Science notes

PSLE preparations


Body system
The body system is made up of several different systems, including the digestive system, the respiratory system vice versa. They are all interdependent and our body would not be able to work properly without any one of them.

The digestive system
There are four processes that will take place in our gut. Glands are also connected to parts of our guts to release enzymes. The four main processes are ingestion, digestion, absorption and egestion. Ingestion is the process whereby food is put into the mouth. Digestion is the process whereby food is broken down into smaller, soluble substances. Absorption is the process whereby digested food molecules move through the walls the walls of the small intestine into the bloodstream where they are transported to different parts of the body. Egestion is the process whereby undigested food is passed out of the body through the anus.

The Mouth
When food is placed in my mouth, we will chew the food into smaller pieces with our teeth. The teeth will cut and grind the food into smaller pieces and speed up the process of digestion and aid in the swallowing process. The teeth are also made up of different types. The front ones, known as incisors, will cut and break the food into smaller pieces. Then, the grinding teeth at the back of our mouth cavity, known as molars, will mash the food up into pieces. The process does not involve any chemical change of food substances; hence, we can say that the teeth play a part in the mechanical digestion of the food we eat. The salivary glands will secrete saliva which serves to digest the cooked starch into maltose as saliva contains salivary amylase. However, the food usually does not stay in the mouth long enough for all the starch to be digested into maltose. Saliva will also soften the food and make it easier for us to swallow the food. The tongue then rolls the food into a ball and sends it to the back of the mouth cavity, so that we can swallow. The food then enters the oesophagus through the process of swallowing.


The oesophagus
The oesophagus or the gullet joins the mouth to the stomach. Peristalsis then occurs in the gullet as the oesophagus move the down the alimentary canal. Peristalsis refers to the wave-like muscle contraction of the gut, to propel food forward. The gullet contains muscles. The contraction and relaxation of the muscles help to push the food substances through the systems. Hence, the alternate contraction and relaxation of the muscles along the wall of the oesophagus forces the food ball down towards the stomach. Although no digestion occurs on the oesophagus, digestion of the starch by the saliva amylase may still continue.

The stomach
The stomach is a muscular bag that contracts and relaxes. Peristalsis of the stomach will break the food down into smaller pieces to speed up the rate of digestion, and to mix the food substances with the gastric juices. The gastric juices in the stomach are secreted by the gastric glands found on the wall of the stomach. The gastric juice contains protease that will digest protein into polypeptides. Dilute hydrochloric acid which provides acidic medium for the proteases to function optimally. The acid also kills any harmful bacteria present in food. The stomach also contains water. The walls of the stomach will produce mucus which functions to lubricate the food and protect the walls of the stomach from being corroded by the acid produced. This is also why if we do not eat our meals regularly, the digestive juices and acids will be secreted on an empty stomach, leading to gastric ulcers on the walls of the stomach as the acid digests the stomach wall. The food will stay in the stomach for about two to six hours and will appear as a black liquid after some time.


The small intestine
The small intestine is the main organ in the digestive system that is involved in the process of digestion. The small intestine is a long coiled tube of about six meters long. It is also connected to two other important glands, the liver and the pancreas, which secretes digestive juices into the small intestine. In the small intestine, food is mixed with intestinal juices secreted by glands found on the intestinal walls. Amylase, protease and lipase, from the pancreas can be found in the intestinal juices. Bile from the liver can also be found. Absorption of food through the walls of the alimentary canal into the bloodstream will occur in the small intestine. Digestion will be complete in the small intestine. However, not all the food that we eat can be digested in the small intestine.

The absorption of food takes place in the small intestine. Digested food, which exists as small soluble molecules, will pass through the walls of the small intestine into the bloodstream during absorption. Hence, the movement of food though the walls of the alimentary canal is called absorption. Only small, soluble and diffusible substances such as glucose and amino acids can pass through the walls of the small intestine. Larger particles like starch or protein cannot pass through and be absorbed. In the small intestine, finger-like projections, known as Villi are present. The diagram above shows a cross section of a single villus in the small intestine. There are thousands of Villi present n the small intestine. The Villi are highly convoluted or coiled up, and contain blood capillaries that will transport the absorbed nutrients to all parts of the body. The Villi bring blood closer to aid in absorption. It also increases the surface area to speed up the rate of absorption.


will increase the area for lipase to act on. 5 . While bile does not contain digestive enzymes. Bile is a yellowish-green liquid that is produced by the liver and stored in the gall bladder before being secreted into the small intestine via a bile duct. The pancreatic juice contains an amylase.The liver The liver is a large reddish gland that is responsible for the secretion of bile into the small intestine. Hence. some of the processes that will take place in the presence of the pancreatic juice includes. This the any The pancreas The pancreas is a gland that produces alkaline digestive juices. the digestion of polypeptides to amino acids by protease and the digestion of fats to fatty acids and glycerol by lipases. it plays an important role of breaking the fats down into smaller oil droplets. the digestion of maltose by maltase. It is also necessary to have an alkaline medium for the enzymes secreted into the small intestine to function optimally. a protease and a lipase. The alkaline nature of the juice helps to neutralize the acid in the food from the stomach. Hence. the complete digestion of maltose by pancreatic juices. rate of digestion will increase in the presence of bile.

In the large intestine. they contain blood capillaries that will transport the absorbed nutrients to all parts of the body. It also increases the surface area to speed up the rate of absorption. The Villi bring blood closer to aid in absorption. wheat. iron and calcium. It is important to include fiber in our diet since it provides the bulk of the food masses passing through the alimentary canal. diffusible molecules so that they can be absorbed by the body. insoluble food substances are broken down into smaller. Fiber can be obtained from whole meal bread.5 meters long and consists of colon. The large intestine is about 1. leaving behind an almost solid waste known as feaces. will enter the body. it can help too to satisfy our hunger and can help to control and maintain our weight. The absorption of water and minerals occur at the colon. are also absorbed. 6 . The fiber also absorbs the poisonous wastes. fruits and vegetables. the rectum and the anus.Large intestine The large intestine is where undigested food substances like fibers. water is absorbed and mineral salts such as zinc. How do the Villi help in the absorption of food: The Villi finger-like projections in the small intestine and are highly convoluted or coiled up. which are necessary for the development of the body. Frequent questions*** Define digestion: Digestion is the process whereby large. The feaces is then stored temporarily in the rectum and is excreted from our body through the anus.

Concept map (abstract) 7 .

This is measured when a person is at rest. pushing the blood through them. Heart beat and pulse Each cycle of the contraction and relaxation of the heart is called a heartbeat. the chambers that pump blood out of the heart. After each heartbeat. The faster the heart beat. The beats faster when we exercise as our bodies need more food and oxygen to release enough energy from the food for use. and count the number of heartbeat per minute. 8 .Circulatory system The Heart The heart is a ball of muscles that pumps blood to all parts of the body. This is known as the pulse. We can take out pulse rate by pressing our finger along the blood vessels in our wrist or neck. Valves are located in the heart to prevent blood from flowing backwards. It has two atria. The normal pulse rate of a healthy young male is 60 to 70 pulses per minute. the chambers which receive blood returning to the heart and two ventricle. Oxygen rich blood from the lungs enters the left atrium of the heart and into the left ventricles of the heart before exiting to the rest of the body. the faster the pulse rate. a pressure wave passes along the blood vessel. while deoxygenated blood enters from the right atrium of the heart and into the right ventricle before exiting to the lungs. causing them to expand and relax. With each heart beat. Our heart beat rate varies with our age and the type of activities that we carry out. More carbon dioxide is thus produced. The heart pumps faster so that the blood can supply more food and oxygen to the cells rapidly remove carbon dioxide produced. blood is pumped through the blood vessels.

They contain haemoglobin which allows oxygen from the lungs to bind loosely to them. The arteries have thick walls so that it can sustain the pressure at which the blood is pumped from the heart. plasma and the platelets. Its function is to transport diffused oxygen from the lungs to all the cells in our body for cellular respiration. The capillaries have a very thin. permeable walls to allow exchange of materials between the blood and cells. the white blood cells. they are also the ones that spread to cover all parts of our body. The veins have slightly thinner walls than arteries.The blood vessels There are three different types of blood vessels in our body. Red blood cells are characterised by their biconcave disk shape and their bright red colour. The blood actually acts as a medium of transportation of substances around the body. The red blood cells Red blood cells are the most numerous blood cells. the artery is to transport the oxygenated blood to all parts of the body. Blood Blood is the circulating tissue composed of fluid plasma and cells. artery. the capillaries are for transporting both types of blood as it connects two main vessels. Each vein has a different use. Lastly. The oxygen will eventually be given up to other cells. By transporting blood throughout the body. it connects the aqueous environment of all the body cells together. blood is pumped to all parts of our body. Blood cells There are all together three types of blood cells. What makes the red blood cell 9 . one cell thick. The main components of the blood are the red blood cells. The vein is used to carry the de-oxygenated blood back to the heart. vein and the capillaries. the red blood cells. Through the circulatory system. the white blood cells and the platelets.

different is that they do not have a nucleus. hormones and ions can be found in plasma blood. They play an important role is our body. red blood cells are actually produces by the bone marrow. The blood and other blood cells are suspended in the plasma along with many other substances. The tissue fluid acts as a medium between cells and blood. 10 . waste product together with antibodies. The exchange of waste substances for useful substances occurs between cells and the tissue fluids by osmosis. They help to clot the blood and stop bleeding. Plasma Majority of the blood volume consists of liquid plasma. we would be prone to diseases and would not be able to fight them off. diffusion or active transport. Platelets Platelets are small fragments of cells. They do so by producing antibodies. dissolved nutrients. the platelets with gather at the point of the bleeding and form something like a plug and plug up the cut and clot up the blood. When we bleed. Carbon dioxide. It is now known as tissue fluid. thus they cannot self divide and. as without them. preventing excess blood loss White blood cells The main function of the white blood cells is to fight off infection. blood protein.

Lung The lungs of mammals have a spongy texture and are honeycombed with epithelium. As oxy gen requirements increase due to exercise. The cardiac notch is a concave impression moulded to accommodate the shape of the heart. The lungs of humans are a typical example of this type of lung. The medial border of the right lung is nearly vertical. Many respiratory illnesses are the result of bacterial or viral infection of the lungs. due to the excess capacity. with the other compensating for its loss. it is possible for humans to live with only one lung. allowing the body to match its carbon dioxide or oxygen exchange requirements. without it we will die. Additionally. The environment of the lung is very moist. a greater volume of the lungs is perfusing. the two are not identical. Vital capacity is the maximum volume of air that a person can exhale after maximum inhalation. it can be measured with a spirometer. which makes it hospitable for bacteria. 11 . The lobes are further divided into segments and then into lobules. in situations like these only a small portion of the lungs are actually perfuse with blood for gas exchange. In combination with other physiological measurements. the vital capacity can help make a diagnosis of underlying lung disease. Both are separated into lobes by fissures. Inflammation of the lungs is known as pneumonia. as respiration is a very important process. Such excess capacity is one of the reasons that individuals can smoke for years without having a noticeable decrease in lung function while still or moving slowly. with three lobes on the right and two on the left. It helps us to respire. The connective tissue that divides lobules is often blackened in smokers and city dwellers. Human lungs are located in two cavities on either side of the heart.Respiratory system The respiratory system is very important to our body. having a much larger surface area in total than the outer surface area of the lung itself. while the left lung contains a cardiac notch. inflammation of the pleura surrounding the lungs is known as pleurisy. Lungs are to a certain extent 'overbuilt' and have a tremendous reserve volume as compared to the oxygen exchange requirements when at rest. hexagonal divisions of the lungs that are the smallest subdivision visible to the naked eye. Though similar in appearance.

As a result. causing air to flow into the airways. The decrease in volume of the cavity increases the pressure in the chest cavity above the outside air pressure. and after multiple divisions. Air enters through the oral and nasal cavities.When you inhale. In humans. the hemoglobin in the red blood cells has carbon dioxide bound to it and very little oxygen. The oxygen binds to hemoglobin and the carbon dioxide is released. The cycle then repeats with each breath. the diaphragm and intercostal muscles relax and the chest cavity gets smaller. Air then flows in through the airways (from high pressure to low pressure) and inflates the lungs. which branches out into the main bronchi and then subsequent divisions. During normal breathing. At the beginning of the pulmonary capillary. Contraction of the diaphragm pulls the bottom of the cavity in which the lung is enclosed downward. so carbon dioxide leaves the blood and passes across the alveolar membrane into the air sac. the oxygen concentration is high. the trachea divides into the two main bronchi that enter the roots of the lungs. This exchange of gases occurs rapidly (fractions of a second). Deoxygenated blood from the heart is pumped through the pulmonary artery to the lungs. Carbon dioxide is also released from sodium bicarbonate dissolved in the blood of the pulmonary capillary. it flows through the larynx and into the trachea. Alveolar sacs are made up of clusters of alveoli. like individual grapes within a bunch. The concentration of carbon dioxide is high in the pulmonary capillary. The carbon dioxide then 12 . increasing volume and thus decreasing pressure. Within each air sac. This expansion lowers the pressure in the chest cavity below the outside air pressure. The individual alveoli are tightly wrapped in blood vessels and it is here that gas exchange actually occurs. The rib cage itself is also able to expand and contract to some degree. The bronchi continue to divide within the lung. where oxygen diffuses into blood and is exchanged for carbon dioxide in the haemoglobin of the erythrocytes.Processes of breathing Breathing is largely driven by the muscular diaphragm at the bottom of the thorax. The bronchial tree continues branching until it reaches the level of terminal bronchioles. air is sucked into or expelled out of the lungs. expiration is passive and no muscles are contracted (the diaphragm relaxes). Air from the lungs (high pressure) then flows out of the airways to the outside air (low pressure). When you exhale. which lead to alveolar sacs. so oxygen passes or diffuses across the alveolar membrane into the pulmonary capillary. bronchioles are given rise. through the action of other respiratory and accessory respiratory muscles. The oxygen-rich blood returns to the heart via the pulmonary veins to be pumped back into systemic circulation. This type of lung is known as bellow lungs as it resembles a blacksmith's bellows. the diaphragm and inter costal muscles (those are the muscles between your ribs) contract and expand the chest cavity.

The nerve cells that live within these centers automatically send signals to the diaphragm and intercostal muscles to contract and relax at regular intervals. then both types of chemoreceptor signal the respiratory centers to increase the rate and depth of breathing. These cells then signal the respiratory centers to contract the respiratory muscles. Of these factors. peripheral chemoreceptor also monitor the carbon dioxide concentration in the blood. nerve cells in the hypothalamus and cortex also influence the activity of the respiratory centers. Stretch receptors in the lungs and chest wall monitor the amount of stretch in these organs. Carbon dioxide too. or cigarette smoke. If you try to hold your breath. If the lungs become over-inflated (stretch too much). Coughing and sneezing cause air to be rapidly and violently exhaled from the lungs and airways. Oxygen can affect the activities.leaves the alveolus when you exhale and the oxygen-enriched blood returns to the heart. the hypothalamus will tell the respiratory centers to speed up. carbon dioxide diffuses easily into the CSF from the blood. water. Their influence. the purpose of breathing is to keep the oxygen concentration high and the carbon dioxide concentration low in the alveoli so this gas exchange can occur! You don't have to think about breathing because your body's autonomic nervous system controls it. If the carbon dioxide concentration gets too high. The respiratory centers that control your rate of breathing are in the brainstem or medulla. Signals from higher brain centers. However. Thus. Nerve cells in the airways sense the presence of unwanted substances in the airways such as pollen. they signal the respiratory centers to exhale and inhibit inspiration. a central chemoreceptor in the medulla monitors the carbon dioxide concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that surrounds the brain and spinal cord. In addition. removing the offending substance. This mechanism prevents damage to the lungs that would be caused by over-inflation. can be overridden by chemical factors (oxygen. as it does many other functions in your body. 13 . the strongest influence is the carbon dioxide concentration in your blood and CSF followed by the oxygen concentration. the activity of the respiratory centers can be influenced by several factors. The increased rate of breathing returns the carbon dioxide concentration to normal and the breathing rate then slows down. your body will override your action and force you to let out that breath and start breathing again. Nerve centers in the cortex can voluntarily tell the respiratory center to speed up. and pH). During pain or strong emotions. specialized nerve cells within the aorta and carotid arteries called peripheral chemoreceptor monitor the oxygen concentration of the blood and feedback on the respiratory centers. If the oxygen concentration in the blood decreases. slow down or even stop (holding your breath). however. carbon dioxide. noxious fumes. causing you to sneeze or cough. they tell the respiratory centers to increase the rate and depth of breathing. dust.

14 . it is different.Sometimes the respiratory centers go temporarily awry and send extra impulses to the diaphragm. The energy meanwhile will be used by the cell at which cellular respiration took place. Their gills function such that it has many fine blood vessels on each gill to take in the dissolved oxygen from the water as it drinks the water and the water pass through. the stomata will become smaller. This is why when the sun is very hot. Fishes do not have lungs to respire. The mixture is then. The same thing happens in unborn children. Oxygen will be given out together will excess water in its gaseous state. The plants respire by releasing air through the openings on the underside of the leaves called stomata. used to release the energy in the food and carbon dioxide. many pregnant women often feel their babies hiccup. It seemingly acts like our nose and allow air in and out. After the exchange of gases at the gill. This happens because the respiratory centers of the developing child's brain are working just like those of an adult even though they are not yet breathing air. together with water are by products. These impulses cause unwanted contractions (hiccups). Respiration (Human. the water is then released through the two flaps on the gills as they open and the process would repeat itself again. instead. The stomata have two guard cells and help to control the size of the pore to regulate the amount of water lost to the surrounding through respiration. they have gills. Fishes & plants) Respiration is the process in which oxygen is taken in and together with the glucose from the food that we eat. They are then released from the body through the trachea. As for plants.

15 . rod. Magnetic force can pass through non-magnetic substances like glass. The most common shapes are button. nickel or cobalt. steel. U-shaped and horseshoe shape.Magnet Notes A magnet is a special piece of metal that can attract other objects. wood. But it cannot pass through magnetic substances. These materials are called magnetic materials. Magnets can also come in many different shapes and sizes. But it can only attract objects made of iron. The second method is usually used in factories to retrieve large pieces of metal from the pile of rubbish as it can be turned on and off and is stronger than the stroking method. Natural magnets are made of lodestones. The strongest parts of a magnet are its two poles. A magnet can be natural or man-made. Electromagnet can be formed using two methods.North) attract each other. Like poles of a magnet (North-North) repels each other while the unlike poles (South. Either by stroking a magnetic substance with a magnet or by twirling wires over it and connect it to batteries. Man-made magnets are made from materials such as iron or steel. strip. we are reducing the strength of the magnet strip on the door. bar. ring. Magnetic strength of a magnet can be reduced by hitting it many times or by heating it continuously. A freely suspended magnet will always hang in a North. The centre of the magnet is usually very weak.south position. So when we slam refrigerator doors often. the North and the South. plastic.

It is made up of a huge ball of gases. Weather forecasting ‡ To study the weather pattern on the earth by obtaining the information of the clouds. Mercury. the moon. Defense ‡ To observe the activities of enemy nations. stars. atmosphere an life. winds and temperatures ‡ To find the amount and types of pollutant in the air. The sun rises in the east and sets in the west. which is a fixed path that an object takes around something else. The Sun The sun is a huge star that gives off its own light. The earth is mostly made up of rock metal and water. Heat energy is also given off by the sun to warm us up and prevent us from freezing. planets in the universe. Direct staring at sun can cause us temporary blindness. Man-made Satellite Man-made satellites are used in many different ways in space. Earth·s Observation ‡ To study the Earth·s land. Planets are objects that revolve around the sun and do not give off light on its own. The names of the names of the planets from the nearest to the furthest are. The Earth It is the fifth largest planet in the solar system. Uranus and Neptune. If too much ultra-violet ray reach the Earth. oceans. Saturn. Communications ‡ To provide long distance communication links ‡ To transmit data to various parts of the world. our skin will become darker and we may have skin diseases.Solar System The sun. Venus. so we are able to see them. The planets can be seen because they reflect the light from the sun to our eyes. Scientific Research ‡ To observe the Earth·s upper atmosphere. Jupiter. Earth. Mars. The planets travel on their own orbit. Navigation ‡ To help ships and airplanes determine their exact location on Earth. It is also surrounded by a layer of gas which traps heat for within the earth and shield 16 . It also allows us to see things around us. It provides plans with light to perform photosynthesis as it cannot take place without light. Earth and the other planets make up the solar system.

It is the earth·s one and only natural satellite.the earth from the sun·s harmful ultra-violet rays. The earth does not give off its own light. 17 . gives rise to the day and night cycle. The regular movement of the moon and the gravity of the moon give rise to the high and low tides. and this layer of gas form the atmosphere. It does not give off its own light as it merely reflect the sun·s light allowing us to see it at night. It takes one year to rotate on complete round around the sun and each year is 365 days. The rotation of the earth on its own axis which takes 24 hours each round. is visible when we look at it in space. The Moon There is no air or water on the moon so it does not support life. We are only able to live on earth as its position is just right from the sun and there is food for us to eat and air for us to breathe. whereas water also exist in liquid state. it reflects the light from the sun so. instead.

A force is a pull or a push. which are called magnets.Simple Machine notes Force A force can be push or a pull. The attracted materials then become magnets themselves in a process called magnetization. unlike poles attract It can act at a distance The strength of a magnet does not depend on its shape or size The strength of a natural magnet. slow down a moving object. A magnet attracts iron. nickel. we cannot see a force but we can feel the effects of force after it interacts with another object or substance (ECT. move a stationary object. Magnetization occurs because the magnet causes spinning particles called electrons in the atoms of the nail to align along the magnet's field lines. steel. A force cannot be seen but we can see what a force can do. cannot be increased Earth is the largest piece of magnet The strength of a magnet varies The strength of a magnet can be decreased by hammering. stop a moving object. A steel nail placed near a magnet. a lodestone. it may pull magnets together or push them apart. but others cannot. The atoms with aligned electrons then act like tiny bar magnets. and change the speed of an object and change the direction an object moves in. Force of a magnet is strongest at the poles Like poles repel. and certain other materials. for example. Gravitational force) Energy is needed to produce force. dropping or heating it Temporary magnets can be created using the stroking and electromagnetism methods 18 . Magnetic force may also be produced by ordinary electric current flowing through a coil of wire. Magnetism may be created by the motion of electrons in the atoms of certain materials. Some forces can act at a distance. Types of forces Magnetic force: Magnetism is the force that electric currents exert on other electric currents. The magnetic force may cause attraction or repulsion--that is. becomes magnetized and can attract a second nail. Many actions such as kicking a ball involve forces. A force can change the shape of an object. We get energy from the food we eat. called an electromagnet.

When this force is exerted on a spring. the spring will in turn exert a force on whatever is stretching or compressing it. It makes the wheels of a locomotive grip the rails of the track. 82 kilograms on Venus. the top object can be lifted without any resistance except that of gravity. The weight of the object stretches the elastic band or spring The heavier the object. An object's weight is largest if the object is on the surface of the planet. there is a resistance caused by friction. This is why it is hard to walk on ice. He would weigh 34 kilograms on Mars. the gravitational force there is smaller. But if one object is pushed or pulled along the surface of the other. a man who weighs 91 kilograms on the earth would weigh only 15 kilograms on the moon. Friction has many important uses. The weight of any object depends on the distance from the object to the centre of the planet and the mass of the object. The weight of an object also depends on the mass of the planet.Elastic spring force: It is the force founding the spring when it is compressed or stretched. It produces heat that may cause objects to wear. If two objects with flat surfaces are placed one on top of the other. the greater the extension Gravitational force: It is the force of attraction between the Earth and any object on Earth. If the mass of a planet is smaller than that of the earth. This is why oil and other 19 . Friction is the property that objects have which makes them resist being moved across one another. The object has no weight in space where the gravitational force acting on it is too weak to be measured. You could not walk without friction to keep your shoes from sliding on the pavement. It allows a conveyor belt to turn on pulleys without slipping. The weight becomes smaller if the object is moved away from the planet. The smooth surface of the ice produces less friction than a pavement and allows shoes to slip. and 234 kilograms on Jupiter. For example. Friction also has disadvantages. Gravity is a force that prevents things from falling out of the Earth Gravity causes falling objects to fall downwards Gravity causes a spring to stretch or extend A very strong force is needed to resist the pull of gravity There is zero gravity in space Weight is the gravitational force put forth on an object by the planet on which the object is located.

lubricating liquids are used to fill spaces between moving machinery parts. Laws of friction: The basic law of friction says that the force needed to overcome friction is proportional to the total normal. four times as much force must be used to pull it. That is.F. or perpendicular. when the weight of a box being pulled across a floor is doubled. The ratio between the weight being moved and the force pressing the surfaces together is called the coefficient of friction (C. The advantages of friction It lets people walk without slipping It enables car wheels to stop spinning and thus stop a moving vehicle It starts movements without slipping It enables us to hold on to things It produces heat The disadvantages of friction It slows down movement It causes wear and tear It forces us to use more energy Friction can be reduced by using: Rollers Wheels Ball bearings Lubricants Water 20 . = F/P. This can be written C. When the box weighs four times as much. depends on the type of surfaces moving against each other. The liquid reduces friction and makes the parts move more easily and produce less heat.). The value of the C. the force necessary to pull it must be doubled.F. force pressing one surface against the other. The coefficient of friction equals the force needed to move an object divided by the force pressing the surface together.F.

quickly and efficiently. The load is tied to a rope that winds around the wheel. 21 . by reducing the effort needed to lift the load.Simple Machines Machines help us to do work more easily. There are two types of pulley. When we want to lift a heavy load with the least effort. A force is needed to operate these machines. Pulleys A pulley has a wheel that rotates freely. place the fulcrum as near to the load as possible. more than one simple machine is used in one object it is complex machine. distance the effort needs to travel. less effort is used to lift the load. There are many types of simple machine. apply effort as far from the fulcrum as possible. Simple machines also help us to do work easily by reducing the distance travelled by the load. moveable and fixed pulley. When. hen an effort moves a greater distance than the load. Lever A lever enables us to use a smaller force to overcome a larger force.

the lesser the effort needed to travel up but the effort has to travel a longer distance. Factors that affect the amount of effort needed: The angle of inclination The weight of the load The steepness of the inclined plane The roughness of the inclined plane Gears Gears are wheels with teeth that can interlock one another. It is commonly used in lifts and cranes. The longer the slope. It helps us to do work by reducing effort to move heavier load from a lower level to a higher level. Examples: Screwdriver Doorknob Steering wheel Pencil sharpener Cross spanner 22 . Gears are usually placed together with other gears so that the tooth of one gear fits into the notches of the other. Gears can be connected by a chain. The load and effort move in opposite directions. Examples are eggbeaters and bicycles. They help us do work by changing the direction of rotation or applied force or changing the speed at which an object moves. Inclined plane An inclined plane is a sloping surface. It changes the direction of a force and also reduces the effort needed to lift a load. It makes us to use a smaller force to overcome a bigger force at the axle. Wheel and Axle A wheel and axle is made up of a large wheel connected to a rod called axle.Pulley System It which consists of a fixed and a movable pulley is often used to raise heavy loads. Gears move in the opposite directions of the next gear interlocked with it.

Faucets A key A simple machine is made of a small rod stuck to a big wheel. If the wheel is bigger than the axle. It is actually a lever. 23 . the fulcrum is at the centre of the rod. less effort is required. However. the distance moved by the effort is greater than the distance moved by the load.

hairy. It is a fungus as it does not have leaves. but they still contain chlorophyll as it is hidden under the color pigments of the leaf. you will find that the plant is growing towards the hole. A good example would be plant left in a dark box with only a small hole at the other end of the box. The network vein is like a network 24 . stem or roots. Some leaves may also appear yellow or orange. It will be given out by the plant for us to respire and give out carbon dioxide for the plants. waxy and rough. they play a very important role in maintaining the amount of oxygen and controlling the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere for us to respire. Leaves help the plant to make food and are also called. The leaf contains chlorophyll which causes the leaf to appear green. There are two different types of veins. The plant has veins on the leaves that will transport water from the roots to all parts of the leaf and also collects the food at the stalk of the leaf and wait to be transported to other parts of the plant. it cannot make its own food. However. and entire edges. A plant is usually immobile and functions on the spot. A plant is generally considered as a living organism that manufactures its own food (autotrophic). There are toothed edged. the network vein and parallel vein. stem and roots. The chlorophyll absorbs sunlight and together with water from the roots and the carbon dioxide that it gets. the plant·s ¶kitchen·. A mushroom is definitely not a plant. smooth. Leaves The leaf of a plant can have many textures. These are a few of the most common ones. The plants can also be classified by the veins. they are able to move and respond to changes.Plants Plants are living things. Doesn·t that show that plants are able to move and respond to changes? A plant is basically made up of leaves. lobbed edges. A few weeks later. Moreover. it photosynthesizes and makes food and oxygen is a byproduct of photosynthesis. The plant·s leaves have special ¶designs·.

Fibrous root It is a cluster of roots growing. The cactus has adapted to have needle-like leaves to minimize water lose through transpiration.just as its names states and branches to all parts of the leaf. It is good at anchoring and can reach deep into the soil. When the plant photosynthesizes. The root takes in water and the water is transported to the leaves. The plant respires and gets carbon dioxide for photosynthesis from this small opening found on the underside side of the leaf. Prop roots penetrate the soil deeply Creeping roots It grows on the stem of other plants and this stem anchors them 25 . It also anchors the plant firm in the ground and prevents it from flying out of the soil at the slightest wind. It is mostly located at the underside of the leaf to prevent too much water loss as the sun might dry the leaf up. Roots The root may look plain and useless. the water that is needed comes from the root. Tap root It has a long thick main root and has smaller roots growing from it. The two most common types of root are the fibrous root and the tap root Other types of root Storage Root It stores food in the roots Breathing Root It is able to take in air with its roots Aerial Root It is able to respire with its roots Clasping Root It can clasp on other plants and ¶steal· minerals and water from them. it plays a vital role in ensuring that the plant survives. they are all about the same size and it can reach widely and reach further across the soil. It acts like our nose and allow air in and out. It also releases excess water as water vapor. The parallel veins are positioned in a parallel position. but actually. Buttress root It can keep a heavy trunk erected.

The basic part of a flower is the petal. The flower is made up of two parts. But this method is only workable for flowers with large droopy and feathery 26 . It also helps to keep a plant upright. Insects like bees and butterflies lands on flowers to such the nectar and the pollen grain will stick to their legs and will drop off when they land on the next plant. The anther. filament. so they cannot stand up on their own. ovule.The Stem The stem is a very important part of the plant. the petals will drop off. It grows when a plant matures. After the flower is fertilized. plants and ferns which will protect he plant parts. The stigma is the female part of the plant where the pollen sacs will land on. and Phloem tubes. where the male reproductive cells are. and the phloem tube is towards the outside. Stems have a circular layer of cells called the cortex under the epidermis. that transports food made by the leaf. ovary. that transport water and dissolved minerals absorbed by the roots. Flower The flower is a very interesting part of a plant. anther and sepal. style. are arranged in a ring beneath the cortex. stigma. Not all types of plant have both the male and female parts in one flower. Pollination is the process whereby the pollen lands on the stigma. they cling on to supports or other plants for support. the male and female parts. which lies between the Xylem tube and the Phloem tube within the bundle. The xylem lies towards the inside of the bundle. Bundles of Xylem tubes. The pollen can be transferred through several ways. skin-like layer of cells lying in seeds. fertilizing it. Another way is for the wind to blow the pollen and the pollen will land on the flower. is supported by the filament. Dicotyledonous stems also have a band of cells called the cambium. The sepal is the part that protects the plant when it is still a bud. The style is the passage that leads to the ovary and the ovules are female reproductive cells that will fuse with the male reproductive cells to form seeds. a thin. the ovary will start to swell and a fruit is formed over time. Some plants have weak stems.

the young plant would also be diseased or prone to that disease. Self pollination is the pollen of the same plant fertilizing the flowers of the same plant. 27 . while cross pollination is the pollen of one plant fertilizing the flowers of another plant. which contains water dries up. The fruit will contain and protect the seeds that are needed to ensure the continuity of the species of plant. The advantage of self pollination is that the good points of one plant will continue to be present in the young plant. The disadvantage is that if the adult plant has a disease of is prone to a disease.stigma to catch the pollen in the air. The seed is dispersed so as to prevent the young plant from growing too near to the adult plant and to prevent overcrowding and the competition for water and nutrients. The seeds dispersed by wind are small and light. A common type of dispersal is by wind. Seed dispersal Different plant can have different methods of seed dispersal. Fruits that disperse its seeds by water can float on water and have a fibrous husk that can trap air. Although fruit like coconut which is dispersed by water is heavy. the ovule. They also grow just beside rivers or seaside so that their seeds can be carried away by water. Fertilization occurs after pollination. The disadvantage is that the plant that fertilizes the plant may have some unknown disease and pass it on to the young plant. promoting healthy growth of the young plant. when their kernel. leaving the fruit to grow. The advantages of cross pollination are that the plants may get good points of both the plant that fertilized it and the plant that is fertilized. Pollination can also be grouped into two types. they simultaneously lose a lot of weight. Flowers pollinated this way does not need to have colorful petals as they do not need to attract insects. The pollen rain that lands on the stigma makes a pollen tube and travels to the ovary where its nucleus will fuse with the nucleus of the female reproductive cell of the flower. The wind can also carry away seeds that have a fluffy covering. They may also have special structures like umbrella structures or wing-like structures that enable them to float for a longer distance away from the adult plant. After the ovule is fertilized the ovary becomes the fruit and the other parts of the flower outside the ovary wilts and dies. self pollination and cross pollination.

There are also other types which just split open. they seed flies in all directions at high speed. thus they do not need pollination or flowers. Plants get energy from the food the produce through photosynthesis. Each fern has a lot of spore so as to ensure that some of the spore will develop into adult ferns as it is not confirmed that the spores would land on a spot which is suitable for the growth of the young fern. All organisms depend on sugar as an energy source. Photosynthesis & Respiration All green plants can photosynthesize. cutting the part of the stem that has the bud and growing it. One of them is by suckers. glucose is a carbohydrate that is the basic fuel and basic building material for life. When the seed is dispersed. Another ways is by using underground stem. The food produced is glucose. Plants also can reproduce from spores. The adult plant matures and a sucker will grow from its stem and that will be the young plant. Plants can also reproduce in many other ways.Fruits which are dispersed by splitting must be dry and can open with explosive force. the new fern grow. Humans or other living things are unable to make their own food. Human and other animals are unable to produce it on their own and must rely ultimately on the sugar produced by plants in the process called photosynthesis. Another type is that the seeds have stiff hooks and cling onto the fur of passing animals and drop off after a while as the plant moves. but with no explosive force as the wind will carry the seeds away. But that only applies for ferns. The advantage of this is that the adult plant will provide it food and ensures that the young plant grows healthily. As time passes. The young plant will get nutrients directly from the adult plant and as the young plant grows larger. a young plant will grow from it. However green plants like algae and certain bacteria can trap sunlight to make food. Plants dispersing seed in this way has nice smelling and nice tasting fruit to lure animals to eat them. the first type is the animal eats the whole fruit and the hard indigestible seeds will pass out as feaces and the plant will grow. the adult plant dies. The method is by digging the stem out. But these only apply for special plants that have specially adapted roots and underground stem. Ferns do not flower. There are two types of animal dispersal. The leaves of plants that can make food are usually green as they contain chlorophyll which aids in 28 . They reproduce by spores which are carried by the wind and when the spores land. Some plants also can use their roots to reproduce by cutting the ¶head· of the root and planting it. Some fruit disperse seeds with the help of animals.

the plant cannot make its food. flowers. The excess sugar is converted into starch and stored in different parts of the plants. on photosynthesis as a source of food.trapping sunlight for sunlight for photosynthesis. croton and copper leaf plants are plants with colorful leaves. The storage part of the plant can be either the roots. They also have chlorophyll that is hidden under the red and yellow pigments of the leaves. Coleus. The chlorophyll is embedded in the chloroplast. directly on directly. In a starch test. there is iodine in a substance if the iodine turns dark blue. fruits and seeds. There are several types of food consumers: Herbivores: Plant eaters Carnivores: Meat Eaters Omnivores: Plants and meat eater Insectivore*: Insect eaters Frujitivore*: fruit eater 29 . Plants usually make more sugar than they need. Iodine is used to test for starch. and oxygen. Without chlorophyll. These stored reserves are used by plants for extra energy or building materials. Animals and other organisms do not have the ability to make food so they depend on other organisms and are called food consumers. It can be used to build leaves. Food Source & Energy Source of Animals All life on Earth depends. Some plants not only carry out photosynthesis but also trap insects to get more nutrients. An extremely important product of photosynthesis is oxygen. it can also be converted cellulose in building of their cell wall. they are called food producers. The oxygen that the plants give off is what we breathe in for respiration and the carbon dioxide that we breathe out is taken in by the plants for photosynthesis. Plants produce sugar in glucose for many uses. seeds or stem. making it one of the most important biochemical processes known. As plants can make their own food. Glucose and oxygen are products of photosynthesis. energy.

However. And remain clear if there is no presence of carbon dioxide. These conditions include the availability of air. glucose and oxygen are converted into energy for work. 30 . the plant would not require light since it does not make its own food and would get food from the seed leaves (cotyledons). the seed would not be able to germinate without any one of these conditions. at the germination stage. Without any one of these. the presence of water and warmth. Limewater is used to test the presence. respiration takes place all the time. Germination Germination can only occur under certain conditions. It will turn chalky when comes into contact with carbon dioxide.Respiration All living things respire. carbon dioxide and water. Living things take in oxygen and give out carbon dioxide during respiration. glucose is converted to energy used to do work. When they breathe in oxygen. Unlike photosynthesis which only takes place in the presence of light. During respiration.

It is well ventilated there and the temperature is very much the same there all the time. the centipede and spiders. Seaside The seaside community contains sandy soil and can retain little water thus the plants there have to have roots that can absorb water fast enough for photosynthesis. Rotting log The rotting log community always contains a rotting log as its name states and the log has to be in the process of decomposing. thus it is called the rotting log. Thus some animals have special adaptations to survive in such conditions.Conditions of habitat Desert The desert is very hot during the day and is very dry. The organisms that can be found there include the millipede. The fennec fox is another example as it has large ears to reduce heat gained. The rotting log is softened when it is decomposing thus easier for the organisms in it to digest it. 31 . fungus or bacteria to decompose the log. The air there is quite stale. It is very airy there and the temperature fluctuates from day to night. The rotting log community must contain decomposers like the termite. starfishes. The cactus has needle-like leaves to reduce water loss through transpiration and it has a storage stem to store the water in its stem. Others have adaptations to reduce water loss like the camel which sweats very little and give little urine. Some animals only come out during the night to avoid the high temperatures in the day. The animals there include crabs. The decomposing log provides accommodation and food for the animals living in it. The most common plant there is the cactus.

like the dragonfly nymph. Leaf litter The leaf litter community is rather damp and stuffy. caterpillar and all types of animals that we usually see along the road. There are also many insects living around there. The animals found there include butterflies. Field Community 32 . The air there is very airy and the temperature maintains at around the same range. Basically. partially submerged and fully submerged. hydrilla and many others. The garden community has garden soil that contains many dead organisms to be decomposed and be simplified into simple substances and return to the soil as nutrients for the plant. Pond The pond community unlike other habitats has a lot of water and fishes live there. floating. these plants can be classified into three groups. called the leaf litter community. There is bound to be many trees around as the dead leaves would fall and create a heap.Garden The garden community is very common to most of as most of us have a garden. The air there is stuffy and the area of the community is not very large. the water spider and many others. The air there is also very airy and the temperature is very much the same. The leaves are decomposing and many insects live in them and feed on them. There are also many plants that live around or in the pond like the arrowhead. The soil there is thus the most optimum for the growth of the plants.

Pollutions Pollutions Pollutions occur when substances which can make the environment dirty or unhealthy are released into the environment. Air pollution 33 .

In the recent years.CFCs and the ozone layer Ozone is a thin layer of gas in the atmosphere which shields the earth from most of the harmful ultraviolet (UV) rays from the Sun. the ozone layer has been depleted by humans as they release chlorofluorocarbon (CFCs) into the environment. Water Pollution 34 .

causing buildings to corrode Land Pollution Biodegradable products are able to be broken down into simpler forms by decomposers and can be recycled in nature. Acid rain can react with stones and metals. Negative impacts Destruction of trees in the environment Organisms that live in the rivers or lakes are harmed.Acid rain Acid rain often occurs when rainwater dissolves harmful gases in the air to form a weak acid. 35 . Our water supply is contaminated. Non-biodegradable products cannot be broken down by decomposers and will not decay.

resulting in a much drier climate. are cut down. That causes the carbon dioxide and oxygen to be unbalanced. the trees no longer evaporate away this water. 36 . When part of a forest is removed. Trees extract groundwater through their roots and release it into the atmosphere. The water cycle is also affected by deforestation. This affects our environment a lot as the trees which take in the carbon dioxide that we breathe out and turns them into oxygen. Then the carbon dioxide that we breathe out would be accumulated and there will be global warming. The cutting of tree prevents the trees from getting a grip on the soil and the will also is soil erosion.Noise Pollution Deforestation Deforestation is the clearing of forest.

The population size is the total number of live organisms in a population. Thus. all the duckweeds plant in pond is considered as a population.Environment Living organisms are also known as organisms. many of the organisms that can live in the pond would not be able to live in the forest community. like forest. The living conditions are different habitats. For example. 37 . or for competing with one another for food. are dependent on animals for seed dispersal. field. Organisms are often found in groups with other organisms of its same species. A population consists of all the organisms of the same kind that live and reproduce in a particular place. There are many different types of habitats. the types of organisms found in different from the types of organisms found in another habitat. Aquatic means anything relate to water. pollination and nutrients. shelter and oxygen. Populations living together in a habitat form a community together. The place where a population lives is its habitat. They depend on each other for survival. While the plants on the other hand. Populations of several kinds are interdependent on each other. Pond Community A pond community is aquatic. The animals depend on the plants for food. A habitat provides the living thing with everything that it needs to stay alive. Adults and young must be when counting the population size. garden and many others. For example. All these habitats are for various organisms.

fungi and some other animal population.Leaf litter community Leaf litter forms from fallen leaves. It may be damp. 38 . with little air movements. A leaf litter habitat is made up of leaf litter and the soil below the leaves is dark and warm. It s usually found wherever there are a lot of plants. The leaf litter is food for bacteria. bits of bark and dead plant matter. Many populations of organisms can be in a leaf litter habitat. Other animal population in the leaf litter community feeds on each other.

that allows certain substances in and others out and it is very flexible and appears in most cells.Cells Cells are the smallest building block of life and can be large or small relative to a regular cell. The nucleus is involved in cell division and carries out instructions for protein synthesis. it contains chromatin which is made up of DNA. it also prevents larger molecules like starch and protein from leaving the cell so that certain substances can be prevented from leaving the cell. It is bound by the nuclear membrane and isolates the genetic materials of the cell from there rest of the cell. It is a permanent structure in the cell. spherical structure called nucleolus which is not bound by a membrane and is in charge or forming ribosome. there is one or more of a small. they can also live as individual organisms. 39 . It is usually spherical in shape and found near the center of the animal cell. Nucleus The nucleus is the most prominent organelle in the cell and is the control center of the cell where all the commands are given out. There is also nucleoplasm in the cell that acts like cytoplasm and fills up the nucleus. Cells can also group together to form a larger organism. Cytoplasm The cytoplasm is what fills up the cell apart from the organelles and is a median for cellular activities to occur. In the cell. however. It is jelly-like and metabolism takes place. Cells structure Plasma Membranes The plasma membrane is a thin layer of semi-permeable covering of the cell made of protein and fats. It can also be said to be the power house of the cell and it is where aerobic respiration occurs to generate energy from the glucose molecules in the cell. The nuclear membrane has many perforations and it is scattered all over the nuclear membrane. The nuclear pores on the membrane allow certain molecules to enter or leave the nucleus. Mitochondria The mitochondria often appear in a rod or cylindrical shape. The cell membrane is also there to separate one cell from an adjacent cell. It is involved in chemical energy conversion during metabolic activities of the cell. It increases the surface area for absorption of nutrients and disposal of wastes.

a watery solution of sugar. in animal cells. At the opposite side of the stack. which is used to store and transport substances around the cell. RER is the site of synthesis for protein such as digestive enzymes. Many types of cell have vast numbers of ribosome and they also construct a type of acid known as nucleic acid. they appear as tiny granules.Vacuole Vacuoles are sacs filled with sap. Golgi apparatus The Golgi apparatus consists of a stack-like structure that is a collection of flattened membranous sacs. It is the site of synthesis for certain chemicals. Rough endoplasmic reticulum has ribosomes attached to it and vesicles are formed from swelling at the margins that get pinched off. to which they may stay attached to. The SER is also responsible for the manufacturing of lipids. Endoplasmic Reticulum The endoplasmic reticulum consists of a network of folded membranes. Vesicles are formed from swellings at the margins that become pinched off. a special form of SER is at the site of storage of calcium ions which have an important role in the contraction of muscle fibers. forming interconnected sheets. but is especially prominent in metabolically active cells such as secretary cells. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum has no ribosomes attached to it and is the site of synthesis for substances needed by the cell. the vacuoles appear as one large section of the cell in the middle. Ribosome Ribosome is made up of two sub units that aids in protein synthesis and is the biological catalysts and makes reactions of metabolisms. The cytoplasm of metabolically active cells is usually packed with endoplasmic reticulum. A vesicle is a small spherical organelle bounded by a single membrane. These are the excess food stored in the cell after digestion. tubes or sacs. salts. In plants. including hormones and polysaccharide macromolecules. The Golgi apparatus is present in all cells. One side of the stack of membranes is formed by the fusion of membranes of vesicles from ER. For example. however. The structure originates from the outer membrane of the nucleus. which are then 40 . the rough ER (RER) and the smooth ER (SER). In the cytoplasm of voluntary muscle fibers. and pigments. These are ¶packaged· in the vesicles and are discharged from the cells. There are two distinct types of endoplasmic reticulum.

which are produced by either the Golgi apparatus or by the ER. It is then broken down. Lysosomes Lysosomes are small spherical vesicles bound by a single membrane. Division of Labour Division of labour is needed since each cell has specified jobs and not any other cell is able to take over the job of a specified type of cell. The water would move across from the substrate of higher water potential until both sides have an equal water potential. This allows multiple processes to go on concurrently. They contain a concentrated mixture of hydrolytic enzymes. In animal cells these vesicles may form lysosome. the hydrolytic enzymes in the lysosome of the cells escape into the cytoplasm and cause self digestion. there is another unique cell part. Cell wall The cell wall in plant cells is a firm and turgid layer of cellulose that gives the cell its shape and it does not interfere with the cell membrane·s work of regulating entry and exit of substances as the perforations in it is large enough for almost all substances to go through. Without the chloroplast. When an organism dies. cell specialization in the division of labor is very important. Lysosomes are involved in the breakdown of contents of imported food vacuoles. When a 41 . Diffusion & Osmosis Osmosis is generally the net movement of water molecules across a partially permeable layer from a substance of higher water potential to a substance of lower water potential.packages into vesicles. a cheek cell is definitely not able to replace a brain cell thus. Water potential is the density of water molecules in a certain area. and the products of digestion escape into the liquid of the cytoplasm. the chloropast which is the part in the cell that contains chlorophyll and trap sunlight to make food. the plant cells would not appear green and would not be able to photosynthesize. For example. An example might be a harmful bacterium that has invaded the body and been engulfed by one of the body·s defense cell. Lysosomes may also fuse with and digest any broken-down organelles in the cytoplasm. Chloroplast In plant cells. while those in plant cells my contain polysaccharide for cell wall formation.

substrate has a higher water potential than the average water potential in your cell. the thickness of the barrier separating the two substances and the size of the molecule these factors all can affect the rate of diffusion and osmosis. it is said that the substance is hypotonic and water moves into the cell and a plant cell would become turgid while an animal cell would lyse. causing it to be flaccid. 42 . When the substance has a lower water potential than the average water potential in your cell. or the diffusion of blue paint in a beaker of water. it is said that the substance is hypertonic and water would move out of the cell. When the substrate has an equal water potential as the average water potential in you cell. for example. the diffusion of gas in the or air. Diffusion is affected by many different factors like the temperature of the substance since it affects the movement of molecule. Diffusion is quite the same thing as osmosis except that it involves a substance that can move and travel across in natural. it is called isotonic and there is no net movement of water in and out of the cell.

The food is kept in the stomach for about 2-4 hours and remains there until mostly digested. The pepsin aids in breaking down the protein into peptides and the rennin converts protein into insoluble curds for hydrolysis of pepsin. No chemical reaction occurs here apart from the digestion of starch into maltose. Alcohol and glucose are also absorbed here. In the stomach. The gullet itself is just a long tube of muscles. to render easy absorption of calcium and iron at a later stage in the process of digestion. various enzymes are secreted. The food from the mouth is pushed down this tube by peristalsis. The tongue secretes enzyme amylase which helps to catalyse the digestion of starch into maltose in the food. The teeth start helping by chewing and tearing the food up into smaller pieces (mastication) so that digestion can occur over a larger surface area for enzyme reaction and digestion can happen faster. It is also to soften the food. The hydrochloric acid also helps to loosen the bonds in the meat. This is an involuntary action. The saliva also contains mucus that helps to make food more slippery and allows it to go down the esophagus more easily. The hydrochloric acid in the stomach is highly acidic and thus the average pH of the stomach is about 2. The food that has been churned by the stomach is called chime. Gullet The gullet or the esophagus is a passage way which connects the mouth to the stomach. The pyloric sphincter controls the entry of food to the duodenum. pushing the ball of food down. 43 . this is the action of the muscles contracting and relaxing. The tongue then rolls the chewed up food into a ball called bolus and it is rolled to the back of the tongue so that it can go down into the throat. Stomach The stomach is a muscular bag that contains hydrochloric acid and it is also where most of the digestion takes place. the stomach has to secrete mucus in order to prevent the hydrochloric acid from digesting the walls of the stomach. rennin and peptides. This acidic environment allows many of the processes in the stomach to go on and also kills the bacteria in the food. pepsin. Due to its acidic environment.Digestive System The process of digestion Mouth The mouth is the place where digestion starts.

It also secretes insulin to convert excess glucose to glycogen in the liver. and there is the lacteal which is linked to the lymphatic system of the body. In the ileum. each villus has blood capillaries linked to the hepatic system and in the middle of the main villi. there are millions of micro-villi. sucrose is digested into glucose and fructose and the maltose is digested into sucrose. On the villi. Pancreas The pancreas is one of the main secretor of alkaline enzymes in the digestive system. In the duodenum.Liver The liver is one of the crucial parts of the digestive system and it is where green bile that is needed for emulsification of fats is formed and sent to the gall bladder to be stored and transferred to the small intestine to emulsify the fats and allow a larger area for reaction of lipase. lipase and even water as it helps in hydrolysis of food. Small Intestine The small intestine is where the final stages of digestion take place. 44 . trypsin. the walls of the small intestine are covered with tiny protrusions called micro-villi. making it easier for the digestion of fats and lipids in the food. into the lymphatic system to the liver. the peptides are digested into amino acids. Just to name a few of the reactions that occur. it is also where bile is secreted into the digestive system. The other nutrients however. lactose is digested into glucose and galactose. The pancreas is a feathery like structure that secretes enzymes like amylase. The fats and lipids are absorbed into the lacteal. and the bile helps to emulsify the fats so that the digestion of fats into fatty acid and glycerol can occur at a faster rate. are absorbed into the blood capillaries and transported to all parts of the body. the last stages of digestion take place and are completed and the food moves on to the duodenum. The villi are present to aid in the absorption of nutrients into the bloodstream as the surface area for absorption is increased and is more efficient. The pH here is relatively normal as it is pH7 since the pancreatic juice is alkaline and thus the hydrochloric acid from the stomach may be neutralized so that the acids in the pancreatic juice can be activated.

however. the walls of the large intestine secretes mucus to prevent the enzymes from harming the walls of the large intestine. water is absorbed from the food into the body The large intestine pushes the digested food through the large intestine by peristalsis. Since there are no chemical to neutralize the enzymes from the small intestine. the colon is the part where no enzyme activity takes place. 45 .Large Intestine The large intestine is the alimentary canal and is mainly made up of the colon.

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