Metal Casting Design, Materials, Economics g

Text Reference: “Manufacturing Engineering and Technology”, Kalpakjian & Schmid 6/e 2010 Schmid, 6/e, Chapter 12

Design of Cast Parts
Avoid sharp corners, angles & fillets p , g
They act as stress raisers

Select fillet radii to reduce stress concentrations and ensure proper liquid metal flow
3-25 mm (1/8”-3”) (1/8”-3 ) (1/8

Seek uniform cross sections and wall thickness throughout casting g g
Larger sections become hot spots leading to shrinkage cavities and porosity

FIGURE 12.1 Suggested design modifications to avoid defects in castings. castings Source: Courtesy of the American Die Casting Institute. Institute

FIGURE 12.2 Examples of designs showing the importance of maintaining uniform cross sections in castings to avoid hot spots and g g p shrinkage cavities.

Design of Cast Parts Avoid large flat areas (continued) May warp during cooling because of temperature gradients May have uneven finish due to uneven flow during pouring Incorporate staggered ribs & serrations Allow for metal shrinkage during solidification .

TABLE 12.1 Normal Shrinkage Allowance for Some Metals Cast in Sand Molds .

A th CE of i that feeding is t i d As the f the iron decreases. Chapter on Foundry Practice for Cast Irons. requires approximately 4% volumetric feeding to offset the contraction of the iron. ASM. p. In fact a Class 20 iron precipitates enough graphite to create sufficient expansion so th t f di i not required. which offsets some of the contraction usually experienced during y p g solidification of a metal.” .Extract from “Cast Irons”. less graphite is precipitated and feeding requirements increase A Class 50 iron increase.140 F d P ti f C t I 140 “The precipitation of graphite during eutectic solidification causes an expansion.

silicon (Si) and phosphorus (P) content of gray iron: CE = %TC + 0 3(%Si + %P) 0.3(%Si %P). .carbon equivalent (metallurgy) An empirical relationship of the total carbon (TC).

Design of Cast Parts (continued) Provide a small draft (taper) to enable removal of pattern without damaging mold .

Design of Cast Parts (continued) Tolerances should be a wide as possible For small castings: +/.g. Locate holes on f surfaces flat f Select appropriate casting process Casting process can influence casting design .8 mm (1/32”) +/For large castings: +/.25 ) +/(0 25”) Consider finishing operations E.6 mm (0.0.

& runners at parting line in drag (bottom) .Design of Cast Parts Location of parting line (continued) Along a flat plane (not contoured) At corners or edges (not on flat surfaces) Locate critical surfaces facing downwards (reduced porosity) Placed to allow ease of metal flow Affects mold design – locate sprue well gates well.

Design of Cast Parts Design & locate gates: gates: (continued) Multiple gates for large parts At thick sections of castings Use fillet where gate meets casting Allow space between sprue and casting p p g Minimum gate length 3-5 times diameter 3Cross section smaller than runner but large enough for flow Avoid curved gates .

Design of Cast Parts (continued) Use multiple runners for more complicated castings Runners trap dross p Use a pouring basin to ensure even metal flow into sprue and collect dross p Use good molten metal o e ea Pour molten metal evenly. without interruption .

grinding & machining Increase with size & section thickness .Design Issues: Expendable M ld C i E d bl Mold Casting Mold Layout Solidification progress uniformly across mold. risers last Machining Allowance Pattern dimensions include material for later finishing.

Design Issues: Expendable M ld C i E d bl Mold Casting Riser Design Rules g Riser must solidify after casting Riser volume with sufficient metal to compensate for shrinkage during cooling No hot spots at junction between casting & riser Proper placement of risers so that liquid metal flows where needed Provide sufficient pressure to drive liquid where needed in cavity. More useful for higher density metals Riser pressure head sufficient to encourage complete cavity filling .

Source: Courtesy of American Die Casting Institute.3 Examples of undesirable (poor) and desirable (good) casting designs Permanent Mold & Die-casting designs. Die-casting. .FIGURE 12.

heat transfer. microstructures during solidification. crystal growth. Modeling of fluid flow uses Bernoulli’s and continuity equations Heat transfer models model the effects of surface conditions. temperature gradients. nucleation. thermal properties.Computer Modeling of Casting Process Process Casting involves complex interactions among many g p g y variables New modeling techniques can simultaneously handle fluid flow. etc. convection on cooling Microstructures models encompass heat flow. etc. .

Casting Alloys Important considerations for alloys: Casting characteristics Machinability Weldability The tables on the following slides summarize: Properties and applications of cast metals and p pp their alloys Casting and manufacturing characteristics .

Note that even within the same group. . range particularly for cast steels Source: Courtesy of Steel Founders’ steels.FIGURE 12.4 Mechanical properties for various groups of cast alloys. Founders Society of America. the properties vary over a wide range.

FIGURE 12. Steel Founders’ Society of America. Note that even within the same group.4 (continued) Mechanical properties for various groups of cast alloys. . steels. the properties vary over a wide range particularly for cast steels Source: Courtesy of range.

TABLE 12.2 Typical Applications for Castings and Casting Characteristics .

TABLE 12.5 Properties and Typical Applications of Nonferrous Cast Alloys .

AluminumAluminum-based Alloys High electrical conductivity Good atmospheric corrosion resistance Poor resistance to some acids and all P i t t id d ll alkalis Avoid/prevent galvanic corrosion Nontoxic. lightweight. good machinability Low resistance to wear and abrasion Improves with addition of silicon .

AluminumAluminum-based Alloys Applications: Architectural & decorative Automobiles Engine blocks Cylinder heads Intake manifolds Transmission cases Suspension components Wheels Brakes .

MagnesiumMagnesium-based Alloys The lowest density of all commercial casting alloys Good corrosion resistance Moderate strength Strength depends on heat treatment Applications: Automotive wheels. housings. air-cooled airengine blocks .

CopperCopper-based Alloys Relatively expensive Good electrical conductivity Good th G d thermal conductivity l d ti it Good corrosion resistance Nontoxic .

ZincZinc-based Alloys Low melting point Good corrosion resistance Good fl idit G d fluidity Moderate strength Applications: Die casting Parts with thin walls and intricate shapes .

higher for Mo. Good corrosion resistance Use for bearing surfaces LeadLead-based Similar to Tin. Ta Utilize specialized casting techniques . W. Nb.Other Non-ferrous Alloys NonTinTin-based Low strength. toxic HighHigh-temperature Wide range of properties Require temperatures up to 1650oC (3000oF) for Titanium.

I.3.4 .’ includes a family of alloys General properties and applications in Tables 12.Ferrous Casting Alloys Cast Irons Can be easily cast into intricate shapes Good wear resistance High hardness Good machinability The term ‘C. 12.

3 Properties and Typical Applications of Cast Irons p yp pp .TABLE 12.

TABLE 12.4 Mechanical Properties of Gray Cast Irons p y .

Gray Cast iron Relatively few shrinkage cavities Low porosity Properties vary: ferritic pearlitic martensitic ferritic. surfaces for machines Machine tool bases 2-digit ASTM classification Class 20 : Minimum 20 ksi (140 MPa) tensile strength . Applications: Engine blocks electric-motor housings pipes wear blocks. electrichousings. pipes. pearlitic.

rolls for rolling mills. gears. automotive crankshafts Grade 80-55-06 80-55Minimum 80 k i (550 MP ) t Mi i ksi MPa) tensile strength il t th Minimum 55 ksi (380 MPa) yield strength 6% elongation i 2” ( 0 mm) l i in (50 ) . pipe. housings.Ductile (Nodular) Iron Typically used for machine parts parts.

White Cast Iron Has extreme hardness Is brittle Very good wear resistance V d i t Primary uses: Rolls for rolling mills RailroadRailroad-car brake shoes Liners in machinery for processing abrasive materials .

strength and shock resistance Applications: R/R equipment Hardware & fittings ad ae tt gs Components for electrical applications Classification example: 35018 35 ksi (240 MPa) 18% elongation in 2” ( mm) g (50 ) .Malleable Iron Good ductility.

lighter parts Easy to cast and has good machinability Used for automotive engine blocks and cylinder heads .CompactedCompacted-Graphite Iron Has the good damping and thermal properties of gray iron Has the good strength and stiffness properties of ductile iron These properties permit smaller.

heavy construction. ductility. oil fields. R/R equipment . heat alters microstructure Affects strength.Cast Steels Require high temperatures ( q g p (1650oC or 3000oF) ) to melt Steel castings have properties that are more uniform than those made by mechanical working processes Can be welded. chemical plants. toughness Restore original properties by heat treatment Applications: Mining.

Cast Stainless Steels Similar to steels Possess long freezing ranges and high melting temperatures p Can be heat treated and welded Have high heat and corrosion resistance Applications: Chemical & food industries In severely corrosive environments For very high temperature service .

depends on costs of materials.Economics of Casting Unit cost (of castings as for all processes) castings. equipment and labour Preparations for casting include production of molds and dies that also have similar costs .

TABLE 12.6 General Cost Characteristics of Casting Processes g .

low. . die .high) Melting & pouring metal HeatHeat-treating Cleaning Inspection Labour varies according t skill and ti L b i di to kill d time required i d Sand casting economic for low volumes Sustained high production rates can justify high cost of dies and machinery.Economics of Casting Cost components: p Molds (extremes: sand .

important to follow g p p good casting practice for control of metal flow Numerous ferrous and non-ferrous alloys nony with wide range of characteristics and production requirements Economic considerations are as important as technical considerations .Summary General guidelines developed covering shape of casting and design of process to reduce hot spots.

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