t = 0
Very long => no z dependence, '/'z = 0
Low Re => creeping flow, Re << 1 so ignore inertial terms

Assume no flow in the z direction, such that v
z
= 0.

From assumptions, v
r
is independent of t and z, such that v
r
= v
r
(r, %).

From assumptions, v
!
is independent of t and z, such that v
!
= v
!
(r, %).

Convert the fluid velocity field far from the cylinder from Cartesian to cylindrical coordinates:

() = - ( -

)
2

= u

= os
= sn

Convert to radial velocity:

os +

sn

= | - ( -

)
2
] os +|u] sn

= | - ( sn -

)
2
] os

Convert to angular velocity:

= -

sn +

os

= -| - ( -

)
2
] sn +|u] os

= -| - ( sn -

)
2
] sn

List the boundary conditions:
v
r
= 0 @ r = a by no penetration
v
!
= a\$ @ r = a by no slip
v
r
= [U " (r sin % y
c
)
2
]cos % as r ( ) a by given velocity field
v
!
= [U " (r sin % y
c
)
2
]sin % as r ( ) a by given velocity field

Simplify continuity:
1

) +
1

= u

9
Simplify the r component of the Navier-Stokes equation:
u = -

)_ +
1

2
-
2

_

Simplify the % component of the Navier-Stokes equation:
u = -
1

)_ +
1

2
+
2

_

Simplify the z component of the Navier-Stokes equation:
u = -

10
Question 3 (50 points)
A sphere fixed in space has a diameter of 0.1 m. The sphere, initially at a uniform temperature
of 0C, is suddenly surrounded by water at 20C.

(a) Determine how long it will take for the center of the sphere to reach 5C if the water is
flowing with a velocity of 10 m/s and sphere is made of asbestos. At that moment, give the
temperature of the sphere at a radius of 0.04 m.

(b) Determine how long it will take for the center of the sphere to reach 5C if the water is still
and the sphere is made of copper. At that moment, give the temperature of the sphere at a radius
of 0.04 m.

Properties of the spheres:
Thermal conductivity: k
asbestos
= 2.07 W/(mK) k
copper
= 401 W/(mK)
Density: !
asbestos
= 0.35 gcm
-3
!
copper
= 8.94 gcm
-3

Specific heat capacity: C
p,asbestos
= 0.84 kJ/(kgK) C
p,copper
= 0.39 kJ/(kgK)

Properties of water:
Thermal conductivity: k
water
= 0.597 W/(mK)
Density: !
water
= 0.9982 gcm
-3

Specific heat capacity: C
p,water
= 4.182 kJ/(kgK)
Viscosity: "
water
= 9.93 x 10
-4
Pas
Buoyancy factors: *g/+
2
= 2.035 x 10
9
m
-3
K
-1

11
Governing Equations for Question 3:

Continuity Equation for an Incompressible Fluid in Spherical Coordinates

=
1

(
2

) +
1
sn

sn) +
1
sn

= u

Navier-Stokes Equations for an Incompressible, Newtonian Fluid in Spherical Coordinates

r component:

p

+

q
sn

2
+
q
2

= -

+ p _
1

2

2

2
(
2

) +
1

2
sn

_sn

] +
1

2
sn
2

2
_

% component:

p

+

q
sn

-
q
2
ot

= -
1

+ p
1

_
2

] +
1

1
sn

sn )_ +
1

2
sn
2

2
+
2

-
2 ot

2
sn

_

, component:

p

+

q
sn

q
ot

= -
1
sn

+ p
1

+
1

1
sn

(
q
sn )_ +
1

2
sn
2

2
+
2

2
sn

+
2 ot

2
sn

_

Energy Equation for a Pure Incompressible, Newtonian Fluid with
Constant Thermal Conductivity in Spherical Coordinates

pC
p
_
I

+

q
sn
I

] =
= k _
1

_
2
I

] +
1

2
sn

_sn
I

] +
1

2
sn
2

2
I

2
_ +q + p1

12
Solution to Question 3

(a) Find h from the Nusselt number. Start by calculating the Prandtl number of water:
Pi =
u
w
o
w
=
pC
p,w
k
w
=
(9.9S x 1u
-4
)(412)
u.S97
= 6.96

Then calculate the Reynolds number:
Re
D
=
p
w

p
=
(99.2)(1u)(u.1)
9.9S x 1u
-4
= 1u
6

Use a correlation to calculate the Nusselt number and find h:
Nu

= 2 +(u.4Re

12
+u.u6Re

23
)Pi
0.4

Nu

= 2 +(u.4(1u
6
)
12
+u.u6(1u
6
)
23
)(6.96)
0.4
= 217S

Nu =
b
k
w
=
b(u.1 m)
u.S97 (mK)
= 217S = b = 1294 (m
2
K)

Check the Biot number:
B =
b
k
u
I
A
=
b
6k
u
=
(1294)(u.1)
6(2.u7)
= 1u4.S > 1

Since the Biot number is greater than unity, use the Heisler charts:
=
I

-I
I

-I
0
=
2u -S
2u -u
= u.7S

n =

1
=
u
u.12
= u

m =
k
u
b
1
=
2.u7
(1294)(u.12)
= u.uuS19

Read off the chart for a sphere:
X = u.u9 =
o
u

1
2
=
k
u

p
u
C
p,u
(2)
2
=
(2.u7 (mK))
(SSu kgm
S
)(4u }(kgK))(u.uS m)
2

= S2.u s

At this moment, determine the temperature at r = 0.04 m by using the Heisler chart:
n =

1
=
u.u4
u.12
= u.

m = u.uuS19

13
X = u.u9

Read off the chart for a sphere:
=
I

-I
I

-I
0
=
2uC -I
2uC -uC
= u.2

I = 16C

(b) Find h from the Nusselt number. The Prandtl number is the same as before. The Grashof
number is:
ui
D
=
gAI
3
v
2
= (2.uSS x 1u
9
)(17.S)(u.1) = S.S6 x 1u
7

Note that the -T is based on the liquid temperature and average surface temperature. Using the
Grashof number, calculate the Rayleigh number:
Ra
D
= ui
D
Pi = (S.S6 x 1u
7
)(6.96) = 2.4 x 1u
8

Use a correlation to find h from the Nusselt number:
Nu
D
= 2 +u.4S Ra

14
= Nu
D
= 2 +u.4S(2.4 x 1u
8
)

14
= S6.u

Nu
D
=
b
k
w
=
b(u.1 m)
u.S97 (mK)
= S6.u = b = SS4 (m
2
K)

Check the Biot number:
B =
b
k

I
A
=
b
6k

=
(SS4)(u.1)
6(4u1)
= u.u14 < 1

Since the Biot number is less than one, use lump capacitance analysis:
p

IC
p,
JI
J
= bA(I

-I)

I

-I
I

-I
0
= ex-
bA
p

IC
p,
= ex-
bI
k

A
k

C
p,
(IA)
2
= ex (-BFo)

2u -S
2u -u
= ex(-(u.u14)Fo) = Fo = 2u.72

Fo = 2u.72 =
k

C
p,
(IA)
2
=
(4u1 (mK))
(94u kgm
S
)(S9u }(kgK))(u.1 m6)
2

= Su.u s

Since the Biot number is less than unity, the sphere is at a uniform temperature at all times.
Therefore, T = 5C at r = 0.02 m when T = 5C at the centerline.

14
Question 4 (45 points)
An atomizer nozzle generates a fine spray of liquid and is commonly used to dispense paints and
perfumes. To evaluate the performance of an atomizer nozzle, it is proposed to atomize a
nonvolatile liquid wax into a stream of cool air. The atomized wax particles are expected to
solidify in the air, from which they may later be collected and examined. The wax droplets leave
the atomizer at their freezing point T
o
with the surrounding air at T
#
and
#
. Assume that there
is no volume change in the solidification process and that the heat transfer coefficient h between
the drop and the air is known. In the solid phase, \$ is the density, k is the thermal conductivity,
and C
p
is the heat capacity; these properties are constant. For this problem, determine an
analytical solution rather than using Biot number simplifications.

Freezing spherical drop:

(a) Solve the pseudo-steady state energy equation in the solid phase between R
f
and R to
determine T as a function of position. This is effectively assuming R
f
moves very slowly in
time.

(b) Write an unsteady-state energy balance equating the heat liberation at r = R
f
(t) resulting
from the freezing of the liquid to the heat flow q out the spherical surface at r = R. Estimate the
time t
f
required for a spherical drop of radius R to completely freeze. Let -H
f
be the latent heat
of fusion per unit mass.

#

T
#
, h

\$, k, C
p

15
Governing Equations for Question 4:

Continuity Equation for an Incompressible Fluid in Spherical Coordinates

=
1

(
2

) +
1
sn

sn) +
1
sn

= u

Navier-Stokes Equations for an Incompressible, Newtonian Fluid in Spherical Coordinates

r component:

p

+

q
sn

2
+
q
2

= -

+ p _
1

2

2

2
(
2

) +
1

2
sn

_sn

] +
1

2
sn
2

2
_

% component:

p

+

q
sn

-
q
2
ot

= -
1

+ p
1

_
2

] +
1

1
sn

sn )_ +
1

2
sn
2

2
+
2

-
2 ot

2
sn

_

, component:

p

+

q
sn

q
ot

= -
1
sn

+ p
1

+
1

1
sn

(
q
sn )_ +
1

2
sn
2

2
+
2

2
sn

+
2 ot

2
sn

_

Energy Equation for a Pure Incompressible, Newtonian Fluid with
Constant Thermal Conductivity in Spherical Coordinates

pC
p
_
I

+

q
sn
I

] =
= k _
1

_
2
I

] +
1

2
sn

_sn
I

] +
1

2
sn
2

2
I

2
_ +q + p1

16
Solution to Question 4

(a) The following assumptions are used:
Constant properties conductivity => no change in !, k, Cp
Pseudo steady state => no time dependence, '/'t = 0
Axisymmetric => no % or , dependence, '/'% = '/', = 0
No generation => no heat generation in solid phase, q = 0
No velocity => no velocity in solid phase, v
r
= v
%
= v
,
= .
v
= 0

From assumptions, T is independent of t, %, and ,, such that T = T(r).

Simplify the energy equation:
u = k _
1

_
2
I

]_ =
k

2
J
J
_
2
JI
J
]

Integrate the energy equation:

2
JI
J
= C
1

I = -
C
1

+ C
2

List the boundary conditions:
T = T
o
@ r = R
f
by known freezing point temperature
k dT/dr = h (T T
#
) @ r = R by heat flux at a solid-fluid interface

Apply the boundary conditions to the integrated energy equation:
I
o
= -
C
1
R
]
+ C
2

C
2
= I
o
+
C
1
R
]

-k
JI
J
_
=R
= b(I(R) -I

)

-
kC
1
R
2
= b _-
C
1
R
+ C
2
- I

] = b -
C
1
R
+ I
o
+
C
1
R
]
-I

-
kC
1
bR
2
= C
1

1
R
]
-
1
R
+I
o
- I

C
1

1
R
-
1
R
]
-
k
bR
2
= I
o
- I

17
C
1
=
I
o
-I

1
R
-
1
R
]
-
k
bR
2

C
2
= I
o
+
C
1
R
]
= I
o
+
1
R
]
_
I
o
- I

1
R
-
1
R
]
-
k
bR
2
_

Therefore, the temperature profile is:
I = -
1

_
I
o
- I

1
R
-
1
R
]
-
k
bR
2
_ +I
o
+
1
R
]
_
I
o
- I

1
R
-
1
R
]
-
k
bR
2
_

I =
I
o
-I

1
R
-
1
R
]
-
k
bR
2

1
R
]
-
1

+I
o

(b) Write an unsteady-state energy balance equating the heat liberation at r = R
f
(t) resulting
from the freezing of the liquid to. Estimate the time t
f
required for a spherical drop of radius R
to completely freeze. Let -H
f
be the latent heat of fusion per unit mass.

The heat liberation at r = R
f
(t) results from the freezing of the liquid:
q = pAE
]
_-
J
J
_
4
S
nR
]
3
]_ = -
4
S
npAE
]
JR
]
3
J
= -4npAE
]
R
]
2
JR
]
J

The heat flow q out the spherical surface at r = R is given by Fouriers law of conduction:
q = -kA
JI
J
_
=R
= -4n
2
k _
I
o
- I

1
R
-
1
R
]
-
k
bR
2
_
1

2
]__
=R

q = -4nk _
I
o
-I

1
R
-
1
R
]
-
k
bR
2
__
=R
= -
4nk(I
o
- I

)
1
R
-
1
R
]
-
k
bR
2

The heat flow q out the spherical surface at r = R is also given by Newtons law of cooling:
q = bA(I - I

)|
=R
= 4nbR
2
_
I
o
- I

1
R
-
1
R
]
-
k
bR
2

1
R
]
-
1
R
+ I
o
-I

_

q = 4nbR
2
(I
o
- I

) _
1
R
]
-
1
R
1
R
-
1
R
]
-
k
bR
2
+ 1_ = 4nbR
2
(I
o
- I

) _
-
k
bR
2
1
R
-
1
R
]
-
k
bR
2
_

18
q = -
4nk(I
o
- I

)
1
R
-
1
R
]
-
k
bR
2

Equate the two relationships and integrate in time:
4npAE
]
R
]
2
JR
]
J
=
4nk(I
o
-I

)
1
R
-
1
R
]
-
k
bR
2

pAE
]
R
]
2
JR
]
J
=
k(I
o
- I

)
1
R
-
1
R
]
-
k
bR
2

R
]
2

1
R
-
1
R
]
-
k
bR
2

JR
]
J
=
k(I
o
- I

)
pAE
]

R
]
2
R
-
kR
]
2
bR
2
- R
]

JR
]
J
=
k(I
o
- I

)
pAE
]

_
R
]
2
R
-
kR
]
2
bR
2
- R
]
JR
]
0
R
= _
k(I
o
- I

)
pAE
]
t
]
0
J

-
R
3
SR
+
kR
3
SbR
2
+
R
2
2
=
k(I
o
- I

)
pAE
]

]

R
2
2
-
R
2
S
+
kR
Sb
=
R
2
6
+
kR
Sb
=
k(I
o
- I

)
pAE
]

]

]
=
pAE
]
k(I
o
- I

)
_
R
2
6
+
kR
Sb
_

19
Question 5 (60 points)
A system with two concentric porous spherical shells of radii aR and R is shown in the figure
below. The inner surface of the outer shell is at a temperature T
o
and equivalent pressure
o
; the
outer surface of the inner shell is at a lower temperature T
a
. Dry air at T
a
is blown outward
radially from the inner shell into the intervening space and then through the outer shell at a mass
flow rate of w. Assume steady, laminar flow with negligible viscous dissipation. The fluid is
Newtonian and incompressible.

Transpiration cooling:

The inner sphere is being cooled by means of a refrigeration coil to maintain its temperature at
T
a
. When air is blown outward, as shown, less refrigeration is required. Note that the tube that
supplies the air does not disrupt the symmetry to an appreciable extent.

(a) List all assumptions in the problem, clearly expressing what the assumptions mean
mathematically. Postulate the form of the velocity and temperature fields between the two
shells; simplify the governing equations. Determine the velocity field along with the pressure
distribution. Solve for the temperature field to derive the following:

I - I
o
I
u
-I
o
=
ex _-
wC
p
4nk
] - ex _-
wC
p
4nkR
]
ex _-
wC
p
4nkoR
] - ex _-
wC
p
4nkR
]

(b) Assuming that the gas velocity is low such that conduction dominates, determine the rate of
heat flow out of the inner sphere. In contrast, determine the rate of heat flow out of the inner
sphere when the air is completely stagnant.

20
Governing Equations for Question 5:

Continuity Equation for an Incompressible Fluid in Spherical Coordinates

=
1

(
2

) +
1
sn

sn) +
1
sn

= u

Navier-Stokes Equations for an Incompressible, Newtonian Fluid in Spherical Coordinates

r component:

p

+

q
sn

2
+
q
2

= -

+ p _
1

2

2

2
(
2

) +
1

2
sn

_sn

] +
1

2
sn
2

2
_

% component:

p

+

q
sn

-
q
2
ot

= -
1

+ p
1

_
2

] +
1

1
sn

sn )_ +
1

2
sn
2

2
+
2

-
2 ot

2
sn

_

, component:

p

+

q
sn

q
ot

= -
1
sn

+ p
1

+
1

1
sn

(
q
sn )_ +
1

2
sn
2

2
+
2

2
sn

+
2 ot

2
sn

_

Energy Equation for a Pure Incompressible, Newtonian Fluid with
Constant Thermal Conductivity in Spherical Coordinates

pC
p
_
I

+

q
sn
I

] =
= k _
1

_
2
I

] +
1

2
sn

_sn
I

] +
1

2
sn
2

2
I

2
_ +q + p1

21
Solution to Question 5

(a) The following assumptions are used:
Steady state => no time dependence, '/'t = 0
Negligible viscous dissipation => no viscous heat generation, .
v
= 0
Newtonian => viscosity constant, no change in &
Incompressible => density constant, no change in !
Axisymmetric => no % or , dependence, '/'% = '/', = 0

Postulate all flow in the radial direction, such that v
r
= v
r
(r) and v
%
= v
,
= 0. Postulate T = T(r).

Reduce continuity and integrate:
=
1

(
2

) =
1

2
J
J
(
2

) = u

= C
1
=

=
C
1

2

Use the mass flow constraint to solve for the constant of integration:
w = p(

)A = p _

JA = p _ _
C
1

2

2
sn J
n
0
J
2n
0
= 4nC
1
= C
1
=
w
4np

=
w
4np
2

Use the Navier-Stokes equations to find the pressure distribution. The % and , components of
the Navier-Stokes equation reduce to the following:
-
1

= -
1
sn()

= u = = ()

The r-component of the Navier-Stokes equation:
p

= -

+
p

2
(
2

2

Substitute in the expression for v
r
and use the form of the pressure distribution:
p _
w
4np
2
]
J
J
_
w
4np
2
] = -
J
J
+
p

2
J
2
J
2
_
2
w
4np
2
]

[
w
4n
2
_
-w
2np
3
] = -
w
2
n
2
p
5
= -
J
J

= -
w
2
S2n
2
p
4
+C
2

Use the known pressure at the edge of the outer shell to solve for the constant of integration:
22
=
o
= R

o
= -
w
2
S2n
2
pR
4
+C
2
= C
2
=
o
+
w
2
S2n
2
pR
4

= -
w
2
S2n
2
p
4
+
o
+
w
2
S2n
2
pR
4

=
w
2
S2n
2
pR
4
1 -_
R

]
4
+
o

Use the energy equation to find the temperature field, which reduces to the following:
pC
p

=
k

_
2
I

]

After substituting in the expression for v
r
and using the form of the temperature field, integrate:
pC
p
_
w
4np
2
]
JI
J
=
k

2
J
J
_
2
JI
J
]

wC
p
4nk
JI
J
=
J
J
_
2
JI
J
]

wC
p
4nk
u

2
=
Ju
J

ln(u) = -
wC
p
4nk
1

+C
3
%

u = C
3
ex_-
wC
p
4nk
] =
2
JI
J

JI
J
=
C
3

2
ex_-
wC
p
4nk
]

I =
4nkC
3
wC
p
ex_-
wC
p
4nk
] +C
4

Use the known temperatures at the edge of the shells to solve for the constants of integration:

wC
p
4nk

I =
C
3

ex(-) +C
4

I = I
o
= R
I = I
u
= oR
23

I
o
=
C
3

ex(-R) +C
4

I
u
=
C
3

ex(-oR) +C
4

I
u
-I
o
=
C
3

ex(-oR) -
C
3

ex(-R)

I
u
-I
o
=
C
3

|ex(-oR) -ex(-R)]

C
3
=
I
u
-I
o
1

|ex(-oR) -ex(-R)]

I
o
=
1

(I
u
-I
o
) ex(-R)
1

|ex(-oR) -ex(-R)]
+C
4

I
o
=
(I
u
-I
o
) ex(-R)
|ex(-oR) -ex(-R)]
+C
4

C
4
= I
o
-
(I
u
-I
o
) ex(-R)
|ex(-oR) -ex(-R)]

I =
(I
u
-I
o
) ex(-)
|ex(-oR) -ex(-R)]
+I
o
-
(I
u
-I
o
) ex(-R)
|ex(-oR) -ex(-R)]

I -I
o
I
u
-I
o
=
ex(-) -ex(-R)
ex(-oR) -ex(-R)

I -I
o
I
u
-I
o
=
ex_-
wC
p
4nk
] -ex_-
wC
p
4nkR
]
ex_-
wC
p
4nkoR
] -ex_-
wC
p
4nkR
]

(b) When the gas velocity is low such that conduction dominates, the rate of heat flow out of the
inner sphere can be calculated from Fouriers law:
I = (I
u
-I
o
) _
ex_-
wC
p
4nk
] -ex_-
wC
p
4nkR
]
ex_-
wC
p
4nkoR
] -ex_-
wC
p
4nkR
]
_ +I
o

24
q = -kA
JI
J
_
=uR
= -4n
2
k _
(I
u
-I
o
)
wC
p
4nk
2
ex_-
wC
p
4nk
]
ex_-
wC
p
4nkoR
] -ex_-
wC
p
4nkR
]
__
=uR

q =
-(I
u
-I
o
)wC
p
ex_-
wC
p
4nk
]
ex_-
wC
p
4nkoR
] -ex_-
wC
p
4nkR
]
_
=uR
=
-(I
u
-I
o
)wC
p
ex_-
wC
p
4nkoR
]
ex_-
wC
p
4nkoR
] -ex_-
wC
p
4nkR
]

When the air is completely stagnant, the rate of heat flow out of the inner sphere can be
calculated by using a thermal circuit:
q =
AI
R
onduton
=
I
1
-I
2
_
(1
1
) -(1
2
)
4nk
_
=
4nk(I
1
-I
2
)
(1
1
) -(1
2
)

q =
4nk(I
u
-I
o
)
(1oR) -(1R)
=
4nkoR(I
u
-I
o
)
1 -o

25
Question 6 (60 points)
In a heat exchanger at steady state, waste water from a chemical process flows inside a pipe
while cooling water boils outside the pipe. The waste water enters the heat exchanger with a
mean inlet temperature T
m,i
of 630 K and is cooled to mean outlet temperature T
m,o
of 580 K.
The cooling water boils at a saturation temperature T
sat
of 373 K. The pipe has an outside
diameter of 450 mm with a thickness of 20 mm and a thermal conductivity of 111 W/mK. The
waste water has fouled the pipe over time, creating a layer of salt 12 mm thick with a thermal
conductivity of 143 W/mK, giving the inside surface of the pipe a roughness of 0.46 mm.

The waste water has the following properties:

V
)
= 47.5 mm/s C
p
= 60270 J/kgK
! = 1200 kg/m
3
k
w
= 0.051 W/mK
" = 1.1 x 10
-6
Ns/m
2
g = 9.8 m/s
2

Assume axial convection dominates over axial conduction. Be careful when writing the
relationship between diameter and thickness (versus radius and thickness).

Heat exchanger:

(a) Using the given variables above along with the overall heat transfer coefficient (based upon
the inner area of the fouled pipe) U
i
and the inner diameter of the fouled pipe D
i
, perform an
energy balance over a length, -x, of the pipe. Then, let -x ( 0 and integrate across the length L
of the heat exchanger.

(b) Solve for the power input required to pump the waste water through the heat exchanger.

Boiling Water
Pipe
Salt
Waste Water
-x
26
Solution to Question 6

(a) Begin with a basic energy balance on the pipe: Accumulation = In Out

u = wC
p
I
m
|

-wC
p
I
m
|
+-x
-

-x(I
m
-I
sut
)

u = p [
n
4

2
I

C
p
I
m
|

-p [
n
4

2
I

C
p
I
m
|
+-x
-

(n

)-x(I
m
-I
sut
)

1
4
p

C
p
I
m
|
+-x
-
1
4
p

C
p
I
m
|

-
= -

(I
m
-I
sut
)

Let -x approach zero:
1
4
p

C
p
JI
m
J
= -
o
(I
m
-I
sut
)

Integrate with the BCs that T = T
m,i
@ x = 0 and T = T
m,o
@ x = L:
_
1
(I
m
-I
sut
)
JI
m
1
m,c
1
m,i
= -_
4

C
p
J
L
0

ln
I
m,o
-I
sut
I
m,
-I
sut
= -
4

C
p
I

I
m,o
-I
sut
I
m,
-I
sut
= ex-
4

C
p
I

This is the design equation for simple single-tube evaporator heat exchanger. (This can be
confirmed by rearranging the generalized heat exchanger equation.)

wC
p
T
m
|
x
wC
p
T
m
|
x+-x

U
i
P-x (T
m
T
sat
)
27
(b) Evaluate the overall heat transfer coefficient. The system can be thought of as a thermal
circuit with three resistances in series:

=
1
A

_R
=
1
A

(R
oncton
+R
onduton,ppc
+R
onduton,ppc
)

=
1
A

_
1
b

+
1
2nk
suIt
I
ln[

+2
suIt

+
1
2nk
ppc
I
ln_

+2
suIt
+2
ppc

+2
suIt
]]

=
1
n

I _
1
b

I
+
1
2nk
suIt
I
ln [

+2
suIt

+
1
2nk
ppc
I
ln _

+2
suIt
+2
ppc

+2
suIt
]]

=
1
1
b

2k
suIt
ln[

+2
suIt

2k
ppc
ln_

+2
suIt
+2
ppc

+2
suIt
]

Calculate the inner diameter:

=
o
-2
ppc
-2
suIt
= u.4Su m-2(u.u2u m) -2(u.u12 m) = u.S6 m

In order to estimate the heat transfer coefficient inside the pipe, use an analogy between
momentum and heat transfer. Evaluate the Reynolds number and then calculate the friction
factor:
Re =
pI

p
=
(12uu kg/m
3
)(u.u47S m/s)(u.S6 m)
1.11u
-6
Ns/m
2
= 2x1u
7
= tuibulent

1

= -4.u log
k

+
4.67
Re
+2.2

1

= -4.ulog
u.46
S6
+
4.67
2x1u
7

+2.2 = = S.1241u
-3

Evaluate the Prandtl number and then use the Prandtl analogy, since the flow is turbulent without
form drag when Pr > 1, to calculate the heat transfer coefficient from the friction factor:
Pr =
v
o
=
C
p
p
k
w
=
(6u27u J/kgK)(1.11u
-6
Ns/m
2
)
u.uS1 W/mK
= 1.S

C
]
= = S.1241u
-3

St =
Nu
Re Pr
=
C
]
2
1 +S
_
C
]
2
(Pr -1)

28
Nu
(21u
7
)(1.S)
=
S.1241u
-3
2
1 +S
_
S.1241u
-3
2
(1.3 -1)
=Nu = 6191u =
b

k
w

b

= 6191u
k
w

= 6191u
u.uS1 W/mK
u.S6 m
= 179 W/m
2
K

Calculate the overall heat transfer coefficient:

=
1
1
179 W/m
2
K
+
u.S6 m
2(14S W/mK)
ln[
u.41u m
u.S6 m
+
u.S6 m
2(111 W/mK)
ln[
u.4Su m
u.41u m

= 27SS W/m
2
K

Substituting into the derived heat exchanger design equation, solve for the length:

Su K -S7S K
6Su K -S7S K
= ex-
4(27SS W/m
2
K)
(12uu kg/m
3
)(u.S6 m)(u.u47S m/s)(6u27u J/kgK)
I

= I = 26.22 m

Now, calculate the pressure drop from the friction factor:
=
|Ap|
2pI
2

I

=
|Ap|
2(12uu kg/m
3
)(u.u47S m/s)
2
u.S6 m
26.22 m
= S.1241u
-3
= |Ap| = 1. Pa

Solve for the power input required to pump the waste water through the heat exchanger:
Powc = |Ap| =
n
4

2
I

|Ap| =
n
4
(u.S6 m)
2
(u.u47S m/s)(1. Pa) = u.u1u4