Andreas Streicher's Notes on the Fortepiano: Chapter 2: 'On Tone' Author(s): Richard A. Fuller Source: Early Music, Vol. 12, No.

4, The Early Piano I (Nov., 1984), pp. 461-470 Published by: Oxford University Press Stable URL: . Accessed: 10/03/2011 04:59
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. by 1809..... if not earlier. soul and greatfantasiaby Beethoven whichdelighted of us. fiveoctave instruments typical of the period 1785-95.light has the touchandyielding. who at the age of eight had played the key.WK . However. EARLYMUSIC NOVEMBER1984 461 . . for the running of the Augsburg workshop firm must have grown rapidly. aswouldinspire 1 Andreas Streicher. However. all the rest follow either one or the other'.had Nanette who handled the workshop and the business. while Andreas devoted himself almost exclusively she had even assumed responsibility.. entireorchestra. moved the tonal flexibilityso that the virtuosowho can play with elder Stein's renowned workshop from Augsburg to strengthand convictionhas it more within his powerto Vienna... It reports further that 'it is quite certain that we have at the same time two original instrument makers.. Bust by Christian Mayer. the former madehis instruments with morekeyboard resistanceand Anna Maria (Nanette) Stein (1769-1833). Nanette. in 1794 instruments...3 board in front of Mozart. also been schooled thoroughly in her father's trade..RichardA...Fuller Andreas Streicher's notes on the fortepiano Chapter2: 'Ontone' during her father's final illness. a change may be discerned in the size and tonal quality of the Streicher pianos.. and who later advanced In their early years in Vienna (c1794-1801) it was sufficiently to attemptBeethoven's op. The following excerpt . Stein: they were lightly constructed.. the as 1791.2 The earliest Streicherinstruments resembled those of J.. In one of his 'confidential letters' (dated 7 writesabout a performFebruary1809)..His workis also of a good...... tone of the otherViennese repercussive Following the death of J. It something wasa beautiful Streicher such an fortepiano..worthyand durablequalityseldomseen.1 They quickly established themselves as artists and artisans of the first rank. A.sustainthe sound as well as to controlthe fine points of and the perienced if unsettled pianist. namely Walter and Streicher..... Up to that time. As des WienundPrag early as 1796 the Jahrbuch Tonhunst: named 'Madame Streicher' as one of the three great Viennese piano makers (the others were Walter and Schanz).. Itis notpossibleto hear all perfection moreperfectly thanon thisperfect instrument...has AndreasStreicher(1761-1833) and his wife.. afterBeethoven's and wishesand advice.. teacher and composer. .106 Sonata. F. Streicher abandoned softness.... A. pressing releasing keys. which was to continue under various names until 1896..... perhaps as early (with great success) to piano teaching. Reichhardt ance in the home of Nicholas von Zmeskall in which Dorthea von Ertmannperformed a fantasia by Beethoven: We had the good fortuneto hearFrau Ertmann a von play whichhada strength. Stein (1728-1792). Streicher had been an ex.. The family's arrivalin Vienna marked the real beginning of the Streicher piano-making firm.J.

to endow his instrumentswith a genuine musical superiority which was cherished by connoisseurs and which other makers sought to imitate. rather. [Vienna. 'On tone'. posture instruments. Chapter 1 discusses the mechanics of the pianoforteis still the least studied and developed of all Viennese action. she drewa few tears from my eyes.. This is sometimes done wittily. It is especially interesting that. Even if only a few (3) a tuning pin satisfied. dear St[reicher]. By the way.' These dates. dear apartfrom the fact that when playing my Adagio St[reicher]. Andreas graduallywithdrewfrom teaching in order to assist his wife by actively participatingin the business. which is nearly overwhelming me. Give my greetings to your dear wife.And I am delighted. most excellent St[reicher]. But what sort of teacher was he? training?-or. who is so talented. I trust you will not take it amiss. has you for her teacher. Although he was already in his 40th year (1801) when he threw himself with characteristiczeal into this hitherto now unknown craft. I congratulate you on being so fortunate as to be able to display through such a talent your own understanding of music. illustrating (1) Viennese action. in collaboration with his wife.Well now. The booklet was probablymeant to be presented with each Streicher instrument sold directly through the workshop.if I am anxious about her progress?Forwithout wishing to flatter you. together with . I hope and transit is of the that the time will come when the harp and the pianoforte will be treated as two entirely different instruments. BEETHOVEN I hope to be able to visit you soon in person and then I will also let you have the number of my lodgings. composer and piano maker that its gives his KurzeBemerhungen special importance. if I too take a little interest in her 462 EARLY MUSIC NOVEMBER 1984 reproduced early piano. variations. Chapters 3 and 4 offer practical suggeston tuning. I feel sure that you can let your little pupil play anywhere and that. has prevented me from doing so. as general maintenance.3). is of special value to the modern feel the music. Yourlittle pupil. and truly this experience will make me decide to compose more for the with proper string winding. Streicher was an aspiring composer and arrangerwho produced a number of relatively little-known keyboard compositions. and proper relaxation. 1796] Indeed I must humbly beg your pardonfor replyingso tardily to your very obliging letter. imaginativeexponent of the late 18thcentury keyboard style. all good wishes. in addition to his other activities. His intimate acquaintance (as a player) with the treatment and requirements of an instrument on which he had performedand taught for many years soon enabled him.. the piece. of the few who realize and perceive that.that this was the first time it gave me pleasure to hear my trio performed. tone quality.and continue to be my friend. hands and fingers. and it is also notable that he received the praise and support of Beethoven. teacher. The KurzeBemerhungen followed by four chapters of text. tone production. that you are one It warns especially against excessively hard playing. exercises and sonatas'.I am delighted that this dear little girl. I must say that I know of nothing more or better to tell her than that you should supervise her progress and encourage her on my behalf. I assure you in all sincerity. provided one can Chapter 2. especially in the comparison of a good and a bad consists of a title-page player. (4) the pianoforte than I have done hitherto. When I tell you that my work. who in 1796 wrote to Streicher: MOSTEXCELLENT STREICHER! Stimmenund Spielen. and although it does not attempt to be a compendium of 18th-century musical practice.often one thinks that one is merely listening to for body. dear St[reicher]. has really astonished me. moreover. it was not long before he had penetratedand profoundly understood the mechanical art of piano making. I am certainlynot telling a lie. One thing more. Theodore Bolte writes:'It was aroundthis time [the early 1780s]that he composed several ballets.from Streicher's lengthy obituary describes his transition from pedagogue to piano maker: Eventually the piano business demanded more and more until Nanette could no longer manage it alone. ions (though not detailed information) as well handling of the piano and string replacement. player lated below. a harp. just as I am wholly your sincere friend L.6Streicher'spieces show him to be a competent. and. V.4 Here we have a brief picture of Streicher as an instrument builder.5 iuber das His KurzeBemerhungen Erhalten der Fortepiano gives a fairly clear picture of his pianistic ideals. piano sonatas. (2) a damper The publication appears to have been printed first in 1801 and reprinted in 1802. my dear fellow. between ourselves. and (5) a damper-rack frontpeople understandme. I shall be that so far as the manner of playing it is concerned. arm. Thereis no doubt instrument as a whole. one can also makethe pianoforte sing. There is one plate (illus. Seen in the light of his Kurze they Bemerhungen illustratehis ideas of how a composer should write for the piano. It is Streicher'scombination of practicalexperience as pianist. she will put to shame many of our commonplace but conceited organ-grinders. it nevertheless provides a particularly clear and vivid description of how one should or should not attempt to play the piano.

sogenannter (ein Silbertort derabersehr Eisenton wird. Title page with ms additions made after the name of the firm was changed (see fn. welche von [Nannette Streicher] Stein in Wien [gebomrne] werden. and have so far located several sets of variations. 4.Anderson. is thustoo farremoved resemblance the and in to human voice.. ganze Ohr dos so Tone.2 in F.ed.) bald. it should.7. others. verfertiget Ausschliessend nur ffir Besitzer dieser Instrumente aufgesetzt. on the Vom Tone wo den InstrumentEs istsehrschwer. pp. . vol. p. 1961). EARLY MUSIC NOVEMBER 1984 463 . but are otherwise sehr Fortepiano Gefallen erwechen als nur moglich. 1917). Meinung nahezu treten. ausfiillenden tone. n6e Stein' (1802-23). fill the ear with tone and strongly affect our feelings. cutting or shrill tone. it can be assumed that if the tone of the fortepiano is both to move and please the listener.suggest that Streicher's are especially applicable to the smaller Viennese instruments of the five-octave type. Vienna.itoer disser Instrumento aufgesjctzt.prefer a full. Bolte: Die Musikerfamilien (Vienna. Streicherund Sohn' (1859-96). p.rund fuir die Be.103 4Allgemeine musikalische of 5E. Ist derToneinesFortepiano anders. nichtunmoglich.90 3J.thin ormeagre. 'The Streicher firm was first established in Vienna under the name Frere&Soeur Stein (or 'GeschwisterStein'). Stein und Sohn' (1823-33).von einem andern mehroderwenigerverschiedenes Gefihl Diesemmissen wires zuschreiben. Gugitz (Munich. welch* /Pc. as much as possible. it is already on the verge of being dry. through their fullness of sound. der Fortepiano.25-6 Stein und Streicher 6T. B. wenn so wohl die einzelnenals zusammenIlingendenTonedes odernrdhren sollen. but his artistic expectations seem to have been quite high.Ohneeiner zu dass. however. JederMensch hat sein eigenes. if not impossible. einigenurScharfe Schneidende dass grelle" anderehingegenvoile runde molligte Tonelieben. so grenzter schon an das trockene diinne und ist zu magere" weit von der Ahnlichkeit der Menschenstimme.23. some prefer a sharp. p. F. or to those instruments which.sie sich. [von Andreas Streicher] Notes on the Playing. Reichardt: Vertraute Briefe. its subsequent renamings were as follows: 'Nanette Streicher. nor Ausschlie.besonders starhem bey Spielen. many of these appear never to have been published.dem Toneder besten Blasinstrumente ndhern muissen. Streicher'(1833-59).whichverysoon. 'Nanette Streicher. to agree upon what constitutes a really beautiful instrumental tone since everyone has a more or less different idea about it. Without offending contrary. Stimmon und Erhalten der Fortepiano. For this reason. ed. mdchtigauf unser Gefiihlwirken.i (London. though they are doubtless relevantto laterinstrumentsas well. G. Kurze Bemerhungen uiberdas Spielen. Streicher modestly addresses his suggestions to musical amateurs.1).. p. 'J. a capriccio and a collection of exercies. the Sonata no. and trans.311 Zeitung(2 March 1834). 7The two copies in the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde. Stein in lien verfertiget werdea. The original read welche von Geschwister Stein in Wien. Kurze Bemerkungen Abet das Spielen.t " ' 2 KurzeBemerkungen. geb. well-rounded anyone however. resemble the sound of the best wind instruments. 'J. If the tone of a fortepiano is otherwise (a so-called 'silver becomesan 'irontone'if tone'. Stimmen und Erhalten. carry these respective dates. 1796). schdnsten alton zu bestimmen. 1915). denen mit oder Instrumenten entferntwelche durchihrerunden.. der 2Jahrbuch TonkunstWien und Prag(Vienna. TheLetters Beethoven. played too heavily). I have recently attempted to assemble the piano works of Streicher. hannman aberdochannehmen. B.its title from 1794 to 1802.remarks the book's illustration. Tuning and Maintenance of the Fortepiano manufactured in Vienna by [Nanette Streicher nee] Stein Written exclusively for the owners of these instruments [by Andreas Streicher] On tone It is very difficult.

pliant mass fromwhich he can shape tone as Spiele Beyfortlaufendem der Gang der Finger selbst. dass auch die vollhommenste Ton den erschaffen h6nne. dazu. minimal finger action.Would he also have so little insight as to think that the Studiumaus. It is clear that Streicher'stechnical approach to the fortepiano at this time (1801-2) is firmly based in harpsichord technique (a comparison with Rameau'sadvice is instructive. vollstimmigen bey Tongebung schnellem.damiter umso leichter Instrument die Artsprechen permithis instrumentto speak in the mannerthatit should. als durch einzelne Tone zu geben sucht Seine starhen Accorte arten nie in das schneidende Geschrey aus. so kernhaft. a great deal could be accomplished Man gebe sich nurMiihe. Es ist wahr. welche so wohl zur bad one. He also warnedrepeatedlyagainstexcessively hard playing.perfect instrument that always gives the correct tone spieler allein sich von diesem unentbehrlichen schliessenwollen?Sollteer so wenigEinsichthabenzu glauben.It lassen hann. ist die Haltungdes Arms. Nutzen vongrosserm seyn. The keyboard. the singer or the wind player. a true musical artistwho is before us werden.neatandso naturally und das Er ubergeht Clavier. bleibt sein Ton noch schon. Reihenach anzufuihren. Sache. ist ist nichts wenigerals leicht Alleinunmoglicher es dochauch than anything else which one has practisedvery well. (whether it is treated well or wrongly) could be created for Mechanikihm ein Instrument him? It is impossible for anyone to have such an opinion.wieerwill WiebeyderSchonheitslinie Mahlers alle tone always remains beautiful. schon die erstenToneentfliessen beautifulthat no one is even aware of the artistry.welchezeigt. it will be of greater value to musical eines eines Hervorbringung guten. However. und mache. alle Regeln. No gar sch6n.welchesimmer richtigen gibt. und immer Er spielt mit allem Feuer des mdnnlichen Kiinstlers. if you will. so nett und doch so In running passages. Vergnigen zu dass er As he runs his fingers over the keys. the very first notes sogleichdurchdie Haltungseines Korpers erhennen. mitAufmerksamheit auf sein will. so zu geben. die durch Schilderung playing.r natifirlich movement betraystrouble or strain. welches nur in Symphonien oder Theaterscenenan seinem Platz ist.dass ihm selbst dieMusih us through his bearingthat he knows what constitutes good spielen. for example. followed. wie in seinerTastatur angegebenen zu des vorbereitet was derSpieler jederGattung musihalischen that the player needs for every type of musical performance ist is already prepared.ob erdas. It is the responsibility of the performerto apply carefully Es wirdalso nurnochan Ihm liegen. aus der er Tonebilden weiche. Blasinstrumentisten Muster How manythousands of hours the violinist worksin orderto WievieleMuhegebensich diese. With a der Man denhesich einenwahrenTonhunstler. Fortepiano Begriff offentlich auchin einerGesellschaft. Should the um der arbeitet Violinist.die man vollkommen gut ausuiben nicht. hannjemanddiese occasionally. und dadurchdemMusikliebhaber tiefereingeprdgt now playing the fortepiano publicly or socially. If he only had the determination and took the Meinung wennhierundda einLiebhabersein Fortepiano nichtzwechmdssig trouble to train his ears. a quiet hand.NurderMangeldes Unterrichts ihrenTonsch6n zu bilden! escape the reproach that he has a bad tone. an amateur fails to handle his fortepiano werden? oderfalsch behandelt gut Unm6glich ist Steinischen The tone of the Stein fortepiano is modelled exclusively Fortepiano der Tonganz nach dem Bey einemrn so schon alles according to this ideal. demVorwurfe keyboardplayer be excluded from this indispensable study? Stunden wie vieletausend er zu entgehen. was zum guten Spielegeh6rt. verrdth Hdndenwie eine He plays with all the ardourof a masculine artist but his willigeMasse. Likethe beautiful lines of a painting. suitably. becausehe seeks to play forte than through morethrough full-voicedharmonies Schatterungen des wachsenden und abnehmenden Tones in andfortissimo einander geschmolzen. geradejetzt im demeanour which shows that music gives him pleasure. everything Idealegebildet. eine schone is a fact that a beautiful tone production in fast. difficult and und Spielen. when daraufso wirdsehr bald unendlichviel gewonnenseyn.all shades of Die Muhe oder Anstrengung. sind des hann. when avoided.) 464 EARLYMUSIC NOVEMBER 1984 .thehandand sie dass an dieKunst. Imagine.der Hand. wellcurved fingers (but strikingonly in the fleshy partof the finger) and precise finger motion. gibt playing. eben so wenig suchtersie durch "Inhis first chapter. was obenfiber anwenden what has been said previously about touch. Vortrags moge Only a lack of proper instruction could be the reason why. he zu seats himself at his instrument and at the same time shows oder ist. Streicher discusses the requirements for a good touch: suppleness. hands. produce a Es wdre nicht schwer.under his denht.als jedeandere Take. seinen Fingernso leicht. produce good tone or. behandelt. niemand the action of the fingers themselves is habe nur den Willen very quickly. weiss.als zur Vermeidung schlechten amateurs and make a deeper impression on them if these Alleines wirdwohl rules are illustrated by describing two types of heyboard der Tonesbeytragen. fusserst ruhig KeineBewegung he wishes.wenndieseRegeln von zwey Gattungen des Clavierspielens lebendigdargestellt. wie es sprechensoll.* and thus to den Anschlaggesagt wordenist. which escape his fingers areso lightsolid. full-voiced playing is quite easy and no more impossible schwierigem.setzt er sich zu seinemInstrumente. Mit einerMiene. weil er das Forte und Fortissimo mehr durch vollstimmige Harmonien. How will manyof them take the troubleto shape theirtone beautifully? zum die Man nehmedie Sdnger. habe einen schlechten Ton machesein Ohraufmerksam It would not be difficult to cite all the rules which. the position of thearms. is a soft. Tastaturist unterseinen increasing and diminishing notes melt into one another. so that in its keyboard.

of beginning This is the reason why we hear everything so clearly and Rein. because he holds his fingers close together and loses not the least bit of time in the finger action. wird Sparsam bringter diese Schonheitan.dass nurdiess. nicht beschwerlich schadet. Hear how beautifully his slurred notes are grouped Anfangnimmt. how flute-like the notes of the treble sound nicht seine Wirkung while the left hand harmonizes with chords.notes. Kein Finger hebt sich frifiher auf. however. which is appropriateonly in symphonies or theatrical so Stdrke gegebenwerden. he prefers to achieve the effect Notenimmerdeutlich. Das Crescendo. the warumwirallesso klarhoren. how quiet the hand. because he gives each note its appropriate liegen.dass mannie bemerkt. The principal voice is always clearly audible begleitenden auzuschlagen.ratherhe produces it weil er dann dem Instrumente Discant bewirken. Tdneso fliessend daherrollen. weil anzustrengen. dass wir glaubten. Yetshould the melody and accompaniment Gesangmehrerer. and this aloneaffords and this des Spielersauf sein Triller. eben dieses Mittelden sanften TonderHarmonica organ or the fullness of an entire orchestra through the die lifting of the that he has no doubt as to what sey. 'Bravo'.und nicht durch das Herbeyziehen derselben auch nur den kleinsten Theil Zeit verliert Im geschwindesten Tempo schlagt er den nahmlichen Accord schnell und oft nach einander an. becausehe lifts no langsamer. he the to demFortissimotduschteeruns durchdas Hinaufdriicken weiss er dennochden Hauptton krftiger als den emphasis. If.aber through the use of the bass as a melodic voice for then the langsamen auch nur diess allein das allerh6chste Vergniugen gewihrt. wadhrend setzt! Wie voll through the same means the gentle sound of the glass linkeHandihnen consonirende Accorde entgegen lautetderTondesBasses. warumdie Nofingeris raisedbefore nextoneplays.die Fille eines tensionto a point of rest by means of a decrescendo. kurzerauchdauert! melody louder and more distinctly audible than the accomwie schon panying voice.noneremains Diess ist die Ursache. schneller machen. nor the ears of the listeners too wenn leise Thne auf das genaueste und gewisseste gegeben offended. wie leichtist diess!wie ruhigist die strongerthan the accompanyingones. he can still play the principalnotes Sein schnelles Staccato. wenn die folgende Note schon den Anfang genommen hat together and especially how correctly they are all released. his piano orpianissimois werdert und der Zuhorer with dus He schdn!vortrefflich! belohnt reineGefrhl alwaysproper. her. He knows how to produce a crescendo unvermerktauf die h6chste Stufe des Fortissimoffihren. And if he leads us. wird er sie lieberdurchden Bass als pieces. Nie versagt ihm ein Ton Man finger higher than another. How full the Gebrauch verfehle.denndie sie begleit. Even here he tries to produce tone less through nicht so viel hacking and chopping at the keyboard. the greatest fdllt. zu he Jetztim Pianissimozauberterdurch In a fortissimo. How beautifully his turns. so (which should last as wie er auch durch das Decrescendo das gespannte Geffihl long as the time allotted it) so that one never notices whether a note is louder than the one before it. wieder zur Ruhe bringt. das deutlichste and morequietly. he can make it slower or faster.welcher elastisch leicht angeschnellt harmonica. entenNotenwerdenmit Vorsicht etwas schwicher He knows how to let every note sing without straining his angegebenr Sollten auch Melodieund Begleitungin der ndhmlichen Hand instrument.keinerbleibt linger liegen. er jeder Taste den geh6rigen Anschlaggibt He employs this beautiful effect sparingly for fear that Die Hauptstimmedringt immer hervor. Erweiss. Mordenten. he conjures up Wierein. The listener thinks he EARLY MUSIC NOVEMBER 1984 465 . und macht uns dadurch den because the accompanyingnotes are alwaysplayed carefully Stimmen. wie richtig als bis die folgende ihren how rounded the tone. thehighestdegree Bey offortissimo. was er In fast as well as slow passages.through too frequent use it will fail to make its effect. and und sondernsich dochalle ab.also vielmehrdurch ein individual die nerv6ses Anprellenzu erhalten Mussaberdennoch h6chste cry. knows that whenlightnotesareproduced gehorthat Ein bravo! the the utmostexactness certainty. like matched pearls. weiss erso zu geben. Sein Piano oder Pianissimo ist in denschnellenso wie in den strength must be used. den gleichstenPerlendhnlich. oder kurze Triller ab. weil er die Finger nahe zusammen h~ilt.'excellent' rewardthe pure ob soll. Er weiss jeden Ton singen zu lassen. eine Orgel. hangensie zusammern. however brief the note. ohne sein Instrument bass notes lang auch derZeitraum den es dauemrnlistenerthegreatestdelight. Ton he has heard.'beautiful'. he thus makes the so der Hand. mordents and short trills resound. also brings der Dadmpfung. er hann ihn auf den hochsten Grad His trill is pure. In the fastest tempo he can play the same chord quickly and repeatedly without missing a note. lie in the same hand.wiefl'tenartigklingendieDiscant-T6ne.weil er keinen Fingerh6her als den andern hebt dadurch hannerihn why the notes flow so fluently. In a pianissimo. anschwellen und wieder ausloschen lassern Wie schon prallen seine Doppelschlaige. through this means.und dem Ohreder Zuh6rer through a quick efficientattack. they are so easily and flexibly articulated. auf zugleichgehender hdren. instrument is not damaged.undwie rundlautetdennoch Ton. derjetzige stdrkerist als der vorige war Und dennoch wird er uns feeling of the player immediately.His strong chords never resemble a piercing Hauen oder Hacken auf die Tasten. past the the next note. Man hareseine gezogenen (geschleiften) Note" How light is his quick staccato. makes us believe that we are hearing an ganzen Orchesters horen. damit der o6ftere How pure. nicht iber das zweifelhaftist.

.oderdurchknirrschenden Ausrufdes lieber gemildertausdrichen. is the opposite feeling. behanntmit derMechanih.damitderSchnabeldes Hammers neuenDruche dieTangente in hann.ohne dass sie schleichern sein Piano so dass es unsereAufmerksamheit fesseln muss Den auszufiihren. if it is beautified and nobly expressed.but ratherexpresses it gently. plate Tone ohneUnterbrechunggleich fortdauern stark glaubt dieselben zu horen. 3 Kurze . und ldsst ihn nie in hassliche Toneausarten.derherrschenden sein Empfindunggemass Instrument sprechenzu lassen. Everyone repulsed crudeexpression.sondemrn erwechtbey dem Zuhorer bey dem Zuschauer alsdann wie nur wennerverschdnert. ihn istdiess leicht.wiederin die Hohezu gehen. Adagio. arouses in each listener. dennoch aber heben sie sich so hoch." action of the instrument and capable of communicating profound feelings. thereby allowing the hammer beak to engage the escapement lever for each new stroke. . Richtig fihlend. because sorrow. halt Begeisterung. he never plays in a shrill or coarse manner.weiss er seine Tonewie Ohl an fliessen zu machen.Kihn ziberlasst sich demganzen er Feuerder alleinderreineGeschmach die Zigel.denn der Schmerz Ton. beyjedem eingreifen So wenig er sein Fortepiano ebenso wenig ist er tyrannisirt. nor is he a slave to it. Schmerzens wirderniegrell. Im weiss beydemAusdruche sanfter. He neither tyrannizeshis fortepiano.weilseineHanddieruhigste Fur Lage hat Seine Finger bleibenzwar immerauf den Tasten liegen. For the expression of sorrow. Clearly phrase and a both who suggests player understands the musiche is playing the instrument whichit is played. by the *That his musicalsensibilities correct. He boldly abandons himself to the fire of his inspiration. and not creepalong. as in the observer. diess Geffihl den Tagzu geben. He knows how to permit his instrument to express the noble sentiments befitting the gentleness or melancholy of the adagio.! . His piano is so preparedthat it must hold our attention. through loss of control.'. to make an ugly sound.then. welche nie unempfindlich wahre Sch6nheiten sind Wodurcherregteer unser gegen durchwas zwang erunsereBewunderung Nur ab? Wohlgefallen? 466 EARLYMUSIC NOVEMBER 1984 hears one sustained tone because the performer's hands are in the quietest position.. " rowr .dam= i -#. ersoschon. he will know how to make his notes flow like oil. on . never permitting him.If the player is richtig familiar with the fiihlend. dass die TastenPlatz gewinnen. His fingers always remain in touch with the keys. although he raises them high enough to permit the key to return to its place. are is. Bemerkungen. . auch ein Sclave desselben. good taste alone holds the reins. edeldargestellt und wird Gegenempfindung Vor dem rohen Ausdrucke flieht jedermann Der Spieler hdrt endlich auf und lasst die angenehmsten Eindriche in den Zuhorern zurich. trauriger Gefithle.

die sanften Empfindungen er drnickt durchkaltes direction of bystanders who hurriedly retreat to safety in Grad Spielen aus-Da eralles auf einenh6hemrn spannt. dass er sein GefUhl Grenzen Instruments den des unterzuordnen Through what means does he compel our admiration? hat. does the player have such an obstinate instrument that it will only obey his fingers and not his gesticulations? Why is the power of nature and art so small that it cannot express this mighty feeling? EARLY MUSIC NOVEMBER 1984 467 . Allow me to introduce into this picture the opposite type -Schon die erstenAccorde werdenmit einerStadrhe angegeben. und mitgrausamer ihn nun deaf or believes his listeners to be so. But Schmerzensschreyen und heulen ldsst.wieschmachtend sie erdiesegegen ausstrecktwie of it because only the first note was soft. gelemrnt und durchdie richtigeKenntnissder mechanischen Because he has studied completely and exactlythe properties ohne der of the fortepiano. Here verschlungenes Abnehmen Tone. here comes the adagio! Draw nearer my h6ren sichtbaren Ausdruck. hdlt die already so exceeded it at the beginning that he can produce Saite noch aus. ihreAugenin Sicherheit setzen. einigeunterdie Umstehenden.die zweyte aber Light and shade-the intermingling of the increase and schon wiederzu stark war decrease of tone-is too fussy a matterfor him.von diesemnur Nevertheless.dass er das Fortepianobey dem Ausdruckedes Luckilythe hammeras well as the stringcan withstand it. sch6ne for women. he knows perfectly well what lies within its Behandlung. Jetzt kommtein Crescendo. will mit den Ellenbogen ihnensprechen!SehenSienicht. unterden Hdndenhat.des dadurch. this is only Doch!-Nun kommt das Adagio!Ndhemrn sich. with sadistic pleasure. um so ein machtiges Gefzihliberall hinstromen lassen zu konnen? restrained the overwhelming feeling of the body and the arms? It is a pity the people sitting at the back can hear nothing from this purely visual expression. seines Leibes. If he wants to playforte.he has ein Sforzando!-Glhichlicher Weise hdlt der Hammer. neither can they hear the inarticulate. who are never ingenau studierte. etwas himself feels. the second was das ubermdichtige sich Geftdhl des LeibesundderArmebemeistert already too loud.weil nur die ersteNote schwach. he leaves behind the most dass er das ebenso gut hennt. was ihr unm6glich oderfremdist sensitive to true beauty. and how painfully it falls upon the ear. langsamzu tode martemrn Er will Fortespielen. daffirhalte?Durchdie Bewegung scheinterunsbegreiflich machen wollen. kanner keinenhdhern have us understand how difficult the workis which he has Gradvon Stdrkemehrheraus bringen. he wants to speak to you with his elbows. und beym raschen. It is a shame nothing will come Zuh6rerinnen. habe. findet)nun in den Standgesetzt ist. it seems he would schon im Anfange Thne die so ubertrieben. auch k6nnen sie sich die undeutlichen.Er haut also.who is indeed unworthyof imitation. of performer. oderseine Zuh6rer will serve to illustrate mistakes which should be avoided. Over this note is a sforzando! natfirlich.was in derNatur pleasant impression on the listeners. Sie er zu Now comes the crescendo. learned to subordinate his feelings to the limits of the Es sey erlaubt. instrument and. hear how the tone grates.Tastenund Hdmmer und Schatten Licht-in einander Wachsen und sentiments he expresses through indifferent playing. Arbeitsey. He operates in a fiery manner and handles his verstimmen pl6tzlichdie misshandeiten sich Saiten. He has alles dos ffihlenzu his arch-enemy in his hands and. das nur seinen Fingem.dortfliegen instrumentlike someone bent on revenge. Hepoundsso hardthat suddenly schmerzlich dem Ohre er Feuer fdllt!Leidenschaftliches verwandelt the maltreatedstrings are put out of tune. is now capable of making us to feel what he so Ein Spielermit demRufe:"er spiele ausserordentlich. welcheer untemrnommen Ergerdth Feuer.(oder wirstsich) zum Fortepiano. diesemBildeein anderes uberzu stellen. aber nicht seinen Gesticulationen gehorchen will? Warum sind die Krafte der Natur und Kunst zu klein. Ausnahme Statt Menschenstimme. seats (or rather throws) Hdnde. human voice). keys and hammers strike lamely. uns nature.Bey diesereinzelnen zu Notesteht wants to torturehim to death. (welchebeyjedemInstrumente. but who dass man sich frdgt:ob derSpielertaubsey. zu wieschwerdie such as you have never heard'. wie der Ton knirrscht.wie no greaterdegree of volume. faltering notes. as well as what is impossible or foreign to it. joyful passages. How did he excite our pleasure? desselbenliegt als dasjenige. und hier undertaken. seinerArmeund A player of whom it is reputed. arms and hands. someone who has welchesich eiligzurick ziehen. hat?Leider! die rickwdrtsSitzenden nichts. Aberwarumhat auchdier you not see how tastefully he stretches them out. Ardentpassion he transforms into rage and the gentler lahm schldgt ist es order to protect their eyes. Alreadythe first chords will have behandelt Instrument sein derseinen been played so that one asks oneself whether the player is gleicheinemRachsichtigen. Through the Erbfeind Luft will. habemanniegeh6rt"setztsich.dass er die Beschaffenheit Fortepiano uberhaupt When the player has finished. good listeners. Aber hdren Sie. too. Schade. But why. 'He plays extraordinarily. Can stammelnden Tone nicht erkldren. fir ihn zu kleinlich: der ist diessgeh6rtnurffir he plays at a higher volume. in und himself at the fortepiano.was er selbst ffihlt. through a correct knowledge of mechanical gegen welches zwar nicht nachahmungswzirdig aber wenigstens treatment(which happens in every instrumentincluding the ist doch zur Vermeidung Fehlerhaften des dienenkann. how he has gar Spieler ein so eigensinniges Instrument.allein da er movement of his body. gewahr wird. it is only naturalthat he makes Weiber the fortepiano shriek and howl in the expression of sorrow.dass man nichts davon In quick. several fly in the er zur Wuth.

Jetzt spielt er mit derBegleitung Orchesters. and that broken tangents and hammers are not lying scattered about. the fortepianist has in no way so close a command of his tone as the other instrumentalists. nahe bey sichl aber the sound that is actually produced. If the notes should be slurred together. ungeheure wollen: Stdrhe einemeinzigen Discant-Tone herausbringen aus wie durch sie in wenigen Stunden das beste Fortepianozu Schanden hann. so ist er artiggenug die Schulddem auch bewundern k6nnen!) sich nichtmit Instrumente schlechten auf beyzumessen. Puff! What was that? He raised the dampers. etwas daruberzu sagen. in (fir welchessein BelitzerbeyjedemAnschlagegezittert) einem schlimmer welchendie WutheinesBarbaren nichthdtte Zustande.he has only the keyboard.und wir bekommennur ein widerliches zu Gemengsel wirder den angenehmen Eindruck den SpitzenseinergrellenToneschon wiederzu t6dtenwissen. gibt sich des und alle Miihe. er auf (wersollte ihn Bemerht die uble Wirhung die Zuh6rer.However. near awayfromhim ubrigen Instrumentisten. however. all string and wind instruments are situated nearerthe ear than is the keyboard.steht er endlichauf und hinterlasst armeFortepiano.undsogar. as if he had tried to uproot an oak tree. welchem Feuerund Ausdruch spielen lasse. Kurze Notenst6sst ermitArmundHandzugleichpolternd ab. Gewissnicht!Es liessensich Ist dieseSchilderung ibertrieben? wie solche Clavierwfirger. eine sch6nsten. If he should notice the bad effect upon the listeners (who should also marvel at him). For him nothing is so fluent as the force with which he shoves on the piano. zu machenh6nnen. ist wirdvon sehr wenigenbeobachtet. but straight seinem einzelnenFortepiano ibrigenInstrualle menteauch im stirksten Tutti zu uberschreyen.die den him. In this manner. It will be of undeniably greater use. Pedal-Tasten auf der Orgelzertreten Allein es wird unstreitigvon gr6ssermNutzen seyn. consonances and dissonances flow into one another and we hear only a disgusting hodgepodge of sound. aber Die wahreUrsache ganz natuirlich. nichteinige dem Notenin den gehachte Weggeworfenwerden. der wdhrend Berihrung AlleSaiten-undBlasinstrumente liegen. Rather. des Spielers. His playing resembles a scriptwhich has been smeared before the ink has dried. Shortnotes are shoved with the armand hand at the same time. Nun accompagnirt denSdnger! er Wehediesem! KeinTonwird aus seinerKehlekommen. was den eigentlichen Tonschafft den Resonnanzboden entfernt von sich. dem Ohrenaher.als die Now he plays with the accompaniment of the orchestra and he takes great pains to play louder than all the other instrumentswith his single fortepiano evenin the loudesttutti passage. hat er sie an das so Clavier aber nachahmen. so sie Soil er Tonezusammenziehen (schleifen).gentle adagio. the fortepiano has hardly any vibration.wennmit einem halbenDutzendSaiten dem Schadennoch abzuhelfenist. exhausted. The soundboard carries ihn selbst aber nicht gibt. he finally stands. trochener heinwohlthuendes Piano!muss er es auch einige Manerwarte mit Tactelang spielen. Faint. vermischen sich unter zu weil er nie einenFinger rechter aufhebtZeit einander. he is so well mannered as to lay the blame on a bad instrument which did not permit him to play with fire and expression. woher es eigentlich komme.Enormous force on a single treble note will do it. to say overplays something about this: why is it that thefortepianist his tone morethan otherinstrumentalists? Thetruereason will be apparentfromverylittle observation and is quite natural. Now he accompanies the singer! Woe is he! No note will come from his throat which will not have several hacked-up notes thrown in its path. Ton hervor bringt. Expect no soothing piano. im zu hunderten Beyspiele anffihren. thing goes towardsthe rear. ersch6pft wie wenn er Eichbaumehdtte ausreissen das wollen. the best fortepiano can be chopped to ruin and (this is no fable) even the pedalboard of an organ will be crushed. er gestossen.which produces the tone not in his direction. the pleasant impression will soon be killed with the very best of his shrill tones. sanftestenAdagioSaitenzerschlagen. sondern er hat nur die Tastatur. In front. dass die Fortepiano-Spieler mehr als die fibrigen Instrumentisten den Ton fibertreiben. Von dieser hann er aber nicht den vierten Theil h6ren.Even if he only has to play it for a few bars. Matt.als das Clavier diesemist der Bey mit Spielerin keinerso nahen Verbindung dem Tone. in da Puffwas wardas?ErhatdieDdmpfung dieH6hegehoben. ihm abernichts so geldufigist als Gewalt. During playing. Sein Spiel gleicht einer Schrift welche man bey noch nicht auswischt Tinte. but he produces only harsh tones. 468 EARLYMUSIC NOVEMBER 1984 . they are blurredbecause he never lifts a finger at the righttime.the playercannot even Vorne hat das Fortepiano gar heine Vibration.-Man hat von Gldch sagen. Thankonly good fortune if the damage can be repairedwith just half a dozen strings. alle geht rickwdrts. and leaves behind the poor fortepiano (for which its owner has cringed at every blow) in a condition which the fury of a barbariancould not have made worse.Forthis reason.) gehauenwerden werden.Jetztwill erdieHarmonika und dissonirende bringtnur herbe Tone heraus:consonirende Accordefliessen unter einander.everygerade das. Now he wants to imitate the glass harmonica. und nicht abgeschlageneTangentenund Hdmmerzerstreucumher liegen. making a racket.(diessist heineFabel. Is this description exaggerated?Certainlynot! A hundred instances could be cited in which'keyboard stranglers'have brokenstringsin the most beautiful.

orchestra. frey zu den near the instrument. nichtallesganz stille ist.zur verschallen. seine Schwingungen darumnichtsverloren. however.dass dieser. on whichso muchdepends a solo player. How unsatisfied the gleichem Verhaitniss ist Wird dieser wohl gleich vom Anfang audience would be with him if. one should Ursache. EARLYMUSIC NOVEMBER 1984 469 . bedngstigen den Spieler.geh6rt should be moved a few feet nearer the listeners than the iberall. Finally. Zugangder Tonehindernm. even the most timid hands will not omit any notes.will be for spielt so sollte nie angefangen heard clearly and without distraction by the listeners. sey er auch noch so piano. wird er sich iberzeugen. Soon he will be convinced that 2) Er besuche6fters Concerte. 4) der 5) For the same reason.Sonate u.auf das player.stehe nochfolgendes hier. concerto. In a 6) Wennman ohne Begleitung bis werden. geh6rtwerde. zufr'eden seyn. way do the instrumentalsounds have time to die awayso that ganz aufgenommen Zuh6remrn reinund ohneZerstreuung Auch bey einem Concert pausire man liebereinen halben oder the soloist will be distinctly heard at the beginning his solo. because well dortdie entfernten Wdnde den Tonnichtso schnellzurnick distant walls cannot reflect the sound as quickly as those als werfenkdnnen. sein Fortepiano ist Orchester Zundchsthintersich lasse man nur die Violinen. the Instrumentbesondersbey 6ffentlichem Spielennicht iiObertreibe.this is also the reason he hears even less from mentgebe gar keinen Tonr grossenSaale noch wenigervon sich h6rt als in einemZimmer.Endlich. schoner. wenn ihn nicht andere 3) Forconcertos. but truly gentler and more beautiful.jedoch and the inner music desk must be removed (if it is not going miissenweiterr'ckwdrts die letzterenmehrals die ersteren.the musician should be very well awarethat when ganzen Tactwideralle Vorschrift damitdieInstrumente und der Tondes Concertisten dem he is performing a concerto. auch in einer weiten Entfemung. then the erslickenden Ton. aufderDdmpfung heraus genommenwerden. alles. towards the end. I offer Fir den Musikliebhaber. ricke man and wind instrumentsmust be furtherback.For the listener. dass er sein yet will still be heard. to be used) so that nothing hinders the tone and it is free to Ehe man spielt muss das innere Pult (wenn es nicht reach the listeners. jenerselbst glaubt sein Instru. following: securetouch. gegebenwerden. oder sich in der welche die ersten Auftritte in ihm Erwartung. Would he storm and rage aberprdge sich derTonhinstler Ideerechttief ein. especially those by Mozart.his fortepiano Instrumente bedecken.If and when aber doch auch immer 1)He should acquire an articulate. s.dass auch den furchtsamenHdndenhein Ton 2) He should often hear concerts held in large halls or ausbleibt theatres.Onlyin this werden. Aus derndhmlichen leideman heineUmstehenden 6) If one is playing without accompaniment. getauscht finden mzisste.damit nichts den Tonhindere. He should observe from different distances the welche in grossen Sdlen oder effects of fortepiano tone.dass er bey continuously from the very beginning?Would he expend all die Darstellung eines Concerts. werde. wenn er ihn gegen das Ende nur schreyen horte. For diess weitldufiger einander setzen. Tonverbreitet Der bis The tone spreads its vibrations to wherever he is and it zu ihm hin. Entfemrnungen Wirkung Tonesvon dem Fortepiano. Space does not permit a discussion in further detail. wohl abersanfterund sounds not weaker. 4) Before playing. the amateurwho does not wish to abuse his instrument and aus zu DerRaumverbiethet dem daran gelegen ist. dass diefenigen.Hier beobachteer. can hear everything distinctly. sicheren Anschlag this has been acquiredso that it is completely second nature so eigernHat er diesenerworben. erregten. only stuirmenund toben? Wird er schon in den ersten Scenen all sein shouting were heard or if the expectations raised in the first Feuer verschwenden? Wie ubel wirde der Zuschauer mit ihm scenes were thwarted. sonata etc. particularlyin public playing. aus verschiedenen even the softest notes can be heard anywhere if no other Theatemrn die des Bald instruments cover them. zu Zuh6remrngelangen. 3) Bey Concerten. with only the violins directly behind him. Natur werden. it is preferableto pause at the soloist's entrancefor auf welche bey einem Solo-Spieler so viel ankommt von den a half beat or an entire beat more than is written. und lautet nicht schwdcher. indeed the latter den Zuh6remrn mehrereSchuhe naher. Bass besonders aberbeyMozartischen. of nur Zeit Generally. 5) nahe bey demInstrumente. the cover which lies over the dampers BdsseundBlasinstrumente seyn. hierdie ndheren Fzirden Zuh6rer geht aber which are nearer. 1) Er mache sich einen sprechenden. Thisis the reasonthat those who are standing opposite the welche dem Spieler Daher kommt es. wirder ihmso ganz zur andern to him. They distract the player and stifle the tone. even at a distance.als das more so than the former. Sie nur und never begin until everything is absolutely quiet.while the player himself thinks his instrument is producing daherhommtes. bey Anfange seines Solo rechtdeutlichgeh6rtwerde-Uberhaupt comparable to that of an actor. mit dem Schauspieler in his ardour in the very first scene?. gegen uber stehen.den hear a quarterof this because a high music-desk and dense weil ein hohes Pult und undurchdringliches Notenpapier music-paper block the projection of the tone. w. nothing is lost. one cannot tolerate bystanders gebraucht liegt wird)undderDeckel.damitgleichdie erstenT6ne. wdhrend deutlichstevemrnehmen. his situation is haben. dass er in einem hardlyany tone. first notes. his playing in a large room than in a small one.

by Nuremberg BURNETT & SIMEONE LTD Antiquarian and Secondhand MUSIC have now moved to: 138 STEPHENS ROAD TUNBRIDGE WELLS KENT TN4 9QA Tel: Tunbridge Wells (0892) 37464 Visitors by appointment only Pleasewriteif you wouldlike to be on our mailing-list. der geschiehtwelche und selbst mdchtig auch in des Clavierspieles einemhohenGrade nur dadurchin den Stand gesetzt find. at $9. Ann Arbor. the player should still have the means to subdue the expression of these phrases and thus to sustain interest in the performanceto the very end. die Spielart auf meisten Fortepianomehr oder weniger angewendetwerden Nanette] hann.und in einem fortlaufenden Strome alles das h6ren 1iisst. brilliantly he andwithfull-voiced expression. was hiergesagt worden. worden. Note All that has been said here may be applied moreor less to a variety of fortepianos.und Der Spielermdssigealso Anfangsseinen Ausdruch seine so Hat auchderComponist schlecht catches the fire of his enthusiasm. Here. Germanisches Nationalmuseum.50. ern6thighat ummitgr6ssterLeichtigkeit was oben von dem guten Spiele des machen zu k6nnen. Fortepiano angefiihrt Thereforethe player should moderate his expression and animation at the beginning.if he unfolds his art in a surging streamand lets us hearhow he is able to play quickly. allerseinerZuhorer Anmerhung der Obzwar wohl likes to hear fast playing. Tones). but it particularly concerns the which have been crafted exquisite [Nanette]Steininstruments (especially with regard to the keyboard and the tone) by hands skilled in the artof bleibtibm dochnochdas Mittelibrig des dieseSdtzeweniger herauszu heben. Even if the composer has been so careless as to place the most brilliantor the most beautiful passages in the first portion of the piece. Hier gerdthman mit dem Spielerin Feuer Wenn er hier seine Kinste entfaltet. USA.Michigan. 470 EARLYMUSIC NOVEMBER 1984 . Here. dem Tonkinstlerdas alles was muss ihn deraufrichtigste lohnen. Here. gliinzend und vollstimmig Beyfall ausdrfickenkann:so wird. The instrument has been preparedfor the musicians so that everything he has to do can be done with the greatest ease and.: Steinischen Instrumente deren Bearbeitung(besondersin durch Hdnde des Rticksicht Tastatur.unddasganze Interesse auf Vortrags das Ende zu sparen Hier h6rt man betrifftes doch vorziglich die [MSaddition. moreover.was man auf dem Fortepiano schnell. will and mustbe rewardedby the most sincere applause of his listeners. A complete translation by Preethi de Silva of Andreas Streicher'sbooklet has just been published by EarlyMusic Facsimiles. 4 Piano Streicher. fiir Lebhaftigkeit oder dass erschonin das erste Passagen. die Stiichdiebrillantesten sch6nstenStellenlegte. lead to good fortepiano playing.

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