Research Report: Page1 Running Head: SPSS Research Report

SPSS Research Report Using NELS 88 Montori Jaquae Graham SOWK 300-01 Mrs. McArthur February 25, 2012

Research Report: Page2 Abstract The research conducted was primarily during the years of 1987- 1988 on 8th grade scholars across the United States of America. The National Center for Education (NCES) provided a longitudinal study on the student’s attendance in high school. The extensive data exhibited that the number of hours a student watched television can have an impact on the students overall proficiency score of their math exams. Not only that, but the student’s gender and lunch plan also have an impact on exam scores.

Research Report: Page3 Hypothesis The bivariate relationship in this research exhibited is that the number of hours a student watches television on weekdays has an effect on math proficiency exam scores. The number of hour’s student watched television acted as the independent variable and the overall math proficiency exam score proceeded to be the dependent variable. The control variable that helped clarify the relationship between the independent and dependent variable was the student’s gender and their lunch plan. The value for the overall math proficiency began with below zero. The next levels where too level one, succeeding this is level one and two, preceding that was all three levels. The percentage value of students that received free lunch in schools started from none to one through five. Six through ten was the second value, eleven thorough twenty acted as the third value, twenty one through thirty as the forth, thirty-one to fifty as the fifth, fifty-one through seventy five as the sixth, and the last value presented was the seventh which was the seventy-six through one hundred percentile. The student’s gender also may be essential to how many hours a student watches television. Males may be bound to watch more television than females due to males love for entertainment. Females are bound to be more social and spend more time socializing. Those students who have free lunch may have lower test scores due to the economic stress that the family has. The number of hours a student watches T.V. on weekdays has an effect on math proficiency exam scores. Not only can that but the student sex have an effect. The male population score may be lower than females due to males watching more television. Those who have free lunch may also have an influence on student’s math proficiency exam scores. Those who have free lunches may have lower scores

Research Report: Page4 Rationale I am now going to elaborate and define my reasoning behind why I consider that the number of hours a student watches television on weekdays has an effect on math proficiency exam scores. The more television a person watches has an effect on their test scores because the time spent watching television could be the time spent studying. Those who watch less television can manage their time more efficiently for studying. Students can also focus and place emphasis on school work when their not watching as much television. Students can better accomplish having and developing habitual study habits without observing the TV. Those with free lunch plan may also have lower test scores due to economical stresses. To qualify for free or reduced lunch parents or guardians primarily have a low income. Not only does the student have to convey with educational supplements but household things as well. In addition to this students gender may play a role in their test scores. Female students generally have higher scores than males on math proficiency exams. Females arguably have better study habits than males. The reason behind this is that males watch more television as a source of entertainment. Although females predominantly socialize, they better manage their time.

Research Report: Page5 Results

Table 1 Overall Math Proficiency Score by Respondents (%)

Respondents Television Hours ____________________________________________________________________

Scores 0-2 Hours 2-3 Hours or More Totals ______________________________________________________________________________ Below Level 1 Level 1-2 Totals 41.9 58.1 100.0 54.6 45.4 100.0 50.2 49.8 100.0

(N) (34.6) (65.4) (100.0) ______________________________________________________________________________

Research Report: Page6 Table 2 Overall Math Proficiency Score by Respondents Controlling for Respondents Gender (%) ______________________________________________________________________________ Respondents Television Hours ____________________________________________________________________ Scores 0-2 Hours 2-3 Hours or More Totals ______________________________________________________________________________ Male Respondents Below Level 1 Level 1-2 Totals (N) 38.1 61.9 100.0 (33.9) 51.7 48.3 100.0 (66.1) 47.1 52.9 100.0 (100.0)

_____________________________________________________________________________ Female Respondents Below Level 1 Level 1-2 Totals 45.1 54.9 100.0 57.2 42.8 100.0 53.0 47.0 100.0

(N) (35.2) (64.8) (100.0) _____________________________________________________________________________

Research Report: Page7 Table 3 Overall Math Proficiency Score by Respondents Controlling for Respondents with Free Lunch (%) ______________________________________________________________________________ Respondents Television Hours ____________________________________________________________________ Scores 0-2 Hours 2-3 Hours or More Totals ______________________________________________________________________________ None to 11-20 Below Level 1 Level 1-2 Totals (N) 34.6 65.4 100.0 (38.4) 47.5 52.5 100.0 (61.6) 42.6 57.4 100.0 (100.0)

_____________________________________________________________________________ 21-30 to 76-100 Below Level 1 Level 1-2 Totals 55.6 44.4 100.0 63.4 36.6 100.0 61.1 38.9 100.0

(N) (29.1) (70.9) (100.0) _____________________________________________________________________________

Research Report: Page8 Discussion The bivariate correlation in this research displayed that the number of hours a student watches television on weekdays has an effect on math proficiency exam scores. The number of hour’s student watched television acted as the independent variable and the overall math proficiency exam score proceeded to be the dependent variable as I stated previously. The data concluded that the majority of males watch more television than females. My reasoning to why that is, is that more males find entertainment in television. I found it shocking that there wasn’t a vast disparity between the percentages of males that watch T.V. over females. Sixty-six point one percent of males watched two hours or more television while 64.8% of females watched two hours or more of television on weekdays. Another control variable was that students having a free or reduced lunch can influence students test scores. This also was found to be true. My assumption was that students with free or reduced lunch would have lower test scores. Those who have free lunches may have lower scores because of economic pressures. An article labeled “National School Lunch Program: Background, Trends, and Issues” went into depth about those students that are eligible for free lunch and the issues pertaining the school system. It’s usually those within a household with a low income that are eligible. So not only do the students have to upkeep with their education but their household dilemmas as well. An article discoursed that for the upmost studies involving school achievement uses students eligible for free lunch as a variable for an immense difference in socioeconomic backgrounds. The data concluded that the majority of students for the values of 21-30 to 76-100 students with free lunch were below level 1. This means that the student

Research Report: Page9 couldn’t perform simple arithmetical operations on whole number. The percentage that was given was 61.1%.

Research Report: Page10 References 1.) Lubienski, S., & Crane, C. (2010). Beyond Free Lunch: Which Family Background Measures Matter?. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 18(11). 2.) Ralston, K., Newman, C., Clauson, A., Guthrie, J., Buzby, J., & Economic Research Service (2008). The National School Lunch Program: Background, Trends, and Issues. ERS Report Summary. US Department Of Agriculture.

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