Ken Hubbell: Worksheet 1: Instructional Systems Design (ISD) Models

1. The Dick and Carey ISD Model consists of ten steps, some of which are conducted in parallel while the rest are executed in sequence (see Figure 1).

Figure 1. The Dick and Carey process model.

Over the past twenty years, I have primarily used the modern day ADDIE (Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation) model with the addition of a sixth stage called Maintenance (M). I have reviewed other models and in the end it all comes down to production. Interestingly enough, during my first decade I did not know anything about ADDIE. What I did know was industrial design, project management, and software development. There are logical similarities between the ADDIE model and these other three processes or methodologies. In fact, in many ways, ADDIE is the instructional designer’s version of project management with Donald Kirkpatrick’s 4 Levels of assessment the equivalent of industrial quality assurance and quality control. The names of the steps and reports may be different, but at their core, these models or processes are the same. ADDIE-M really is an evolution of the best of the Dick and Carey design model with the inclusion of the Gerlach and Ely design model stages for scoping and allocation of resources. (Strickland, 2011) Only recently have I been introduced the ASSURE instructional systems design

technology. Dick and Carey Identify Instructional Goals Conduct Instructional Analysis Analyze Learners and Contexts Write Performance Objectives Revise Instruction Develop Assessment Instruments Develop Instructional Strategy Develop and Select Instructional Materials Design and Conduct Formative Evaluation of Instruction State standards & objectives Design Select strategies. 2009) Finally. Note that in principle. ASSURE. Once these have been identified. each of these stages maps to the stages of the instructional design models (see Table 1). 2011). according to the Project Management Institute’s PMBOK Guide 4th Edition. additional analysis should be carefully bounded by time and resources. there are five process stages in every project. Robert Heinich and Michael Molenda developed the ASSURE model incorporating Robert Gagne’s events of instruction with a focus on the classroom and assuring effective use of media to support learning. media & materials Utilize technology. there are . 2. (Hanley. Comparison of the Dick and Carey. ADDIE-M and PMBOK processes. what are the learning objectives and what the limits for deploying the learning content are. In all of these approaches the analysis stage is one of contention varying from almost no analysis resulting in misalignment of learning objectives to so much analysis that the project stalls and is never delivered. According to John Keller’s ARCS Model of Motivational Design (Dick et al. media & materials Require learner participation Planning Analyze learners Analysis Initiating ASSURE ADDIE-M PMBOK Development Executing Implementation and Evaluation Monitoring and Controlling Design and Conduct Summative Evaluate & revise Maintenance Closing Evaluation Table 1. The instructional designer must understand at a minimum who is the audience.process.

or any number of options. One of my goals as a designer is to have the opportunity and the budget to conduct confidence assessment in parallel to knowledge and behavioral assessment. Of the four. whereas to me. satisfaction is the final component. 3. It is interesting that in Keller's model. the content must first get the learner's attention. ice-breaker activities. Ideally the learner would perform the knowledge. and Satisfaction.” In a learning experience. I believe confidence resonates most with my instructional design philosophy. according to the ARCS model.four steps for promoting and sustaining motivation in the learning process: Attention. behavior or skill and then be asked how confident they were of their response before being provided with feedback from the learning. Confidence. This can be accomplished through entertainment. satisfaction can be achieved by providing the learner with the appropriate amount of engaging instruction. The two responses could then be analyzed to determine the effectiveness of the learning material. The key is to not only gain this initial attention but to maintain it throughout the course which leads us to "relevance. Relevance. assessment." Relevance can be incorporated in the initial attention stage as with a real world example of how the learner will apply the course content or it may come at a later stage forming the basis for quizzes or other interactive activities. Cunningham. confidence is the pinnacle of learning. It is this level of confidence in most learning content I have participated in either as learner or technical designer that is neither addressed nor assessed. pretesting. and feedback providing clear connections with the stated learning objectives of the course. 1995) emphasize the relationship between ARC theory and “a premise of free will as well as behavioral theories based on the premise of determination. Coming from a software development background as well as having a degree in industrial . Bednar. Duffy and Perry (Bednar et al. Finally. It is during these latter types that learner confidence in the materials can be established through progressively more difficult activities and well placed feedback and remediation.

van der Meij and Carroll (van der Meij and Carroll. Rapid prototyping. distributed (implemented) and measured for effectiveness (evaluation). provides a system for addressing the needs determined by an initial. From my experience.product design. This is especially beneficial for large scale programs. also known as spiral design and any of a number of other terms for the same set of practices. These early objectives are presented to the learner in a series of prototypes which provide insight as to their effectiveness (formative evaluation) and allow for course corrections early in the design and development cycle while reducing the impact on the solution at large. gap analysis quantified as a small set of objectives for the learning solution. I have used rapid prototyping for many years. This approach to learning by doing requires the course content be prepared to engage the learner in activities from the beginning. high-level. According to Tripp and Bichelemeyer (Tripp and Bichelmeyer. 1995) describe minimalist instruction as a need for the learner to act early in the instructional process. 1990) this same model can be used for instructional design. I like the rapid approach because it also addresses my inclination for minimalist instructional design. where a large investment of time and effort could be expended on objectives not fully understood or uncovered during the analysis process. instructional design content is a “product” and as such falls under the same requirements as any other product: it is targeted to a specific set of consumers (the learners) to meet a specific set of functional requirements (learning objectives/outcomes) and manufactured (developed). the instructional designers can build into the course additional learning objectives that include this material in the overall program. This is similar to the idea behind minimalist instruction where engaging the learner early provides feedback as to the effectiveness of the approach as defined by their ability to successfully achieve the learning objectives. often before they fully know what to do. selecting the appropriate tasks to the content domain and reinforcing behaviors with constructive feedback and providing support materials to allow the user to seek out and find answers to questions as needed. As the learner seeks out additional support materials. Depending on the scale of the .

weather conditions. iPad and Android devices. and aircraft types and characteristics. (5) Using a simulation or game. A PC version is provided for classroom exercises and to introduce the basic concepts prior to individual practice.program. (6) This simulation/game is distributed as an App for iPhone. maps. (4) This type of instruction is designed to augment classroom instruction as well as performed individually at any location. Instructors have the capability of observing student performance and providing coaching and mentoring to those students requiring additional support. 4. (1) The instructional objective for this learning solution is that after receiving instruction and practice the FAA air traffic controller will be able to respond to the pilot requests with the correct course corrections to facilitate the traffic of inbound and outbound planes. the learner will practice landing approach and take-off of aircraft with feedback provided to support the learner. (3) Prerequisite knowledge and skills necessary for learners to engage in the instruction include common FAA terminology. Two years ago I designed a simulation/game to develop behavioral skills required by FAA air traffic controllers to safely facilitate take-off and landing procedures. the number of prototype iterations can be range from few to many and are often constrained by resources. A PDF job aid accompanies the App to facilitate rapid immersion . (2) The target audience for this learning solution includes FAA air traffic controllers working in the 313 terminals across the United States ranging in age from 18 to 52.

” By providing a simulated/game environment that represents the actual activities an FAA air traffic controller performs.” (Bednar et al. and constructivist conceptions of learning. journal articles or books) that discuss ISD from behavioral.in the learning. introducing new aircraft types and traffic conditions as required. . This App is designed to provide continuous practice throughout the career of the FAA controller. Six scholarly works (i. realistic problems. This type of learning activity is constructivism at its core.e. (7) The instruction is provided in successive levels increasing in complexity and difficulty.. the learner is able to continuously learn in context. learning from their experiences solving “authentic. cognitive. “The premise behind Constructivism is the idea that knowledge is subjective and dependent upon one’s experiences. Each level is real-time and lasts from five to sixty minutes depending on the focus of the level. 1995) 5.

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Assure model: Discovering instructional design 18. D.doctoraws. Hanley. 31-44. Educational Technology Research and Development. H. June 24). van der Meij. 100-111). Inc. pp.com/?page_id=7 Tripp. Perry. AW Strickland website: http://www. Dick..ie/elearningcurve/assure-modeldiscovering-instructional-design-18/2009/06/24/ Keller.K. J. 1-7. W. J.). Instructional technology: Past.. Duffy. J. Technical Communication. Performance & Instruction. Anglin (Ed. Strickland.M. (1987). A. 1-8. N. S. (1995). (2009. J. 38(1). Rapid prototyping: An alternative instructional design strategy. 42(2). D. (2nd ed. O.M. Carey. & Carroll. A. W. 26(9). & Carey.. The systematic design of instruction. Theory into practice: How do we link? In G. Retrieved from Dr. M. (1987).. (1990).. Performance & Instruction. (1995) Principles and heuristics in designing minimalist instruction. Retrieved from E-Learning Curve Blog website: http://michaelhanley. T. Strategies for stimulating the motivation to learn.References Bednar. M.J: Merrill/Pearson. J. Keller.M. and Bichelmeyer. 26(8). (2009). 243--261. (2011). Englewood. Cunningham.P.. Isd models. Upper Saddle River. . The systematic process of motivational design.J. B. CO: Libraries Unlimited. present and future. L.

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