by Lawrence H. Ford and Thomas A.

Roman
Scientific American, January 2000 from TerryBoyce Website recovered through WayBackMachine Website Spanish version

The construction of worm holes and warp drive would require a very unusual form of energy. Unfortunately, the same laws of physics that allow the existence of this "negative energy" also appear to limit its behavior

If a wormhole could exist, it would appear as a spherical opening to an otherwise distant part of the cosmos. In this doctored photograph of Times Square, the wormhole allows New Yorkers to walk to the Sahara with a single step, rather than spending hours on the plane to Tamanrasset. although such a wormhole does not break any known laws of physics, it would require the production of unrealistic amounts of negative energy.

Can a region of space contain less than nothing?

Common sense would say no; the most one could do is remove all matter and radiation and be left with vacuum. But quantum physics has a proven ability to confound intuition, and this case is no exception. A region of space, it turns out, can contain less than nothing. Its energy per unit volume - the energy density - can be less than zero. Needless to say, the implications are bizarre. According to Einstein’s theory of gravity, general relativity, the presence of matter and energy warps the geometric fabric of space and time. What we perceive as gravity is the space-time distortion produced by normal, positive energy or mass. But when negative energy or mass - so-called exotic matter - bends space-time, all sorts of amazing phenomena might become possible: traversable wormholes, which could act as tunnels to otherwise distant parts of the universe; warp drive, which would allow for fasterthan-light travel; and time machines, which might permit journeys into the past. Negative energy could even be used to make perpetual-motion machines or to destroy black holes. A Star Trek episode could not ask for more. For physicists, these ramifications set off alarm bells. The potential paradoxes of backward time travel–such as killing your grandfather before your father is conceived–have long been explored in science fiction, and the other consequences of exotic matter are also problematic. They raise a question of fundamental importance: Do the laws of physics that permit negative energy place any limits on its behavior? We and others have discovered that nature imposes stringent constraints on the magnitude and duration of negative energy, which (unfortunately, some would say) appear to render the construction of wormholes and warp drives very unlikely.

Double Negative
Before proceeding further, we should draw the reader’s attention to what negative energy is not. It should not be confused with antimatter, which has positive energy. When an electron and its antiparticle, a positron, collide, they annihilate. The end products are gamma rays, which carry positive energy. If antiparticles were composed of negative energy, such an interaction would result in a final energy of zero. One should also not confuse negative energy with the energy associated with the cosmological constant, postulated in inflationary models of the universe [see "Cosmological Antigravity," by Lawrence M. Krauss; SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, January 1999]. Such a constant represents negative pressure but positive energy. (Some authors call this exotic matter; we reserve the term for negative energy densities.) The concept of negative energy is not pure fantasy; some of its effects have even been produced in the laboratory. They arise from Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle, which requires that the energy density of any electric, magnetic or other field fluctuate randomly. Even when the energy density is zero on average, as in a vacuum, it fluctuates. Thus, the quantum vacuum can never remain empty in the classical sense of the term; it is a roiling sea of "virtual" particles spontaneously popping in and out of existence [see "Exploiting Zero-Point Energy," by Philip Yam; SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, December 1997]. In quantum theory, the usual notion of zero energy corresponds to the vacuum with all these fluctuations. So if one can somehow contrive to dampen the undulations, the vacuum will have less energy than it normally does–that is, less than zero energy.

Waves of light ordinarily have a positive or zero energy density at different points in space (top). But in a so-called squeezed state, the energy density at a particular instant in time can become negative at some locations (bottom). To compensate, the peak positive density must increase. As an example, researchers in quantum optics have created special states of fields in which destructive quantum interference suppresses the vacuum fluctuations. These so-called squeezed vacuum states involve negative energy. More precisely, they are associated with regions of alternating positive and negative energy. The total energy averaged over all space remains positive; squeezing the vacuum creates negative energy in one place at the price of extra positive energy elsewhere. A typical experiment involves laser beams passing through nonlinear optical materials [see "Squeezed Light," by Richart E. Slusher and Bernard Yurke; SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, May 1988]. The intense laser light induces the material to create pairs of light quanta, photons. These photons alternately enhance and suppress the vacuum fluctuations, leading to regions of positive and negative energy, respectively. Another method for producing negative energy introduces geometric boundaries into a space. In 1948 Dutch physicist Hendrik B. G. Casimir showed that two uncharged parallel metal plates alter the vacuum fluctuations in such a way as to attract each other. The energy density between the plates was later calculated to be negative. In effect, the plates reduce the fluctuations in the gap between them; this creates negative energy and pressure, which pulls the plates together. The narrower the gap, the more negative the energy and pressure, and the stronger is the attractive force. The Casimir effect has recently been measured by Steve K. Lamoreaux of Los Alamos National Laboratory and by Umar Mohideen of the University of California at Riverside and his colleague Anushree Roy. Similarly, in the 1970s Paul C. W. Davies and Stephen A.

Fulling, then at King’s College at the University of London, predicted that a moving boundary, such as a moving mirror, could produce a flux of negative energy. For both the Casimir effect and squeezed states, researchers have measured only the indirect effects of negative energy. Direct detection is more difficult but might be possible using atomic spins, as Peter G. Grove, then at the British Home Office, Adrian C. Ottewill, then at the University of Oxford, and one of us (Ford) suggested in 1992.

Gravity and Levity
The concept of negative energy arises in several areas of modern physics. It has an intimate link with black holes, those mysterious objects whose gravitational field is so strong that nothing can escape from within their boundary, the event horizon. In 1974 Stephen W. Hawking of the University of Cambridge made his famous prediction that black holes evaporate by emitting radiation [see "The Quantum Mechanics of Black Holes," by Stephen W. Hawking; SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, January 1977]. A black hole radiates energy at a rate inversely proportional to the square of its mass. Although the evaporation rate is large only for subatomic size black holes, it provides a crucial link between the laws of black holes and the laws of thermodynamics. The Hawking radiation allows black holes to come into thermal equilibrium with their environment. At first glance, evaporation leads to a contradiction. The horizon is a one-way street; energy can only flow inward. So how can a black hole radiate energy outward? Because energy must be conserved, the production of positive energy - which distant observers see as the Hawking radiation - is accompanied by a flow of negative energy into the hole. Here the negative energy is produced by the extreme space-time curvature near the hole, which disturbs the vacuum fluctuations. In this way, negative energy is required for the consistency of the unification of black hole physics with thermodynamics. The black hole is not the only curved region of space-time where negative energy seems to play a role. Another is the worm hole - a hypothesized type of tunnel that connects one region of space and time to another. Physicists used to think that wormholes exist only on the very finest length scales, bubbling in and out of existence like virtual particles [see "Quantum Gravity, by Bryce S. DeWitt; SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, December 1983]. In the early 1960s physicists Robert Fuller and John A. Wheeler showed that larger wormholes would collapse under their own gravity so rapidly that even a beam of light would not have enough time to travel through them. But in the late 1980s various researchers - notably Michael S. Morris and Kip S. Thorne of the California Institute of Technology and Matt Visser of Washington University - found otherwise. Certain wormholes could in fact be made large enough for a person or spaceship. Someone might enter the mouth of a wormhole stationed on Earth, walk a short distance inside the wormhole and exit the other mouth in, say, the Andromeda galaxy. The catch is that traversable wormholes require negative energy. Because negative energy is gravitationally repulsive, it would prevent the wormhole from collapsing. For a wormhole to be traversable, it ought to (at bare minimum) allow signals, in the form of light rays, to pass through it. Light rays entering one mouth of a wormhole are converging, but to emerge from the other mouth, they must defocus - in other words, they must go from converging to diverging somewhere in between [see illustration below]. This defocusing requires negative energy.

Whereas the curvature of space produced by the attractive gravitational field of ordinary matter acts like a converging lens, negative energy acts like a diverging lens.

Waves of light ordinarily have a positive or zero energy density at different points in space (top). But in a socalled squeezed state, the energy density at a particular instant in time can become negative at some locations (bottom). To compensate, the peak positive density must increase.

No Dilithium Needed
Such space-time contortions would enable another staple of science fiction as well: fasterthan-light travel. In 1994 Miguel Alcubierre Moya, then at the University of Wales at Cardiff, discovered a solution to Einstein’s equations that has many of the desired features of warp drive. It describes a space-time bubble that transports a starship at arbitrarily high speeds relative to observers outside the bubble. Calculations show that negative energy is required. Warp drive might appear to violate Einstein’s special theory of relativity. But special relativity says that you cannot outrun a light signal in a fair race in which you and the signal follow the same route. When space-time is warped, it might be possible to beat a light signal by taking a different route, a shortcut. The contraction of space-time in front of the bubble and the expansion behind it create such a shortcut [see illustration below].

Within the tube. A starship captain on the inside cannot steer the bubble or turn it on or off." a tube of modified space-time (not the same as a wormhole) connecting Earth and a distant star. Petersburg. Negative energy (blue) is required on the sides of the bubble. and expands at its rear. crew members do not experience any acceleration. Space-time contracts at the front of the bubble. they .Space-time bubble is the closest that modern physics comes to the "warp drive" of science fiction. Krasnikov proposed a "superluminal subway. During the outbound journey at sublight speed. To get around this problem. On the return journey. One problem with Alcubierre’s original model. increasing the distance from the origin (arrows). a spaceship crew would create such a tube. reducing the distance to the destination. some external agency must set it up ahead of time. The ship itself stands still relative to the space immediately around it. superluminal travel in one direction is possible. pointed out by Sergei V. is that the interior of the warp bubble is causally disconnected from its forward edge. It can convey a starship at arbitrarily high speeds. Krasnikov of the Central Astronomical Observatory at Pulkovo near St.

Thorne and Ulvi Yurtsever. he may return before he left. Olum of Tufts University and by Visser. A person who leaves Earth in a spaceship. and their paper has stimulated much research on time travel over the past decade. If the traveler manages to outrun a light ray. that any scheme for faster-than-light travel requires the use of negative energy. the subway involves negative energy. Like warp bubbles. time travel might become possible. View from the bridge of a faster-thanlight starship as it heads in the direction of the Little Dipper (above) looks nothing like the star streaks typically depicted in science fiction.could travel through it at warp speed. It has since been shown by Ken D. . If one can construct wormholes or warp drives. then at Caltech. it depends on the observer’s velocity. travels at near lightspeed and returns will have aged less than someone who remains on Earth. Morris. In 1992 Hawking proved that any construction of a time machine in a finite region of spacetime inherently requires negative energy. together with Bruce Bassett of Oxford and Stefano Liberati of the International School for Advanced Studies in Trieste. perhaps by taking a shortcut through a wormhole or a warp bubble. proposed a wormhole time machine in 1988. The passage of time is relative.

stars ahead of the ship (left column) appear ever closer to the direction of motion and turn bluer in color. .As the velocity increases. stars shift closer to a position directly astern. Behind the ship (right column).

A broken glass does not reassemble itself. the damage is limited. One might instead envision producing a decrease in mass by shining a beam of negative energy down the hole. When a black hole forms by the collapse of a dying star. Before and after the creation of equal amounts of negative and positive energy in previously empty space. But there are many phenomena that conserve energy yet never occur in the real world. requires an external power source. this might be the scenario in which negative energy is the most likely to produce macroscopic effects. it could cool the water while using the extracted positive energy to power a small motor– providing a refrigerator with no need for external power. however. These problems arise not from the existence of negative energy per se but from the unrestricted separation of negative and positive energy. Roger Penrose of Oxford proposed the cosmic censorship hypothesis: there can be no naked singularities. Attempts to charge up or spin up these black holes using ordinary matter seem to fail for a variety of reasons.known as extreme black holes . a region where the gravitational field becomes infinitely strong.even a small increase in charge or spin. or a decrease in mass. One could direct the negative energy beam off to some distant corner of the universe. a refrigerator. Such effects are forbidden by the second law of thermodynamics. while employing the positive energy to perform useful work. which pumps heat from its cold interior to the warmer outside room. so the law of conservation of energy is obeyed. For this reason. the total energy is zero. This general principle states that the degree of disorder of a system–its entropy–cannot decrease on its own without an input of energy. the second law also forbids the complete conversion of heat into work. Imagine an exotic laser. general relativity–and indeed all known laws of physics–are unable to say what happens next. The description of nature everywhere outside of the horizon is unaffected. The light from stars directly overhead or underneath remains unaffected. Unfettered negative energy would also have profound consequences for black holes. Conservation of energy requires that a byproduct be a steady stream of positive energy. One might create such a beam. This seemingly inexhaustible energy supply could be used to make a perpetual-motion machine and thereby violate the second law. thus subverting cosmic censorship. This inability is a profound failure of the current mathematical description of nature. Therefore. Negative energy potentially conflicts with the second law. If the beam were directed at a glass of water. Thus. In principle. without altering its charge or spin. which are unshielded by event horizons. So long as the singularity is hidden within an event horizon. At this point. Similarly. Not Separate and Not Equal . using a moving mirror. and heat does not spontaneously flow from a colder to a hotter body. for example. Negative energy is so strange that one might think it must violate some law of physics. it would require only a tiny amount of negative energy to produce a dramatic change in the state of an extreme black hole. could in principle destroy the horizon and convert the hole into a naked singularity. general relativity predicts the formation of a singularity. For special types of charged or rotating black holes .redden and eventually disappear from view altogether. which creates a steady outgoing beam of negative energy.

negative energy is an energy deficit. Flanagan of Cornell University. One can think of negative energy as an energy loan. the analogy goes even further. although quantum theory allows the existence of negative energy. and Edward Teo of the National University of Singapore. The permissible magnitude of the negative energy is inversely related to its temporal or spatial extent.known as quantum inequalities . . Just as a debt is negative money that has to be repaid. As we will discuss below. an initial negative energy pulse must be followed by a larger pulse of positive energy [see illustration below]. Eveson of the University of York.on its magnitude and duration. including Eanna E. Over the past decade they have been proved and refined by us and others. Pfenning.Fortunately (or not. Michael J. These inequalities were first suggested by Ford in 1978. Fewster and Simon P. Furthermore. The larger the magnitude of the negative energy. Christopher J. They say that a beam of negative energy cannot be arbitrarily intense for an arbitrarily long time. These restrictions are independent of the details of how the negative energy is produced. depending on your point of view). The inequalities bear some resemblance to the uncertainty principle. then at Tufts. An intense pulse of negative energy can last for a short time. a weak pulse can last longer. the nearer must be its positive energy counterpart. it also appears to place strong restrictions .

First. the weaker it must be (a. Second. Third. the longer the pulse lasts. . the longer the time interval between the two pulses. b).an effect known as quantum interest (c).Pulses of negative energy are permitted by quantum theory but only under three conditions. the larger the positive one must be . a pulse of positive energy must follow. The magnitude of the positive pulse must exceed that of the initial negative one.

In the Casimir effect. but large negative energy densities require a very small plate separation. These results would seem to make it rather unlikely that one could construct wormholes and warp drives using negative energy generated by quantum effects. narrow lines. Similar constraints apply to Krasnikov’s superluminal subway. In 1996 we showed that a submicroscopic wormhole would have a throat radius of no more than about 10-32 meter. 10-35 meter. A modification of Alcubierre’s model was recently constructed by Chris Van Den Broeck of the Catholic University of Louvain in Belgium. in one model a throat radius of 1 meter requires the negative energy to be a band no thicker than 10-21 meter. the maximum allowed thickness of the negative energy band is proportional to the cube root of the throat radius. as shown by Pfenning and Allen Everett of Tufts. the smallest distance that has definite meaning. According to the quantum inequalities. a difficult feat. the energy density in the gap can be made more negative than the Casimir value. The situation does not improve much for larger wormholes. . and the total amount required increases linearly with the throat size. The magnitude of the negative energy density is inversely proportional to the fourth power of the plate separation. In Alcubierre’s model. working with us. but only temporarily. the more one tries to depress the energy density below the Casimir value. But all known physically reasonable cosmic-string models have positive energy densities. So-called cosmic strings. a warp bubble traveling at 10 times lightspeed (warp factor 2. They must find a mechanism for confining large amounts of negative energy to extremely thin volumes. For example. Cosmic Flashing and Quantum Interest The quantum inequalities prevent violations of the second law. Even if the throat radius is increased to a size of one light-year. the negative energy density between the plates can persist indefinitely. This is only slightly larger than the Planck length. When applied to wormholes and warp drives. In effect. For the same model. the shorter the time over which this situation can be maintained. or if they are macroscopic the negative energy must be confined to incredibly thin bands. Warp drives are even more tightly constrained. the quantum inequalities typically imply that such structures must either be limited to submicroscopic sizes. We found that it is possible to have models of wormholes of macroscopic size but only at the price of confining the negative energy to an extremely thin band around the throat. Visser has estimated that the negative energy required for this size of wormhole has a magnitude equivalent to the total energy generated by 10 billion stars in one year. a millionth the size of a proton. very negative Casimir energy density must be confined between closely spaced plates. involve very large energy densities in long. in the parlance of Star Trek: The Next Generation) must have a wall thickness of no more than 10-32 meter. A bubble large enough to enclose a starship 200 meters across would require a total amount of negative energy equal to 10 billion times the mass of the observable universe. hypothesized in some cosmological theories. It requires much less negative energy but places the starship in a curved space-time bottle whose neck is about 10-32 meter across. the negative energy must still be confined to a region smaller than a proton radius. It seems that wormhole engineers face daunting problems. Just as a pulse with a very negative energy density is limited in time.

Attempt to circumvent the quantum laws that govern negative energy inevitably ends in disappointment. By closing the shutter. say. but its effects would be indistinguishable from normal thermal fluctuations. A weak pulse of negative energy could remain separated from its positive counterpart for a longer time. one might hope to trap a pulse of negative energy before the offsetting positive energy arrives. But the very act of closing the shutter creates an energy flux that cancels out the negative energy it was designed to trap [see illustration below]. As the pulses approach a box (a). Yet the very act of closing the lid creates a second positive energy pulse inside the box (c).If one tries to use a pulse of negative energy to cool a hot object. which reheats the object. The experimenter intends to detach a negative energy pulse from its compensating positive energy pulse. Attempts to capture or split off negative energy from positive energy also appear to fail. . it will be quickly followed by a larger pulse of positive energy. One might intercept an energy beam. by using a box with a shutter. the experimenter tries to isolate the negative one by closing the lid after it has entered (b).

one of the founders of black hole physics. If negative energy is thought of as an energy loan. so a distant observer could not unambiguously verify that cosmic censorship had been violated.D. The concept of negative energy touches on many areas of physics: gravitation. He is now a professor of physics at Tufts University and works on problems in both general relativity and quantum theory. working under John Wheeler. Roman has been a frequent visitor at the Tufts Institute of Cosmology during the past 10 years and is currently a professor of physics at Central Connecticut State University. quantum physics prevents unrestricted production of negative energy. the loan must be repaid with interest. exposing the singularity within. Ford and Thomas A. the larger the loan. it must overcompensate. quantum theory. and Fewster and Teo. thermodynamics. which are a natural consequence of the uncertainty principle.We have shown that there are similar restrictions on violations of cosmic censorship. On the one hand. who collaborated with Albert Einstein on unified field theory. The longer the loan period or the larger the loan amount. then at the University of Victoria. The interweaving of so many different parts of physics illustrates the tight logical structure of the laws of nature. The positive pulse that necessarily follows an initial negative pulse must do more than compensate for the negative pulse. The change in the mass of the black hole caused by the negative energy pulse will get washed out by the normal quantum fluctuations in the hole’s mass. Whether these restrictions are also features of some deeper underlying theory. with a special interest in quantum fluctuations. Furthermore. the smaller is the maximum allowed loan period. Recently we. Nature no doubt has more surprises in store.a scenario we have dubbed cosmic flashing. Therefore. in 1981 from Syracuse University under Peter Bergmann. On the other. Nature is a shrewd banker and always calls in its debts. A pulse of negative energy injected into a charged black hole might momentarily destroy the horizon. But then the magnitude of the negative energy pulse would have to be very small. which would convert the naked singularity back into a black hole . Roman have collaborated on negative energy issues for over a decade. which would violate the second law of thermodynamics. The positive energy must always dominate–an effect known as quantum interest. Roman received his Ph. allowing the naked singularity to last as long as possible. The Authors Lawrence H. Ford received his Ph. His other pursuits include hiking in the New England woods and gathering wild mushrooms. His interests include the implications of negative energy for a quantum theory of gravity. remains to be seen. But the pulse must be followed by a pulse of positive energy. from Princeton University in 1974. the negative and positive pulses can never be made to exactly cancel each other. have shown that the quantum inequalities lead to even stronger bounds on negative energy.D. according to the quantum inequalities. and also Frans Pretorius. The amount of overcompensation increases with the time interval between the pulses. such as quantum gravity. . The best chance to observe cosmic flashing would be to maximize the time separation between the negative and positive energy. The view of the naked singularity would thus be blurred. the greater is the interest. He tends to avoid wild mushrooms. negative energy seems to be required to reconcile black holes with thermodynamics.

1999. Ford and T. Vol. pages 1743-1751. 1996. Article No. THE UNPHYSICAL NATURE OF WARP DRIVE. Ford and T. American Institute of Physics Press. 1998. May 15. W. LORENTZIAN WORMHOLES: FROM EINSTEIN TO HAWKING. W. Vol. 1994. 1996. Roman in Physical Review D.Further Information • • • • • • • BLACK HOLES AND TIME WARPS: EINSTEIN’S OUTRAGEOUS LEGACY.lanl. Paul Davies in New Scientist. March 21. 60. H.gov/abs/grqc/9510071 on the World Wide Web. No. Thorne. L. Matt Visser. A. 10. 10. 7. H. see Einstein-Rosen Bridge (EP). the free encyclopedia "Einstein-Rosen Bridge" redirects here. Vol. Available at xxx. 1999 second edition. No. METAPHYSICS. July 1997. PARADOX LOST. November 15. 157. Available at xxx.gov/abs/gr-qc/9702026 on the World Wide Web. Springer-Verlag. Nahin. H. 14. AIP Press.gov/abs/gr-qc/9901074 on the World Wide Web. TIME MACHINES: TIME TRAVEL IN PHYSICS. Roman in Physical Review D. Pfenning and L. No. .lanl. Norton. 53. Vol. 104018 (8 pages). Return to Time Travel Return to Tom Bearden Return to Agujeros Negros Return to Temas / Paraciencia Return to Fuerzas del Universo Return to George LoBuono and Aliens Wormhole From Wikipedia. QUANTUM FIELD THEORY CONSTRAINS TRAVERSABLE WORMHOLE GEOMETRIES. Ford in Classical and Quantum Gravity. A. M. Kip S.lanl. AND SCIENCE FICTION. No. J. 2126. THE QUANTUM INTEREST CONJECTURE. L. For the EP by Venetian Snares. pages 5496-5507. page 26. Paul J. Available at xxx.

however.[8][9] It has also been proposed that if a tiny wormhole held open by a negative-mass cosmic string had appeared around the time of the Big Bang. but on a theoretical level there are valid solutions to the equations of the theory of general relativity which contain wormholes. Wormholes which could actually be crossed. instead of mouths which are circular holes in a 2D plane. (Please note. a wormhole is also known as one of the great physics metaphors for teaching general relativity. through what topologists would call "a handle" of the multiply-connected space. Because of its robust theoretical strength. If this surface is folded along a third dimension. though. that this is merely a visualization displayed to convey an essentially unvisualisable structure existing in 4 or more dimensions. fundamentally. although the quantum foam hypothesis is sometimes used to suggest that tiny wormholes might appear and disappear spontaneously at the Planck scale... it allows one to picture a wormhole "bridge".) Physicists have not found any natural process which would be predicted to form a wormhole naturally in the context of general relativity. it could have been inflated to macroscopic size by cosmic inflation. and what physicists might perhaps be excused for more vividly terming a "wormhole". The first type of wormhole solution discovered was the Schwarzschild wormhole which would be present in the Schwarzschild metric describing an eternal black hole. known as traversable wormholes. the German mathematician Hermann Weyl already had proposed the wormhole theory. a wormhole is a hypothetical topological feature of spacetime that would be. a real wormhole's mouths could be spheres in 3D space. a "shortcut" through spacetime. There is no observational evidence for wormholes. consider spacetime visualized as a two-dimensional (2D) surface.[1] Kip Thorne. in theory. in 1921.Embedded diagram of a Schwarzschild wormhole (see also below) In physics. For a simple visual explanation of a wormhole. for example. but it was found that this type of wormhole would collapse too quickly for anything to cross from one end to the other.[2] and others[3][4][5] believe that the Casimir effect is evidence that negative energy densities are possible in nature.[11] This analysis forces one to consider situations.[10] The American theoretical physicist John Archibald Wheeler coined the term wormhole in 1957. —John Wheeler in Annals of Physics . (Many physicists such as Stephen Hawking.where there is a net flux of lines of force.) A wormhole is. The parts of the wormhole could be higherdimensional analogues for the parts of the curved 2D surface. much like a tunnel with two ends each in separate points in spacetime. would only be possible if exotic matter with negative energy density could be used to stabilize them.[6][7] and stable versions of such wormholes have been suggested as dark matter candidates. in connection with mass analysis of electromagnetic field energy.

For example. One might like to regard the umbilicus as the throat of a wormhole. then the region Ω contains a quasipermanent intra-universe wormhole. For example. whose boundary has topology of the form ∂Σ ~ S2. as regions of spacetime that constrain the incremental deformation of closed surfaces. the hypersurfaces Σ are all spacelike. Formalizing this idea leads to definitions such as the following. taken from Matt Visser's Lorentzian Wormholes. For this reason wormholes have been defined geometrically. where Σ is a three-manifold of the nontrivial topology. [edit] Schwarzschild wormholes . furthermore. and if. one can imagine a 'baby' universe connected to its 'parent' by a narrow 'umbilicus'. If a Minkowski spacetime contains a compact region Ω. Characterizing inter-universe wormholes is more difficult.1 Raychaudhuri's theorem and exotic matter 3. and if the topology of Ω is of the form Ω ~ R x Σ. but the spacetime is simply connected.2 Faster-than-light travel 3.3 Time travel 3. as opposed to topologically.Contents [hide] • • • 1 Definition 2 Schwarzschild wormholes 3 Traversable wormholes ○ ○ ○ ○ 3. in Enrico Rodrigo’s The Physics of Stargates a wormhole is defined informally as a region of spacetime containing a "world tube" (the time evolution of a closed surface) that cannot be continuously deformed (shrunk) to a world line [(the time evolution of a point)].4 Inter-Universe travel • • • • • • • 4 Metrics 5 In fiction 6 See also 7 External links 8 Notes 9 References 10 External links [edit] Definition The basic notion of an intra-universe wormhole is that it is a compact region of spacetime whose boundary is topologically trivial but whose interior is not simply connected.

however. with the second universe allowing us to extrapolate some possible particle trajectories in the two interior regions. Lorentzian wormholes known as Schwarzschild wormholes or Einstein-Rosen bridges are connections between areas of space that can be modeled as vacuum solutions to the Einstein field equations.An artist's impression of a wormhole from an observer's perspective. "maximally extended" refers to the idea that the spacetime should not have any "edges": for any possible trajectory of a free-falling particle (following a geodesic) in the spacetime. a more realistic black hole that forms at some particular time from a collapsing star would require a different metric. there must be a separate white hole interior region which allows us to extrapolate the trajectories of particles which an outside observer sees rising up away from the event horizon. it is possible to come up with coordinate systems such that if you pick a hypersurface of constant time (a set of points that all have the same time coordinate. it should be possible to continue this path arbitrarily far into the particle's future or past. In this spacetime. giving what is called a 'space-like surface') and draw an "embedding diagram" depicting the curvature of space at that time. as the bridge always collapses before the observer has time to cross it. known as an "Einstein-Rosen bridge". Note that the Schwarzschild metric describes an idealized black hole that exists eternally from the perspective of external observers. In order to satisfy this requirement. along with the part of the diagram corresponding to the other universe. and likewise particles from the interior white hole region can escape into either universe. All four regions can be seen in a spacetime diagram which uses Kruskal–Szekeres coordinates. the observer seeing light that has fallen into the black hole interior region from the other universe. crossing the event horizon of a Schwarzschild wormhole which bridges two different universes. this other universe is unreachable in the case of a Schwarzschild wormhole. such that every point on the surface has a space-like separation. and which are now understood to be intrinsic parts of the maximally extended version of the Schwarzschild metric describing an eternal black hole with no charge and no rotation. The observer originates from the right. sometimes called two different "universes". and everything that has fallen through the event horizon of either universe is inevitably crushed in the singularity. there are also two separate exterior regions. And just as there are two separate interior regions of the maximally extended spacetime. the embedding diagram will look like a tube connecting the two exterior regions. When the infalling stellar matter is added to a diagram of a black hole's history. it turns out that in addition to the black hole interior region which particles enter when they fall through the event horizon from the outside. This means that the interior black hole region can contain a mix of particles that fell in from either universe (and thus an observer who fell in from one universe might be able to see light that fell in from the other one).[12] . it removes the part of the diagram corresponding to the white hole interior region. unless the trajectory hits a gravitational singularity like the one at the center of the black hole's interior. and another universe becomes visible in the center of the wormhole’s shadow once the horizon is crossed. Here.

their existence inspired Kip Thorne to imagine traversable wormholes created by holding the 'throat' of a Schwarzschild wormhole open with exotic matter (material that has negative mass/energy). the type of traversable wormhole they proposed. Wheeler and Robert W. For this reason.The Einstein-Rosen bridge was discovered by Albert Einstein and his colleague Nathan Rosen. The possibility of traversable wormholes in general relativity was first demonstrated by Kip Thorne and his graduate student Mike Morris in a 1988 paper. In 1988.[14] A type held open by negative mass cosmic strings was put forth by Visser in collaboration with Cramer et al. held open by a spherical shell of exotic matter.[2] However. it was proposed that quasars were white holes forming the ends of wormholes of this type. other types of traversable wormholes were discovered as allowable solutions to the equations of general relativity.[15] [edit] Raychaudhuri's theorem and exotic matter . who first published the result in 1935. The image is calculated with 4D raytracing in a Morris-Thorne wormhole metric.[10] in which it was proposed that such wormholes could have been naturally created in the early universe. according to general relativity it would not be possible to use a wormhole to travel back to a time earlier than when the wormhole was first converted into a time machine by accelerating one of its two mouths. Thorne and Yurtsever worked out explicitly how to convert a wormhole traversing space into one traversing time.[citation needed] While Schwarzschild wormholes are not traversable. which means that they would in principle allow travel in time. Wormholes connect two points in spacetime. in which a path through the wormhole can be made where the traversing path does not pass through a region of exotic matter. Morris. as well as in space. is referred to as a Morris-Thorne wormhole. However. However. Fuller published a paper showing that this type of wormhole is unstable. Later. [edit] Traversable wormholes Image of a traversable wormhole which connects the place in front of the physical institutes of Tübingen university with the sand dunes near Boulogne sur Mer in the north of France. and that it will pinch off too quickly for light (or any particle moving slower than light) that falls in from one exterior region to make it to the other exterior region. in the pure Gauss-Bonnet theory (a modification to general relativity involving extra spatial dimensions which is sometimes studied in the context of brane cosmology) exotic matter is not needed in order for wormholes to exist—they can exist even with no matter. in 1962 John A. Before the stability problems of Schwarzschild wormholes were apparent.[13] Lorentzian traversable wormholes would allow travel from one part of the universe to another part of that same universe very quickly or would allow travel from one universe to another. but the gravitational effects on the wavelength of light have not been simulated. including a variety analyzed in a 1989 paper by Matt Visser..

destroying it before any information could be passed through it. so that synchronized clocks at each mouth will remain synchronized to someone traveling through the wormhole itself.[2] This would be accomplished by accelerating one end of the wormhole to a high velocity relative to the other. consider an incoming light front traveling along geodesics. subluminal (slower-than-light) speeds are used. and a more technical discussion can be found in The quantum physics of chronology protection by Matt Visser. this requires a violation of the averaged null energy condition. which then crosses the wormhole and re-expands on the other side. After being taken on a trip at relativistic velocities. they could allow time travel. Such a configuration of wormholes would allow for a particle's world line to form a closed loop in spacetime. and then sometime later bringing it back. As the wormhole neck is of finite size. but general relativity does not include quantum effects.[20] This means that anything which entered the accelerated wormhole mouth would exit the stationary one at a point in time prior to its entry. According to the optical Raychaudhuri's theorem.To see why exotic matter is required.[21] There is also the Roman ring. [edit] Time travel Main article: Time travel The theory of general relativity predicts that if traversable wormholes exist.[17] Although it was hoped recently that quantum effects could not violate an achronal version of the averaged null energy condition. which is a configuration of more than one . relativistic time dilation would result in the accelerated wormhole mouth aging less than the stationary one as seen by an external observer. at least within the vicinity of the neck. Quantum effects such as the Casimir effect cannot violate the averaged null energy condition in any neighborhood of space with zero curvature. Wormholes allow superluminal (faster-than-light) travel by ensuring that the speed of light is not exceeded locally at any time. time connects differently through the wormhole than outside it. similar to what is seen in the twin paradox. Some analyses[who?] using the semiclassical approach to incorporating quantum effects into general relativity indicate that a feedback loop of virtual particles would circulate through the wormhole with ever-increasing intensity. [edit] Faster-than-light travel The impossibility of faster-than-light relative speed only applies locally. running around to the opposite side of a mountain at maximum speed may take longer than walking through a tunnel crossing it. The debate on this matter is described by Kip S. Thorne in the book Black Holes and Time Warps. therefore preventing infinite accumulation. in keeping with the chronology protection conjecture.[19] thus eliminating a basis on which traversable wormholes could be rendered unphysical. the time taken to traverse it would be less than the time it would take a light beam to make the journey if it took a path through the space outside the wormhole. no matter how the mouths move around. It is thought that it may not be possible to convert a wormhole into a time machine in this manner. in the same region but now five years in the past. However. consider two clocks at both mouths both showing the date as 2000. a light beam traveling through the wormhole would always beat the traveler. we would not expect caustics to develop. For example. If two points are connected by a wormhole. The expansion goes from negative to positive. the predictions are made in the context of general relativity. As an analogy. known as a closed timelike curve. the accelerated mouth is brought back to the same region as the stationary mouth with the accelerated mouth's clock reading 2005 while the stationary mouth's clock read 2010. While traveling through a wormhole. This has been called into question by the suggestion that radiation would disperse after traveling through the wormhole.[18] violations have nevertheless been found. However. A traveler who entered the accelerated mouth at this moment would exit the stationary mouth when its clock also read 2005.[16] but calculations in semiclassical gravity suggest that quantum effects may be able to violate this condition in curved spacetime.

wormhole. An example of a (traversable) wormhole metric is the following: One type of non-traversable wormhole metric is the Schwarzschild solution (see the first diagram): [edit] In fiction Main article: Wormholes in fiction Wormholes are a common element in science fiction as they allow interstellar (and sometimes interuniversal) travel within human timescales. [edit] Inter-Universe travel A possible resolution to the paradoxes resulting from wormhole-enabled time travel rests on the Many Worlds Interpretation of quantum mechanics. A particle returning from the future does not return to its universe of origination but to a parallel universe. This ring seems to allow a closed time loop with stable wormholes when analyzed using semiclassical gravity. the destructive positive feedback loop of virtual particles circulating through a wormhole time machine. In 1991 David Deutsch showed that quantum theory is fully consistent (in the sense that the so-called density matrix can be made free of discontinuities) in spacetimes with closed timelike curves. is averted. White Holes and Wormholes Back to More about the Schwarzschild Geometry Forward to Collapse to a Black Hole Andrew Hamilton's Homepage Other Relativity and Black Hole links index | movies | approach | orbit | singularity | dive | Schwarzschild | wormhole | collapse | Hawking | quiz | home | links . this sort of communication between parallel universes is consistent with Joseph Polchinski’s discovery of an “Everett phone” in Steven Weinberg’s formulation of nonlinear quantum mechanics.[24] [edit] Metrics Theories of wormhole metrics describe the spacetime geometry of a wormhole and serve as theoretical models for time travel.[23] Because a wormhole time-machine introduces a type of nonlinearity into quantum theory. a result indicated by semi-classical calculations. This suggests that a wormhole time machine with an exceedingly short time jump is a theoretical bridge between contemporaneous parallel universes.[22] Accordingly. although without a full theory of quantum gravity it is uncertain whether the semiclassical approach is reliable in this case.

 Even if a Schwarzschild wormhole were somehow formed. Do Schwarzschild wormholes really exist? Schwarzschild wormholes certainly exist as exact solutions of Einstein's equations. since they violate the second law of thermodynamics. It does not know about the second law of thermodynamics. Kruskal-Szekeres spacetime diagram of the wormhole The Kruskal-Szekeres coordinate system is arranged so that the worldlines of radially infalling (yellow) and outgoing (ochre) light rays lie at 45o. Just as black holes swallow things irretrievably. it does not produce a wormhole (see Collapse to a Black Hole). and it does not know about which way cause and effect go. The black hole is the region at the top of the diagram. bounded by the two pinkred horizons. The two Universes are joined by a wormhole. However. so also do white holes spit them out. However:  When a realistic star collapses to a black hole. White holes cannot exist. the inhabitants can meet after falling into the . the cyan lines. Both white and black holes have singularities at their centres.Schwarzschild wormhole The Schwarzschild metric admits negative square root as well as positive square root solutions for the geometry. General Relativity is time symmetric.  The complete Schwarzschild geometry includes a white hole. A white hole is a black hole running backwards in time. they cannot meet or communicate with each other. The negative square root solution inside the horizon represents a white hole. and two Universes connected at their horizons by a wormhole. bounded by the two red antihorizons. The white hole is the region at the bottom of the diagram. The complete Schwarzschild geometry consists of a black hole. The negative square root solution outside the horizon represents another Universe. a white hole. The regions at left and right outside the horizons are the two Universes. But we do. which violates the second law of thermodynamics (see above). As long as the inhabitants of the two Universes remain outside the horizons. the region of spacetime between the white hole and black hole singularities. it would be unstable and fly apart (see Instability of the Schwarzschild wormhole below). The wormhole joining the two separate Universes is known as the Einstein-Rosen bridge.

the spatial geometry at a given `time' depends on what you decide to label as time. Having met. which is ill-behaved at the horizon. doublesize on screen (same 52K GIF).black hole. There is a certain arbitrariness to the shapes of these embedding diagrams . The Kruskal spacetime diagram reveals that in reality the Schwarzschild wormhole is dynamic. and to shrink about its middle. Penrose diagram of the Schwarzschild wormhole Instability of the Schwarzschild wormhole The embedding diagram of the Schwarzschild wormhole illustrated at the top of the page seems to show a static wormhole. a black hole. This is the spacetime diagram illustrated above. Kruskal spacetime diagram of the complete Schwarzschild geometry. The tremendous gravity impels the wormhole both to elongate along its length. However. The yellow arrows indicate the directionality of the horizons. The inset shows the slicing for the embedding diagrams adopted here. drawn on the Kruskal spacetime diagram. this is an illusion of the Schwarzschild coordinate system. and two Universes connected by a wormhole. then fall apart into two black holes (52K GIF movie). Compare these Kruskal spacetime diagrams of the Schwarzschild geometry: Partial Kruskal spacetime diagram showing a single Universe with a Schwarzschild black hole. showing a white hole. Complete Kruskal diagram in which the second Universe is imagined to be a mirror image of the first. . not the other way. A person (or signal) can pass through a horizon only in the direction of the arrow. Watch two white holes merge. and unstable. Kruskal diagram of a realistic black hole formed from the collapse of a star. form a wormhole. they also soon meet the singularity. or same movie. how you slice spacetime into hypersurfaces of constant time.

A glimpse through the wormhole Suppose. . visible but unreachable. in the same way that we can see the surface (red) of the black hole in our own Universe through the screen formed by the outward Schwarzschild surface (white). indicated by the yellow arrows. visible through the Schwarzschild surface still ahead and below us. there's yet another set of grid lines missing from this picture. We are at 0. it does not produce a wormhole. It would be foolhardy to attempt this fatal experiment in the hopes of glimpsing another Universe. A traveller can pass through a horizon only in one direction. The traveller may then enter through one horizon. Oops. What would we see? Here is a glimpse through the wormhole at the other Universe. curved into our view by the gravity of the black hole. so it's a bit like looking through a distorted mirror. I'll fix it when I get the time. The traveller can however see light signals from the other Universe. the traveller cannot exit. the traveller must wait until the two white holes have merged. The fate of the traveller who ventures in is to die at the singularity which forms from the collapse of the wormhole. This movie is the same as the Falling to the singularity of the black hole movie. that our Universe were attached to another Universe through a Schwarzschild wormhole. As seen in the next section. The trapped region between the two horizons is the Schwarzschild bubble encountered on the trip into the black hole. 29 May 1998 update. We are never able to enter the other Universe.Impossible to pass through the wormhole Unfortunately it is impossible for a traveller to pass through the wormhole from one Universe into the other. Through the mouth (pink) of the wormhole. when a realistic star collapses to form a black hole. I have supposed that the other Universe contains stars exactly like ours. Falling into a wormhole Falling into a wormhole (185K GIF movie). Only after falling through the horizon of the black hole are we able to see the other Universe through the throat of the wormhole. Compare this to the normal view. and the penalty for seeing it is death at the singularity. For simplicity. but now with another Universe. either through that horizon or through the horizon on the other side. But having entered. and their horizons met. we should be able to see the surface of the black hole as seen in the other Universe. and in the movie below.35 Schwarzschild radii from the central singularity. on the other side of the horizon. First. despite the objections.

S. one is free to specify whatever geometry one cares to imagine for spacetime. the vacuum fluctuations near a black hole are exotic. Stabilizing a wormhole with exotic matter In principle. A good reference is M. Generically. Back to More about the Schwarzschild Geometry Forward to Collapse to a Black Hole Andrew Hamilton's Homepage Other Relativity and Black Hole links index | movies | approach | orbit | singularity | dive | Schwarzschild | wormhole | collapse | Hawking | quiz | home | links Updated 15 Apr 2001 Ten Sikh Gurus . so perhaps exotic matter is not utterly impossible. so that travellers can pass through it. In general relativity. but then Einstein's equations specify what the energy-momentum content of matter in that spacetime must be in order to produce that geometry. The negative mass ensures that the throat of the wormhole lies outside the horizon. same resolution. a wormhole could be stabilized by threading its throat with `exotic matter'. American Journal of Physics. 56. wormholes require negative mass exotic matter at their throats.Clicking on the image gives you a double-size version of the same movie (same 185K GIF. S. In the stable wormhole at left. Thorne (1988). just twice as big on the screen). the exotic matter forms a thin spherical shell (which appears in the diagram as a circle. 395-412. While the notion of negative mass is certainly bizarre. Morris & K. since the embedding diagram is a 2dimensional representation of the 3-dimensional spatial geometry of the wormhole). ``Wormholes in spacetime and their use for interstellar travel: A tool for teaching general relativity''. in order to be traversible. while the positive surface pressure prevents the wormhole from collapsing. The shell of exotic matter has negative mass and positive surface pressure.

human spiritual teachers or masters. The Gurus taught the people of India and beyond. These teachers were enlightened souls whose main purpose in life was the spiritual and moral well-being of the masses. Guru Nanak Dev was the first Guru and Guru Gobind Singh the final Guru in human form. they sort to awaken the higher conciousness in the human race. The Gurus were clear also to outline rituals.The Ten Sikh Gurus The Ten Gurus of Sikhism • Sikhism was established by ten Gurus. the rules and regulations that outline the way of living that was to be followed by all practising disciple of this religion. Each of the ten masters added to and reinforced the message taught by the previous.that is over a period of 239 years. who give this eternal Guru the same respect and reverence as a living "human" Guru. During the span of 239 years. freedom and honour. the Sikh Gurus laid down within the sacred scriptures. The Spirit of this final Guru is more than a holy book for the Sikhs. over the period from 1469 to 1708 . When Guru Gobind Singh left this world. to live spiritually fulfilling lives with dignity. he made the Sri Guru Granth Sahib the ultimate and final Sikh Guru. The history and the literature present the followers of the faith and others with the raw material required to learn about the beliefs and practises propagated by the Gurus. resulting eventually to the creation of the religion that is now called Sikhism. • • . By setting an exceptional example of how to live a holy and worthy life through practising righteous principles of living their human lives.

They promoted the habit of reciting of holy hymns called Shabads. Bhai Gurdas Legend of the Ten Sikh Gurus The "Guru" in Sikhism is an enlightener and messenger. and emphasize the simplicity of the religion.practises and beliefs that were not appropriate and were not to be followed by the faithful disciples. decency and virtuous principles. living in constant remembrance of the Supreme Creator and living a simple life of truth. dogmas and rituals. Guru Nanak . They renew the eternal wisdom. Dasam Granth. Guru Granth Sahib.Guru from 1469 to 1539 . 1.They are the messengers of the Timeless. They are universal men who free our minds from bigotry and superstitions. • see also Sikh Bhagats.

The scripture of the Guru Granth Sahib Ji is written in Gurmukhi. travelling to all parts of India. For the youth he started the tradition of Mall Akhara. Guru ji mastered Punjabi. prejudices. Guru Angad invented and introduced the Gurmukhi (written form of Punjabi) script and made it known to all Sikhs. He asked the Muslims to be true Muslims and the Hindus to be true Hindus. Guru Nanak spoke out against empty religious rituals. of depending on books to learn the true religion. Parsees. Buddhists. He was born at Talwandi (now known as Nankana Sahib in Pakistan) on October 20. Guru Amar Das . Guru Angad was a model of self-less service to his Sikhs and showed them the way to devotional prayers. 1469. pilgrimages. and Muslims. and at various pilgrimage sites. hypocrisy and idolatry. (The Bhai Bale Wali Janamsakhi currently available is not the same as that which Guru Angad Sahib compiled.) He also wrote 63 Saloks (stanzas). He popularized and expanded the institution of 'Guru ka Langar' started by Guru Nanak Sahib earlier. and into Arabia and Persia. the caste system. Never did he ask his listeners to follow him. 2. caste.Guru from 1539 to 1552 Guru Angad He was born in 1504. these were included in Guru Granth Sahib. He took great interest in the education of the children by opening many schools for their instruction and thus greatly increased literacy. where physical as well as spiritual exercises were held.Guru from 1552 to 1574 . and of all the other tenets that were to define his teachings. He spoke before Hindus. He spoke in the temples and mosques. Guru Angad . Wherever he went.Guru Nanak The first of the Gurus and the founder of the Sikh religion was Guru Nanak. Jains. visiting Mecca and Baghdad. the sacrifice of widows. This scripture is also the basis of the Punjabi language. It became the script of the masses very soon. He collected the facts about Guru Nanak Sahib's life from Bhai Bala ji and wrote the first biography of Guru Nanak Sahib. Sanskrit and Persian at an early age and in childhood revolted against ritualism. 3. He regarded Hindus and Muslims as equals and referred to himself as neither Hindu nor Muslim but as a brother to all those who believed in God and truth. He made four great journeys.

The custom of Paradah (Purda). direction or time. replacing the Hindu form. The temple remains open on all sides and at all times to everyone. The first round is the Divine consent for commencing the householders life through marriage. Muslim Sufi. The marriage couple circumscribe the Guru Granth Sahib ji as each stanza is read. This indicates that the Sikhs believe in One God who has no partiality for any particular place. Mian Mir to lay the cornerstone of the Harmandir Sahib. the custom of Sati. Guru Ka Langar (started by Guru Nanak). He also completely abolished amongst the Sikhs. and made his disciples. He strengthened the tradition of the free kitchen. Guru Amardas introduced the Anand Karaj marriage ceremony for the Sikhs. was also done away with. the holy city of the Sikhs.Guru from 1581 to 1606 . 4.Guru from 1574 to 1581 Guru Ram Das He was born in 1534. 5. Guru Ram Das . Guru Amardas took up cudgels of spirituality to fight against caste restrictions. have their meals together sitting in one place. He thus established social equality amongst the people. in which a married woman was forced to burn herself to death in the funeral pyre of her husband. The second round states that the union of the couple has been brought about by God. Guru ji founded the city of Amritsar and started the construction of the famous Golden Temple at Amritsar. in which a woman was required to cover her face with a veil. whether high born or low born (according to the Hindu caste system). In the third round the couple is described as the most fortunate as they have sung the praises of the Lord in the company of saints. a four stanza hymn composed by Guru Ram Das ji. Guru Arjan Dev . whether rich or poor.Guru Amar Das He was born in 1479. In the fourth round the feeling of the couple that they have obtained their hearts desire and are being congratulated is described. caste prejudices and the curse of untouchability. The standard Sikh marriage ceremony known as the Anand Karaj is centered around the Lawan. He requested the.

7. He compiled the Adi Granth. and wrote the Sukhmani Sahib. Guru Arjan was a saint and scholar of the highest quality and repute. ten feet above the ground and adorned two swords. Sri Darbar Sahib welcomes all without discrimination. the scriptures of the Sikhs.Guru from 1644 to 1661 ." Guru Hargobind ji organised a small army. which is symbolised by the four doors that are open in four directions. Guru Arjan Dev completed construction of Sri Darbar Sahib also known as Golden Temple in Amritsar. Guru Har Rai . At the age of 13. Miri and Piri. Guru ji taught that it was necessary to take up the sword in order to protect the weak and the oppressed. He was the son of Guru Arjan Dev and was known as a "soldier saint.Guru Arjan Dev He was born in 1563. Guru Hargobind erected Sri Akal Takhat Sahib. 6. Guru ji included in it hymns of Muslim saints as well those of low-caste pariah saints who were never permitted to enter various temples. Guru Har Gobind .Guru from 1606 to 1644 Guru Hargobind He was born in 1595. called a takhat or throne.. He was the third son of Guru Ram Das ji. Guru ji was first of the Gurus to take up arms to defend the faith. At that time it was only emperors who were allowed to sit on a raised platform. To make it a universal teaching. Guru ji became the first great martyr in Sikh history when Emperor Jahangir ordered his execution. explaining that extreme non-violence and pacifism would only encourage evil and so the principles of Miri-Piri were established. representing temporal and spiritual power.

Although. he never disbanded the armed Sikh Warriors (Saint Soldiers).Guru from 1661 to 1664 Guru Har Krishan He was born in 1656. purity and truth. Anyone who invokes Guru Har Krishan with a pure heart has no difficulties whatsoever in their life. spent most of his life in devotional meditation and preaching the teachings of Guru Nanak. Guru ji cautiously avoided conflict with Emperor Aurangzeb and devoted his efforts to missionary work. Guru Har Krishan was the youngest of the Gurus. Particularly.Guru from 1665 to 1675 . Guru Har Rai Ji was a man of peace. but on the other hand never dismissed the claim of Ram Rai also. Guru Har Krishan . Guru Tegh Bahadur . The young Guru began to attend the sufferers irrespective of cast and creed. Installed as Guru at the age of five. but he never himself indulged in any direct political and armed controversy with the Mughal Empire. He also continued the grand task of nation building initiated by Guru Hargobind. The Guru gave his life while serving and healing the epidemic-stricken people in Delhi. To the Sikhs he proved to be the very symbol of service. Guru ji astonished the Brahmin Pundits with his knowledge and spiritual powers. Even Aurangzeb did not try to disturb Guru Harkrishan Sahib sensing the sensitivity of the situation. who earlier were maintained by his grandfather. 9. He always boosted the military spirit of the Sikhs.Guru Har Rai He was born in 1630. Guru Hargobind. 8. the local Muslim population was much impressed with the purely humanitarian deeds of the Guru Sahib and nicknamed him Bala Pir (child prophet).

changing the Sikhs into a saint-soldier order with special symbols and sacraments for protecting themselves. He himself became their disciple (Wonderful is Guru Gobind Singh. It was the envie and fear of the growing friendship between the new Emperor and the Guru which lead to the sneak attack of the Pathan assasins of Wasir Khan who inflicted the wound which later caused the Guru's death. and represented their own unworthiness. He commanded: "Let all bow before my successor. he stood up in supplication and with folded hands. himself the Master and himself the disciple). the rightful heir to the Mughal throne sought the Guru's assistance in winning his kingdom. his mother and four sons to Mughal tyranny. He gave the Sikhs the name Singh (lion) or Kaur (princess). The Word is the Guru now. Soon. The Five Beloved Ones were astonished at such a proposal.Guru from 1675 to 1708 Guru Gobind Singh He was born in 1666 and became Guru after the martyrdom of his father Guru Tegh Bahadur. and on 3 October 1708. He fought many battles against the armies of Aurangzeb and his allies. Because of his refusal to convert to Islam a threatened forced conversion of the Hindus of Kashmir was thwarted. He established the town of Anandpur. After he had lost his father. Guru Granth Sahib . Guru Gobind Singh .Guru from 1708 to eternity . begged them to baptize him in the same way as he had baptized them.Guru Tegh Bahadur He was born in 1621 in Amritsar. in which he indicted the Grand mughal with his treachery and godliness. after which the attacks against the Guru and his Sikhs were called off. Guru Granth. He was a firm believer in the right of people to the freedom of worship. It was for this cause that he faced martyrdom for the defence of the down-trodden Hindus. came to fruition when Guru Gobind Singh created the Khalsa. and the greatness of the Guru. he wrote his famous letter (the zafarnama) to Aurangzeb. appointed Guru Granth Sahib as the Guru. The Guru laid down his life for the protection of the Hindu religion. Thus the tree whose seed was planted by Guru Nanak. So pathetic was the torture of Guru Tegh Bahadur that his body had to be cremated clandestinely (a follower burned down his own home to cremate the Guru's body) at Delhi while his severed head was secretly taken four hundred kilometers away to Anandpur Sahib for cremation. their Tilak (devotional forehead markings) and their sacred (janeau) thread. Aurangzeb died soon after reading the letter." 11. He created the Khalsa (The Pure Ones) in 1699. 10. whom they deemed God's representative upon earth. After the Guru had administered Amrit to his Five Beloved Ones.

4.ruchiskitchen. Guru Nanak Guru Angad Guru Amar Das Guru Ram Das 1469 1504 1479 1534 70 13 22 7 70 48 95 47 . the book is held in great reverence by Sikhs and treated with the utmost respect. Above article with thanks to: www. everywhere. The Granth was written in Gurmukhi script and it contains the actual words and verses as uttered by the Sikh Gurus. rather than any living person.Sri Guru Granth Sahib Guru Granth Sahib (also known as the Adi Granth) is the scripture of the Sikhs. 3. Guru Granth Sahib is a book of Revelation. intended for everybody. The living Guru of the Sikhs. The greatness of the Guru Granth Sahib lies not only in its being the Holy Scripture of the Sikhs but also in it being a general scripture available to mankind. It is considered the Supreme Spiritual Authority and Head of the Sikh religion. It is universal in its scope.com Period 1469 to 1708 The ten Gurus were: # Name Born Guru at Age 35 73 40 Guruship 1469 to 1539 1539 to 1552 1552 to 1574 1574 to 1581 Period of Guruship (yrs) Merged with Eternity aged 1. It conveys the Word of the Master through His messengers on earth. It is also the only scripture of its kind which not only contains the works of its own religious founders but also the writings of people of other faiths. 2. No Sikh ceremony is regarded as complete unless it is performed in the presence of Guru Granth Sahib.

11. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Guru Arjan Guru Hargobind Guru Har Rai Guru Har Krishan Guru Tegh Bahadur Guru Gobind Singh Sri Guru Granth Sahib 1563 1595 1630 1656 1621 1666 1604? 18 11 14 5 44 9 104? 1581 to 1606 1606 to 1644 1644 to 1661 1661 to 1664 1665 to 1675 1675 to 1708 1708 forever 25 38 17 3 10 33 Eternity 43 49 31 8 54 42 forever These are the Ten Gurus of Sikhism Guru Nanak | Guru Angad | Guru Amar Das | Guru Ram Das | Guru Arjan | Guru Hargobind | Guru Har Rai | Guru Har Krishan | Guru Teg Bahadur | Guru Gobind Singh Sikh Guru Family Tree .5.

info-sikh. is more than just a holy book of the Sikhs.com From 1708 Onwards Sri Guru Granth Sahib Guru Granth Sahib or Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji or SGGS for short. The Sikhs treat this Granth (holy book) as a living Guru. The holy .The above Sikh Guru Family Tree with thanks to: www.

Guru Gobind Singh said before his demise that the Sikhs were to treat the SGGS as their next Guru.1630 July 7.1675 6 October 1708 Forever Aged 69 48 105 47 43 49 31 Father Mehta Kalu Baba Pheru Tej Bhan Bhalla Baba Hari Das Guru Ram Das Guru Arjan Baba Gurdita Guru Har Rai Guru Hargobind Guru Tegh Bahadur Mother Mata Tripta Mata Ramo Bakht Kaur Mata Daya Kaur Mata Bhani Mata Ganga Mata Nihal Kaur Mata Krishan Kaur Mata Nanki Mata Gujri Guru Nanak April 15.Please see Sikh Gurus Important dates for the update on these dates: # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Name Guruship on Prakash DOB April 15.1664 November 11.1666 September 1.1675 8 9 8 54 42 -- Guru 10 Gobind Singh 11 Guru Granth October Sahib 6.1581 May 30.1563 June 19.1469 March 31. Guru Ji said – "Sab Sikhan ko hokam hai Guru Manyo Granth" meaning "All Sikhs are commanded to take the Granth as Guru" So today if asked.1504 May 5. Dev 1469 Guru Angad September Dev 7.1606 March 3.1552 September 1.1539 March 29.1539 Guru Amar Das Guru Ram Das Guru Arjan Dev Guru Hargobind Guru Har Rai Guru Har Krishan Guru Tegh Bahadur March 25.1661 March 30.1656 April 1.1661 March 20.1552 August 29.1708 Timeline .1534 April 15.1604 Date of Demise September 22. Guruship Table These dates are based on pre-Nanakshahi calendar resources .1595 February 26.1581 May 30. The SGGS was given the Guruship by the last of the living Sikh Masters.1644 October 6.text spans 1430 pages and contain the actual words spoken by the founders of the Sikh religion (the Ten Gurus of Sikhism) and various other Saints from other religions including Hinduism and Islam. the Sikhs will tell you that they have a total of 11 Gurus.1479 September 24.1644 October 6.1621 December 22.1606 February 28. ( 10 in human form and the SGGS). Guru Gobind Singh Ji in 1708.1574 August 28.1665 November 11.1574 September 1.

Important dates Sikh Gurus . G5 Sikh Media also help promote and recognise young Sikhs aross the U.Sikh Social Enterprise G5 Sikh Media is an Award winning Sikh Social Enterprise teaching Sikhs and Non-Sikhs about the Sikh faith through a visually exciting way.org Sikh.com A Brief History Sikh Guru Family Tree External Links • • • • • • • • G5 Sikh Media .SikhismGuide.com SearchSikhism.net Sikhs.See also • Sikh Gurus .org SGPC. e-Books .net AllAboutSikhs.K and sell Sikh merchandise.

Sacred Writings and Authors by Max Arthur Macauliffe (Volume 5) The Sikh Religion: Its Gurus. Sacred Writings and Authors by Max Arthur Macauliffe (Volume 3) The Sikh Religion: Its Gurus. Sacred Writings and Authors by Max Arthur Macauliffe (Volume 4) The Sikh Religion: Its Gurus. Sacred Writings and Authors by Max Arthur Macauliffe (Volume 2) The Sikh Religion: Its Gurus. Sacred Writings and Authors by Max Arthur Macauliffe (Volume 6) Gallery • The Ten Gurus • Guru Nanak • Guru Angad .• • • • • • • The Sikh Religion series .Max Arthur Macauliffe The Sikh Religion: Its Gurus. Sacred Writings and Authors by Max Arthur Macauliffe (Volume 1) The Sikh Religion: Its Gurus.

• Guru Amar Das • Guru Ramdas • Guru Arjan • Guru Hargobind • Guru Har Rai .

Nanki. more popularly known as Mehta Kalu was the agent and Chief Accountant of Rai Bular. the founder of Sikhism) was born on 15th April. At the age of seven. Mehta Kalyan Das. Nanak had an elder sister. full moon day of the month Kartik. (But some other chronicals state that Guru Nanak Sahib was born on 20th October. a simple. ( Bhai Gurdas Ji) Guru Nanak Sahib (the First Nanak. now Nanakana Sahib. The Birthday of Guru Nanak Sahib is celebrated on 15th Kartik Puranmashi i. He sent to this world of woe. He surprised his teachers .e.1469) Guru Nanak's father. he learnt Hindi and Sanskrit.• Guru Harkrishan • Guru Tegh Bahadur • Guru Gobind Singh • Guru Granth Sahib Guru Nanak Sahib The Bounteous Lord heard the anguished cry and so. God provided him with contemplative mind and rational thinking. 1469 at Rai-Bhoi-di Talwandi in the present distrect of Shekhupura (Pakistan). Guru Nanak 's mother was Mata Tripta. Guru Nanak. pious and extremely religious woman. On this day the Birthday of Guru Nanak Sahib is celebrated every year. Nanak was an extra-ordinary and different child in many ways. who always cherished her younger brother.

" There is no Hindu. downtrodden and the poors. Pheru ji shifted back to this place. (March 31. Ladakh. Gaya. Dhubri and Gauhati in Assam. He attacked the citadel of caste system of Hindus and theocracy of Muslim rulers. Asa-Di-Var. He was arrested and released. Bara-Mah. Somnath. In this regard he went to Mecca. Pakpattan. (5th Vaisakh) Samvat 1561. True. Mathura. Tibet. The services of mankind Sewa. After visiting different places in Punjab. the authority of the Vedas and the Hindu caste system. Guru Nanak Sahib visited different religious places preaching Sikhism. He was also a perfect musician. Nirvair. At the age of thirteen. Janagarh. Rameshwaram. Joshi Math. Kirtan. All-giver. In the year 1520. Son Miani. Peshawar Sakhar. He went to Kurukshetra. Guru Nanak Sahib emphasised the leading of householder's life (Grista). on Vaisakh Vadi 1st . . Puri. no Musalman". God had endowed him with a contemplative mind and pious disposition. Babar attacked India. During the four journeys. His mother 's name was Mata Ramo ji (also Kwown as Mata Sabhirai. Sidh-Gosht. Guru Arjan Sahib called him "the image of God. Jawalaji. The basic tenents of Sikhism were wilfully conceived by the people from all walks of life. Baba Narayan Das Trehan was his grand father. All the prisoners were also released. Rawalsar. Gorakh Matta (Nanak Matta). These tours are called Char Udasis of Guru Nanak Sahib. Patna. installed Bhai Lehna ji (Guru Angad Sahib) as the Second Nanak in 1539. the self-existent. Dwarka. Srinagar and Baramula. after testing his two sons and some followers. Kargil. Beghdad via Multan. Kandhar and Jalalabad. Dacca. who gave birth to two sons: Sri Chand and Lakhmi Das. (Bhai Lahna ji) was born in the village named Harike in Ferozepur district in Punjab. Ratha Sahib. Cuttock. God is infinite. Turkey and Tehran (the present capital of Iran). God is Formless (Nirankar). He is Satnam. 1504).with the sublimity of his extra-ordinary knowledge about divine things. At the age of 38. he learned Persian and Sanskrit and at the age of 16. The real aim of the tour was awakening the people to realise the truth about God and to introduce Sikhism. He was the son of a petty trader named Pheru ji. Sultanpur. The seeds of Sikhism were sown all over India and abroad in well-planned manner. Women and children were made captives and all their property looted at Amiabad. As a social reformer Guru Nanak Sahib upheld the cause of women. Guru Nanak Sahib challenged this act of barbarity in strong words. He now undertook long travels to preach his unique and divine doctrine (Sikhism). Audhya. He with the company of Bhai Mardana compsed such tunes in various Indian classical Ragas that charmed and tawed wild creatures like Babar. Universal. His troops slaughtered thousands of innocent civilians of all walks of life. God Himself". unattached to gross materialism. Lahore. he was the most learned young man in the region. Some accounts say that Guru Sahib reached Mecca by sea-route. Daulat Khan Lodhi. Amarnath. All knowing. He preached new idea of God as Supreme. Prayag. Guru Nanak's elder sister Nanaki ji took him to Sultanpurlodhi where her husband Jai Ram ji got him the Job of storekeeper in the Modikhana of the local Nawab. All-powerful and truthful. in August 1507. Talwandi. he decided to proceed on four long tours covering different religious places in India and abroad. Baroach. Knowing that the end was drawing near. the Incomprehensible and the Ever-lasting and the creator of all things (Karta Purakh). CLOSE Guru Angad Sahib Guru Angad Sahib. Guru Nanak Sahib settled down at Kartarpur city (now in Pakistan) which was founded by him in 1522 and spent the rest of his life there (1522-1539). Daya kaur). Haridwar. In November 1504. Ceylon. Ujjain. nay. He appointed able and committed followers as its head (preacher of Sikhism). Varanasi. shortly after making Babar realising his blunder. Onkar (Dakhani) and these were included in Guru Granth Sahib by Guru Arjan Sahib. There was daily Kirtan and the institution of Langar (free kitchen) was introduced. the Sole. the Creator. Guru Nanak Sahib heard God 's call to dedicate himself to the service of humanity after bathing in "Vain Nadi" (a small river) Near Sultanpur Lodhi. subdued saging kings. He established a network of preaching centres of Sikhism which were called "Manjis". Mansa Devi. From Tehran Guru Sahib set out on the caravan route and covered Kabul. Thus he laid the foundations of Sikhism. He rejected the path of renunciation Tyaga or Yoga. Bilaspur. Medina. whose ancestral house was at Matte-di-Sarai near Mukatsar. Hinglaj etc. Bidar. Thus ended the wordly journey of this god-gifted Master (Guru) of mankind. and Omnipotent. made thugs and robbers saints. Guru Nanak Sahib also paid visit to Muslim holy places. He was a born poet. raved bigots and tyrants. He was married to Mata Sulakhni ji. Guru Sahib also visited Syra. Ajmer. the Eternal and Absolute Truth. Satsang and faith in 'One' Omnipotent God are the basic concepts of Sikhism established by Guru Nanak Sahib. He wrote 947 hyms comprising Japji Sahib. Spiti Vally. Guru Nanak Sahib. 1539. He was a reformer as well as a revolutionary. The very first sentence which he ' uttered then was. and after a few days passed into Sachkhand on 22nd September.

Once Guru Amardas Sahib heard some hyms of Guru Nanak Sahib from Bibi Amro Ji. the daughter of Guru Angad Sahib. the Third Nanak was born at village Basarke Gillan in Amritsar district on Vaisakh Sudi 14th. when defeated by Sher Shah Suri. Guru Amardas Sahib adopted him as his spiritual guide (Guru). He popularized and expanded the institution of 'Guru ka Langar' started by Guru Nanak Sahib earlier . At this hour of juncture he lived Guru Nanak Sahib's tenents in true spirit and there were manifest signs of drifting it (Sikhism) away from the Hinduism. and two sons. modifying the old Punjabi Script 's characters. Guru Amadas Sahib was married to Mata Mansa Devi ji and had four childern: two daughters. Guru Angad Sahib visited all important places and centres established by Guru Nanak Sahib for preaching Sikhism. came to obtain blessings of Guru Angad Sahib in regaining the throne of Delhi. near Tarn Taran Sahib (A small town about 25 kmt. It become the script of the masses very soon. For the youth he started the tradition of Mall Akhara. bring water from the Bias River for Guru's bath and fetch wood from the Jungle for 'Guru ka Langar'. Guru Angad Sahib introduced a new alphabet known as Gurmukhi Script. (Bhai Bale Wali Janamsakhi available now a days in not the same that Guru Angad Sahib had compiled. The Sikh community being infant. Earlier Guru Nanak Sahib tested him in various ways and found an embodiment of obedience and service in him. had to face a number of dangers.) He also wrote 63 Saloks (stanzas). Bibi Dani ji and Bibi Bhani ji (she was married to Guru Ramdass Sahib). Mohan ji and Mohri ji. became his Sikh and began to live at Kartarpur. Once Bhai Lehna ji heard the recitation of a hymn of Guru Nanak Sahib from Bhai Jodha ji (a sikh of Guru Nanak Sahib) and was thrilled and decided to proceed through Kartarpur to have a glimpse of Guru Nanak Sahib at the time of yearly pilgrimage to Jwalamukhi Temple. to Guru Amar Das Sahib.Under the influence of his mother Bhai Lehna ji began to worship Durga (A Hindu mythological Goddess). Then he started living at Khadur Sahib. 1539. He collected the facts about Guru Nanak Sahib 's life from Bhai Bala ji and wrote the first biography of Guru Nanak Sahib. Guru Angad Sahib left Kartarpur for Khadur Sahib Village (near Goindwal Sahib). at Goindwal near Khadur Sahib and Guru Amar Das Sahib was appointed to supervise its construction. Yogis and Saints of different sects visited him and held detailed discussions about Sikhism with him . It was not difficult for Hinduism to swallow the newly born Sikhism in due course of time. Sikhism established its own separate religious identity. He breathed his last on March 29. After the death of Guru Nanak Sahib on September 22. He presented all the holy scripts including those he received from Guru Nanak Sahib. He also established hundreds of new Sangats (Sikh religious Institutions) and thus strengthened the base of Sikhism. Under the impact of the teachings of Guru Angad Sahib. After this the family settelled at village Khadur Sahib beside the Beas river. by following the example of Guru Nanak Sahib. He used to lead a batch of worshippers to Jawalamukhi Temple every year. His father Tej Bhan Bhalla and mother Bakht Kaur (also reffered as Sulakhani and Lakhmi Devi) were orhtodox Hindus and used to pay annual visits to the Ganges river at Haridwar. It is also said that Himayun. It is said that he started to build a new town. these were included in Guru Granth Sahib.away from Amritsar City). Guru Nanak Sahib gave him a new name Angad (Guru Angad Sahib). He was married to Mata Khivi ji in Jaunary 1520 and had two sons (Dasu ji and Datu ji) and two daughters (Amro ji and Anokhi ji). He used to rise early in the morning. (Some chronicles mention the month of April 1479). (8th Jeth). His devotion to Guru Nanak Sahib and his holy mission was so great that he was installed as the Second Nanak in September 7. He carried forward the thought of Guru Nanak Sahib both in letter and spirit. 1552 at the age of forty-eight. . He renounced the worship of Hindu Goddess. dedicated himself to the service of Guru Nanak Sahib. The whole family of Pheru ji had to leave their ancestral village because of the ransacking by the Mughal and Baloch militia who had come with Babur. He became too much impressed and immediately went to see Guru Angad Sahib at Khadur Sahib. Moreover Sri Chand's Udasis sect community and the activities of Jogies had not yet abated. He spent six or seven years in the service of Guru Nanak Sahib at Kartarpur. Samvat 1536 (5th May 1479). He took great interest in the education of the children by opening many schools for their instruction and thus increased the number of literates. His very first meeting with Guru Nanak Sahib completely transformed him. 1539 by Guru Nanak Sahib himself. nominated Amar Das Sahib as his successor (The Third Nanak) before his death. The period of his Guruship was the most crucial one. CLOSE Guru Amardas Sahib Guru Amardas Sahib. Guru Angad Sahib. where physical as well as spiritual exercises were held.

Guru Amardas Sahib found him capable in every respect and worthy of the office of Guruship and installed him as Fourth Nanak on september 1. He also composed 869 (according to some chronicles these were 709) verses (stanzas) including Anand Sahib. He spends five years at village Basarke earning his bread by selling boiled grams. Bhai Sahlo Ji and Baba Budha Ji. Lahore (in Pakistan). Guru Amardas Sahib persuaded Akbar to waive off toll-tax (pilgrim's tax) for non-Muslims while crossing Yamuna and Ganga. Guru Amardas Sahib at the ripe age of 95 passed away for heaven on Bhadon Sudi 14th. Certainly it was practically a right step not as emotional. and began digging of Santokhsar Sarover. on Kartik Vadi 2nd. (September 1. each under the charge of a devout Sikh. 1574. After the marriage he stayed with his father-in-law and deeply associated himself with the Guru Ghar activities (Sikhism). (Guru) Ramdas Sahib was married to Bibi Bhani Ji (daughter of Guru Amardas Sahib). Guru Amardas Sahib maintained cordial relations with emperor Akbar. She bore him three sons: Prithi Chand Ji. after giving responsibility of Guruship to the Fourth Nanak. marriage and death ceremonies. He commanded full confidence of Guru Amardas Sahib and often accompanied him when the latter went on long missionary tours to different parts of India. He established his headquarters at newly built town Goindwal. Guru Ramdas Sahib himself .Guru Angad Sahib appointed Guru Amardas Sahib as third Nanak in March 1552 at the age of 73. It grew into an important center of trade in Punjab after Lahore. His grandmother (mother's. The new city (Chak Ramdas Pur) flourished soon as it was situated at the centre of international trade routes. Guru Amardas Sahib did not consider anyone of his sons fit for Guruship and chose instead his son-in law (Guru) Ramdas Sahib to succeed him. devotion. (Guru) Ramdas Sahib was a man of considerable merit. He reproduced more copies of the hymns of Guru Nanak Sahib and Guru Angad Sahib. He introduced new birth. He strengthened the tradition of 'Guru ka Langer' and made it compulsory for the visitor to the Guru saying that 'Pehle Pangat Phir Sangat'. once Guru Amardas Sahib came village Basarke to condole with the grandmother of (Guru) Ramdas Sahib at the death of her son-in-law and developed deep affection for (Guru) Ramdas Sahib. Later on he suspended the work on Santokhsar and concentrated his attention on digging Amritsar Sarovar. Visiting of Hindu pilgrimage centres and paying tributes to the Muslim places were prohibited. 1574) at Goindwal Sahib near District Amritsar. He himself visited and sent Sikh missionaries to different parts of India to spread Sikhism. because Bibi Bhani ji and Guru Ramdas Sahib had true sprit of service and their keen understanding of the Sikh principles deserved this. This was a result of his services and devotion to Guru Angad Sahib and his teachings. Guru Amardas Sahib constructed Baoli at Goindwal Sahib having eighty-four steps and made it a Sikh pilgrimage centre for the first time in the history of Sikhism. He was too much impressed from this system and expressed his desire to grant some royal property for 'Guru ka Langar'. and Guru Arjan Sahib made all the Shabads part of Guru Granth Sahib. He asked the women to discard 'Purdah' (veil). Once the emperor Akbar came to see Guru Sahib and he had to eat the coarse rice in the Langar before he could have an interview with Guru Sahib. Gilwali and Gumtala. He fixed three Gurpurbs for Sikh celebrations: Dewali. (25th Assu) Samvat 1591 (September 24. but Guru Sahib declined it with respect. He divided the Sikh Sangat area into 22 preaching centres. mother) took him to her native village Basarke. There he resumed his profession of selling boiled grams and also began to take part in the religious congregation held by Guru Amardas Sahib. Son of Mata Daya Kaur ji (Anup Kaur ji) and Baba Hari Das ji Sodhi Khatri was very handsome and promising child. For this purpose he purchased land from the zamindars of the villages: Tung. Guru Ramdas Sahib. Vaisakhi and Maghi. Along with grandmother he left for Goidwal Sahib to settle there. Thus he created a fence around the infant like Sikhism and there upon met stiff resistance from the Orthodox Hindus and Muslim fundamentalists. energy and eloquence. the two devoted Sikhs were assigned the supervising work. Akbar did so. He also made active participation in the development of Goindwal Sahib. His parents were too poor to meet even the daily needs and he had to earn his bread by selling boiled grams. He became famous for his piety. which is now called Amritsar. (1st Assu) Samvat 1631. There he propagated the Sikh faith in a very planned manner. This practice shows that Guruship could be transferred to any body fit for the Sikh cause and not to the particular person who belonged to the same family or of other. According to some chronicles. 1534). CLOSE Guru Ramdas Sahib Guru Ramdas Sahib (Jetha ji) was born at Chuna Mandi. Mahadev Ji and Arjan Sahib (Guru) Ji. (Manjis). His parents died when he was just 7 year old. He preached against Sati and advocated widow-remarriage. Guru Ramdas Sahib laid the foundation stone of Chak Ramdas or Ramdas Pur.

Guru Sahib himself contributed about 2000 verses for it. Now the Sikhism began to develop as a different religion. Guru Ramdas Sahib introduced Masand system in place of Manji system and this step played a great role in the consolidation of Sikhism. But later on Maharaja Ranjit Singh reexcavated the Baoli. After this he left Amritsar and retired to Goindwal Sahib. The former proved to be the most selfish and the later mostly preferred utter silence. the youngest son of Guru Ramdas Sahib and Mata Bhani Ji was born at Goindwal Sahib on Vaisakh Vadi 7th. He also stayed sometime at Wadali (now it is called Guru-Di-Wadali near Amritsar city). The child (Guru)Arjan Sahib often talked of God and loved to sing His songs. Superstitions. Vikrami Samvat 1644 (December 1588). It provided a common place of worship to the Sikhs and paved the way for the future guidelines for the Sikhism as a different religion. Prithi Chand made an alliance with Sulhi Khan (a revenue officer). Guru Arjan Sahib completed the work on two sacred tanks (Sarowars) Santokhsar and Amritsar. He constructed a Baoli in Dabbi-Bazar of Lahore. Guru's elder brother. caste system and pilgrimages were strongly decried. After the death of . In order to strengthen the cult of Sikhism he toured far and wide about five years throughout India. installed it at Sri Harmandir Sahib on Bhadon Sudi 1st Samvat 1661 (August/September 1604). But (Guru) Arjan Sahib was sweet. CLOSE Guru Arjan Sahib Guru Arjan Sahib.invited many merchants and artisans from the different walks of life and trades. Hindi and Sanskrit languages. He had two elder brothers. Guru Ramdas Sahib strengthened the Sikhism a step further by composing Four Lawans and advised the Sikhs to recite them in order to solemnize the marriages of their children. (19th Vaisakh) Samvat 1620 (April 15. and made Baba Budha Ji as the first Granthi. (But the Masand system became rotten with the passage of time Guru Gobind Singh Sahib abolished it in 1698). worthy of reverence". like his predecessors carried forward the tradition of Guru ka Langer. He got the foundation stone of Harmandir Sahib. and compiled Guru Granth Sahib (written by Bhai Gurdas Ji). It created a sensor of religious separation from the Hindus and the Muslims. He nominated his youngest son (Guru) Arjan Sahib as Fifth Nanak. There. Hargobindpur on the river Bias and sunk a big well for irrigation at Chheharta. He was hardly 18 years old when his father Guru Ramdas Sahib installed him as the Fifth Nanak. He wrote 638 hymns in 30 ragas. He. During the period of Guru Arjan Sahib the Amritsar city became the central institution where all the Sikhs used to gather annually on Baisakhi and the Massands began to deposit the collected offerings from the different parts of India in Guru Sahib's treasury. Thus he introduced a new matrimonial system based upon Sikhism instead of Hindu's Vedi system. A house for lepers was also built. Prithi Chand ji and Mahadev ji. Guru Sahib completed the construction of Santhokhsar. 31 Ashtpadis and 8 Vars and are a part of Guru Granth Sahib. The orthodox Hindus and the fundamentalist Muslims (Shekh Ahmed Sirhandi. This institution spread the Sikhism to the provinces far distant from the Punjab and attracted a large number of followers. it proved to be step of far-reaching importance. Again. Guru Arjan Sahib done a great and monumental work. Guru Arjan Sahib was very energetic and aspiring personality. The number of Sikhs began to increase day by day and this made the orthodox Hindus and princely Muslim class more jealous towards Guru Ghar (Sikh Nation). after the partition of India in 1947. these include 246 Padei 138 Saloks. Sri Guru Granth Sahib proved a great landmark in the history of Sikh Nation. also made rapprochement with different sects of Udasis through Baba Shri Chand Ji. After the completion of Sri Harmandir Sahib. a few miles away from Amritsar. after a few days he passed away for heaven on Bhadon Sudi 3rd (2nd Assu) Samvat 1638 (September 1. 1581). But finding nothing objectionable.1563). The tradition of Daswandh and Masand system was also institutionalized. To consolidate and extend Sikhism. it was demolished by the Musilm mob). (Once Shah Jahan destroyed the Baoli and erected a mosque there. For the first time the Sikhs began to call Guru Arjan Sahib as "Sacha Patshah". Birbal and Chandu) were some of the most jealous of Sikh community and Guru Arjan Sahib. humble and a perfect blend of devotion and sacrifice. But Sulhi Khan died by his sudden fall in a live brick-klins. Thus this distinct marriage code for the Sikhs separated them from the orthodox and traditional Hindu system. He also laid the foundation stone of the town Kartarpur in Doaba region (near Jalandhar city). After collecting the hymns of first four Guru Sahibs and several other Hindu and Muslim Saints. and planned to harm and harass Guru Sahib. Once the emperor Akbar was mislead about the contents of Guru Granth Sahib by the enemies of Guru Arjan Sahib. He learnt Gurmukhi script and Gurbani from Baba Budha ji. the emperor Akbar assessed Guru Granth Sahib as "The greatest Granth of synthesis. Later on. He was also given a suitable education in Persian. He was married to Mata Ganga ji and had a son (Guru) Hargobind Sahib. Guru Arjan Sahib founded the town of Tarn Taran Sahib near Goindwal Sahib and also created a large tank and Gurdwara there. laid by a Muslim Saint Hazrat Mian Mir Ji of Lahore on 1st Magh. Guru Sahib also established another town.

but the most acceptable one seems to be three years from 1609 to 1612. Out of these. Guru Sahib used to gave sermons to the Sikhs and discussions were held on the problems faced by the Sikh nation. Guru Arjan Sahib was arrested and brought to Lahore where he was charge-sheeted and implicated in the false cases. Bhai Gurdas Ji. There was a band of Pathan mercenaries and Painda Khan Pathan was made its chief. Riding. Guru Sahib was detained in the fort upto three years i. It is said that Mian Mir (a Muslim Sufi Saint and friend of Guru Sahib) tried to intercede on behalf of Guru Sahib but the later forbade him. Baba Budha Ji. wrestling and many others martial sports were introduced. This development further consolidated the Sikh nation. The Sikh Nation naturally looked upon this as the bigotry and cruelty of the theist Muslim state and the orthodox Hindus towards the newly born. Guru Sahib proceeded towards Delhi before making serious consultations about rest. enemies of the Sikh Nation. Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji become Ninth Nanak in 1664. hunting. 1606) Jahangir in his autobiography acknowledges that he personally ordered the execution of Guru Arjan Sahib. At this place. from 1609 to 1612. Guru Hargobind Sahib succeeded Guru Arjan Sahib in 1606. Guru Sahib revealed Sri Akal Takht Sahib also known as Akal Bunga (Tuineless Throned) just in front of Sri Harmandir Sahib (Golden Temple) in 1609. The Guru Sahib himself was healthy and strong in body and mind. And on the other hand the martial songs like 'Vars' were daily sung by the Dhadd-players in the court of Guru Sahib to inspire the Sikhs of heroic deeds. A debate on Sikh religion and Sikh doctrines held between Guru Sahib and Jahangir (having pre-tempered mind against Guru Sahib) but the emperor remained unimpressed and ordered for the imprisonment of Guru Sahib at Gwalior Fort. A Chronicler states that Guru Sahib kept seven hundred Cavaliers and sixty artillerymen. He himself learnt the use of different weapons. CLOSE Guru Hargobind Sahib Guru Hargobind Sahib was born at village Guru Ki Wadali (district Amritsar) on Harh Vadi 7th (21 Harh). Guru Sahib was made to sit on the hot iron plates and burning sand was poured over his naked body. Suraj Mal Ji. (May 30. After receiving summons from Emperor Jahangir. at the age of eleven years. (There are divergent views regarding the detention period of Guru Sahib in the Gwalior Fort prison. He had one daughter Bibi Viro Ji and five sons: Baba Gurditta Ji.) Sain Mian Mir and Wazir Khan (Governor of Lahore) approached Emperor Jahangir own behalf of Guru . Thus Guru Sahib embraced martyrdom on Jeth Sudi 4th (1st Harh) Samvat 1663. one of those was helping the rebellious Khusro. During the torturing period. Now for the first time." Guru Sahib issued various letters advising the Sikhs to take part in the military training and marshal arts.Piri and the other of Military Power Miri. The Sikhs call Guru Sahib 'Sachcha Patshah' (True Emperor) and the Sikh Nation followed the judgments or decisions taken on Sri Akal Takht Sahib enthusiastically. four sons passed away during the life of Guru Sahib and the fifth one. he was chained and thrown into the river Ravi. with all the leading Sikh personalities including Mata Ganga Ji. He promptly obliged the enemies of Guru Sahib. The martyrdom of Guru Sahib changed the entire character of Sikhism radically. Guru Sahib appeared before the Emperor Jahangir and was received by the latter with due respect. He handed over Guru Sahib over to Chandu. Atal Rai Ji and (Guru) Tegh Bahadur Ji. who were earlier responsible for the execution of Guru Arjan Sahib. In this way the Sikhs were encouraged to settle their own disputes themselves. 1595). Many baseless allegations were leveled against Guru Sahib. He was extremely handsome and the only son of Guru Arjan Sahib and Mata Ganga Ji. Ani Rai Ji.e. the moment was crucial for the Sikhs. He tortured Guru Sahib about three days in a manner unknown in the history of mankind. The Governor of Lahore was assigned the task of the execution. After the martyrdom of Guru Arjan Sahib. In due course of action.Akbar in 1605 both Hindu and Muslim fundamentalists move the new head of state emperor Jahangir against Guru Sahib. Dialectically speaking. Guru Sahib errected a wall around Amritsar city and constructed a small fort named 'Lohgarh' on the out skirts of the city. the Sikhs began to think seriously to counter the high-handedness of the mighty and theist Muslim Empire. it was the need of the hour. Guru Hargobind Sahib wore two swords. Jahangir himself was also jealous about Guru's propagation of Sikhism. peace loving Sikhism. some martial sports were also performed in the open courtyard before the Akal Takht. a petty businessman and an orthodox Hindu of Lahore city. Now a change had taken place in the character of Sikh Nation on the force of circumstances. Though the various reasons are also ascribed for the detention of Guru Sahib but the most suitable one seems to be that the Emperor Jahangir was falsely alarmed (about the military preparations by the Guru Sahib and Sikhs) by the same elements. Now the Sikh became "Saint-Soldier. Now the Sikh nation adopts both spiritual and political ways simultaneously. When his body was blistered. This place became the seat of preaching and praying in due course of time. The emperor Jahangir did not tolerated this new policy of Guru Sahib and subsequently ordered to imprison him in the Gwalior Fort. besides riding wrestling and hunting. Samvat 1652 (19th June. Bhai Jetha Ji and Bhai Sahlo Ji. one of Spiritual Power . This policy suited well to all the social and economic segments of the Sikhs. Abdul and Natha Mal were given the task in this respect.

It was the outcome of the noble interceding by the religious. because his personal physician's advice for a natural climate and atmospheric change. filth. and abuses thus put to death. under which earlier Guru Nanak Sahib held discussions with the different sects of Jogis. on the spiritual and religious issues in a very cordial atmosphere at Srinagar (Garhwal). The large number of Kashmiris. Wazir Khan.P. like a mad dog. Then the title of "Bandi Chhor Baba" was given to Guru Sahib and is still remembered by this name. Guru Sahib admitted the people of the villages: Darauli. the Yogis fled away and never came back or interfered in the religious affairs of Almast Ji. Guru Sahib also held a detailed discussion on the spiritual and relious with a marathe Saint Ram Das Samrath. which was being exploited by the selfish and corrupt Masands according to their own interests. Sidhar. secular and political personalities like Sain Mian Mir Ji. Guru Hargobind Sahib patronized one Sewa Das for preaching Sikhism. (system of initiating people into the fold of Sikhism. Zeera. when Guru Sahib was in Gwalior prison).Sahib and secured the releasing orders. Some chronicles state that Guru Sahib went there at the invitation of emperor Jahangir. Sidhwan. Damru. both Hindus and Muslims embraced Sikhism due to the devoted and committed preaching by Guru Sahib. Gonda Ji and Baba Hansa Ji. He appointed Bhai Garhia Ji to preach the Sikh religion. Guru Hargobind Sahib visited an old Sikh religious parching centre Nanakmata (Gorakhmata) in the present Pili Bhit district of U. was pelted with stones. It is also stated that Jahangir and his party paid a visit to Goindwal Sahib and reached Amritsar via Taran Taran. Guru Sahib also visited Rai Bhoe-di-Talwandi (the birth place of Guru Nanak Sahib). Guru Sahib made reconciliation with Udasi sect headed by Baba Sri . Baba Gurditta Ji was made the incharge of religious affairs and he further appointed four head preachers area vice: Almast Ji. Guru Sahib returned home via Baramula and proceeded further to Gujrat where he met Saint Shah Daulla who appreciated Guru Sahib spiritual status and mode of living with splendor. Guru Sahib devoted his much time in reorganizing the Sikh Nation and updating the preaching centres by establishing a new system called Dhunas. He also visted Kurukshetra and established there a Sikh preaching centre (Now in Haryana State). Guru Nanak Sahib established it. Baramula. The emperor offered financial assistance for the construction of Sri Akal Takht Sahib. He tried his best to dissuade Meharban (son of Pirthi Chand) from harbouring hostile designs against Sikhs and Sikhism. It is said that some Hindu Yogis ousted Almast Ji. founded by Baba Gurditta Ji (Guru's son). From this day the Sikh Nation began to celebrate Dewali festival as " Bandi Chhor Diwas " also. Now the attitude of Jahangir and his empire towards Guru Sahib changed considerably and remained favorable and friendly till the death of Jahangir. It is said that Raja Tara Chand donated land for this purpose. Guru Sahib held a short meeting with his many devoted Sikhs and a preacher Kattu Shah (a converted Mohammedan). Guru Sahib reached Amritsar on the occasion of Diwali. Guru Sahib visited Kashmir in 1620. When Guru Sahib met Jahangir immediately after his release. It is said that Baba Budha Ji littered the earthen lamps throughout the Amritsar city. the angry Sikhs overtook Chandu Shah (the main brain behind the execution of Guru Arjan Sahib). This was a major achievement by Guru Hargobind Sahib. He married Bibi Marwahi Ji (Mata Mahadevi Ji). Guru sahib started to re-consolidate the Sikh Nation. Guru Sahib spent the last decade of his life (from 1635 to 1644) at Kiratpur Sahib. This was a big occasion for the Sikhs. He also visited several adjoining villages like Bara Pir. Dabwali. Mehraj. (a pious Sikh preacher. They preceded him through the streets of Lahore. Lopo. Guru Sahib reached Nanakmata along with some saint-soldiers. Mange and Madai in Lahore district. which is situated in the hill state of Hadur (Nalagarh). Phaul Ji. On the other hand some Sikh source term the visit to Kashmir as a part of Guru Sahib's preaching campaign. Uri and Muzafrabad. In Punjab he visited Kartarpur and made it as headquarter of Sikh Nation in Doaba. He and his mother Bhag Bhari served Guru Sahib with much zeal and devotion. Guru Sahib undertook Dharam Parchar tours to spead Sikhism. he insisted upon Jahangir for the release of other fifty-two Hindu Princes on his personal surety (These Princes were said to be the rebellious ones). The Sikhs celebrated this occasion enthusiastically. the daughter of a devoted Sikh couple Daya Ram Ji and Bhagan Ji at village Mandiali. Shortly after the release of Guru Sahib. He modified the concept of Charanamrit. deputed by Guru Hargobind Sahib to spread Sikhism) from the gurdwara and desecrated the place by cutting the holy and historical Peepal tree. Seeing Guru Sahib on the scene. Nizam-ud-Din and the Governor of Lahore. Bhimbar Rehran. He started from Amritsar and covered thousand miles in India. Guru Sahib visited Sialkot." Shortly after the release from the Gwalior Fort and having cordial relations with the state. Guru Sahib also covered the 'Malwa' region of Punjab where the cult of Hindu Goddess and "Sakhi Sarwar" was fascination the lowly and downtrodden simple living people. Mirpur. The request was obliged and all the prisoners were released in 1612. Guru Sahib returned Amritsar via Darauli. Wazirabad. but Guru Sahib declined the offer politely. In other words the entire Malwa region embraced Sikhism and went a long way in integrating the Sikh Nation. Katra and Gillan in the Sikhism. Chandu. Mukerian and laid the foundation stone of Sri Hagobindpur town (the original name of this town was Gobindpura) near the river Beas in 1621. A chronicle further states that "Death came to him as a relief and his body was thrown into the river Ravi.

after consolidating their position. Shah Jahan. Bhai Paras Ram Ji. Bhai Jattu Ji. a Khatri 'Kirar' contemplated his right of ownership on the land and with the help of some hired ruffians forcibly tried to dislodge the Sikhs. and all were won. On the next morning the Sikhs. Abdulla Khan the Faujdar of Jalandhar dispatched ten thousand soldiers. In 1629 Mukhlis Khan was made the Governor to Lahore. the Sikh Nation. retaliated and made a vigorous attack on the sleeping Mughal forces. gave a stiff resistance. who incidentally were also hunting in the same territory aroud Gumtala Village near Amritsar. an extreme fanatic personality. Again it was destroyed in 1947. This incident enraged the emperor. who was incensed earlier by the fanatic Muslims and Hindus against the Sikh Nation and Guru Sahib. Bhagwan Das. earlier adopted by his father Jahangir towards Guru Sahib. Lahore (now in Pakistan) was desecrated and converted into a mosque. Bhai Pirana Ji. who deputed his disciple Abdullah (Abdul Yar Khan) to escort Kaulan Ji safely to Amritsar. Where she was treated kindly by Guru Sahib and provided her a safe and separate lodging near a pond. Bhai Nanu Ji. He ordered to destroy all the temples and Gurdwaras. Guru Sahib sacrificed Saint Soldiers like Mathura Bhat Ji (son of Baba Bhikha Ji). the commander and most of his leading lieutenants were killed.The possible conflict out of charged circumstances was inevitable. On noticing this attitude of Kaulan Ji. by the unruly and fanatic Muslims mob). Now for the first time in the Indian history since the invasion of Muslims. . who were engaged in developing the new township. When Shah Jahan succeeded the throne after the death of his father Jahangir. They were intercepted by the mighty and devoted Sikh Saint-Soldiers at Rohilla Ghat on the bank of the river Beas. was forcibly abducted by the Qazi Rustam Khan in her childhood and was made a maid servant . Guru Sahib's religious tours and preaching made the Sikhism more popular in different parts of India. at her residence. On the other hand Guru Sahib did not abandoned the mission of militarizing the Sikhs. the Faujdar of Jalandhar. This led to a small violent conflict between the two parties. to solemnize the marriage of Bibi Veero Ji (the daughter of Guru Hargobind Sahib). 7. A small conflict of Rohilla near Sri Hargobindpur was fought in 1621. Guru Sahib also suffered a heavy loss of life and property. Guru Sahib fought five battles during the regime of emperor Shah Jahan. This was the first armed clash between the Mughals and the Sikhs. The sacred Baoli of Guru Arjan Sahib in Dabbi Babar. He obliged the complaint and revised his policy matter. The attackers had an upper hand over the Sikhs on the first day of the battle. Besides Rattan Chand and Karam Chand. Bhai Jagannath Ji and Bhai Kalyana Ji. as it is also signified to by the name Kaulan.000 soldiers "to teach the lesson" to Guru Hargobind Sahib. Abdullah Khan his two sons and five commanders were killed. She was treated like a slave . She was a pious disciple of Guru Sahib and an ardent follower of Sikhism. but there was an immense loss of lives and material on the both sides. He deputed Mukhils Khan with. It was the first armed clash between the Faujdar of Jalandhar and Hargobind Sahib. After the death of emperor Jahangir the policy matter of the new young emperor Shah Jahan changed considerably. On the other hand the influence of Naqashbandis (a radical and fundamentalist order of the Muslim's clergy). According to some historical accounts Kaulan(Mata).At the young age. The second and the most serious conflict between Guru Sahib and the Mughal forces were fought in April 1634. she came under the influence of the teachings of Sain Mian Mir Ji.How a Qazi. She breathed her last on 4th July 1629 at Kartarpur (Jalandhar) while serving for the Sikh Nation. The emperor took the notice of new converts to Sikhism from the Muslims. She also began to take part in the religious sittings of Guru Sahib and became an ardent and pious follower of Guru Sahib. This was only an imperative measure of defense. prepared for the armed resistance.Chand Ji. He and Qazi Rustam Khan were best friends. She began to arrange religious congregations on Sikhism and Gurbani. In the ensuing small clash Bhagwan Das and his most hired ruffians were killed. The Sikhs though small in number. They looted and plundered all the property and holy residence of Guru Sahib. Within a short span of time she became much popular among the Sikh masses. Qazi became harsher towards her . which were under construction. After this incident. under the supreme command of Guru Hargobind Sahib. Thus she won the sympathy of the Sikhs who began to address her as Mata Kaulan Ji. Qazi Rustam Khan lodged a complaint with the new emperor. a Hindu lady . Near the site of new town Hargobindpur. Guru Sahib and the whole family had to hurriedly move to Chabal. The tyranny and injustice of the Muslim theocratic state was opposed. It started with the lifting of a royal hawk of the imperial army of Shah Jahan by the Sikhs. (Later Maharaja RanJit Singh re-excavated and re-established this Baoli. after the name of Kaulan Ji). tolerate her deep and devotional interest in Sikh religion? Because of Qazi's harsh treatment she sought the help of Mian Mir Ji. Guru Hargobind Sahib was not directly involved in his clash. Guru Sahib converted the peaceful sect into a warlike community. (later it was converted into a tank by Guru Sahib and named it Kaulsar. The mini fortress of Lohgarh was attacked. Bhai Saktu Ji. ready to defend their interests with the swords and it was the need of the hour. Rattan Chand (son of Bhagwan Das) and Karam Chand (son of Chandu Mal) incensed the Faujdar of Jalandhar against Guru Sahib. The Mughal army met a crushing defeat by the hands of. Mukhlis Khan.

The Mughal forces fled to Lahore leaving behind the dead and wounded. Guru Hargobind Sahib retired to the semi desert wastelands of Bhatinda. Guru Tegh Bahadur. Gobind Rai was escorted to Anandpur (then known as Chakk Nanaki) at the foothills of the Sivaliks where he reached in March 1672 and there his early education included reading and writing of Punjabi. lit. one of the five most honoured seats of religious authority (takht. Guru Hargobind Sahib had only three to four thousand warriors. According to some chronicle (on 16th December 1634) the Sikhs waged a guerilla attack on Mughal forces at night. Again Guru Sahib's entourage was suddenly ambushed by a contingent of royal forces under the command of Ahmed Khan in the village Palahi near Phagwara town on 29th April 1635. Sanskrit and Persian languages. which were forcibly snatched and taken into custody by the Mughal officials from the two devotees of Guru Sahib. The Sikhs routed and defeated the enemy. Soon after this. Several Sikh Saint Soldiers were also martyred. Painda Khan and Kala Khan were killed. He was barely nine years of age when a sudden turn came in his life as well as in the life of entire Sikh community. was then travelling across Bengal and Assam. but earlier two had jumped into the pier and were consumed by the fire. Guru Sahib took Guru Granth Sahib with him but after meeting a halt for sometimes at Daroli he sent Guru Granth Sahib to Kartarpur along with the family). and grandsons of Mula Bhat) sacrificed their lives. It caused considerable loss on the Guru's soldiers. This dare devil act was considered an open thereat to the authority of the Mughal Empire. Near a village Nathane Guru Sahib faced another encounter with the Mughal forces but remained victorious. Guru Sahib moved onwards Kiratpur Sahib. Guru Sahib lost 1200 Saint Soldiers including Kirt Bhatt Ji and Bhai Jetha Ji. The interception took place near Mehraj and Lahira villages. As the Guru sat reflecting what to do. The Sikhs having a nominal strength of 5000. visited Anandpur to seek Guru Tegh Bahadur's intercession. fought with rare courage and velour. Baba Gurditta Ji and Bhai Bidhi Chand Ji showed great feasts of bravery. Bhai Bidhi Chand a daring disciple recovered the horses one by one from the royal stable. Guru Sahib spent ten years of his life and breathed his last on Chet Sudhi 5th (6th Chet Samvat 1701) 28th February 1644 (some chronicle record the date as 3rd March. in Bihar. After these successful encounters Guru Sahib retired at Kartarpur (Jalandhar) along with his warriors. young Gobind Rai. He and Kala Khan (brother of slain Mukhlis Khan). Guru Gobind Singh was formally installed Guru on Maghar Sudi 5th (11 Maghar). 1675)." "None could be worthier than yourself to make such a sacrifice. Returning to Patna in 1670. Early in 1675. asked "Why he looked so preoccupied". 1644). Guru Tegh Bahadur soon aftenwards proceedcd to the imperial capital. was born Gobind Rai Sodhi on Poh Sudi 7th. he directed his family to return to the Punjab. 1732 Samvat (11th Nov. replied. 23rd Poh 1723 Bikrami Samvat (22 December 1666) at Patna. Guru Sahib crossed the Sutlej River and reached Kiratpur Sahib where he established another spiritual and preaching center of the Sikh Nation. deserted him later and joined the Mughal camp after some altercation with the Sikhs and Guru Sahib on some petty issues. and as the flames rose high. Painda Khan Pathan a commander in Guru's army and childhood friend. He had grown into a energectic youth. the Ninth Guru. Takht Sri Harimandar Sahib. he was destined to lead. The imperial forces (22000 troops) were dispatched towards the Lakhi Jungle under the command of Qammar Beg and Lalla Beg. Delhi. Teg Bahadar Ji (Guru). On the other side Sameer Beg and his two sons Shams Beg and Qasim Beg were also killed. Braj. (While leaving Amritsar for the Malwa region. After the battle of Kartarpur. Before his death Guru Sahib nominated his grandson Har Rai Sahib (The second son of Baba Gurditta Ji) as his successor (Seventh Nanak). Distress will then be expunged and happiness ushered in. he gave attention to the mastery of physical skills and literary accomplishment. The father. driven to desperation by the religious fanaticism of the Mughal General Iftikar Khan. She will be redeemed only if a truly worthy person comes forward to lay down his head. Har Rai Sahib (Guru) dissuaded them." remarked Gobind Rai in his innocent manner. and courted death on 11 November 1675. On the site of the house at Patna in which Gobind Rai was born and where he spent his early childhood now stands a sacred shrine. "Grave are the burdens the earth bears. at Lahore. which resulted heavy causalities in the Mughal camp. arriving there in company with his playmates. a tussle between Guru Sahib and Subedar of Lahore began over the two horses. a group Kashmiri Brahmans. He had Guru Gobind Singh Sahib .After this battle. Bhai Dasa Ji and Bhai Sohela Ji (sons of Ballu Bhat. This incident was informed to Guru Sahib. a large number of Sikhs tried to burn themselves on the funeral pier. which was under the rule of Raja Tara Chand (a hill state chief). His father. as records Koer Singh in his Gurbilas Patshahi 10. CLOSE The tenth and the last Guru or Prophet-teacher of the Sikh faith. In the midst of his engagement with the concerns of the community. The Sikh forces under the command of Rai Jodh and Kirt Bhatt camped near a water reservoir. throne) for the Sikhs. along with imperial army made an attack on Guru Sahib at Kartarpur on 26th April 1635. Guru Sahib built a tank called Gurusar commemorating the victory. Here. The Sikhs did not intercept the fleecing enemy. It is said that when Guru's body was placed on fire.

about 10 km northeast of Paonta. But they were worsted in an action at Bhangani. with swords dangling by their sides. For him it was a means of revealing the divine principle and concretizing a personal vision of the Supreme Being that had been vouchsafed to him. Muhkam Chand. a comb in the kesh to keep it tidy as against the recluses who kept it matted in token of their having renounced the world. A Sikh must not have sexual relationship outside the marital bond. and Kirpan. against whom he had heard complaints. Guru Gobind Singh availed himself of his spare time to practise different forms of manly exercises. i. initiation by sweetened water churned with a double-edged broadsword (khanda). Soon there after Guru Gobind Singh left Paonta and returned to Anandpur which he fortified in view of the continuing hostility of the Rajput chiefs as well as of the repressive policy of the imperial government at Delhi. formed the nucleus of the self-abnegating. It was the emblem of manliness and self-respect and was to be used only in self-defence. an imperial general. written in 1684.a natural genius for poetic composition and his early years were assiduously given to this pursuit. irrespective of caste and creed. During his stay at Paonta. Following the appointment in 1694 of the liberal Prince Muazzam (later Emperor Bahadur Shah) as viceroy of northwestern region including Punjab. to have faith in one God and to consider all human beings equal. Those five Sikhs were the first to be initiated. a water-carrier from Jagannathpur. on 22 Chet 1747 Bk/20 March 1691. Guru Gobind Singh issued directions to Sikh sangats or communities in different parts of India not to acknowledge masands. he had founded on the banks of the River Yamuna and to which site he had temporarily shifted in April 1685. It is but lawful to take to the sword. Describing the battle in stirring verse in Bachitra Natak. mostly in Braj. nor eat the flesh of an animal killed slowly in the Muslim way. In 1698. For Guru Gobind Singh said in a Persian couplet in his Zafarnamah: When all other means have failed. a Jatt from Hastinapur. "Hail. They rallied under the . was his first composition. all beginning with the letter K-the kesh or long hair and beard." as the poet subsequently sang. Guru Gobind Singh then introduced Khande Di Pahul. His Japu and the composition known as Akal Ustati are in this tenor. martial and casteless fellowship of the Khalsa. he said that Alif Khan fled in utter disarray "without being able to give any attention to his camp. came forward and was taken inside the enclosure. These five. The Guru repeated the call. All the five were led back from the tent dressed alike in saffron-coloured raiment topped over with neatly tied turbans similarly dyed. and had his name changed from Gobind Rai to Gobind Singh. however. Himmat. should come to Anandpur straight without any intermediaries and bring their offerings personally. and it was never to be used for self-aggrandizement. The Guru thus established direct relationship with his Sikhs and addressed them as his Khalsa. "Gobind Singh who is himself Master as well as disciple. They were enjoined to succour the helpless and fight the oppressor. Poetry as such was." Among several other skirmishes that occurred was the Hussain battle (20 February 1696) fought against Husain Khan. Kara. Guru Gobind Singh then himself received initiatory rites from five disciples. The choice of a warlike theme for this and a number of his later compositions such as the two Chandi Charitras." Further injunctions were laid down for the Sikhs. Much of Guru Gobind Singh's creative literary work was done at Paonta. nor smoke tobacco. Persian term used for crown-lands as distinguished from feudal chiefs. as a last resort. At the third call Daya Ram. Kachch. The poem depicted the legendary contest between the gods and the demons as described in the Markandeya Purana . The glorification of the sword itself which he eulogized as Bhaguati was to secure fulfilment of God'sjustice. now invested with authority as Khalsa. Alif Khan. he instructed. At this Daram Das. and asked for another head. arose and humbly walked behind the Guru to a tent near by. The institution of the Khalsa was given concrete form on 30 March 1699 when Sikhs had gathered at Anandpur in large numbers for the annual festival of Baisakhi. to quote Koer Singh. The sword was never meant as a symbol of aggression. a sword. the five devoted spirits beloved of the Guru. He preached the worship of the One Supreme Being. was made to infuse martial spirit among his followers to prepare them to stand up against injustice and tyranny. The Guru and his Sikhs were involved in a battle with a Mughal commander. Kangha. about 30 km southeast of Kangra. The Guru returned with his sword dripping blood. The Var Sri Bhagauti Ji Ki. were required to wear in future the five symbols of the Khalsa. Guru Gobind Singh made three more calls. short breeches. Gurbilas Patshahi 10. a Sobti Khatri of Lahore. All of them surnamed Singh. not his aim. a steel bracelet. such as riding. and Sahib Chand. on 18 Assu 1745 sk/18 September 1688. meaning lion. spoke: "Is there present a true Sikh who would offer his head to the Guru as a sacrifice?" The words numbed the audience who looked on in awed silence. His increasing influence among the people and the martial exercises of his men excited the jealousy of the neighbouring Rajput hill rulers who led by Raja Fateh Chand of Garhwal collected a host to attack him. Sikhs. which resulted in a decisive victory for the Sikhs. These developments alarmed the casteridden Rajput chiefs of the Sivalik hills. the local ministers. deprecating idolatry and superstitious beliefs and observances. They must never cut or trim their hair and beards. a barber from Bidar (Karnataka) responded one after another and advanced to offer their heads. swimming and archery. at Nadaun on the left bank of the Beas. Guru Gobind Singh called them Panj Piare. there was however a brief respite from pressure from the ruling authority. Through his poetry he preached love and equality and a strictly ethical and moral code of conduct. popularly called Chandi di Var.e. Guru Gobind Singh appeared before the assembly dramatically on that day with a naked sword in hand and. a washerman from Dvarka.

Guru Gobind Singh decided to stay awhile at Nanded. the besiegers too were chagrined at the tenacity with which the Sikhs held out. He prepared a fresh recension of Sikh Scripture. on 20 January 1706. In concert with contingents sent under imperial orders by the governor of Lahore and those of the faujdar of Sirhind. chided by their womenfolk at home. the Mughal troops failed to capture the Guru and had to retire in defeat. the Guru and his Sikhs firmly withstood their successive assaults despite dire scarcity of food resulting from the prolonged blockade. Madho Das. now called Damdama Sahib. arriving at Nanded. The Guru himself was able to make his way to Chamkaur. with the celebrated scholar. decisively won by the Prince who ascended the throne with the title of Bahadur Shah. There he enlisted a few hundred warriors of the Brar clan. After spending some time in the Lakkhi Jungle country. Daya Singh and Daram Singh. the town was evacuated during the night of Poh suds 1. addressed to Emperor Aurangzeb. The new Emperor invited Guru Gobind Singh for a meeting which took place at Agra on 23 July 1707. renaming him Gurbakhsh Singh (popular name Banda Singh ). following closely on his heels. Ajit Singh (b. While the besieged were reduced to desperate straits. They had fallen fighting desperately to check the enemy's advance towards the Guru's position. That was the time when the sons of the deceased Emperor were preparing to contest succession. Gani Khan and Nabi Khan. the Emperor had a letter written to the deputy governor of Lahore. Mai Bhago. were after the evacuation of Anandpur betrayed by their old servant and escort. The most valorous part in this battle was played by a group of 40 Sikhs who had deserted the Guru at Anandpur during the long siege. In spite of their overwhelming numbers. but who. The Guru there upon decided to return to the Punjab. At this stagy the besiegers offered. in Persian verse. i. From Dina. they marched upon Anandpur and laid a siege to the fort in Jeth 1762 sk/May 1705. Zorawar Singh (b. the hill monarchs and their Mughal allies set upon them in full fury. with barely 40 Sikhs and his two elder sons. While Bahadur Shah proceeded further South. Kam Baksh. were despatched with the Zafarnamah to Ahmadnagar in the South to deliver it to Aurangzeb. According to Ahkam-i-Alamgiri. They at last petitioned Emperor Aurangzeb for help. caught up with him.1699). Over the months. the Guru Granth Sahib. Befriended by another Muslim admirer. He was in the neighbourhood of Baghor. Guru Gobind Singh's two younger sons. whom he converted a Sikh administering to him Khande Di Pahul. to forcibly evict Guru Gobind Singh from his hilly citadel. as his amanuensis. when the news arrived of the death of the Emperor at Ahmadnagar on 20 February 1707. Their repeated expeditions during 1700-04 however proved abortive . At last. Guru Gobind Singh with three of his Sikhs escaped into the wilderness of the Malva.leadership of the Raja of Bilaspur. helping him at great personal risk. and his mother. towards the end of August. to redeem themselves. The two camps crossed the River Tapti between 11 and 14 June 1708 and the Ban-Ganga on 14 August. safe exit to the Sikhs if they quit Anandpur. The Guru accompanied him and. Mun'im Khan. There the imperial army. he addressed assemblies of people on the way preaching the word of Guru Nanak. and also composed his famous letter. finding the host close upon his heels. 1691) and all but five of the Sikhs fell in the action that took place on 7 December 1705. already left for the South on 30 October 1706. then in camp in that town. It emphatically reiterated the sovereignty of morality in the affairs of State as much as in the conduct of human beings and held the means as important as the end. to conciliate the Guru and make the required arrangements for his journey to the Deccan. in whose territory lay Anandpur. the 40 Saved Ones. Guru Gobind Singh arrived at Talvandi Sabo. The epistle Zafarnamah sent by Guru Gobind Singh from Dina seems to have touched the heart of Emperor Aurungzeb. He forthwith invited him for a meeting. the place came to be known as the Guru's Kashi or seat of learning like Varanasi. had come back under the leadership of a brave and devoted woman. During his stay there of over nine months. His two sons. In the ensuing confusion many Sikhs were killed and all of the Guru's baggage. Emperor Bahadur Shah had at this time to move against the Kachhvaha Rajputs of Amber (Jaipur) and then to the Deccan where his youngest brother. on the Godavari. including most of the precious manuscripts. 1696) and Fateh Singh (b. Here he met a Bairagi recluse. Zafarnamah or the Epistle of Victory. who had the young children executed on 13 December 1705. The five surviving Sikhs bade the Guru to save himself in order to reconsolidate the Khalsa. Bhai Mani Singh. The letter was a severe indictment of the Emperor and his commanders who had perjured their oath and treacherously attacked him once he was outside the safety of his fortification at Anandpur. But soon. Guru Gobind Singh despatched for the help of the eldest claimant. on solemn oaths of Quran. Guru Gobind Singh had. a number of Sikhs rejoined him. via Shahjahanabad (Delhi) . Rai Kalha of Raikot. a token contingent of Sikhs which took part in the battle of Jajau (8 June 1707). Guru Gobind Siligh gave Banda Singh five .e. 1762 sk/5-6 December 1705. The Guru blessed the 40 dead as 40 mukte. Mata Gujari. Guru Gobind Singh reached Dina in the heart of the Malva. two of his Muslim devotees. however. as says Tarkh-i-Bahadur Shahi. Their grandmother died the same day. the Pool of liberations. in Rajasthan. had raised the standard of revolt. Guru Gobind Singh continued his westward march until. he took position astride the water pool of Khidrana to make a last-ditch stand. The site is now marked by a sacred shrine and tank and the town which has grown around them is called Muktsar. 1687) and Jujhar Singh (b. to the faujdar of Sirhind. as the Guru and his Sikhs came out. the liberal Prince Muazzam. was lost. 40 km southwest of Anandpur. Gangu. From the number of scholars who had rallied round Gura Gobind Singh and from the literary activity initiated. The fighting on 29 December 1705 was hard and desperate. Two of the Sikhs.

Guru Gobind Singh thus passed on the succession with due ceremony to the Holy Book. while his fleeing companion fell under the swords of Sikhs who had rushed in on hearing the noise. and he charged two of his trusted men with murdering the Guru before his increasing friendship with the Emperor resulted in any harm to him. "It is my commandment: Own Sri Granthji in my place. "will henceforth be in the Granth and the Khalsa. He said to the sangat. now at Nanded. He who so acknowledges it will obtain his reward. "The Guru's spirit. asked Bhai Daya Singh. Before the end came. Guru Gobind Singh struck him down with his sword. Where the Granth is with any five Sikhs representing the Khalsa. The wound was stitched and appeared to have healed quickly but. This weakened the Guru beyond cure and he passed away on Kattak sudi 5. he sent expert surgeons. it broke out again and bled profusely." he said. The Guru placed before it five pice and a coconut and bowed his head before it." The Word enshrined in the Holy Book was always revered by the Gurus as well as by their disciples as of Divine origin. to attend on the Guru. and for all time to come to be the Guru for the Sikhs. a contemporary writer. The Guru will rescue him. Gosal clan. Sodhi Khatri. including an Englishman. Nawab Wazir Khan of Sirhind had felt concerned at the Emperor's conciliatory treatment of Guru Gobind Singh. where. 1765 Bk/7 OC tober 1708. son of Guru Teg Bahadur. CLOSE . 6 October 1708. The Guru was the revealer of the Word. resident of Anandpur. Cole by name. Guru Gobind Singh had asked for the Sacred Volume to be brought forth. according to Sri Gur Sobha by Senapati. there will the Guru be.arrows from his own quiver and an escort. Know this as the truth". of the family of Guru Ram Das Surajbansi. and directed him to go to the Punjab and carry on the campaign against the tyranny of the provincial overlords. One day the Word was to take the place of the Guru. The Word as contained in the Guru Granth Sahib was henceforth. including five of his chosen Sikhs. the Guru Granth Sahib. Before he could deal another blow. parganah Kahlur. These two pathans Jamshed Khan and Wasil Beg are the names given in the Guru Kian Sakhian— pursued the Guru secretly and overtook him at Nanded. one of them stabbed the Guru in the left side below the heart as he lay one evening in his chamber resting after the Rahras prayer. the Tenth Master. in the Godavari country in the Deccan. The inevitable came to pass when Guru Gobind Singh declared the Guru Granth Sahib as his successor. To quote Bhatt Vahi Talauda Parganah Jind: "Guru Gobind Singh. In obedience to his orders. great-grandson of Guru Arjan. Daya Singh brought Sri Granth Sahib. As the news reached Bahadur Shah's camp. Their marching together to the South made him jealous. to fetch Sri Granth Sahib. It was only through the Word that the Guruship could be made everlasting. as the Guru one day applied strength to pull a stiff bow. on Wednesday. ending the line of personal Gurus. grandson of Guru Hargobind.

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