Galactic Sea of Energy

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Jump to: navigation, search This directory is created to document various massive, earth-level fluctuations that might possibly be looked at as the source of energy in some of these exotic energy devices and theories we cover at PESWiki. These fluctuations might answer questions as to the origin of "radiant energy" or "aether" as well as atomospheric electrostatic energy which may be involved in pyramid power scenarios. It may explain how electromagnetic 'overunity' is achieved, and how all-magnet motors work. The most exciting feature of many of these approaches is that they point to the possibility of building solid state devices that could be portable and scalable and infinitely available, drawing their energy from an inexhaustible, clean source.
Contents
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News

1 Books 2 Videos 3 In the

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4

Discussion

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also

5 See

Books

1.
Featured: Galactic Sea of Energy / Radiant > T. Henry Moray >

Son of T. Henry Moray Releases DVD (Interview) - John Moray's new DVD, "The Sea of Energy in which the Earth Floats", reviews the work of his father, T. Henry Moray, who purportedly built a device that harnessed "radiant energy"

from the cosmos; witnessed by hundreds, but never successfully commercialized. (PESN; December 16, 2008) (Buy)

Videos
(x Minutes) Dark Energy Stifling Structure Growth For the first time, astronomers have clearly seen the effects of "dark energy" on the most massive collapsed objects in the universe using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. (YouTube; December 17, 2008)
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Suppression / Videos > Energy from the Vacuum series >

Cold Heat from Canada (Trailer) - In 1968, Designex Inc. in Toronto, Canada, was powering the refrigerator, lights, radio and other appliances in their offices with a device of their own design that was self powered by cold negative radiant energy. Toronto Hydro, the local power company, sent a crew out, who removed all Toronto Hydro power meters, fuse boxes, and wiring in an attempt to shut the power off, but to no avail. (Energy from the Vacuum; Disc. 19; July, 2010)

In the News
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item removed to give author chance to make some corrections.

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Galactic Sea of Energy >

Hyperdimensional Hexagon on Saturn and Free Energy (2 | 3 | 4) - In an

interview on Coast to Coast a couple of years ago, Richard C. Hoagland discussed why a hexagon shape appears on the north pole of Saturn, saying it is a function of hyperdimensional physics -- drawing energy from elsewhere -- and how this could be a source of free energy on earth if we could harness it. (YouTube; by the duderinok; April 27, 2007) (Thanks Clay Graner)

A Giant Breach in Earth's Magnetic Field - NASA's five THEMIS spacecraft have discovered a breach in Earth's magnetic field ten times larger than anything previously thought to exist. Solar wind can flow in through the opening to "load up" the magnetosphere for powerful geomagnetic storms. But the breach itself is not the biggest surprise. Researchers are even more amazed at the strange and unexpected way it forms, overturning long-held ideas of space physics. (Science & NASA; Dec. 16, 2008)
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Magnets >

Sun Induces Strange 'Breathing' of Earth's Atmosphere - New satellite observations have revealed a previously unknown rhythmic expansion and contraction of Earth's atmosphere on a nine-day cycle. This "breathing" corresponds to changes in the sun's magnetic fields as it completes rotations once every 27 days. (Wired; Dec. 15, 2008) Magnetic Portals Connect Sun And Earth - During the time it takes you to read this article, something will happen high overhead that until recently many scientists didn't believe in. A magnetic portal will open, linking Earth to the sun 93 million miles away. Tons of high-energy particles may flow through the opening
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before it closes again, around the time you reach the end of the page. (ScienceDaily; Nov. 2, 2008)

Discussion
See Discussion page

See also
BEST
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Directory:Best Exotic Clean Energy Technologies Top free energy stories of 2010 and beyond

ENERGY TYPES
1. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2. 3. 4.

Directory:Galactic Sea of Energy Directory:Aether | PowerPedia:Aether Directory:Atmospheric Electrostatic Energy Directory:Dark Energy Directory:Radiant Energy | PowerPedia:Radiant Energy Directory:Zero Point Energy Directory:Grand Unified Theories | Directory:Aether Physics Model Directory:Vibrations Directory:Fractal Antennas as an Energy Source

DEVICE TYPES
1. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

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1. 8. 9. 10. 11.

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Aether
From PESWiki
Jump to: navigation, search See also PowerPedia:Aether Index of Aether companies, applications, theories.
Contents
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1. 1. 2. 2. 3. 4.

1 Companies 1.1 Correa 1.2 Kapanadze 2 Open Source 3 Applications 4 Research and

Development

5. 6. 7.

5 Theory 6 Related 7 See also

Companies
Correa

Powerpedia:Aetherometry - Aetherometry is a neologism coined by Dr. Paulo Correa and Alexandra Correa to describe their alternative open system, which addresses many scientific fields.
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Aether/Orgone Motor Patent Issued - U.S. Patent #7,053,576 was issued May 30th for Dr. Paulo and Alexandra Correa's "Aether/Orgone Motor & Converter", marking the dawn of active and passive massfree energy technologies. (ZPEnergy; Aug. 2, 2006)
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Kapanadze

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Featured: Electromagnetic / Aether >

Kapanadze Free Energy Generator - Georgia Republic inventor, Tariel Kapaladze, claims to have invented a 5 kilowatt free energy generator. In a demonstration video, the device appears to produce copious amounts of energy from no visible source. Though it appears to be extracting energy from the aether, some people think it could be a matter of getting energy from the electrical grid through inductive coupling. (PESWiki; July 9, 2009)

Open Source

1.
Featured / OS: Aether >

KML Coils: Super-Duper Simple Method for Pulling Energy from

Aether? - Young Delaware inventor, Chris W. Brown, thinks he has come up with a way of harnessing aetheric energy through an ultra simple coil arrangement. Yesterday he said he powered his TV for nearly 7 hours using a new arrangement comprising less than $100 in off-the-shelf parts. (PESWiki; April 15, 2009)

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Aether > KML Coils >

Chris Brown's Own Measurements Show No Change In TV Setup - Last week, Chris reported that he had run a television on a KML Coil system he devised, and that the duration seemed much longer than what would be possible without the KML Coils. Today, his first before/after control test concludes that the KML Coils are not contributing anything to the system. (PESWiki; April 23, 2009)

Applications
Energy Harvesters use heat, vibration and pressure - The human body, factory machines, radios of various types, and many other things emit energy in the form of heat, vibration, or RF waves. And it's looking increasingly plausible that designers can devise systems that scavenge the stray energy and convert it for low energy use. (EDN; Dec. 21, 2006)
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Research and Development

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Nuclear / ZPE > Wingate Lambertson >

Remembering energy inventor Dr. Lambertson - The late Wingate Lambertson, Ph.D., a nuclear scientist of Florida, was able to light a row of

lamps in his garage using what he says is electricity taken from the energy of space, via his "cermet" material arranged in an "E-dam" through a process he called World Into Neutrinos (WIN). A dream he was given said the technology would emerge to the world in 2018. (Changing Power; July 13, 2010)

1.
Featured: Aether / Conspiracy / Emergency Preparedness >

Stan Deyo and The Millennium Ark - Stan Deyo, famous for his research into Earth Changes, is a fascinating author and lecturer, with insights into Aether physics while also promoting an awareness about conspiratorial forces undermining freedom in the world. He is an alternatives expert on solar cycles, emergency preparedness, and end time predictions. (PESWiki; March 6, 2010)

Fermilab Looks for Visitors from Another Dimension - Scientists at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Batavia, Ill., are designing a new experiment that would investigate tantalizing hints that extra dimensions may indeed exist. (Scientific American; Sept. 2008)
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Theory

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Electromagnetic / Aether

Robert Distini’s New Electromagnetism and Ethereal Mechanics - New Electromagnetism consists of spherical field models for both Coulomb forces and magnetic forces, introducing additional terms to resolve anomalies and paradoxes. Ethereal Mechanics proposes a more coherent explanation of time, energy, matter and existence.
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Paper:A New Foundation for Physics, by Quantum Aether Dynamics Institute Theory:Volantis:Evidence for the Photon quantification in the Aether Physics Review:Aether Physics Model Directory:Aether Physics Model Theory:Volantis:Voyager Evidence for Existence of Aether

Model
3. 4. 5. 6.

PowerPedia:Tesla's Dynamic Theory of Gravity - a unified field theory (a model over matter, the aether, and energy)

From the Aura to the Aether: The Secrets of Energy Dynamics - Aether is part of a form of energy that many cultures were aware of and have given different names to: Taoists called it ‘chi’ and the Babylonians ‘ti’. Those from the Indus valley referred to it as ‘Ódžas’ and the Japanese ‘rei ki’. Likewise, Hebrews referred to it as ‘ruach’, Tibetans as ‘šugs rlung’ and the Vedic religion thought of it as ‘prána’. (Thothweb; Dec. 23, 2006)
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Related
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PowerPedia:Sympathetic Vibratory Physics Directory:Zero Point Energy PowerPedia:Shape power - Geometrical shapes can influence the aether. PowerPedia:Electromagnetism

See also

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1. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2. 3. 4.

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PowerPedia:Aether
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Jump to: navigation, search

See Directory:Aether for an index of Aether companies, applications, theories. The assorted aether theories embody the various conceptions of a "medium" and "substance". The Aether of the classical elements is a concept, historically, used in science and in philosophy. Alchemy, natural philosophy, and early modern physics proposed the existence of a medium of the æther (also spelled ether, from the Greek word (αἰθή�?) aether, meaning "upper air" or "pure, fresh air" [1]), a space-filling substance or field, thought to be necessary as a transmission medium.

The factual accuracy of this article or section may be compromised due to outof-date information. You can improve the article by updating it. Since 2008, a workable and testable Super Relativity 'æther' has surfaced that redefines this to comply with the works of Maxwell, Lorentz and Einstein.

Introduction
The term aether, æther or ether may refer to the original meaning as the personification of the "upper sky", space and heaven, in Greek mythology. In Science, engineering, and philosophy, the Aether of classical elements is a concept, historically, used in science (as a medium) and in philosophy (as a substance) and this includes a number of Aether theories in alchemy, natural philosophy, and modern physics which suppose a "fifth element". The Luminiferous aether, in early physics considered to be the medium through which light propagates. This should not be confused with "Ether", a class of chemical compounds, or Diethyl ether (which has the common name "ether"). In Spirituality, Etheric plane was a finer grade of matter, "ether" in addition to the solids, liquids, and gases - which permeates the subatomic structure of the earth and its atmosphere. The Etheric body, a sort of life force body or aura that constitutes the "blueprint" of the physical body, and which sustains the physical body. Plato described the aether as that which God used in the delineation of the universe in Timaeus (dialogue)[2]. Although hypotheses of the Æther vary somewhat in detail they all have certain characteristics in common. Essentially it is considered to be a physical medium occuping every point in Space, including within material bodies. A second essential feature is that its properties gives rise to the electric, magnetic and gravitational potentials and determines the propagation velocity of their effects. Therefore the speed of light and all other propagating effects are determined by the physical properties of the Æther at that location which acts in a manner analogous to sound waves. The Æther is considered the global reference frame for the Universe and thus velocities are all absolute relative to its rest frame. Therefore, in this view, any physical consequences of those velocities are considered as having an absolute, ie real effects. Recent Æther theories (see section below on research

and modern derivatives) of velocity effects, phenomenon of gravitation and planetary motion (i.e. the angular momentum), creation of proton, of stars (neutron stars too) and planets, etc., exist but are not generally accepted by all in the "mainstream" scientific community.

Classic element
Aether (also spelled ether) is a concept used in ancient and medieval science as a substance. The aether was believed to be the substance which filled the region of the universe above the terrestrial sphere. Aristotle included it as a fifth element distinct from the other four, Air, Earth, Fire, and Water. Aether was also called Quintessence (from quinta essentia, "fifth element"). Quintessence was also supposed to be a definition of pure energy. Its force is imagined to be like a lightning. This element also has the power of life. Its Platonic solid was the Dodecahedron.

Mythological origins
The word aether (αἰθή�?) in Homeric Greek means "pure, fresh air" or "clear sky", imagined in Greek mythology to be the pure essence where the gods lived and which they breathed, analogous to the aer breathed by mortals (also personified as a deity, Aether, the son of Erebus and Nyx). It corresponds to the concept of akasha in Hindu philosophy. It is related to Template:Polytonic "to incinerate"[3], also intransitive "to burn, to shine" (related is the name Aithiopes (Ethiopians), meaning "people with a burnt (black) visage". See also Empyrean.

Fifth element
Plato's Timaeus posits the existence of a fifth element (corresponding to the fifth remaining Platonic solid, the dodecahedron) called quintessence, of which the cosmos itself is made. Aristotle included aether in the system of the classical elements of Ionic philosophy as the "fifth element" (the quintessence), on the principle that the four terrestrial elements were subject to change and moved naturally in straight lines while no change had been observed in the celestial regions and the heavenly bodies moved in circles. In Aristotle's system aether had no qualities (was neither hot, cold, wet, nor dry), was incapable of change (with the exception of change of place), and by its nature moved in circles.[4] Medieval scholastic philosophers granted aether changes of density, in which the bodies of the planets were considered to be denser than the medium which

filled the rest of the universe.[5] Robert Fludd stated that the aether was of the character that it was "subtler than light". Fludd cites the 3rd century view of Plotinus, concerning the aether as penetrative and non-material.[6]

Newtonian æther
Isaac Newton disproved the æther "vortex theory" of planetary motion but later proposed a "new" æther, exceptionally fluid, whose density was affected by the local density of matter and local gravitational field strength (see: Optiks). Newton also said that he did not know whether his new æther should be particulate or not [7] - if it was particulate, the particles would have to be incredibly small, even smaller than light-corpuscles. [8]

Luminiferous æther
The basic idea of the æther as a physical transmission medium is simple, and like all media, if it exists, must have fundamental properties including a pressure, mass density, and temperature. Further. if compressible, it will also exhibit a characteristic finite propagation speed, c, at which all transfer of momentum and energy through it can be carried from one physical location to another. Compressibility also means that there will also be a distinct coefficient of compressibility (and its inverse, a distinct modulus), a characteristic impedance, and the ability to create and sustain wave activity. Any other properties, including ponderable matter and the specific characteristics of waves are solely dependent upon specifics arising from these basics. As can be seen from historical timelines [9], up until the early part of the twentieth century æther played a central and dominant role in the development and evolution of all of theoretical physics. In the late 19th century,[10] luminiferous aether ("light-bearing aether") was the term used to describe a medium for the propagation of light. Later theories including special relativity were formulated without the aether concept, and today the aether is considered to be a superseded scientific theory. The word "aether" stems via Latin from the Greek αἰθή�?, from a root meaning "to kindle/burn/shine", which signified the substance thought in ancient times to fill the upper regions of space, beyond the clouds. During the 19th century the most basic and fundamental physical characteristics known were those pertaining to electric, magnetic, and luminous (light)

phenomena. The focus of theoretical development focused upon these phenomena and integrating them into a single common framework. Based upon Faraday's meticulous findings James Clerk Maxwell succeeded brilliantly in doing so. His model was based upon Helmholtz's æther vortex model and is described in detail in his 1861-62 series of articles titled On the Physical Lines of Force.[11] Because of this, the aether concept was commonly referred to as luminiferous aether during this period.

The history luminiferous aether
See also timeline of luminiferous aether. Isaac Newton had assumed that light was made up of numerous small particles, in order to explain features such as its ability to travel in straight lines and reflect off surfaces. This theory was known to have its problems; although it explained reflection well, its explanation of refraction and diffraction was less pleasing. In order to explain refraction, in fact, Newton's Opticks (1704) postulated an "Aethereal Medium" transmitting vibrations faster than light, by which light (when overtaken) is put into "Fits of easy Reflexion and easy Transmission" (causing refraction and diffraction). Newton believed that these vibrations were related to things like heat radiation, saying: Is not the Heat of the warm Room convey'd through the Vacuum by the Vibrations of a much subtiler Medium than Air, which after the Air was drawn out remained in the Vacuum? And is not this Medium the same with that Medium by which Light is refracted and reflected, and by whose Vibrations Light communicates Heat to Bodies, and is put into Fits of easy Reflexion and easy Transmission? The modern understanding, of course, is that heat radiation is light, but Newton considered them two different phenomena (believing heat vibrations to be excited "when a Ray of Light falls upon the Surface of any pellucid Body"). He wrote that "I do not know what this Aether is", but that if it consists of particles then they must be "exceedingly smaller than those of Air, or even than those of Light: The exceeding smallness of its Particles may contribute to the greatness of the force by which those Particles may recede from one another, and thereby make that Medium exceedingly more rare and elastick than Air, and by consequence exceedingly less able to

resist the motions of Projectiles, and exceedingly more able to press upon gross Bodies, by endeavoring to expand itself." Christiaan Huygens, prior to Newton, had hypothesized that light itself was a wave propagating through an Aether, but Newton rejected this idea. The main reason for his rejection stemmed from the fact that both men could apparently only envision light to be a longitudinal wave, like sound and other mechanical waves in gases and fluids. However, longitudinal waves by necessity have only one form for a given propagation direction, rather than two polarizations as in a transverse wave, and thus they were unable to explain the phenomenon of birefringence (where two polarizations of light are refracted differently by a crystal). Instead, Newton preferred to imagine non-spherical particles (or "corpuscles") of light with different "sides" that give rise to birefringence. A further reason why Newton rejected light as waves in a medium, however, was because such a medium would have to extend everywhere in space, and would thereby "disturb and retard the Motions of those great Bodies" (the planets and comets) and thus "as it [light's medium] is of no use, and hinders the Operation of Nature, and makes her languish, so there is no evidence for its Existence, and therefore it ought to be rejected." In 1720 James Bradley carried out a series of experiments attempting to measure stellar parallax. Although he failed to detect any parallax (thereby placing a lower limit on the distance to stars), he discovered another effect, stellar aberration, an effect which depends not on position (as in parallax), but on speed. He noticed that the apparent position of the star changed as the Earth moved around its orbit. Bradley explained this effect in the context of Newton's corpuscular theory of light, by showing that the aberration angle was given by simple vector addition of the Earth's orbital velocity and the velocity of the corpuscles of light (just as vertically falling raindrops strike a moving object at an angle). Knowing the Earth's velocity and the aberration angle, this enabled him to estimate the speed of light. To explain stellar aberration in the context of an ether-based theory of light was regarded as more problematic, because it requires that the ether be stationary even as the Earth moves through it – precisely the problem that led Newton to reject a wave model in the first place.

However, a century later, Young and Fresnel revived the wave theory of light when they pointed out that light could be a transverse wave rather than a longitudinal wave—the polarization of a transverse wave (like Newton's "sides" of light) could explain birefringence, and in the wake of a series of experiments on diffraction the particle model of Newton was finally abandoned. Physicists still assumed, however, that like mechanical waves, light waves required a medium for propagation, and thus required Huygens' idea of an aether "gas" permeating all space. However a transverse wave apparently required the propagating medium to behave as a solid, as opposed to a gas or fluid. The idea of a solid that did not interact with other matter seemed a bit odd, and Augustin-Louis Cauchy suggested that perhaps there was some sort of "dragging", or "entrainment", but this made the aberration measurements difficult to understand. He also suggested that the absence of longitudinal waves suggested that the aether had negative compressibility; but George Green pointed out that such a fluid would be unstable. George Gabriel Stokes became a champion of the entrainment interpretation, developing a model in which the aether might be (by analogy with pine pitch) rigid at very high frequencies and fluid at lower speeds. Thus the Earth could move through it fairly freely, but it would be rigid enough to support light. Later, Maxwell's equations showed that light is an electromagnetic wave. The apparent need for a propagation medium for such Hertzian waves can be seen by the fact that they consist of perpendicular electric (E) and magnetic (B or H) waves. The E waves consist of undulating dipolar electric fields, and all such dipoles appeared to require separated and opposite electric charges. Electric charge is an inextricable property of matter, so it appeared that some form of matter was required to provide the alternating current that would seem to have to exist at any point along the propagation path of the wave. Propagation of waves in a true vacuum would imply the existence of electric fields without associated electric charge, or of electric charge without associated matter. Albeit compatible with Maxwell's equations, electromagnetic induction of electric fields could not be demonstrated in vacuum, because all methods of detecting electric fields required electrically charged matter.

In addition, Maxwell's equations required that all electromagnetic waves in vacuum propagate at a fixed speed, c. As this can only occur in one reference frame in Newtonian physics (see Galilean-Newtonian relativity), the aether was hypothesized as the absolute and unique frame of reference in which Maxwell's equations hold. That is, the aether must be "still" universally, otherwise c would vary from place to place. Maxwell himself proposed several mechanical models of aether based on wheels and gears and George FitzGerald even constructed a working model of one of them. These models were non-trivial especially because they had to agree with the fact that the electromagnetic waves are transverse but never longitudinal. Nevertheless, by this point the mechanical qualities of the aether had become more and more magical: it had to be a fluid in order to fill space, but one that was millions of times more rigid than steel in order to support the high frequencies of light waves. It also had to be massless and without viscosity, otherwise it would visibly affect the orbits of planets. Additionally it appeared it had to be completely transparent, non-dispersive, incompressible, and continuous at a very small scale. Contemporary scientists were aware of the problems, but aether theory was so entrenched in physical law by this point that it was simply assumed to exist. In 1908 Oliver Lodge gave a speech in behalf of Lord Rayleigh to the Royal Institution on this topic, in which he outlined its physical properties, and then attempted to offer reasons why they were not impossible. Nevertheless he was also aware of the criticisms, and quoted Lord Salisbury as saying that "aether is little more than a nominative case of the verb to undulate". Others criticized it as an "English invention", although Rayleigh jokingly corrected them to state it was actually an invention of the Royal Institution. By the early 20th Century, aether theory was in trouble: A series of increasingly complex experiments had been carried out in the late 1800s to try to detect the motion of earth through the aether, and had failed to do so. A range of proposed aether-dragging theories could explain the null result but these were more complex, and tended to use arbitrary-looking coefficients and physical assumptions. Lorentz and Fitzgerald offered a more elegant solution to how the motion of an absolute aether could be

undetectable (length contraction), but if their equations were correct, the new special theory of relativity (1905) could generate the same mathematics without referring to an aether at all. Aether fell to Occam's Razor.

luminiferous aether mechanics
The key difficulty with the aether hypothesis arose from the juxtaposition of the two well-established theories of Newtonian dynamics and Maxwell's electromagnetism. Under a Galilean transformation the equations of Newtonian dynamics are invariant, whereas those of electromagnetism are not. Basically this means that while physics should remain the same in nonaccelerated experiments, light would not follow the same rules because it is travelling in the universal "aether frame". Some effect caused by this difference should be detectable. A simple example concerns the model on which aether was originally built: sound. The speed of propagation for mechanical waves, the speed of sound, is defined by the mechanical properties of the medium. For instance, if one is in an airliner, you can still carry on a conversation with the person beside you because the sound of your words are travelling along with the air inside the aircraft. This effect is basic to all Newtonian dynamics, which says that everything from sound to the trajectory of a thrown baseball should all remain the same in the aircraft as sitting still on the Earth. This is the basis of the Galilean transformation, and the concept of frame of reference. But the same was not true for light, since Maxwell's mathematics demanded a single universal speed for the propagation of light, based, not on local conditions, but on two measured properties that were assumed to be the same throughout the universe. If these numbers did change, there should be noticeable effects in the sky; stars in different directions would have different colors, for instance. Certainly they would remain constant within a small volume, inside the aircraft in our example for instance, which implies that light would not follow along with the aircraft (or the Earth) in a fashion similar to sound. Nor could light change media, for instance, using the atmosphere while near the Earth. It had already been demonstrated that if this were so, the sky would be colored in different directions as the light

moved from the still medium of the aether to the moving medium of the Earth's atmosphere, causing diffraction. Thus at any point there should be one special coordinate system, "at rest relative to the aether". Maxwell noted in the late 1870s that detecting motion relative to this aether should be easy enough – light travelling along with the motion of the Earth would have a different speed than light travelling backward, as they would both be moving against the unmoving aether. Even if the aether had an overall universal flow, changes in position during the day/night cycle, or over the span of seasons, should allow the drift to be detected.

Experiments
Numerous experiments were carried out in the late 1800s to test for this "aether wind" effect, but most were open to dispute due to low accuracy. Measurements on the speed of propagation were so inaccurate that comparing two speeds to look for a difference was essentially impossible. The famous Michelson-Morley experiment instead compared the source light with itself after being sent in different directions, looking for changes in phase in a manner that could be measured with extremely high accuracy. The publication of their result in 1887, the null result, was the first clear demonstration that something was seriously wrong with the "absolute aether" concept. A series of experiments using similar but increasingly sophisticated apparatus all returned the null result as well. A conceptually different experiment that also attempted to detect the motion of the aether was the 1903 Trouton-Noble experiment, which like Michelson-Morley obtained a null result. It is important to understand what "null result" means in this context. It does not mean there was no motion detected; rather it means that the results produced by the experiment were not compatible with the assumptions used to devise it. In this case the MM experiment showed a small positive velocity causing a movement of the fringing pattern of about 0.01 of a fringe; however it was too small to demonstrate the expected aether wind effect due to the earth's (seasonally varying) velocity which would have required a shift of 0.4 of a fringe, and the error was small enough that the

value may have indeed been zero. More modern experiments have since reduced the possible value to a number very close to zero, about 10-15. These "aether-wind" experiments led to its abandonment by some scientists, and to a flurry of efforts to "save" aether by assigning it ever more complex properties by others. Of particular interest was the possibility of "aether entrainment" or "aether drag", which would lower the magnitude of the measurement, perhaps enough to explain MMX results. However, as noted earlier, aether dragging already had problems of its own, notably aberration. A more direct measurement was made in the Hamar experiment, which ran a complete MM experiment with one of the "legs" placed between two massive lead blocks. If the aether was dragged by mass then this experiment would have been able to detect the drag caused by the lead, but again the null result was found. Similar experiments by Hoek placed one leg in a heavy vat of water. The theory was again modified, this time to suggest that the entrainment only worked for very large masses or those masses with large magnetic fields. This too was shown to be incorrect when Oliver Joseph Lodge noted no such effect around other planets. Another, completely different, attempt to save "absolute" aether was made in the Lorentz-Fitzgerald contraction hypothesis, which posited that everything was affected by travel through the aether. In this theory the reason the Michelson-Morley experiment "failed" was that it contracted in length in the direction of travel. That is, the light was being affected in the "natural" manner by its travel though the aether as predicted, but so was the experiment itself, cancelling out any difference when measured. Even Lorentz was not very happy with this suggestion, although it did neatly solve the problem and it was a first step towards relativity theory. Without referral to an ether, this physical interpretation of relativistic effects was shared by Kennedy and Thorndike in 1932 as they concluded that the interferometer's arm contracts and also the frequency of its light source "very nearly" varies in the way required by relativity.[12] Another experiment purporting to show effects of an aether was Fizeau's 1851 experimental confirmation of Fresnel's 1818 prediction that a medium with refractive index n moving with a velocity v would increase the speed of light traveling through the medium in the same direction as v from c/n to:

That is, movement adds only a fraction of the medium's velocity to the light (predicted by Fresnel in order to make Snell's law work in all frames of reference, consistent with stellar aberration). This was initially interpreted to mean that the medium drags the aether along, with a portion of the medium's velocity, but that understanding was rejected after Wilhelm Veltmann demonstrated that the index n in Fresnel's formula depended upon the wavelength of light (so that the aether could not be moving at a wavelength-independent speed). With the advent of special relativity, Fresnel's equation was shown by Laue in 1907 to be an approximation, valid for v much smaller than c, for the correct relativistic formula to add the velocities v (medium) and c/n (rest frame):

Variations on these themes continued for the next 30 years. Positive results were reported by several of the key researchers, including additional experiments by Michelson, Morley and Dayton Miller. Miller reported positive results on several occasions, but of a magnitude that required further modifications to the drag or contraction theories. During the 1920s a slew of increasingly accurate experiments returned the null result, and the positives were generally attributed to experimental errors. Other positive results included Sagnac in 1913, and the Michelson-GalePearson experiment in 1925. This effect that is known as Sagnac effect is nowadays used in optical gyroscopes and shows that rotation is similarly "absolute" for light as it is for pendulums. Sagnac regarded this as evidence for the aether.[13]

End of aether?
Aether theory was dealt another blow when the Galilean transformation and Newtonian dynamics were both modified by Albert Einstein's special theory of relativity, giving the mathematics of Lorentzian electrodynamics a new, "non-aether" context. Like most major shifts in scientific thought, the move away from aether theory did not happen immediately but, as experimental evidence built up, and as older scientists left the field and their places were taken by the young, the concept lost adherents.

Einstein based his special theory on Lorentz's earlier work, but instead of suggesting that the mechanical properties of objects changed with their constant-velocity motion through an aether, he took the somewhat more radical step of suggesting that the math was a general transformation, and that the Galilean transformation was a "special case" that worked only at the low speeds we had studied up to that time. By applying the transformation to all inertial frames of reference, he demonstrated that physics remained invariant as it had with the Galilean transformation, but that light was now invariant as well. With the development of special relativity, the need to account for a single universal frame had disappeared -- and aether went along with it, or so it seemed. For Einstein the Lorentz transformation implied a radical conceptual change: that the concept of position in space or time was not absolute, but could differ depending on the observer's location and speed. This "oddness" of Einstein's interpretation led to special relativity being considered highly questionable for some time. All of this left the problem of light propagation through a vacuum. However, in another paper published the same month, Einstein also made several observations on a thenthorny problem, the photoelectric effect. In this work he demonstrated that light can be considered as particles that have a "wave like nature". Particles obviously do not need a medium to travel, and thus, neither did light. This was the first step that would lead to the full development of quantum mechanics, in which the wave-like nature and the particle-like nature of light are both considered to be simplifications of what is "really happening". A summary of Einstein's thinking about the aether hypothesis, relativity and light quanta may be found in his 1909 (originally German) lecture "The Development of Our Views on the Composition and Essence of Radiation"[14] Lorentz on his side continued to use the aether concept. In his lectures of around 1911 he pointed out that what "the theory of relativity has to say", "can be carried out independently of what one thinks of the aether and the time". He reminded his audience of the fact that "whether there is an aether or not, electromagnetic fields certainly exist, and so also does the energy of the electrical oscillations" so that, "if we do not like the name of "aether", we must use another word as a peg to hang all these things upon." He concluded that "one cannot deny the bearer of these concepts a certain substantiality".[15] Paul Langevin was a strong supporter of special relativity but argued in 1911 that absolute effects from velocity change or acceleration (such as radiation)

demonstrate the existence of an aether. As additional illustration he discussed the absolute effect of velocity change on time dilation on two space travelers. This example would later lead to the twin paradox. In the meantime Einstein changed his opinion about the aether concept. In a lecture meant for his inauguration at the University of Leiden in 1920, Einstein stressed that space is "endowed with physical quantities"[16] He held that general relativity attributed tangible physical properties to space including some kind of medium for light, although not a material one. Shortly before his lecture in Leyden in 1920 he admitted in the paper: "Grundgedanken und Methoden der Relativitätstheorie in ihrer Entwicklung dargestellt": "Therefore I thought in 1905 that in physics one should not speak of the ether at all. This judgement was too radical though as we shall see with the next considerations about the general theory of relativity. It moreover remains, as before, allowed to assume a space-filling medium if one can refer to electromagnetic fields (and thus also for sure matter) as the condition thereof ". Also Michelson, who received the Nobel Prize in physics in 1907 for his optical studies, stated that even if relativity is here to stay we don't have to reject the aether. (Minneapolis Morning Tribune of April 14, 1923, p 21) Some other physicists who published their support for modern aether concepts were Herbert Ives, Paul Dirac and Geoffrey Builder. Ives was the first to positively measure the effect of speed on clock rates. He wrote in 1940 in a paper in Science: "I have considered the popular claim that the ether has been "abolished" [...]. Reverting to experimental findings I have reviewed the experiment of Sagnac, having in mind the claim that the ether can not be detected experimentally. I have asserted that, in the light of the experimentally found variation of clock rate with motion, this experiment does detect the ether." G. Builder asserted in a paper of 1958 that "there is therefore no alternative to the ether hypothesis" Builder wrote: "the observable effects of absolute accelerations and of absolute velocities must be described to interaction of bodies and physical systems with some absolute inertial system. [...] Interaction of bodies and physical systems with the universe cannot be described in terms of Mach's hypothesis, since this is untenable. There is therefore no alternative to the ether hypothesis." Professor Sherwin supported in 1960 the "philosophical point of view" of Ives and Builder about the aether because of his own conclusion that clocks are "literally

slowed down by the speed itself". Sherwin wrote in 1960: "One is led therefore to the conclusion that clocks having a velocity in an inertial frame are literally slowed down by the speed itself. It is this very deduction which makes the generally accepted prediction regarding the "clock paradox" unacceptable to Dingle, but which has led both Ives and Builder to consider interpretations of special relativity in which an ether plays an important role, at least from the philosophical point of view." Also Dirac stated in 1951 in an article in Nature, titled "Is there an ether?" that "we are rather forced to have an ether" Dirac wrote about his theory: "We have now the velocity at all points of space-time, playing a fundamental part in electrodynamics. It is natural to regard it as the velocity of some real physical thing. Thus with the new theory of electrodynamics we are rather forced to have an ether." The large majority of "mainstream" scientists disagreed with such views.

Continuing adherentsToday, the majority of physicists hold that there is no
need to imagine that a medium for light propagation exists. They believe that neither Einstein's general theory of relativity nor quantum mechanics have need for it and that there is no evidence for it. As such, a classical aether is an unnecessary addition to physics that violates the principle of Occam's razor. Moreover, it is hard to develop an aether theory that is consistent with all experiments of modern physics. Any new theory of aether must be consistent with all of the experiments testing phenomena of special relativity, general relativity, relativistic quantum mechanics, and so on. As outlined earlier, these conditions are often contradictory, making such a task inherently difficult. Nevertheless the intuitive appeal of a causal background for "relativistic" effects cannot be denied. Some physicists hold that there remain a number of problems in modern physics that are simplified by an aether concept, so that Occam's razor doesn't apply. A very small number of physicists (like Dayton Miller[17] and Edward Morley) continued research on the aether for some time, and researchers such as Harold Aspden[18] still promote the concept. A number of new aether concepts have been proposed in recent years. However, these aethers differ considerably from the classical luminiferous aether. Maurizio Consoli of the Italian National Institute of Nuclear Physics in Catania, Sicily, argues in Physics Letters A (vol 333, p 355) that any Michelson-Morley type of experiment carried out in a vacuum will show no difference in the speed of light even if there is an aether. According to him, electroweak theory and quantum field theory

suggest that light could appear to move at different speeds in different directions in a medium such as a dense gas in contradiction with special relativity; the speed of light would be sensitive to motion relative to an ether and the refractive index of the medium. Consoli and Evelina Costanzo propose an experiment with laser light passing through cavities filled with a relatively dense gas. With the Earth passing through an aether wind, light would travel faster in one direction than in the perpendicular direction.[19] Consoli and Constanzo have not run the proposed experiment. The mathematical treatment of their paper does not use the relativistic dragging coefficient to account for the speed of light in a moving medium, and most physicists regard this as an elementary error that leads to their incorrect conclusions. Their paper is very similar to another paper by Reg Cahill ("R.T. Cahill, A New LightSpeed Anisotropy Experiment: Absolute Motion and Gravitational Waves Detected, in Progress in Physics, vol 4 , 2006" ), another proponent of an experiment that would detect the elusive "preferential frame". Cahill claims to have detected absolute motion with respect to a preferential frame but his paper suffers from the same mathematical shortcomings as the Consoli-Constanzo paper as well as from lack of experimental error bars in his experimental data processing. Consequently, their research had no impact on the physics community.

Outside the scientific community
Some adherents of modern geocentrism claim that the Michelson-Morley experiment proves that the Earth is stationary which in turn causes them to explain the universe in terms of an aether or "firmament". Many of these ideas are related to fundamentalist interpretations of Christianity. (see Science and Scripture)

Motion and the preferred frame
During the 19th Century attention was also focused on the interaction of electromagnetic phenomena with matter. It was in the arena that, in the late 19th Century, trouble arose. At the time it was commonly assumed by many that ponderable matter (mass having a rest value & inertia) was distinctly different, and was embedded, or enveloped in the all pervasive æther. By logical extension, movement of such objects should require it to plow through this æther, and this in turn, should create a drag reaction in the æther. If the material object is not moving the pressure

exerted by æther is equal in all directions (isotropic). This condition is called the rest frame of the æther. It was logical therefore to attempt to measure the speed of matter through the æther. The motion of the Earth was considered to be of sufficient magnitude that its speed could be determined. The expected difference was calculated based upon the assumptions that; 1) light speed was independent of Earth's motion (or matter in general), and, 2) the matter in the measuring equipment is independent and unaffected this movement. When these assumptions are valid it was also demonstrated that this rest frame would have preferential properties making it physically different from all others. Thus this condition is also known as the preferred frame. The resulting geometrical calculation formed the basis for the expectation of a positive result, and expected lower bound value that should be seen

Aether drag hypothesis
The aether drag hypothesis was an early attempt to explain the way experiments such as Arago's experiment showed that the speed of light is constant. The aether drag hypothesis is now considered to be incorrect by mainstream science. According to the aether drag hypothesis light propagates in a special medium, the aether, that remains attached to things as they move. If this is the case then, no matter how fast the earth moves around the sun or rotates on its axis, light on the surface of the earth would travel at a constant velocity. The primary reason the aether drag hypothesis is considered invalid is because of the occurrence of stellar aberration. In stellar aberration the position of a star when viewed with a telescope swings each side of a central position by about 20.5 seconds of arc every six months. This amount of swing is the amount expected when considering the speed of earth's travel in its orbit. In 1871 Airy demonstrated that stellar aberration occurs even when a telesope is filled with water. It seems that if the aether drag hypothesis were true then stellar aberration would not occur because the light would be travelling in the aether which would be moving along with the telescope. If you visualize a bucket on a train about to enter a tunnel and a drop of water drips from the tunnel entrance into the bucket at the very center, the drop will not hit the center at the bottom of the bucket. The bucket is the tube of a telescope, the drop is a photon and the train is the earth. If aether is dragged then the droplet would be

traveling with the train when it is dropped and would hit the center of bucket at the bottom. However, some modified versions of the hypothesis are still held by some dissidents that argue that aether drag may happen on a global (or larger) scale and the aberration is merely transferred into the entrained "bubble" around the earth which then faithfully carries the modified angle of incidence directly to the observer. This larger entrainment effect was believed by some scientists such as Dayton Miller who continued the search for aether many years after the widespread acceptance of relativity. The amount of stellar aberration, α is given by: tan(α) = vδt / cδt So: tan(α) = v / c The speed at which the earth goes round the sun, v = 30 km/s, and the speed of light is c = 299,792,458 m/s which gives α = 20.5 seconds of arc every six months. This amount of aberration is observed and this contradicts the aether drag hypothesis. In 1818 Fresnel introduced a modification to the aether drag hypothesis that only applies to the interface between media. This was accepted during much of the nineteenth century but has now been replaced by special theory of relativity (see below).

Historical importance
The aether drag hypothesis is historically important because it was one of the reasons why Newton's corpuscular theory of light was replaced by the wave theory and it is used in early explanations of light propagation without relativity theory. It originated as a result of early attempts to measure the speed of light. In 1810 François Arago realised that variations in the refractive index of a substance predicted by the corpuscular theory would provide a useful method for measuring the velocity of light. These predictions arose because the refractive index of a substance such as glass depends on the ratio of the velocities of light in air and in the glass. Arago attempted to measure the extent to which corpuscles of light would be refracted by a glass prism at the front of a telescope. He expected that there would be a range of different angles of refraction due to the variety of different velocities of the stars and the motion of the earth at different times of the day and

year. Contrary to this expectation he found that that there was no difference in refraction between stars, between times of day or between seasons. All Arago observed was ordinary stellar aberration. In 1818 Augustin Jean Fresnel examined Arago's results using a wave theory of light. He realised that even if light were transmitted as waves the refractive index of the glass-air interface should have varied as the glass moved through the aether to strike the incoming waves at different velocities when the earth rotated and the seasons changed. Fresnel proposed that the glass prism would carry some of the aether along with it so that "..the aether is in excess inside the prism". He realised that the velocity of propagation of waves depends on the density of the medium so proposed that the velocity of light in the prism would need to be adjusted by an amount of 'drag'. The velocity of light vn in the glass without any adjustment is given by: vn = c / n The drag adjustment vd is given by:

Where ρe is the aether density in the environment, ρg is the aether density in the glass and v is the velocity of the prism with respect to the aether. The factor can be written as because the refractive index, n, would be dependent on the density of the aether. This is known as the Fresnel drag coefficient. The velocity of light in the glass is then given by:

This correction was successful in explaining the null result of Arago's experiment. It introduces the concept of a largely stationary aether that is dragged by substances such as glass but not by air. Its success favoured the wave theory of light over the previous corpuscular theory. The Fresnel drag coefficient was confirmed by an interferometer experiment performed by Fizeau. Water was passed at high speed along two glass tubes that formed the optical paths of the interferometer and it was found that the fringe shifts

were as predicted by the drag coefficient. The special theory of relativity predicts the result of the Fizeau experiment from the velocity addition theorem without any need for an aether. If V is the velocity of light relative to the Fizeau apparatus and U is the velocity of light relative to the water and v is the velocity of the water:

which, if v/c is small can be expanded using the binomial expansion to become:

This is identical to Fresnel's equation. It may appear as if Fresnel's analysis can be substituted for the relativistic approach, however, more recent work has shown that Fresnel's assumptions should lead to different amount of aether drag for different frequencies of light and violate Snell's law (see Ferraro and Sforza (2005)). The aether drag hypothesis was one of the arguments used in an attempt to explain the Michelson-Morley experiment before the widespread acceptance of the special theory of relativity.

Empirical falsification
An experiment testing this hypothesis was first performed by Albert Michelson in 1881. It produced a null result. It was repeated in 1887 in collaboration with Edward Morley and is known today as the Michelson-Morley experiment. To date all such experiments have failed to demonstrate the expected positive result. Since it is improbable that any medium would not itself react to the movement of such a foreign embedded body, the idea of a stationary æther can be effectively ruled out. However, like swirling your hand in water, if the medium has any viscosity it will experience drag and form a circulation, which, over time, acts to reduce the relative speed and drag between the body and the medium. The final resulting magnitude is dependent upon the assumption of viscosity, and leads to many variants of the theory, each with slightly different drag coefficients and rules for how matter should interact with light. The number of competing theories of this type made keeping track of all the resulting predictions rather difficult. As with string

theory today, there seemed to be too many options, and with the proper ad-hoc choice of coefficient values, it seemed that one could predict almost anything. These, as a group, are known as partially dragged æther theories. Similar experiments have included: Michelson-Gale-Pearson experiment Trouton-Noble experiment Kennedy-Thorndike experiment

Lorentz's ether and special relativity
The Lorentz ether theory ("LET") or Lorentzian electrodynamics (1904), made use of the Lorentz-FitzGerald contraction hypothesis - it suggested that an object moving through the aether was contracted in its direction of motion by a special ratio now named after Lorentz: According to this theory, an inertial observer would be incapable of measurng their absolute motion, so that their measurements would comply with the principle of relativity ("PoR"). Nevertheless, in Lorentz's theory, which is completely consistent with Maxwell's theory, the state of a material system is not independent of it motion relative to the medium. Einstein's special theory of relativity ("SR", 1905) rederived Lorentz' relationships by declaring that all observers could claim that lightspeed was absolutely fixed in their own inertial frame. Where LET said that constant velocity through the aether was undetectable, SR used this undetectability to reject the concept of an underlying aether as superfluous, and replaced a notional state of aether motion with it with the concept of the inertial frame. SR is now generally considered to be the modern replacement for LET. Acceleration effects still implied the existence of some physical property to spacetime, and if (like Mach), one decided that acceleration and rotation effects should be the result of interactions between distant masses, acceleration and rotation also had to be capable of distorting light-beam geometry, and, by implication, distorting spacetime itself. If these properties were absolute, then the properties of spacetime forced behaviours onto matter without accepting any backreaction (like a form of "absolute" aether), a behaviour that Einstein referred to as "an inherent epistemological defect". But if the effects were purely relative, then forcing matter to move in a way that spacetime did not like should cause a distortion in spacetime ("space tells matter how to move, matter tells space how to bend").

See also: History of special relativity

Modern derivatives
Modern understanding of electromagnetism, including Einstein's particle theory of light and various scientific experiments of general relativity, has removed the need for a substance like aether to fill the otherwise empty parts of the universe. Newton's and Maxwell's aether model (the latter being a "classic static aether") were both developed from this classical element. However, the null result of the MichelsonMorley experiment led (from 1887 onwards) to the decline of an aether model's wide acceptance. Albert Einstein, in an interpretation he offered for his theory of special relativity, dismissed it, as per Occam's razor; and, though he later reinstated a logical need for an aether in a commentary on his theory of general relativity, modern astrophysical theories do not include this classical element. One might suppose 'dark matter' has supplanted "aether." In modern physics there is no concept considered exactly analogous to the aether of antiquity. However, dark energy is sometimes called quintessence due to its similarity to the classical aether. Modern physics is full of concepts such as free space, space foam, Planck particles, quantum wave state (QWS), zero-point energy, quantum foam, and vacuum energy.

Aether and quantum mechanics
Quantum mechanics can be used to describe spacetime as being "bitty" at extremely small scales, fluctuating and generating particle pairs that appear and disappear incredibly quickly. Instead of being "smooth", the vacuum is described as looking like "quantum foam". It has been suggested that this seething mass of virtual particles may be the equivalent in modern physics of a particulate aether.

Gravitational aether
By the late 1800s, gravitational phenomena had also been modeled utilizing an aetherial concept. This concept is known today as Le Sage's theory of gravitation or Particle Gravity. In 1690 Nicolas Fatio de Duillier (1664-1753) and in 1758 GeorgesLouis Le Sage (1724-1803) of Geneva proposed a simple kinetic theory for gravity, which offered a mechanical explanation for Newton's force equation. Because Fatio's work was not widely known and remained unpublished for a long time, it was Le Sage's exposition of the theory which became the subject of renewed interest in the late nineteenth century when it was studied in the context of the then newly discovered kinetic theory of gases. By the early twentieth century, the theory was

generally considered discredited, most notably due to issues raised by Maxwell and Poincaré. While Le Sage's theory is still studied by some researchers, it is not regarded as a viable theory within the mainstream scientific community.

The Einstein-aether theory
"Aether and the theory of relativity"[20] was a title used by Einstein in a lecture on general relativity and aether theory. Einstein said that general relativity's gravitational field parameters could be said to have all the usual properties of an aether except one: it was not composed of particulate bodies that could be tracked over time, and so it could not be said to have the property of motion. [21] The general attitude to this amongst physicists today seems to be that Einstein's comments don't count because they stretch the idea of aether theory too far: it is argued that a "nonparticulate" aether theory is not really an aether theory, or at least, it doesn't correspond to the idea of "historical" aether theory that is currently taught. Although it is by no means widely accepted, the most popular aether theory today is the Einstein æther theory, also known as Æ-theory. This theory was pioneered by Ted Jacobson among others. In physics the Einstein-æther theory, also called ætheory is a toy model of violation of local Lorentz invariance in the gravitational sector. This model is generally covariant and describes a spacetime endowed with both a metric and a unit timelike vector field named the æther. Because the vector field has a non-zero timelike vacuum expectation value it describes a preferred reference frame: that in which the vector field lies along the frame's time direction. The presence of the preferred frame violates local Lorentz invariance. It is a generally covariant theory that comes equipped with a preferred temporal vector field called the æther field, which is the preferred time direction. Christopher Eling, Ted Jacobson and David Mattingly review this theory in their article Einstein Æther Theory. All æther theories break the Lorentz symmetry of the theory down, at least, to the special orthogonal group of rotations. This symmetry breaking implies the existence of an associated Goldstone boson. Some experimental signatures of such a boson were analyzed by Nima Arkani-Hamed, Hsin-Chia Cheng, Markus Luty and Jesse Thaler in Universal Dynamics of Spontaneous Lorentz Violation and a New SpinDependent Inverse-Square Law Force.

History

Einstein-æther theories were popularized by Maurizio Gasperini in a series of papers, such as Singularity Prevention and Broken Lorentz Symmetry in the 1980s. In addition to the metric of general relativity these theories also included a scalar field which intuitively corresponded to a universal notion of time. Such a theory will have a preferred reference frame, that in which the universal time is the actual time. The dynamics of the scalar field is identified with that of an æther which is at rest in the preferred frame. This is the origin of the name of the theory, it contains Einstein's gravity plus an æther. Einstein-æther theories returned to prominence at the turn of the century with the paper Gravity and a Preferred Frame by Ted Jacobson and David Mattingly. Their theory contains less information than that of Gasperini, instead of a scalar field giving a universal time it contains only a unit vector field which gives the direction of time. Thus observers who follow the æther at different points will not necessarily age at the same rate in the Jacobson-Mattingly theory. The existence of a preferred, dynamical time vector breaks the Lorentz symmetry of the theory, more precisely it breaks the invariance under boosts. This symmetry breaking may lead to a Higgs mechanism for the graviton which would alter long distance physics, perhaps yielding an explanation for recent supernova data which would otherwise be explained by a cosmological constant. The effect of breaking Lorentz invariance on quantum field theory has a long history leading back at least to the work of Markus Fierz and Wolfgang Pauli in 1939. Recently it has regained popularity with, for example, the paper Effective Field Theory for Massive Gravitons and Gravity in Theory Space by Nima Arkani-Hamed, Howard Georgi and Matthew Schwartz. Einstein-æther theories provide a concrete example of a theory with broken Lorentz invariance and so have proven to be a natural setting for such investigations.

Consistency
It is still not known whether Einstein-æther theories exist as quantum theories. One immediate concern might be that the time vector, which breaks Lorentz invariance, will lead to Faddeev-Popov ghosts which fail to decouple and ruin the theory. This problem is thought to be avoided because the vector is of unit length in a timelike direction, and so its oscillations are spacelike. Therefore it does not contribute extra time derivatives to the denominator of the propagator, which could have led to poles with a wrong-sign residue and so could have ruined the unitarity of the S-matrix.

The action
The action of the Einstein-æther theory is generally taken to consist of the sum of the Einstein-Hilbert action with a Lagrange multiplier λ that ensures that the time vector is a unit vector and also with all of the covariant terms involving the time vector u but having at most two derivatives. In particular it is assumed that the action may be written as the integral of a local Lagrangian density:

where GN is Newton's constant and g is a metric with Minkowski signature. The Lagrangian density is

Here R is the Ricci scalar, by

is the covariant derivative and the tensor K is defined

Here the ci are dimensionless adjustable parameters of the theory.

Issues and constraints
Stars Several spherically symmetric solutions to æ-theory have been found. Most recently Christopher Eling and Ted Jacobson have found solutions resembling stars in Spherical Solutions to Einstein-Æther Theory: Static Æther and Stars and solutions resembling black holes in Black Holes in Einstein-Æther Theory. In particular they have demonstrated that there are no spherically-symmetric solutions in which stars are constructed entirely from the æther. Solutions without additional matter always have either naked singularities or else two asymptotic regions of spacetime, resembling a wormhole with but with no horizon. They have argued that static stars must have static æther solutions, which means that the æther points in the direction of a timelike Killing vector. Black holes problems However this is difficult to reconcile with static black holes, as at the event horizon there are no timelike Killing vectors available and so the black hole solutions cannot

have static æthers. Thus when a star collapses to form a black hole, somehow the æther must eventually become static even very far away from the collapse. In addition the stress tensor does not obviously satisfy the Raychaudhuri equation, one needs to make recourse to the equations of motion. This is in contrast with theories with no æther, where this property is independent of the equations of motion. However, in non-moving ether this might be avoided. Aether density, as an addition, to tension, might be used to satisify the Raychaudhuri equation. Experimental constraints In Universal Dynamics of Spontaneous Lorentz Violation and a New SpinDependent Inverse-Square Law Force Nima Arkani-Hamed, Hsin-Chia Cheng, Markus Luty and Jesse Thaler have examined experimental consequences of the breaking of boost symmetries inherent in æther theories. They have found that the resulting Goldstone boson leads to, among other things, a new kind of Cherenkov radiation. In addition that have argued that spin sources will interact via a new inverse square law force with a very unusual angular dependence. They suggest that the discovery of such a force would be very strong evidency for an æther theory, although not necessarily that of Jacobson, et al.

Higgs field
The Higgs field, named after the British physicist Peter Higgs, is a postulated quantum field, mediated by the Higgs boson, which is believed to permeate the entire universe. This concept is called, alternatively, the Higgs aether. Its presence is said to be required in order to explain the large difference in mass between those particles which mediate weak interactions (the W and Z bosons) and that which mediates electromagnetic interactions (the photon). With the next generation of particle accelerators, especially the Large Hadron Collider in Switzerland, which as of 2006 is still under construction, CERN scientists will try to look for particle interactions characteristic of the Higgs Field. The Higgs boson is a hypothetical massive scalar elementary particle predicted to exist by the Standard Model of particle physics. It is the only Standard Model particle not yet observed, but plays a key role in explaining the origins of the mass of other elementary particles, in particular the difference between the massless photon and the very heavy W and Z bosons. Elementary particle masses, and the differences between electromagnetism (caused by the photon) and the weak force (caused by the W and Z bosons), are critical to many aspects of the structure of microscopic

(and hence macroscopic) matter; thus, if it exists, the Higgs boson has an enormous effect on the world around us. As of 2007, no experiment has directly detected the existence of the Higgs boson, but there is some indirect evidence for it. The Higgs boson was first theorized in 1964 by the Scottish physicist Peter Higgs, working from the ideas of Philip Anderson, and independently by others - most notably, G. S. Guralnik, C.R. Hagen and T. W. B. Kibble.

Theoretical details
The particle called Higgs boson is in fact the quantum of one of the components of a Higgs field. In empty space, the Higgs field acquires a non-zero value, which permeates every place in the universe at all times. The vacuum expectation value (VEV) of the Higgs field is constant and equal to 246 GeV. The existence of this non-zero VEV plays a fundamental role: it gives mass to every elementary particle, including to the Higgs boson itself. In particular, the acquisition of a non-zero VEV spontaneously breaks the electroweak gauge symmetry, a phenomenon known as the Higgs mechanism. This is the only known mechanism capable of giving mass to the gauge bosons that is also compatible with gauge theories. In the Standard Model, the Higgs field consists of two neutral and two charged component fields. Both of the charged components and one of the neutral fields are Goldstone bosons, which are massless and unphysical. They become respectively the longitudinal third-polarization components of the massive W and Z bosons. The quantum of the remaining neutral component corresponds to the massive Higgs boson. Since the Higgs field is a scalar field, the Higgs boson has spin zero and has no intrinsic angular momentum. The Standard Model does not predict the value of the Higgs boson mass. It has been argued that if the mass of the Higgs boson lies between about 130 and 190 GeV, then the Standard Model can be valid at energy scales all the way up to the Planck scale (1016 TeV). However, most theorists expect new physics beyond the Standard Model to emerge at the TeV-scale, based on some unsatisfactory properties of the Standard Model. The highest possible mass scale allowed for the Higgs boson (or some other electroweak symmetry breaking mechanism) is around one TeV; beyond this point, the Standard Model becomes inconsistent without such a mechanism because unitarity is violated in certain scattering processes. Many models of Supersymmetry predict that the lightest Higgs boson (of several) will have

a mass only slightly above the current experimental limits, at around 120 GeV or less.

Experimental search
As of 2007, the Higgs boson has not been observed experimentally, despite large efforts invested in accelerator experiments at CERN and Fermilab. The nonobservation of clear signals leads to an experimental lower bound for the Higgs boson mass of 114.4 GeV at 95% confidence level. A small number of events were recorded by experiments at LEP collider at CERN that could be interpreted as resulting from Higgs bosons, but the evidence is inconclusive. It is expected among physicists that the Large Hadron Collider, currently under construction at CERN, will be able to confirm or deny the existence of the Higgs boson. Precision measurements of electroweak observables indicate that the Standard Model Higgs boson mass has an upper bound of 144 GeV at the 95% confidence level as of March 2007 (using an updated measurement of the top quark and W boson masses). Searches for the Higgs boson are ongoing at experiments at the Fermilab Tevatron. The limits set by these searches are now less than a factor of 5 away from Standard Model predictions in some Higgs mass regimes. Often in the news there have been optimistic articles about potential evidence of the Higgs Boson, however no evidence is yet compelling enough to convince the scientific community as a whole.

Press
On August 20, 2006 it was reported that Japanese physicists are working on a project, based on the established phenomenon known as the Higgs field (involving false vacuums and Z bosons) to create a baby universe.[22]. Mentions of the Higgs boson, which is affectionately known among scientists as the 'God particle', occur in some works of fiction. These references mostly imbue it with fantastic properties, and of the actual theory of the particle only its unknown mass is capitalized upon. For instance, Dr. Brian Cox, who works at the Centre for European Nuclear Research and is one of the scientists in pursuit of the Higgs boson, was the scientific adviser on Danny Boyle's metaphysical science-fiction film, Sunshine (2007).

See also
Related

Aetherometry, A New Foundation for Physics, by Quantum Aether Dynamics Institute, Aether, Harold Aspden, Creation: The Physical Truth General Dirac sea, History of special relativity, Superseded scientific theory, Preferred frame, Galactic year, Special relativity, Hamar experiment, Top quark condensate, Technicolor, Little Higgs, Higgsless model, Standard Model, Yukawa interaction, List of particles

External articles and references
Citations and notes
1. 2.

^ "Aether", American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language.

^ G. E. R. Lloyd, Aristotle: The Growth and Structure of his Thought, Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Pr., 1968, pp. 133-139, ISBN 0-521-09456-9. ^ E. Grant, Planets, Stars, & Orbs: The Medieval Cosmos, 1200-1687, Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Pr., 1994, pp. 422-428, ISBN 0-521-56509-X.
3.

^ Robert Fludd, "Mosaical Philosophy". London, Humphrey Moseley, 1659. Pg 221.
4.

^ The 19th century science book A Guide to the Scientific Knowledge of Things Familiar provides a brief summary of scientific thinking in this field at the time.</ref
5.

^ "A Ridiculously Brief History of Electricity and Magnetism; Mostly from E. T. Whittaker’s A History of the Theories of Aether and Electricity". (PDF format)
6. 1. 7.

^ Ibid.

^ They commented in a footnote: "From [the Michelson-Morley] experiment it is not inferred that the velocity of the earth is but a few kilometers per second, but rather that the dimensions of the apparatus vary very nearly as required by relativity. From the present experiment we similarly infer that the frequency of light varies conformably to the theory."-R. J. Kennedy and E. M. Thorndike, “Experimental Establishment of the Relativity of Time��?, Physical review. Series 2, vol.42, p.400-418 (1932) ^ From his 1913 experiment with an interferometer in uniform rotation, Georges Sagnac concluded that "in the ambient space, light is propagated with a velocity V0, independent of the movement as a whole of the luminous source O and
8.

the optical system. That is a property of space which experimentally characterizes the luminiferous ether."
9. 10.

^ Maxwell, James Clerk, "On Physical Lines of Force". 1861.

^ Isaac Newton, "Optiks", queries. (ed. gravitational field modelled as variation in refractive index, aether not necessarily particulate) ^ Albert Einstein, "Ether and the Theory of Relativity" May 5th, 1920, University of Leyden. (ed. this version is from "Collected Papers of Albert Einstein")
11. 12. 13.

^ http://www.gutenberg.org/dirs/etext98/tmeus11.txt

^ English Translation. Original text: Über die Entwicklung unserer Anschauungen über das Wesen und die Konstitution der Strahlung ^ Lorentz wrote:"One cannot deny to the bearer of these properties a certain substantiality, and if so, then one may, in all modesty, call true time the time measured by clocks which are fixed in this medium, and consider simultaneity as a primary concept."
14.

^ He said in that 1920 speech: "we may say that according to the general theory of relativity space is endowed with physical qualities; in this sense, therefore, there exists an ether. According to the general theory of relativity space without ether is unthinkable; for in such space there not only would be no propagation of light, but also no possibility of existence for standards of space and time (measuring-rods and clocks), nor therefore any space-time intervals in the physical sense. But this ether may not be thought of as endowed with the quality characteristic of ponderable media, as consisting of parts which may be tracked through time. The idea of motion may not be applied to it."
15. 16.

^ Pokorny, Julius (1959). Indogermanisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch, s.v.

ai-dh-. ^ http://www.newscientistspace.com/article.ns?id=mg18624930.900 New Scientist
17. 18. 19.

^ Orgonelab about Miller ^ Physics with Aspden

General references

Margaret Morrison, Unified Theories and Disparate Things. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association, Vol. 1994, Volume Two: Symposia and Invited Papers (1994), pp. 365-373.
1.

Wikipedia contributors, Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation.
2. 3. 4.

What Is the Universe Made Of? -Seife 309 (5731): 78a -- Science]

Carl Littmann, “Using E = mc2 Consistently to Reveal Aether Details and to Unify Physics��? Resnick, Robert, Basic Concepts in Relativity and Early Quantum Theory, 1972, John Wiley and Sons Inc.
5. 6. 7.

Potential Higgs Boson discovery: Higgs Boson: Glimpses of the God particle

"Combined DØ and CDF Upper Limits on Standard-Model Higgs-Boson Production". http://pdg.lbl.gov/2006/reviews/higgs_s055.pdf Searches for Higgs Bosons] (pdf), from W.-M. Yao et al., "Review of Particle Physics", J Phys. G. 33, 2006. pages 1
8.

Rafael Ferraro and Daniel M Sforza 2005. Arago (1810): the first experimental result against the ether Eur. J. Phys. 26 195-204
9. 10. 11.

Oliver Lodge, "Ether", Encyclopedia Britannica, Thirteenth Edition (1926).

Oliver Lodge, "The Ether of Space". ISBN 1-4021-8302-X (paperback) ISBN 1-4021-1766-3 (hardcover)
12. 13.

Oliver Lodge, "Ether and Reality". ISBN 0-7661-7865-X

"Aether", Encyclopedia Britannica, Eleventh Edition (1910–1911). Volume Vol. 1, Page 297.
14.

James Clerk Maxwell, "Ether", Encyclopedia Britannica, Ninth Edition (1875-

89). Albert Einstein, "Aether and the theory of relativity" (1920) translated in Sidelights on relativity (Dover, NY, 1983; ISBN 0-486-24511-X), pp.1-24 (ed. was an address delivered on May 5th, 1920, in the University of Leyden; classes general relativity as a form of (nonparticulate) aether theory)
15.

Albert Einstein, The Investigation of the State of Aether in Magnetic Fields, 1895. (PDF format)
16.

Edmund Whittaker, "A History of the Theories of Aether and Electricity, from the Age of Descartes to the Close of the Nineteenth Century". 1953. ISBN 0-48626126-3
17.

Lord Kelvin (Sir William Thomson), "On Vortex Atoms". Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, Vol. VI, 1867, pp. 94-105. (ed., Reprinted in Phil. Mag. Vol. XXXIV, 1867, pp. 15-24.)
18.

19. Le Sage, G.L.: "Essai de Chymie Méchanique", 1758, Académie Royale des Sciences, Belles-Lettres et Arts de Rouen Le Sage, G.-L. (1784, for the year 1782), “Lucrèce Newtonien��?, Memoires de l’Academie Royale des Sciences et Belles Lettres de Berlin, 1-28. An English translation appears in: "The Newtonian Lucretius", Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution for the year ending June 30, 1898, pp. 139-160.
20. 21.

Maxwell, J.C., 1875. “Atom��?, Encyclopedia Britannica, Ninth Ed., pp. 38-

47 Poincaré, H. (1908). "La dynamique de l'électron", Revue générale des sciences pures et appliquées 19, pp. 386-402, reprinted in Science and Method. Flammarion, Paris. An English translation was published as Foundation of Science, Science Press, New York, 1929
22.

Thomson, W. (Lord Kelvin) (1873). “On the ultramundane corpuscles of LeSage��?, Phil. Mag., 4th ser. 45, 321-332.
23. 24. 25.

Einstein Æther Theory

“A Theory of Space and Time: Answering the Challenge of the President of the NPA��?, Stephan J. G. Gift
26. 27.

J. G. Klyushin, “On Electron Movement in Ether��?.

Neil E. Munch, “Doppler’s 1842 Aether-based Concepts Provide the Only Known Solution to the Two-Frame Light Travel Problem, and Possibly Other Concerns in Astronomy��?
28. 29.

John-Erik Persson, “The Generated Ether��? Dan Romalo, “On This, Till Now, So Shy Universal Ether��?

Dan Romalo, "Most Elementarily-Intuitive, Tentative Approach to Evaluate the Bending of a Light-Ray Passing a Black Hole��?,
30. 31. 32.

J.B. Wright, “The Aether and its Effects��?

M. Consoli, Newtonian gravity from the Higgs field: the sublimation of aether. arXiv:hep-ph/0109215v1 Saunders, S., & Brown, H. R. (1991). The Philosophy of vacuum. Oxford [England]: Clarendon Press.
33.

Peter Rowlands The factor 2 in fundamental physics. arXiv:physics/0110069v1 [physics.gen-ph]; [v1] Oct 2001.
34.

Harland, D. M. (2003). The big bang: a view from the 21st century. London: Springer
35.

M. Consoli, A weak, attractive, long-range force in Higgs condensates. arXiv:hep-ph/0112227v1
36.

P.M. Stevenson, Are There Pressure Waves in the Vacuum? arXiv:hepph/0109204v1
37.

M. Consoli, A connection between gravity and the Higgs field. arXiv:hepph/0204106v1
38.

Ted Jacobson and David Mattingly, Gravity with a dynamical preferred frame, Phys. Rev. D 64, 024028 (2001) [9 pages] [Issue 2 – June 2001]
39. 40.

Dr. Adrian Sfarti, Revisionism in Relativity – The “Aether��? Comeback.

Luminous aether references
1. 2.

Banesh Hoffman, Relativity and Its Roots (Freeman, New York, 1983).

Michael Janssen, 19th Century Ether Theory, Einstein for Everyone course at UMN (2001). Isaac Newton, Opticks (1704). Republished 1952 (Dover: New York), with commentary by Bernard Cohen, Albert Einstein, and Edmund Whittaker.
3.

Tipler, Paul; Llewellyn, Ralph, "Modern Physics (4th ed.)". W. H. Freeman, 2002. ISBN 0-7167-4345-0
4.

J. Larmour, "A Dynamical Theory of the Luminiferous Medium". Transactions of the Royal Society, 1885-86.
5.

Albert Einstein (1909) The Development of Our Views on the Composition and Essence of Radiation, Phys. Z., 10, 817-825. (review of aether theories, among other topics)
6.

Albert Einstein, "Ether and the Theory of Relativity" (1920), republished in Sidelights on Relativity (Dover, NY, 1922) [23]
7. 8. 9.

Albert Einstein, "Ideas and Opinions" pp. 281, 362. ISBN 0-517-88440-2 Langevin, P. (1911) "L’évolution de l’espace et du temps", Scientia, X, p31

10. G. Builder, "Ether and Relativity", Australian Journal of Physics 11 (1958), p.279
11.

P. Dirac "Is there an ether?", Nature 168 (1951), p.906 [24]

12. H. Ives "The measurement of velocity with atomic clocks", Science Vol.91 (1940), p.65 13. H.A. Lorentz, "The Principle of Relativity for uniform translations (1910-1912)", Lectures on Theoretical Physics Vol.III, 1931 (authorised translation of the Dutch version of 1922) 14. G. Sagnac, E. Bouty, "The Luminiferous Ether Demonstrated by the Effect of the Relative Motion of the Ether in an Interferometer in Uniform Rotation"(in French), Comptes Rendus (Paris) 157 (1913), p.708-710 15. C. Sherwin, "Some recent Experimental Tests of the "Clock Paradox"", Physical Review 120 no.1 (1960), p.17-21 Kostro, Ludwik, "Einstein and the Ether". Montreal, Apeiron, 2000. ISBN 09683689-4-8
16.

What is the experimental basis of Special Relativity? - includes a lengthy list of aether experiments, among others
17. 18. 19.

The Ether of Space - Lord Rayleigh's address

Modern scientific theories of the ancient aether - a categorised compendium of articles relating to the emergence of scientific theories that reference the aether, or quantum foam of space. Ether and the Theory of Relativity - Albert Einstein's 1920 inauguration address at the University of Leyden (actually delivered on 27 October 1920).
20.

ScienceWeek THEORETICAL PHYSICS: ON THE AETHER AND BROKEN SYMMETRY
21. 22. 23.

The New Student's Reference Work/Ether

John R. Warfield, “New Theory of Special Relativity based upon the Higgs Field ��?.

Higgs field references
Marcus Chown, Mass Medium New Scientist, Vol. 169, No. 2276, 3 Feburary 2001 copyright 2001, New Scientist (posted with permission)
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Is jiggling vacuum the origin of mass? The LEP Electroweak Working Group Particle Data Group: Review of searches for Higgs bosons

The God Particle: If the Universe Is the Answer, What Is the Question?, by Leon Lederman, Dick Teresi, hardcover ISBN 0-395-55849-2, paperback ISBN 0385-31211-3, Houghton Mifflin Co; (January 1993)
6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

Fermilab Results Change Estimated Mass Of Postulated Higgs boson Higgs boson on the horizon Signs of mass-giving particle get stronger Higgs boson: One page explanation Higgs mechanism/boson simple explanation via cartoon Higgs physics at the LHC Quark experiment predicts heavier Higgs The God Particle and the Grid by Richard Martin The Higgs boson by the CERN exploratorium BBC Radio 4: In Our Time " Higgs Boson - the search for the God particle"

Y Nambu; G Jona-Lasinio, "Dynamical Model of Elementary Particles Based on an Analogy with Superconductivity", I Phys. Rev.. 122, 1961. pages 345-358 J Goldstone, A Salam and S Weinberg, "Broken Symmetries", Physical Review. 127, 1962. pages 965
17.

P W Anderson, "Plasmons, Gauge Invariance, and Mass", Physical Review. 130, 1963. pages 439
18.

A Klein and B W Lee, "Does Spontaneous Breakdown of Symmetry Imply Zero-Mass Particles?", Physical Review Letters. 12, 1964. pages 266
19.

W Gilbert, "Broken Symmetries and Massless Particles", Physical Review Letters. 12, 1964. pages 713
20.

Peter Higgs, "Broken Symmetries, Massless Particles and Gauge Fields", Physics Letters. 12, 1964. pages 132
21.

F Englert and R Brout, "Broken Symmetry and the Mass of Gauge Vector Mesons", Physical Review Letters. 13, 1964. pages 321
22.

Peter Higgs, "Broken Symmetries and the Masses of Gauge Bosons", Physical Review Letters. 13, 1964. pages 508
23.

G S Guralnik, C R Hagen and T W B Kibble, "Global Conservation Laws and Massless Particles", Physical Review Letters. 13, 1964. pages 585
24.

Peter Higgs, "Spontaneous Symmetry Breakdown without Massless Bosons", Physical Review. 145, 1966. pages 1156
25. 26.

New Scientist article

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Dark Energy
From PESWiki
Jump to: navigation, search Directory of technologies and resources relating to dark energy. Task: Move contents from http://www.freeenergynews.com/Directory/DarkEnergy/index.html
Contents
[hide]

1. 2.

1 Overview 2 Books

3. 4. 5.

3 Destructive Potential? 4 Evidence 5 Research &

Development

6. 7. 8. 9.

6 Skeptics 7 Theory 8 PESWiki links 9 See also

Overview
Dark energy is a hypothetical form of energy which permeates all of space and has strong negative pressure. According to some geometrical theories of gravitation, the effect of such a negative pressure is qualitatively similar to a force acting in opposition to gravity at large scales. Invoking such an effect is currently the most popular method for explaining recent observations that the universe appears to be expanding at an accelerating rate, as well as accounting for a significant portion of the missing mass in the universe.

Books
What is Dark Energy? - Paulo N. Correa and Alexandra N. Correa of Aetherometry present an alternative to the Big Bang theory based on "dark massfree energy." (2004)
1.

Destructive Potential?
'Dark Energy' bomb more powerful than thermonuke! - Ken Shoulders reports that A new and previously unknown force appears to be binding the electrons at short range into clusters of electron charge. (ZPEnergy; Sept. 1, 2004)
1.

Dark Matters Surround Dark Energy - Two big stories from the world of zero point energy physics may portend the arrival of new weapons of mass destruction far more powerful and compact than atomic bombs. What is lurking behind the black budget projects. (PESN; Aug. 30, 2004)
2.

Does ZPE Extraction Endanger the World? - "If people go forth and build such devices without taking other factors into account, they could bleed off local gravity effects, and tear the space fabric." (ZPEnergy; Sept. 5, 2004)
3.

Evidence

Direct Evidence Of Dark Energy In Supervoids And Superclusters - A team of astronomers at the University of Hawaii Institute for Astronomy has found direct evidence for the existence of "dark energy", which works against the tendency of gravity to pull galaxies together, causing the universe's expansion to speed up. (SpaceDaily; July 31, 2008)
1.

PhysOrg reported on a session on dark energy at the Annual Meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science Feb. 17, 2005. Penn Astrophysicist outlines a multi-pronged approach in the hunt for dark energy - Licia Verde outlines how the hunt for dark energy will draw on the avalanche of recent and forthcoming data on surveys of objects throughout the universe.
1.

String theorist explores dark energy and our unique 'pocket' of the universe Some celestial bodies are so cold that methane freezes; others are so hot that nuclear reactions occur. Ramifications of Earth's life-sustaining conditions.
2.

NYU's Dvali says change in laws of gravity, not 'dark energy,' is source of cosmic acceleration - Theorizes that gravity "leaks" over cosmic distances.
3.

Research & Development
US Dept. of Energy Gets Budget Boost - DOE is supporting efforts to develop economical fusion power and discover "dark energy" [aka ZPE] -- the possible key to why the universe is expanding. (TechNewsWorld; Aug. 22, 2004)
1.

Dark matter and dark energy may be different aspects of a single unknown force - model presented by physicist Robert J. Scherrer in Physical Review Letters (ZPEnergy; July 3, 2004).
2.

Measurement of Dark Energy - Confirms it is a constant as Einstein predicted and so probably Zero Point Energy. (Tom Valone, July 5, 2004 eNews)
3.

Has dark energy been measured in the lab? - Direct evidence for the existence of zero-point fluctuations. Agrees with IRI "ZPE Feasibility Study" conclusions. (Tom Valone, Aug. 9, 2004
4.

Skeptics
Exposing The Myth Of Dark Matter - David Talbott says that the nongravitational pull observed in space is not from "dark matter" but electromagnetic interactions. (Rense.com; March 2, 2005)
1.

Myth Of Dark Matter - Can Science Change? - Sepp Hasslberger says "dark energy" theory doesn't take into account electromagnetic forces of attraction. (New Media Explorer; March 9, 2005)
2.

Theory
What is Dark Energy and how do we know it's there? - "Dark energy," said Donald Schneider, professor of astronomy at Penn State, "appears to be the major component of the universe." (PhysOrg; March 24, 2005)
1.

PESWiki links
1.

Google > Site:PESWiki.com > "Dark Energy"

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Directory:Zero Point Energy
From PESWiki
Jump to: navigation, search A directory of technologies and resources relating to Zero Point Energy.

Claims to working energy technologies that tap the theoretical zero point. Potential role of nanotechnology in proving and implementing quantum phenomenon for stolid state energy generation from 'the wheelwork of nature'.

Contents
[hide]

1. 2. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

1 Overview 2 Technologies 2.1 Featured 2.2 Breakthroughs 2.3 Claims 2.4 Proposals 2.5 Theory 2.6 Research &

Development

3. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
Politics

3 Resources 3.1 Articles 3.2 Books 3.3 Conferences 3.4 Media 3.5 In the News 3.6 Trends 3.7 Government &

8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

3.8 Cautions 3.9 Humor 3.10 Directories 3.11 Related 3.12 Comments

4.

4 See also

Overview
In physics, the zero point energy is the lowest possible energy that a quantum mechanical physical system may possess; it is the energy of the ground state of the system. The term "zero point" refers to the observed fact that vacuum fluctuations persist at zero degrees Kelvin.

1.
Featured: ZPE / Tom Valone >

Zero Point Energy devices 5-10 years from market (interview) - Tom Valone, author of several books and tracts on the subject, gives an overview of the ZPE concept and recent developments toward working prototypes. Nanodiodes, already developed, could be the key ingredient for harnessing this energy that is everywhere present and constant. (PESN; Jan. 21, 2009)

1.
ZPE / Cold Fusion / Fusion / Ocean Power >

5 big alt-energy letdowns: Ideas that sounded good but... - As the call for a clean-energy savior—to wash away our fossil-fuel sins—grows louder, the number of questionable candidates swells. Should we be looking to photovoltaic or fusion? Turbines or tides? The five "duds" include Zero-point energy; cold fusion, passive collection, hot fusion, sea movement. (Scientific American; Mar 18, 2009) [Let 'em know what YOU think.]

Technologies

Featured

Karpen's Pile: A Battery That Produces Energy Continuously Since 1950 Exists in Romanian Museum - The “Dimitrie Leonida” National Technical Museum from Romania hosts a weird kind of battery. Built by Vasile Karpen, the pile has been working uninterrupted for 60 years. “I admit it’s also hard for me to advance the idea of an overunity generator without sounding ridiculous, even if the object exists,” says Nicolae Diaconescu, engineer and director of the museum. (The Green Optimistic; Dec. 25, 2010)
1.

1.
Featured: Zero Point Energy >

Jovion Corporation Pursues Zero Point Energy - University-based Jovion Corporation of Boulder, CO, USA aims to develop and commercialize a device that would involve solar cells for harnessing energy from electromagnetic radiation. They received a patent last May for quantum vacuum energy extraction using Casimir cavities. (PESWiki; Feb. 5, 2009)

Water Disassociation Using Zero Point Energy - Moray King has put forth a scientific model that suggests that the reason so many experimenters are observing more energy emerging from their electrolysis systems than what they put into it, is that the configuration harnesses zero point energy.
1.

A New Foundation for Physics, by Quantum Aether Dynamics Institute The Aether Physics Model quantifies quantum structure within an Aether/angular momentum paradigm (as opposed to the mass/energy paradigm of Einstein). It is destined to merge with Quantum Mechanics and provides the means for tapping Zero Point Energy.
1.

Y-Bias and Angularity: The Dynamics of Self-Organizing Criticality: From the Zero Point to Infinity - Monograph by David G. Yurth and Donald Ayres of the Nova Institute of Technology describes a newly developed model of scalar physics that incorporates all the rules of self-organizing criticality into a simple, elegant framework. (PES Network Academy; Jan. 11, 2007)
1.

Chaim Yankle ZPE Device - Says he's working on a ZPE machine that "absorbs the energy of ZPE amplifies it and rectifies it, making a modicum of free energy in the process. It uses a wire container for the ZPE and an energy extractor module. The resultant ZPE energy is then amplified and rectified for energy production.
1.

Breakthroughs

1.
Nuclear / ZPE > Wingate Lambertson >

Remembering energy inventor Dr. Lambertson - The late Wingate Lambertson, Ph.D., a nuclear scientist of Florida, was able to light a row of lamps in his garage using what he says is electricity taken from the energy of space, via his "cermet" material arranged in an "E-dam" through a process he called World Into Neutrinos (WIN). A dream he was given said the technology would emerge to the world in 2018. (Changing Power; July 13, 2010)

Conversion of the Vacuum-energy of electromagnetic zero point oscillations into Classical Mechanical Energy (93 pages, 1 MB, download for free) - Claus W. Turtur ahs published a complete overview of his work on the zeropoint oscillations of the vacuum - from the beginning of the theory to final experimental verification, building a machine converting vacuum-energy in the lab.
1.

Experiments to define ZPE coupling - The new Scanning Probe Microscope will enable researchers to extend the measurements to yet more complex shapes and, for the first time, to search for a way to reverse the Casimir force as well as probe new theories of gravity. (Univ. of Leicester; Aug. 2005)
1.

NanoTechnology Reaches ZPE Threshold Scale - Researchers at the University of Texas, Austin have succeeded in fabricating a quantum scale device capable of emitting a single photon or absorbing a single photon. (ZPEnergy; Sept. 10, 2005)
1.

Claims

Floppy disk inventor's house powered by cosmic energy - Dr. Yoshiro Nakamatsu claims his house is powered by "cosmic energy", whose source is charged particles (such as the nuclei of atoms) arriving from outer space in rays at roughly the speed of light. A black "antenna" that covers most of one exterior wall collects this energy, that is so prolific he winds up selling the excess to Tokyo Electric Power. (The Japan Times; Jan. 9, 2008)
1.

1.
Zero Point Energy / Vibrations >

David Sereda - Zero Point Energy (video) - Discusses his research on differentials, Zero Point Energy, and the hidden harmonic codes of the universe, including prototyping. "There are actual precise harmonic codes which are multiple frequencies working in tandem together," he said. "...It can lead to anything from antigravity to infinite energy." (Coast to Coast; March 12, 2009)

Cosmic Energy Machine - Working prototype 225 horsepower motor and generator is based on a magnetic pendulum that harnesses magnetic and gravitational energy. (Lee Cheung Kin, Lawrence Tseung Presentation in Taiwan on Aug 2006)
1.

China - A New Magnetic Conversion of Zero Point Energy - The Wang Shum Ho Prototype Electricity Generator was reportedly demonstrated to five Chinese Officials on Jan 15, 2007. Four 5kW working units are planned for academic validation, then 200 more will be produced. Mass production may begin in 2008. “The World Energy Crisis is effectively over." (ZPEnergy; January 24, 2007)
1.

Electrinium ZPE Battery Still Remains Just an Idea - Theoretical battery proposed in 1980 would consist of an alloy of two different metals that induces the atoms to give off the Zero Point Energy as electrons. So far, no one has built this device. (PESN; Dec. 6, 2007)
1.

Advanced Energy Technology Colloquium Report - Having been probing the field for 20 years, Major Hathaway pulled together a conference to highlight what is real and ready. He concludes that advanced energy technologies commonly identified as zero point energy technologies are not only real but are being brought to full scale production in real time. (PESN; Aug. 27, 2007)
1.

Magnetic Power Inc. is Nearing Pre-Production Stage with Zero Point Energy Modules - Modules built with off-the-shelf components are expected to generate electricity anywhere, any time, for less than 1 cent per kilowatt-hour. One kW modules expected for market next year. (PESN; June 17, 2005)
1.

New Science and a Revolutionary Energy Breakthrough - Mark Goldes says his firm is developing pre-commercial generators. These one kilowatt Magnetic Power Modules™ are expected to be in production next year. (ZPEnergy; June 16, 2005)
1.

Magnetic energy? Perhaps - San Francisco Chronicle features the work being done by Mark Golde's zero point energy company in Sebastopol, California. Goldes expects a device by the end of the year that could power a kitchen using the power of magnets. (Sept. 7, 2005) (Thanks ZPEnergy)
1.

Chaim Yankle ZPE Device - Says he's working on a ZPE machine that "absorbs the energy of ZPE amplifies it and rectifies it, making a modicum of free energy in the process. It uses a wire container for the ZPE and an energy extractor module. The resultant ZPE energy is then amplified and rectified for energy
1.

production." (PESWiki; Jan. 8, 2004) ZPE Tapped, captured and applied to a load - "The tremendous growth of the plasma is due to Interdimensional Energy coming out of the ZPE release area, which just happens to be at the center of the collapsing plasma kernel." (ZPEnergy; Dec. 26) (Chris Arnold)
1. 1.

Solar Thermal / Building / ZPE / Methane >

A few free energy developments in Romania - A Russian news agency reports on several interesting systems being developed, including an efficient solar water heating design, a composite building materials having strength and a high R value, a magnetic fertilizer, and a system that allegedly loads methane molecules with the vacuum zero point energy increasing the methane’s heating power by 40 percent. (Financiarul; Oct. 30, 2009)

Proposals
Zoltan Szili releases 50 watt ZPE circuit for Open Source - Zoltan has designed the cicruit on some type of aerospace cicruit software and apparently the software tests indicate that this circuit should work. (OSEN; Nov. 2, 2005)
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Possible Nanotechnology Mechanism for Tapping ZPE Suggested in Letter to President Bush - "Essentially, this would be a resonant chamber, an inductance, and a capacitance. By first converting Zero Point Energy to light, and then to microwave and alternating electric current, we would have a complete energy system." - Randy Sawyer (ZPEnergy; Jan. 19, 2005)
1.

Theory

1.
Feature: Grand Unified Theories > Galactic Sea of Energy >

The role of the plasma with heterodyne resonance mechanism in overunity devices - "In my recent book, Field Propulsion by Control of Gravity

- Theory and Experiments, I describe a unique physical mechanism at the quantum mechanical level. Investigating many experiments that apparently succeeded in obtaining overunity, I am sure that the same mechanism is involved. It always involves EM activated plasma that in some cases may not be visually observed." (PESWiki; Sept. 17, 2010)

1.
Zero Point Energy >

The great tradition of bungling boffins - As recent events have shown, all scientists can make mistakes. Michael Brooks recounts their most heroic failures across the ages. "...Zeldovich suggested that the anomaly was due to the uncertainty principle in quantum theory, which endows empty space with energy. Sadly, his calculation of this 'zero point energy' was 10^120 times bigger than the effect it was supposed to account for." (Telegraph; Feb. 23, 2010)
1.

ZPE >

Dirac's Equation and the Sea of Negative Energy - Part III - "If Dirac's equation means what it says--that it describes everything that waves or every possible particle--it arguably provides the first basis, simplicity: the universe must be built of the four kinds of electron which are the roots of the equation." (Hasslberger Blog; May 4, 2010)

Research & Development

1.
ZPE >

Example of a simple Algorithm for the Construction of Zero-point-energy

Converters - A example computer-algorithm published at the journal PHILICA demonstrates a practical ZPE computation (for a very simple system). The computer-algorithm is here. "I hope, you will enjoy the construction of a zeropoint-energy motor." -- Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Claus W. Turtur (Philica; Oct. 9, 2010)

1.
Newsletters > Future Energy eNews > Flight / Batteries / ZPE / Events >

Future Energy eNews: July 2010 - Tom Valone's headlines this month include: 1) New Proton Measurement Throws Physics a Curve; 2) Molten Metal Batteries Yield 20 times More Current; 3) The Flying Prius; 4) Clean Energy 101; 5) COFE4 - SPESIF Call for Papers -- a great opportunity for inventors who would like a chance to put their invention on paper in a peer-reviewed publication.

Quantum Blurring - Using quantum field theory, researchers derived the probability for light to be deflected by density fluctuations associated with zero point motion in a fluid. Their results show that zero-point scattering increases as the fifth power of the light frequency, called acoustic Cassimir effect. (Physical Review Focus; Jan. 23, 2009)
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Hans Coler Magnetic Power Apparatus - The "Magnetstromapparat" was developed by Captain Hans Coler and Fritz Von Unruh early in 1933. Coler stated
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that the strength of the magnets did not decrease during use of the apparatus and suggested that he was tapping a new sort of energy hitherto unknown -"Raumenergie" (Space-Energy). (PESWiki; Oct 30, 2008)

1.

Energy From The Vacuum >

Vacuum Energy motors, rotors and conversions to mechanical energy - Dr. Claus W. Turtur has posted a few articles at the University of Applied Sciences Braunschweig- Wolfenbüttel as part of his "Thoughts about Physics" series. 1. A QED-model for the Energy of the Vacuum and an Explanation of its Conversion into Mechanical Energy and Conversion of Vacuum-Energy into Mechanical Energy under Vacuum Conditions - Dr. Claus W. Turtur continues his pursuit to take up the challenge of identifying ways to measure Zero Point Energy. He has found a way. (Philica; Dec. 7, 2008)
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Direct Evidence Of Dark Energy In Supervoids And Superclusters - A team of astronomers at the University of Hawaii Institute for Astronomy (IfA) led by Dr. Istvan Szapudi has found direct evidence for the existence of "dark energy." Dark energy works against the tendency of gravity to pull galaxies together and so causes the universe's expansion to speed up. (SpaceDaily; July 31, 2008)
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Water Disassociation Using Zero Point Energy - Moray King, Ph.D., has put forth a scientific model that suggests that the reason so many experimenters are observing more energy emerging from their electrolysis systems than what they put into it, is that the configuration harnesses zero point energy. (PESWiki; Aug. 13, 2007)
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A simple thought experiment to support ZPE ideas - Sinh sets forth an idea in support of the arguments of fields emitted from charge(s) and mass. (ZPEnergy; June 26, 2005)
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Holofractaline Gut - Grand Unification Theory by Mathew Whitney addresses ZPE space potential.
1.

All life forms in universes all over the Hyperspace are ZPEs - Zero Point Energies racing towards becoming part of Chilled or Flat Universe below the Hyperspace. (India Daily; Aug. 23, 2005)
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Finding a way to test for dark energy - Scientists from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and Dartmouth College believe there is a way to find out what the mysterious dark energy is that's causing the expansion of the universe to accelerate. (PhysOrg; Aug. 29, 2005)
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Motors Powered by Electron Spin - Former College Dean, Dr. Ken Kozeka, puts forth a model to describe how the energy in magnet motors is generated from the electron spin that maintains the magnetism, and that it is essentially an atomic force at work -- not energy from nowhere. (PESN; Aug. 3, 2007)
1.

Resources
Articles

1.
ZPE >

DFEM-Computation of a Zero-point-energy Converter with realistic Parameters for a practical Setup - "A theoretical method for the computation of zero-point-energy converters has been presented as dynamic finite element method (DFEM). The way to calculate a realistic system for an experimental setup is developed here." -- Prof. Claus W. Turtur (Philica; December 7, 2010)

1.
ZPE >

Example of a simple Algorithm for the Construction of Zero-point-energy Converters - A example computer-algorithm published at the journal PHILICA demonstrates a practical ZPE computation (for a very simple system). The computer-algorithm is here. "I hope, you will enjoy the construction of a zero-

point-energy motor." -- Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Claus W. Turtur (Philica; Oct. 9, 2010)

1.
Zero Point Energy >

Self-Sheltering Casimir One-Plate Thruster - "Like a sailboat, this is noninertial propulsion in the sense that, it does not expel its own reaction mass; instead, the external environment imparts energy and momentum to it. Just as the Sun produces a stream of photons that we can use for power, so also does the Zero-Point Energy Field." See paper. (ZPEnergy; Feb. 2, 2010)
1.

Zero Point Energy / Water as Fuel >

ZPE mentioned in Science article about proton-coupled water activation - A Google news alert showed the following phrase in a Science article: "The table below ... shows the calculated ... energies, with zero point energy (ZPE) corrections included in ...". The article is titled, How the Shape of an H-Bonded Network Controls Proton-Coupled Water Activation in HONO Formation. (Science; Jan. 15, 2010) Zero point fields interpreted as interference between different worlds in a many worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics - In some aspects zero point fields yield very real physical manifestations, e.g. in the Casimir effect and as a source of noise in semi classical laser theory. On the other hand they seem to give no contribution to gravitation corresponding to their estimated energy summed over all modes within wave lengths above the Plank length... (Science Blog; Oct. 31, 2009)
1.

FOLLOW-UP: What is the 'zero-point energy' (or 'vacuum energy') in quantum physics? Is it really possible that we could harness this energy? The Zero Point Energy (ZPE) is an intrinsic and unavoidable part of quantum physics. The ZPE has been studied, both theoretically and experimentally, since the
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discovery of quantum mechanics in the 1920s and there can be no doubt that the ZPE is a real physical effect. The "vacuum energy" is a specific example of ZPE which has generated considerable doubt and confusion. In a completely empty flat universe, calculations of the vacuum energy yield infinite values of both positive and negative sign--something that obviously does not correspond to the nature of the real world. (Scientific American; Aug, 18, 1997)

Michael Ognyanov’s Infinite Current Battery - When this arrangement is fed briefly with an oscillating signal, typically in the frequency range of 5.8 to 18 Mhz, it becomes self-powered and can supply electric current to external equipment. (The Green Optimistic)
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The Isotopic Electricity Generator - The inventors describes the technique as an “isotopic mutation effect��? as it converts ordinary iron (isotope 56) to isotope 54 iron, releasing large amounts of electrical energy in the process. This excess energy can, they say, be used to drive inverters, motors or generators. (The Green Optimistic)
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How To Build a Free Magnetic Energy Generator (Mini Romag) - The Mini Romag generator from Magnetic Energy uses the principle of moving magnetic flow named “the magnetic current��? for generating electrical power. According to Magnetic Energy this generator is able to produce 3.5 volts, 7A DC ( about 24 Watts ) of free electricity while its generate sufficient power to sustain itself… - (The Green
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Optimistic)
2.

Tesla's self-sustaining electricity generator - (The Green Optimistic)

A New Foundation for Physics, by Quantum Aether Dynamics Institute The Aether Physics Model quantifies quantum structure within an Aether/angular momentum paradigm (as opposed to the mass/energy paradigm of Einstein). It is destined to merge with Quantum Mechanics and provides the means for tapping Zero Point Energy. (PESWiki; June 16, 2006)
1. 1.

ZPE Theory Primer

"This term Zero Point Energy has been based on the concept that even if matter were cooled down to absolute zero (minus 273 degC), in terms of its temperature, this energy still remains." (ZPEnergy; Jan. 4, 2004)
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Tapping Zero-Point Energy - by Moray King

Abstract: The vacuum polarization of atomic nuclei might allow their synchronous motion to activate a ZPE coherence. Experimentally observed plasma ion-acoustic anomalies as well as inventions utilizing cycloid ion motions may offer supporting evidence. The suggested experiment of rapidly circulating a charged plasma in a vortex ring might induce a sufficient zero-point energy interaction to manifest a gravitational anomaly. An invention utilizing abrupt E field rotation to create virtual charge exhibits excessive energy output.
1. 1.

Inside Zero Point Energy - by Thomas Valone, (1999)

A Second Look at Dielectrics and Zero Point Energy - Nature may provide a universal design for tapping zero point energy by utilizing dielectrics. For hundreds of years, inquisitive minds have experimented with storing and discharging electricity with capacitors. One of the first of these capacitors is the now familiar glass Leyden jar. (ZPEnergy; Aug. 12, 2007)

The Energy of Empty Space is Not Zero - Physicist/cosmologist Lawrence Krauss recently convened a physics conference/retreat which included an all-star cast of cutting-edge theorists and physicists. The primary topic was gravity, but what came of the discussion had more to do with energy. (Edge; July 6, 2006) (See Slashdot'' discussion)
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Quantum Vacuum Fluctuations: A New Rosetta Stone of Physics? - by Dr. H. E. Puthoff
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Exploiting Zero-Point Energy - By Philip Yam (Scientific American Magazine, December 1997, pp. 82-85)
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Zero Point Energy, Quantum Physics, Zeno paradox and Fermat theorem - More and more people are aware of ideas from pioneering scientists about a "vacuum not empty" and the seething energy contained in space. (ZPEnergy; Nov. 2005)
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Zero point energy position paper - is available as an introductory, easy-toread summary of the concepts.
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Tom Valone, PhD, Speaks on Zero-point Energy Extraction from the Quantum Vacuum - Reviews the scientific literature on ZPE with emphasis on how molecular science is enabling the detection of ZPE. (ExtraOrdinary Technology Conf. SLC; July 30, 2004)
2.

Feasibility Study of Zero- Point Energy Extraction from the Quantum Vacuum for the Performance of Useful Work (180-page Word document 3 MB) ([1]) authored by Dr. Thomas Valone.
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Emergent Gravity from ZPE & Nonlocality of Gravity Energy - Andrei Sakharov 1967 paper addresses "the foundations of metric engineering, the fabric of space-time geometry for interstellar space travel." (ZPEnergy'; March 7, 2005)
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"Zero-Point Energy and the Future" (#822) - introductory report available on the IRI order page
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"To the stars" - review of aerospace and gov't ZPE efforts. (Aviation Week and Space Technology; March, 2004)
2.

Books

Zero Point Energy, The Fuel of the Future - This book demonstrates the exciting promise that zero point energy, which supports every atom and molecule, will soon be used directly to power a car, house, or spaceship.
1.

Practical Conversion of Zero-Point Energy - The authoritative guide to the latest developments, tools, and physics behind the only inexhaustible source of energy for the future. Revised edition of a year-long "Feasibility Study of the Extraction of Zero-Point Energy from the Quantum Vacuum for the Performance of Useful Work."
1.

The Hunt for Zero Point - by Nick Cook, with the world's leading aerospace research and defense journal, (Jane's Defence Weekly; 304 pages)
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Nick Cook - Reporter and spokesman for Jane's Defence Weekly. Author of #1 Amazon.com bestseller Hunt for Zero Point. Featured guest on Coast-to-Coast. Free Energy Congress founding member and advisor. (PESWiki; Oct. 3, 2005)
1.

The Free Energy Machine of T Henry Moray and Aethro Kinematics' (ZPEnergy; March 9, 2005)
1. 1.

Zero Point Books

1.
Featured: Books >

The Future of Energy: An Emerging Science - Thomas Valone's new book addresses emerging energy sources such as dense plasma focus fusion, powdered metal-burning engines, wireless transmission of electricity, spacebased solar power, piezoelectric highway electricity generators and zero point energy, with simple and short summaries. (PESWiki; Nov. 18, 2009)

Conferences

1.

Events: ZPE / Thermal Electric >

Society for Scientific Exploration 2010 Annual Meeting - The title of the conference was “Cutting Edge Energy & Advanced Propulsion Research & Anomalous Phenomena.” Unlike most professional scientific organizations, the SSE encourages debates in frontier topics of science, such as zero-point energy and psi phenomena. This one included presentations on violations of the second law of thermodynamics. (Infinite Energy; Sept/Oct 2010)

1.
Feature / Events: Tesla >

Report: Tesla Days and Tesla Science Foundation Conference - Michael Riversong reports on the conference that took place in Philadelphia July 9-11, 2010. Topics included Tesla coils, Zero Point Energy, Atmospheric Energy, Quantum Physics, Gyroscopics, Ball Lightning, Electrogravitics. (PESN; Aug. 18, 2010)

Media

Zero-Point Energy Extraction from the Quantum Vacuum - Video of U.S. patent officer, Tom Valone, Ph.D.'s lecture at the 2004 (July) ExtraOrdinary Technology conference in Salt Lake City provides an overview of the theory and proposed methods for extracting useful energy directly from the quantum vacuum. (ZPEnergy; Jan. 28, 2007) [Introduced by Michael Riversong, NEC]
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Free Energy: The Race to Zero Point - (also online via Google video) - 110minute broadcast-quality documentary features some of the most promising devices, processes and theories. From Nikola Tesla to new hydrogen energy, plasma discharge to T.Townsend Brown, magnet motors to anti-gravity. (See Want to Know; June 30, 2006)
1.

In the News

1.
ZPE >

DFEM-Computation of a Zero-point-energy Converter with realistic Parameters for a practical Setup - "A theoretical method for the computation of zero-point-energy converters has been presented as dynamic finite element method (DFEM). The way to calculate a realistic system for an experimental setup is developed here." -- Prof. Claus W. Turtur (Philica; December 7, 2010)

1.
ZPE >

Example of a simple Algorithm for the Construction of Zero-point-energy Converters - A example computer-algorithm published at the journal PHILICA demonstrates a practical ZPE computation (for a very simple system). The computer-algorithm is here. "I hope, you will enjoy the construction of a zero-

point-energy motor." -- Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Claus W. Turtur (Philica; Oct. 9, 2010)

1.
ZPE > Wingate Lambertson >

‘Zero-point energy’ came through for Win L. - In Sept. 2004, the late Wingate Lambertson, Ph.D. wrote: "My certifier, known as John-2, has measured a yield of 153 percent on a recent E-dam. It should be possible to increase this substantially in the expansion of my research by others.” (Changing Power; July 17, 2010)

1.
Nuclear / ZPE > Wingate Lambertson >

Remembering energy inventor Dr. Lambertson - The late Wingate Lambertson, Ph.D., a nuclear scientist of Florida, was able to light a row of lamps in his garage using what he says is electricity taken from the energy of space, via his "cermet" material arranged in an "E-dam" through a process he called World Into Neutrinos (WIN). A dream he was given said the technology would emerge to the world in 2018. (Changing Power; July 13, 2010)

1.
Zero Point Energy >

The great tradition of bungling boffins - As recent events have shown, all scientists can make mistakes. Michael Brooks recounts their most heroic failures

across the ages. "...Zeldovich suggested that the anomaly was due to the uncertainty principle in quantum theory, which endows empty space with energy. Sadly, his calculation of this 'zero point energy' was 10^120 times bigger than the effect it was supposed to account for." (Telegraph; Feb. 23, 2010)

1.
Zero Point Energy >

Self-Sheltering Casimir One-Plate Thruster - "Like a sailboat, this is noninertial propulsion in the sense that, it does not expel its own reaction mass; instead, the external environment imparts energy and momentum to it. Just as the Sun produces a stream of photons that we can use for power, so also does the Zero-Point Energy Field." See paper. (ZPEnergy; Feb. 2, 2010) A Second Look at Dielectrics and ZPE - Nature may provide a universal design for tapping zero point energy by utilizing dielectrics. For hundreds of years, inquisitive minds have experimented with storing and discharging electricity with capacitors. One of the first of these capacitors is the now familiar glass Leyden jar. (Randolph Sawyer; ZPEnergy; Aug. 12, 2007)
1.

Anatomy of zero point energy modules - India Daily - Technology Team talks about the miracle of the Hyperspace – essentials of life and connected consciousness. (ZPEnergy; Sept. 8, 2005)
1.

Trends

1.

Zero Point Energy > Blacklight Power >

Will 2010 be the Year of Zero Point Energy? - For decades researchers have reported anomalous excess heat when atomic hydrogen and catalysts are involved. The mechanisms and therefore the ability to scale the effect have eluded scientists. Author Fran Roarty proposes a model based on two opposing forces inside a Casimir cavity that can be manipulated into oscillating to produce heat. (OpEdNews; Jan. 10, 2010)

Government & Politics

What Gary McKinnon Learned While Hacking U.S. Military Sites - Says that the military has had anti-gravity technology for a long time, involving zero point energy. (ZPEnergy; July 15, 2005)
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[Citing excerpts from July 15 ZDNet story.] Hacker Gary McKinnon Interview on Suppressed Technologies - Was amazed at the ease with which he was able to penetrate the U.S. military network in search for evidence of UFO coverups and anti-gravity technology of extra-terrestrial origin. (Slashdot; July 24, 2005)
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Dark Matters Surround Dark Energy - Two big stories from the world of zero point energy physics may portend the arrival of new weapons of mass destruction far more powerful and compact than atomic bombs. What is lurking behind the black budget projects. (PESN; Aug. 30, 2004)
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Does ZPE Extraction Endanger the World? - "If people go forth and build such devices without taking other factors into account, they could bleed off local gravity effects, and tear the space fabric." (ZPEnergy; Sept. 5, 2004)
1.

Cautions

Oscillations about the Zero Point - Some skeptical, though not entirely dismissive musings by David M. Boie regarding the possibilities of harnessing energy from the zero point. (ZPEnergy; May 11, 2006)
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Can not be done? - Matt Visser of Washington University in St. Louis adds some technical details on why the science is sure we should not bother with trying to find a way to harness ZPE for useful, inexhaustible, clean power. (ZPEnergy; Sept. 16, 2005)
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Can Zero Point Energy be Harnessed?- Prof Yash Pal explains zero point energy and says the idea of tapping anything useful there is best left to juvenile science fiction. (The Tribune; Chandigarh, India; Feb. 25, 2005)
1.

Humor

1.
Featured: Humor / ZPE > Vortex / Anti-Gravity / Electromagnetic / Radiant Energy >

Energy from the vacuum (cleaner) - U.S. inventor, Dr. Thie, gets more than he had hoped for when he figures out a way to harness the vortex formed in his vacuum cleaner, combining the principles of quantum physics, Schauberger's vortices, and Tesla's radiant energy. (BeforeItsNews; April 1, 2010) (PESN; Examiner)

Zero Point Energy Inventor Self-Destructs - Oregon Vortex resident, Tniop Orez, nearly solved the riddle of harnessing zero point energy when on midnight of Friday 13, he successfully divided by zero, only to realize he did not have a control mechanism in place. (SpaceTimes; April 1, 2008)
1.

Directories

1.

Energy From The Vacuum >

Thoughts about Physics - Dr. Claus W. Turtur has posted a few articles at the University of Applied Sciences Braunschweig- Wolfenbüttel on Vacuum Energy motors, rotors and conversions to mechanical energy. (Thanks Dr. Claus W. Turtur; July 31, 2008)
1. 2. 3.

Cal Physics Institute - Zero Point Energy and Zero Point Field Energy from the Air

Feasibility Study of Zero-Point Energy - Extraction from the Quantum Vacuum for the Performance of Useful Work (3 MB doc, with permission) - By Thomas Valone, Ph.D. - 181-page paper with 294 footnotes and 54 images and illustrations. (Integrity Research Institute; 2004)
4. 5. 6.

Zero Point Energy - Wikipedia ZPEnergy.com

Zero Point Technologies - Frank Znidarsic presents connections between Quantum Physics, atomic physics and ZPE. Touches on cold fusion, ball lightning, levitation(Thanks Michael Couch)
7. 8.

Zero Point Energy Utilization ZPower.net - the energy of the vacuum and space

Related

Energy from the Vacuum Parts 1 through 4 - Tom Bearden’s correspondence with L.R. Pastor purports that our current energy systems tap the 'vacuum' in a deliberately inefficient manner that disturbs equilibrium. The nature of
1.

the 'ZPE - Energy From The Vacuum' and Tesla's "wheelworks of nature." (PESN; July 24, 2005)

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BEST
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Directory:Best Exotic Clean Energy Technologies Top free energy stories of 2010 and beyond

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Directory:Galactic Sea of Energy Directory:Aether | PowerPedia:Aether Directory:Atmospheric Electrostatic Energy Directory:Dark Energy Directory:Radiant Energy | PowerPedia:Radiant Energy Directory:Zero Point Energy Directory:Grand Unified Theories | Directory:Aether Physics Model Directory:Vibrations Directory:Fractal Antennas as an Energy Source

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Directory:Atmospheric Electrostatic Energy
From PESWiki
Jump to: navigation, search Index of devices designed to harvest atmospheric electrostatic energy, also known as "ambient" or "upstairs". One of the "invisible" free energy sources. The phenomenon of lightning is a function of a high electrostatic differential between the ground and the sky, which always exists to varying extents. Some researchers have been able to tap that ever-present electrostatic potential to produce electricity for use. It's not yet a matured field, but is certainly interesting.
Contents
[hide]

1. 1. 2.
Friction

1 Technologies 1.1 ERR Fluxgenerator 1.2 Harnessing Static from

3. 4.
Transducer

1.3 Nelson's Electron Trap 1.4 Pyramidal Electric

5. 6.

1.5 Testatica 1.6 Ion Source Beam Projector

7.
Gizmo

1.7 Scott F. Hall's Electrostatic

8. 9. 2.

1.8 Aluminum-Paper-Steel 1.9 Other Technologies 2 See also

Technologies
ERR Fluxgenerator

1.
Featured / Best Exotic FE: Electromagnetic / Electrostatic > ERR Fluxgenerator >

ERR Fluxgenerator Looks to 2011 to be a Year of Redemption - The
Noah’s Ark Foundation, which had a major setback in 2002 when 20,000 solid state generators were confiscated by the Japanese government, looks to 2011 to be a watershed year, both in its development of 100+ kilowatt generator systems, as well as battery and wastewater treatment technologies. (PESN; December 31, 2010)

Harnessing Static from Friction

Electrostatic Generator by Walter Owens - Walter Owens has come up with a device which he claims extracts free and ubiquitous static energy for practical use. A rotating device rubs against wool or nylon and collects static electricity in a set of coils.
1.

Nelson's Electron Trap

Nelson Scientific's Electron Capture - Developing commercial method for capturing electrons for electricity. Device catches free electrons in a vacuum, where they are redirected to conductors, yielding electricity. (http://nelsonscientific.com)
1.

Pyramidal Electric Transducer

The Pyramidal Electric Transducer: A DC to RF Converter for the Capture of Atmospheric Electrostatic Energy - California researcher, Peter Grandics, shows how an antenna, modeled on the Great Pyramid of Giza, can transfer the power of atmospheric electrostatic discharge impulses into a resonant circuit that converts the random impulses into an alternating current as a potential source of renewable electric power.
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Pyramidal Power by Thomas Trawoger - Austrian inventor demonstrates that a fairly simple set-up of a home-made capacitor and two home-made coils, stimulated by a magnet, positioned at the geometric center of a metallic pyramid will produce appreciable amounts of current, enough to run a small fan.
1.

Testatica

Testatika Electromagnetic Generator - Includes an inductance circuit, a capacitance circuit, and a thermionic rectification valve. Alleged free energy machine works by harnesses energy from the aether. Those controlling keep a very tight hold and do not intend to release it to the general public.
1.

Testatika Machine Video - The Methernitha commune claims to have invented a machine that produces three to four kilowatts of DC continuously from the static electricity in the air, depending on its dryness. Sepp Hasslberger provides an English transcription for their video.
1.

Ion Source Beam Projector

Ion Source Beam Projector - James Fauble claims to have come up with a way to harness ions from the atmosphere for energy generation. Open source project put on hold on May 5, 2007 due to lack of funding to build a replica of an earlier prototype.
1.

Scott F. Hall's Electrostatic Gizmo

Scott F. Hall's Magnet Motor from Kitchen Stuff - Video at YouTube shows a continuously-running gizmo composed of a conglomeration of things found in his kitchen, including a can of dog food, tooth picks, refrigerator magnets, a pencil, spring clips, and a small corner cut out of a box.
1.

Aluminum-Paper-Steel

Aluminum, Paper, Steel Electrostatic Energy Generator - YouTube user singerxyz posted videos showing two different set-ups that he came up with that appear to extract energy from the ambient environment. In one, he wrapped an aluminum tube from a lawn chair with paper (insulator), and then wound that with non-galvanized steel wire. (PESWiki; Aug. 15)
1.

Other Technologies
1.

Atmospheric Electric Generator Rex Research on Jules Guillot's device.

Organizations > 'Free Energy' Plans by Creative Science and Research Company sells plans for devices that they say can provide "free power for your home, garage, car or truck". They claim to have heaters, engines, and other devices that are over unity or that require no fuel. A few buyers say the kits do not operate
1.

as claimed. Others are satisfied. On July 21, 2007, NEC member, Gary Vesperman wrote: This device Pyramidal Electric Transducer by Grandics has superficial functional resemblances to Nikola Tesla's wireless power invention, Thomas Moray's Radiant Energy Pump/Electricity Generator, and Marc Millis' "'Converter of Zero-Point Electromagnetic Radiation Energy to Electrical Energy (see my compilation of "Advanced Technologies for Foreign Resort Project" which is in http://www.icestuff.com/~energy21/advantech.htm).

See also
1.

Directory:Lightning Power

BEST
1. 2.

Directory:Best Exotic Clean Energy Technologies Top free energy stories of 2010 and beyond

ENERGY TYPES
1. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2. 3. 4.

Directory:Galactic Sea of Energy Directory:Aether | PowerPedia:Aether Directory:Atmospheric Electrostatic Energy Directory:Dark Energy Directory:Radiant Energy | PowerPedia:Radiant Energy Directory:Zero Point Energy Directory:Grand Unified Theories | Directory:Aether Physics Model Directory:Vibrations Directory:Fractal Antennas as an Energy Source

DEVICE TYPES
1. 1. 2.

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Directory:Aether Physics Model
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Aether Unit

The Aether Physics Model is a new branch of physics quantifying Quantum Structure, as opposed to Quantum Mechanics.
Contents
[hide]

1.

1 Introduction

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
Institute

2 Aether Physics Model Course 3 Theory Application 4 Discussion 5 Further Reading 6 Quantum AetherDynamics

7.

7 See also

Introduction
The paper, A New Foundation for Physics by Quantum AetherDynamics Institute, gives a detailed but basic introduction to the Aether Physics Model. Since the Aether Physics Model quantifies quantum structure, it is a companion theory to Quantum Mechanics. The APM specifically shows us how to tap Zero Point Energy, and how electrostatic propulsion works, how the forces unify, and illuminates many other important topics in physics.

Aether Physics Model Course
Quantum AetherDynamics Institute will be providing a course for the Aether Physics Model. This paragraph is a placemark for future content.

Theory Application
Many "mysteries," "patches," and "anomalous" data exist in modern physics. This section links to pages explaining some of these "anomalies" in discrete terms of the Aether Physics Model. Theory:Volantis:Evidence_for_the_Photon_quantification_in_the_Aether_Phy sics_Model
1. 2.

Theory:Volantis:Voyager_Evidence_for_Existence_of_Aether

Discussion
People with questions about the Aether Physics Model can join in discussions on various boards and mailing lists:
1.

Secrets of the Aether mailing list

Tesla Research - A Tesla mailing list allowing discussion of the Aether Physics Model.
2. 3. 4.

Quantum AetherDynamics Institute mailing list

Fan Mail - Letters we have received from various persons regarding the Aether Physics Model. Are We Quacks? - A discussion with a PhD physicist professor. See the kind of resistance we get to our theory.
5.

Further Reading
Secrets of the Aether by David Thomson and Jim Bourassa (Aenor Trust, 2005) - A full length book explaining the Aether Physics Model in detail. The book presents the quantum physics theory as well as geometrically interesting features of the theory, and a philosophical discussion.
1.

Occult Ether Physics, William Lyne, Creatopia productions. ISBN 0-9637467Pentagon Aliens, William Lyne, Creatopia productions. ISBN 0-9637467-7-4

6-6
2.

Quantum AetherDynamics Institute
The Aether Physics Model is developed by the Quantum AetherDynamics Institute, a 501(c)3 registered research organization.

See also
BEST
1. 2.

Directory:Best Exotic Clean Energy Technologies Top free energy stories of 2010 and beyond

ENERGY TYPES
1. 1. 2. 3. 4.

Directory:Galactic Sea of Energy Directory:Aether | PowerPedia:Aether Directory:Atmospheric Electrostatic Energy Directory:Dark Energy Directory:Radiant Energy | PowerPedia:Radiant Energy

5. 2. 3. 4.

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DEVICE TYPES
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Directory:Electromagnetic (Overunity)
From PESWiki
Jump to: navigation, search See also News:Electromagnetic Directory of electromagnetic energy generation modalities, in which more energy emerges than was put into the system (over unity), harvesting energy

from some external source, usually unseen. Also covering super efficient methods.
Contents
[hide]

1. 2. 3. 1. 2. 3. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 1. 10. 4. 1. 2. 3. 4.

1 Overviews 2 Events 3 Technologies 3.1 Commercial 3.2 Companies 3.3 Research & Development 3.3.1 Solid State 3.3.2 Joseph Flynn's Parallel Path Magnet Technology 3.3.3 Rodin Coils 3.3.4 Tools 3.3.5 Plans 3.4 Other PES Network Coverage 3.5 Disappeared in History 3.6 For Communications 3.7 Other 3.8 Theory 3.9 Videos 3.9.1 Why Batteries Work and Capacitor's Don't 3.10 Cautions 4 Resources 4.1 Testing 4.2 Volunteers 4.3 Humor 4.4 In the News

5. 5.

4.5 Comments 5 See also

Overviews

1.
Feature: Electrolysis > Hydrogen / Electromagnetic >

Hydroxy Gen and OU Replications - Michael Couch writes about the many self charging battery system videos of various origins; Bedini, Tesla Switch, SEC, and others showing up all over Youtube. 100% 'Looped' Hydroxy Genset, Kapanadze OU and Self Charging Battery Systems Demoed! (PESN; July 13, 2010)

Events

1.
Featured: Jobs / Electromagnetic > Tesla > Events >

Vegas Tesla Holographic Expo Extravaganza Coming this Summer - James Turner is pulling together an expo and new show genre to
go on tour, featuring the life and inventions of Nikola Tesla -- old and new -which will include a first-time-ever combination of high-definition 2-D screen with holographic projection in front of it, in sync with live performers. Opportunity for finding exhibitors and sponsors. (PESN and BeforeItsNews; January 21, 2011)

1.
Newsletters > Future Energy eNews > Flight / Batteries / ZPE / Events >

Future Energy eNews: July 2010 - Tom Valone's headlines this month include: 1) New Proton Measurement Throws Physics a Curve; 2) Molten Metal Batteries Yield 20 times More Current; 3) The Flying Prius; 4) Clean Energy 101; 5) COFE4 - SPESIF Call for Papers -- a great opportunity for inventors who would like a chance to put their invention on paper in a peerreviewed publication.

1.
Featured: Events > TeslaTech Conf. > 2011 >

Pre-Registration for Discount to 2011 ExtraOrdinary Technology Conference - You can save 40% if you register now for the annual
TeslaTech conference on the last weekend of July in Albuquerque, NM, that features presentations and demonstrations of exotic free energy technologies. Also, an update on Michael Riversong, M.C. for that event, who is presently in the hospital. (PESWiki; December 19, 2010)

1.
Featured / Best Exotic FE: Electromagnetic / Events > 2011 > NEW: Bedini Conferences >

Early Registration Promotion of Upcoming July 2011 Bedini Conference - Rick Friedrich is offering several incentives for early
registration to the July 29-31, 2011 conference to be held in Idaho, USA. The

unspoken promise in this series of Bedini conferences is that eventually, working, commercial overunity devices of increasing quality and capability will emerge from this process. (PESWiki; December 24, 2010)

Technologies
Commercial

1.
Featured / Best Exotic FE: Electromagnetic >

Is AVIG the first electromagnetic free energy device to make it to market? - A Ukrainian group is selling 1, 5, and 100 kilowatt
electromagnetic overunity systems in a price range lower than solar power; and they claim to have 24 ready to ship anywhere in the world. If it's real, this makes them the first exotic free energy device to emerge into the marketplace. (PESN; November 7, 2010)

1.
Feature: Electromagnetic >

Magnetron Fuelless Generator by PowerStream - PowerStream claims to have a self-generating power system called the Magnetron, which they say is "first of its kind to market", advertising output capabilities between 5KW and 2 MW. They say the load-following device could be the primary and sole source of energy for a myriad of applications, from home to business to transportation power. (PESWiki; June 8, 2010) (Comment)

1.
Featured: Electromagnetic / Magnet Motors > Steorn >

Steorn's e-Orbo self-looped electromagnetic motor demonstration underway - The long-awaited, public demo of electromagnetic overunity that is self-looped to keep itself running continuously, is now under way, with Steorn's e-Orbo being shown at Dublin's Waterways Centre. A D-cell battery powers the motor and is supposedly recharged by it continuously. (PESN; Dec. 15, 2009) (Comment)

1.
Featured: Electromagnetic > Kapanadze >

Kapanadze's 100 kW free energy device third-party tested - A video has been posted showing the setup of the one hundred kilowatt free energy generator by Tariel Kapanadze's group as it is being third-party tested, complete with large coils, arcing spark gaps, huge capacitors and mesh screens, set atop a ~one-inch-thick glass. (PESN; July 24, 2009) (Comment)

1.

Featured: Electromagnetic >

REM Source, LLC > REMGen (story removed) - On Sept. 16, 2009, REM Source requested that we remove the contents that appeared on this page. In the future, we anticipate providing updates when they are ready for coverage. (PESN; July 23, 2009)

Companies

1.
Feature: Electromagnetic > Electrolysis > Kanarev >

Kanarev announces a self-running motor-generator - Russian
Professor Ph. M. Kanarev presents what he calls "the world's first selfrotating electric generator," saying it has been tested by a scientist from the Russian Academy of Science. The device was built to demonstrate Kanarev's theory of the mocrocosm. (PESN; Oct. 13, 2010)

1.
Featured: Electromagnetic > MagnaCoaster >

Magnacoaster Vorktex nearing commercial rollout (Interview) - Canadian inventor, Richard Willis, claims to have a solid state device that amplifies input power, such as from a solar panel, to produce many more times output -- enough to power a home, for under 20,000 USD. The technology involves pulsing (kHZ) the input power through a coil next to large, permanent magnets. (PESN; July 10, 2009) (Comment at Examiner.com)

Magnacoaster Motor Co - Magnetic motor and generator produces electric power without using fuel. A home unit is planned for production in fall of 2008. Several demonstration videos have been posted.
1.

1.
Featured: Electromagnetic / Propulsion >

EmDrive - Chinese Say They're Building 'Impossible' Space Drive Chinese researchers are proceeding to build a demonstration version of a technology developed by Satellite Propulsion Research Ltd (SPR Ltd) of the UK, who have tested both an experimental propellant-less thruster and a demonstrator engine that use patented microwave technology to convert electrical energy directly into thrust. (PESWiki; Sept. 27, 2008)

Wilt's Clean Energy, Inc - Herman and Cathrine Wilt and James Wiggins have successfully developed their patented electromagnetic engine. This is another milestone validating and legitimizing the Magnet Motor. (PESWiki; May 8, 2008)
1.

World Improvement Through the Spirit Ministries - Timothy Thrapp's organization claims to have many technologies for sale, including electromagnetic motors that produce more energy than they consume to run; both mechanical and solid state.
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Phemax Technology's Plasmagnetic Alternator - Patent pending device allegedly generates electricity via plasma arc (Microsun) technology, initiated with low voltage, high current, high temperature, thermally conductive, thorium tungsten / graphite electrodes submerged in water. The resulting syngas runs a Phemax generator, which is said to have 5x amplification capability. (PESWiki; Aug. 7, 2008)
1.

AKOIL Power Generator - Russian company claims to have a fuel-less generator. Is taking orders for units from 100kW up to 10 MW. Ten kilowatt demo allegedly available for assessment. Previous experience with company/dealers suggests caution. ("PESWiki"; Sept. 16, 2006)
1.

New "Energy from the Vacuum" Documentary Series DVD release - John Bedini - Bedini conducts a tour of his lab and explains how every motor works, in addition to patiently answering a whole host of questions pertaining to 'radiant energy'.
1.

Self-running Bedini motor - Long-time participant in various Bedini motor replication projects, Rick Friedrich posts videos, photos, diagrams, and explanation of his set-up, which he says measures a net gain in energy "from nature".
1.

Modified Bedini Cole Window motor - Mike (HMM) has posted a demonstrated video of a device which quickly became buzzed as "overunity," but he does not claim it to be such. Complete instructions provided. Many researchers presently seeking to replicate the effect.
1.

Chas Campbell Generator - Australian inventor demonstrates a prototype generator with input of 800 W, able to self-run off the 3500 W output, with energy left over to run a drill, a saw, and other appliances. Claims he can scale it up to 1 megawatt output.
1.

CD Motor Open Source Project - Experiment developed between Sept 2001-2004 under the direction of Tim Harwood, inspired by the claims of Robert Adams and his exotic pulsed motor technology, was widely replicated; is now published again. Allegedly achieves over unity, but no self-runners were ever achieved.
1.

Robert Jackson's Dynamotor Electric Generator - Inventor is willing to let rights to motor go to someone who can help get patent completed by Feb. 25, 2006. Rought prototype in Dallas, TX.
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Gemini Electric Motor - With permanent magnets positioned at BOTH ends of the coils, additional energy is achieved without consuming additional electricity. It is capable of handling twice the power of a conventional motor. Two energy fields contribute to rotational power and torque, while the third produces electricity from normally unused electromagnetic fields within the motor.
1.

Directory:CDmotor - Apparatus design by Tim Harward. The objective is to mimic the exotic results claimed by Robert Adams, yet at low cost, with ubiquitous materials.
1.

Hilden-Brand Electromagnet Motor - Jack Hilden-Brand recently measured around 2x over-unity in his electromagnetic motor design, which closely resembles the Joseph Flynn parallel path concept.
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The Hydraulic Battery-powered Electromagneti Generator from Tennessee - A trio of inventors from Tennessee have design a hydraulic, battery,
1.

electromagnetic system than they say can fuellessly run a home or a vehicle, or other devices. Several working prototypes have been built. Presently awaiting "pending" patent status, they are ready to build a business to bring this technology to market.

Stephen Kundel's Motor - Video of second version prototype shows a quickly vibrating motor, with electrical input. As it accelerates, less electrical input required. Over-unity not documented. More here. ("PESWiki"; Mar. 14, 2006)
1.

Lutec - Claims generator that will produce up to 1000 watts of DC electricity twenty four hours a day, every day, which will be stored in a battery bank and then inverted to AC power and connected directly into the home or business.
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Electric Motor Secrets DVD by Peter Lindemann - In his DVD presentation, drawing on 30 years of his own research and development, Lindemann explains in simple terms what back EMF is, and how one can build motors and generators that do not involve back-EMF. He asserts that such designs can improve upon the most effective motors of today by many-fold, not just a few percent.
1.

Magnetic Power Inc - Mark Goldes' company claims to be close enough to have some demo devices, which extract energy from the vacuum of space, ready for market in 2007. 1 kW module expected shortly thereafter. (http://magneticpowerinc.com)
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Energy By Motion (EBM) Going Commercial? - Gamma Manager in Hungary (originally from Toronto Gamma Managers' Energy by Motion) springs on the scene with three humongous prototypes getting 6% over-unity, complete with patents, scientific certifications, demo hours, and a price tag for a power plant. The alleged rate: 6 cents/kW-hour.
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Millennial Motors - The Magnetronic Motor uses a small amount of magnetic force to control a large amount of magnetic force. Motor concept is tested and prototype developed, preparing for production, with public debut scheduled for July 2007. Company is planning to retrofit cars to produce pollution free vehicles.
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Magratten Electromagnetic Motor for Sale - ColdElectricity.info site launched to announce completion of the Gary Magratten motor, now available for sale, for research purposes. Said to be 200% over-unity; no independent verification known.
1.

Tom Bearden's Motionless Electromagnetic Generator - Claims three previously working prototypes of a device that extracts energy from the vacuum of space.
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Magnetricity NeoGen PM Dynamo - Based on the late Bill Mullers' work with super magnets in a motor/generator design, this site describes Rex Hebert's ongoing research into developing a self-running permanent magnet dynamo. (Jan. 2006)
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Joseph Newman Motor - Joseph Newman is one of the more notorious names in the free energy world, having claimed for years that he has developed an electromagnetic device that produces more energy than it consumes, harnessing its excess energy from an unseen, free energy source.
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N-1 Homopolar Generator by Bruce DePalma - A model of pre-existent primordial field of the universe and a method for harnessing that energy.
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Electrostatic Generator by Walter Owens - Owens and Company LLC has come up with a device which he claims extracts free and ubiquitous static energy for practical use. A rotating device rubs against wool or nylon and collects static electricity in a set of coils.
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Perendev 300 kW Self-Running Electromagnetic Generator - Draws energy from magnetic principles not presently appreciated by mainstream science. Expected cost will be around 3/10 cents per kW-h. Not Validated (http://perendevpower.com)
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Perepiteia Generator Aims to Harnesses Back EMF - Thane Heins of Potential Difference Inc stumbled upon a way of making electric induction motors work, at the very least, more efficiently. At most, he may have found a way to manipulate magnetic fields so that instead of slowing down a generator it speeds it up. (PESWiki; Feb. 6, 2008)
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Raser Technologies - Raser Technologies develops innovative, highperformance electric motor and controller technology for clean renewable power.
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Rotoverter - A "rotoverted" AC motor can best be described as an off-shelf 3phase AC motor with its phases reconnected very simply to run on single phase AC input (house grid for example), and with only 2 of the 3 phases in the motor connected to power source. Various generators and alternators, or even a 2nd 3ph motor hooked up to work as alternator, can be turned by shaft to demonstrate "overunity" (more watts output than input)
1.

Donald Sitler's Permanent Magnet Motor - Prototype allegedly uses modest electrical input to convert magnetic force into motion. Test rig shown in video runs on about 1.44 watts, turning at about 400 rpm. It uses neodymium permanent magnets in the stator and rotor.
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Can the SuperMag Engine/Generator Solve the World's Clean Energy Needs? - Enigma G.C.'s "SuperMag", being marketed by Supervision Entertainment, allegedly uses manipulated magnetic fields to generate electricity sufficient to power the needs of a home or office building and provides clean electrical power for free to the consumer after the initial cost of the purchase and installation of the system.
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Testatika Electromagnetic Generator - Includes an inductance circuit, a capacitance circuit, and a thermionic rectification valve. Alleged free energy machine harnesses energy from the aether. Also known as the Swiss M-L converter or Thesta-Distatica.
1.

1.

Vallee Synergetic Generator (VSG)

Research & Development
Solid State
See Directory:Solid State Generators - separate index page here at PESWiki

Joseph Flynn's Parallel Path Magnet Technology

1.
Featured: Electromagnetic > Electric Vehicles > eCars > ArcticTek >

Alaska Star's axial flux motor revolution (Interview) - Chris Hunter describes his new ultra-efficient, 800-mile range electromagnetic motor design that he's making for his Alaskan car. He also talks about some of his other emerging prototypes, including the Aerothermal Rankin cycle engine, beta voltaic solar panels, magnetolysis, and battery extender. (PESN; March 16, 2010) (Comment)

1.
Featured: Electromagnetic > Electric Vehicles > eCars >

Chris Hunter's Axial Flux Motor - Alaskan inventor, Chris Hunter, is retrofitting his '93 Geo Storm with an electromagnetic motor of his own design, which draws from a wide range of scientific studies, including Flynn Parallel Path, Bedini battery rejuvenation, back EMF harvesting, and other

innovations. (PESWiki; March 15, 2010) Joseph Flynn's Parallel Path technology - A motor built with this technology is at least 3.5 times more efficient than conventional motors, offers excellent torque, and high power to weight ratios. All motor companies should license this technology. It's not perpetual motion. It doesn't violate laws of physics. It does add a new rule that will become a chapter in all new electronics textbooks, and will become standard fare in all electric motors.
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Joe Flynn’s Parallel Path Magnetic Technology - Article by Tim Harwood, who ran a successful replication project. Versions of the article were published in 2003 in Nexus magazine and New Energy Technologies magazine. (PESWiki; Feb. 21, 2006)
1.

Build your own Flynn Parallel Path magnet technology proof-of-concept - Flynn associate, Michael Schuckel, provides a complete set of instructions of how to build a very basic device that proves the revolutionary magnet flux multiplication concept set forth by Joseph Flynn, and now being pursued by some large companies. (PESWiki; Feb. 20, 2006)
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How Parallel Path Gets Over Unity - Paul Noel explains how Joe Flynn's Parallel Path device works and where the energy comes from. "What Joe Flynn has is a transistor (actually a pair) for a magnetic circuit." (PES Academy; March 7, 2006)
1.

Rodin Coils

1.
Feature: Electromagnetic >

The Marko Rodin Coil - Marko Rodin claims to have discovered the source of the non-decaying spin of the electron, and proposes a wide range of applications of this knowledge including energy harnessing. His models fascinated many and could become a cornerstone of future science. (PESWiki; Aug. 28, 2010)

1.
Featured: Electromagnetic / Toroidal Power > Rodin Toroid >

Vortex based mathematics at TEDx Charolette by Randy Powell As a sort of clone of Marco Rodin, Randy Powell is assisting in promoting the math principles that allegedly can combine all scientific disciplines and create free energy as well as healing, food production, and technology enhancement. (PESN; Oct. 23, 2010)

Tools

1.
Academy > Magnetism > Electromagnetic > Steorn >

Steorn's free SKDB Lite collaboratory for engineers - SKDB Lite uses Clearspace by Jive Software, a very capable professional tool for online collaboration and sharing of documents. The Modules in the e-Learning section covers 27 topics pertinent to understanding the logic behind Steorn’s claims. These elegantly produced Flash modules are broken down into topical categories covering basic physics, rotary systems, magnetism, rotating electromagnetic systems, tools for data analysis and tools for testing. (OhmyNews International; June 10, 2010)

1.
Electromagnetic > Electric Motors >

Washer Dryer electric motors may help in alternative energy - Devices released this year, by Toshiba, for example, use “variable magnet motors”, making it possible to regulate the magnetic force of magnetic fields in the motor. By changing the magnetic force of permanent magnets, they can change the motor’s characteristics between low-speed and high-speed operation. (GreenOptimistic; May 10, 2010)
Possibly something inventors could incorporate into a Bedini design? -- Craig Stangland

Plans

1.

Feature / DIY: Electromagnetic > Creative Science >

Creative Science & Research divulging more about Fuelless Engine - The Indiana company that has been doing alternative energy
research since 1992 and producing 'free energy' plans, has announced that they will be revealing more about their fuelless engine. Customer testimonials and critical reviews posted. (PESN; Sept. 25, 2010)

Organizations > 'Free Energy' Plans by Creative Science and Research Company sells plans for devices that they say can provide "free power for your home, garage, car or truck". They claim to have heaters, engines, and other devices that are over unity or that require no fuel. A few buyers say the kits do not operate as claimed. Others are satisfied.
1.

Bedini SG - This "Bedini School Girl (Simplified)" iteration is a variant of the "School Girl Motor" that has been circulated on the Internet since 2001.
1.

1.
Featured: Contests / Electromagnetic > Rotoverter >

Rotoconversion Energy Saving Method accepted into Tech Briefs contest - An inventor who proposed a system similar to the "Energy from the

Vacuum Cleaner" design I posted on April Fools day has had his Rotoverter motor design accepted into NASA Tech Brief's "Create the Future" contest. His Rotoconversion motor purportedly can cut energy waste by up to 90% compared to a conventional motor. (PESN; April 4, 2010) (Comment)

Adams Motor - The CD motor instructions posted are compiled by Tim Harwood and originated by Robert Adams.
1.

Lindemann Rotary Attraction Motor - Peter Lindemann has been coaching a forum in replicating a modified off-the-shelf motor, adding a Bedini-like circuit for improved efficiency, smoother running, and possible over-unity performance.
1.

Ross Motor - Theoretical overunity motor design presented by Jim Ross, based on theories put forth by Tom Bearden.
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Free Energy Generator: The Mini Romag Electromagnetic Motor - The Mini Romag free energy generator from Magnetic Energy uses the principle of moving magnetic flow named “the magnetic current” for generating electrical power. According to Magnetic Energy this generator is able to produce 3.5 volts, 7A DC ( about 24 Watts ) of free electricity while its generate sufficient power to sustain itself… (The Green Optimistic; Feb 6, 2008)
1.

Radu Electromagnetic Motor - Vadu Vacarescu has build a Sprain-like electromagnetic motor, using a spiral arrangement of magnets around a rotor, then using an electromagnet to get the rotor past the magnetic stick point. Is his claim of a COP of 4 a measurement error? (PESWiki; Mar. 25, 2008)
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Stiffler 'Cold Electricity' circuit - Ronald R. Stiffler has come up with a circuit that he calls a "cold electricity" circuit that appears to be harnessing free energy from the environment. "This is a totally self-contained, self-powered circuit. There are not tricks to it."
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Harvey Achieves Constant Speed with His MPMM Magnet Motor Variant - Video shows a modified MPMM motor that involves tying a stator magnet to a coil and circuit to coordinate its pumping action to keep the motor running at a constant speed. "The unique nature of this approach is that the rotor is propelled by the
1.

stator, not the solenoid." (PESWiki; March 7, 2008)

LaFonte Perpendicular Magnetics Motor - Butch LaFonte now offers to open source what he and his associates have come up with, being far enough along to begin some serious building and testing and possibly start coming up with some useful output designs. (PESWiki; July 24, 2008)
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Other PES Network Coverage

1.
Feature: Electromagnetic >

Andreas' Free Energy Generator - Polish inventor living in Greece, Andrzej Wojcik, who has made a name for himself manufacture low speed permanent magnet generators, now claims to have come up with a generator that consumes 150 Watts while running a 600 Watt load. His "proof" video is not skeptic proof. (PESWiki; June 29, 2010) (Comment)

1.
Featured: Electromagnetic / Aether >

Kapanadze Free Energy Generator - Georgia Republic inventor, Tariel Kapaladze, claims to have invented a 5 kilowatt free energy generator. In a demonstration video, the device appears to produce copious amounts of energy from no visible source. Though it appears to be extracting energy

from the aether, some people think it could be a matter of getting energy from the electrical grid through inductive coupling. (PESWiki; July 9, 2009)

1.
Featured: Electromagnetic > Motors / EVs >

Ultra efficient and powerful Magnetronic Motor (Interview) - Because the design by Millennial Motors, Inc. eliminates more than 95% of the iron from their motor, they are able to capture nearly all of the collapsing electromagnetic fields into a capacitor to be used again in the next pulse. Their coils are ultra simple to wind, and are arranged in removable, modular nodes. (PESWiki; Oct. 15, 2008)

1.
Feature: Electromagnetic > Gap-Power >

Gap-Power video claims to describe and demonstrate overunity - New videos by Art Porter illustrates a magnetic neutralization technique via an electromagnetic coil, and in the operation of the device most of the rotational torque comes from permanent magnets, allegedly producing more energy out than in. (PESN; July 27, 2010)

1.
Featured: Electromagnetic >

Keppean Scalar Motor Demonstration Under Way - The Keppe Motor

allegedly requires a quarter as much electricity to generate power as a normal motor -- by capturing scalar energy from the "vacuum" of space. It is named for Brazilian scientist, Norberto Keppe, Ph.D., whose book The New Physics Derived from A Disinverted Metaphysics proposes a spiritual-based direction for our planet's technological philosophy. (PESWIki; Sept. 23, 2008)

1.
Store > Electromagnetic > Keppean Scalar Motor >

Keppe Releases a New Motor Manual 3.0 - "The Keppe Motor 3.0 uses 7090% less energy than traditional low-power induction motors and is readily adaptable for practical applications." The motor is based on Keppe’s disinversion of Physics, enabling the design of a motor that allegedly capture the natural scalar energy that exists in space.

1.
Featured: Electromagnetic >

Electro Magnetic Energy (EME) by TWM Technology - Device sips power from six motorcycle batteries while also recharging them. Next prototype expected to be 500 - 1000% efficient, harnessing permanent magnet power. (PESWiki; Dec. 4, 2008)

1.

Featured: Electromagnetic > Zero Amp Tech >

Zero Amp Tech demonstration reflections - Peter Sumaruck has captured the imagination of many with his demonstration alleging 0.05 Watts input from a genset powering five motors (4000 Watts) output through his modified variable AC motor controller. However, a New Energy Congress assessment gives reason for skepticism. (PESN; Nov. 30, 2008)

1.
Electromagnetic > Pete's Zero Zamps Tech

Peter Sumaruck Demonstrates Apparent Closed Loop Power Production System - On March 30 a video was posted apparently showing Pete running his motor for three hours with no diminishing of input battery levels or generation of heat in the driving components, while the same set-up without his technology would supposedly only power the output for two hours, draining the batteries. (WorldOpinionView; Apr. 2, 2009)

1.
Featured: Magnet Motors / Gravity Motors / Electromagnetic >

Lee-Tseung Lead Out Theory - Theory predicts that both gravitational and electron motion energy can be lead out via pulse force at resonance on oscillating, vibrating, rotating or flux change systems. The ideal pulse force for a simple pendulum can be thought of as the pull applied perpendicular to the arc of motion when the pendulum bob is at the maximum displaced position. (PESWiki; Sept. 16, 2008)

1.

The Orion Project >

Update on Pulsed Motor Generator by the Orion Project - Greer's group reports: "In one test, the Pulsed Motor Generator successfully powered an 18 pound metal rotor at a steady speed of 1500 rpm with as little as 25 watts of input power." (Orion Project; August 12, 2008)

1.
Featured: Electromagnetic >

Daniel Quale's Lenzless Generator - Inventor claims to have come up with an electric generator that is unaffected by Lenz's Law. According to the site, this type of generator should be capable of overunity. (PESWiki; March 9, 2009)

1.
Featured: Electromagnetic >

Alan Francoeur Interference Disc Generator - Alan L. Francoeur describes his generator as a multi-phase, interchangeable, ac/dc, variable, frequency dynamo machine of high efficiency. Due to some "prior art" controversy, in the interest of history, we resurrect this information. (PESWiki; March 9, 2009)

David Bowling's Continuous Charging Device - Arizona inventor says he has developed a device that will put out a continuous 12 volt electrical current which he has then been using to run motors, small appliances, and charge batteries. (PESWiki; Apr. 30)
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Weather Control Via Newman-Like Device - A dozen years ago, while pursuing a possible overunity machine, Mr. Wells discovered that the machine was effecting local weather. Several machines and years later, the effect is much better understood and refined.
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Ronald Classen's Replication of the Muller Dynamo - With as much work as has gone into this prototype, you would hope that Ron might be into over unity. He's looking for feedback from those who might help him prove and improve what he has.
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Using a Clock Pendulum to Generate Electricity - Bill Mehess has invented a system in which a clock pendulum mechanism swings magnets into coils, allegedly generating enough electricity to recharge the clock spring as well as power other devices. (PESN; Mar. 24, 2007)
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James D. Hardy's Self-Looped Water Pump and Electricity Generator Massachusetts inventor demonstrates a patent pending technology in which a 165 gallon/minute water pump powers a water wheel, which is connected through belts to a one horse power generator, which powers the water pump as well as an incandescent bulb. (PESWiki; July 16, 2008)
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Disappeared in History

1.
Suppression / Videos > Energy from the Vacuum series >

Cold Heat from Canada (Trailer) - In 1968, Designex Inc. in Toronto, Canada, was powering the refrigerator, lights, radio and other appliances in their offices with a device of their own design that was self powered by cold negative radiant energy. Toronto Hydro, the local power company, sent a crew out, who removed all Toronto Hydro power meters, fuse boxes, and wiring in an attempt to shut the power off, but to no avail. (Energy from the Vacuum; Disc. 19; July, 2010)

For Communications

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Electromagnetism > Nikola Tesla >

Tapping Tesla to Save Trapped Miners - The noted pioneer in electricity and radio showed over a century ago that a magnetic wave generator could be used for wireless communications. Basically, the generator works like an electromagnet. Powered by standard alternating current or battery, it runs electricity through a wire that is coiled around a metal cylinder, creating a harmless, low-energy magnetic field that extends for hundreds of meters. (ScienceMag; Aug. 20, 2010)

Other

Electric Motor Design Cuts Energy Use in Half - Thor Power is commercializing a new electric motor design that generates twice the power at half the weight and double the efficiency of existing electric motors. This cuts the consumers' operating costs by 50%, for applications like refrigerators and air conditioners. (Ben Franklin Technology Partners)
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Brushless Doubly-Fed Generator (BDFG) improves the reliability of wind turbines - A research team from the University of Cambridge have developed a new generator technology for the wind turbine industry to the point of commercial exploitation, for application in a wide spectrum of wind turbines ranging from multi1.

megawatt systems for wind farms down to domestic micro turbines. (PhysOrg; Oct. 29, 2007)

Nissan Super Motor - One motor provides output through two shafts, enabling it to function as both a motor and a generator, to reduce the size and improve the efficiency of the drive unit compared with two conventional motors. The Super Motor has rotors positioned on both the inside and outside of one stator, enabling power to be delivered through two shafts by applying compound current to the Stator coils.
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Raser Technologies - Symetron™ AC induction motor technology achieves high torque without permanent magnets. A few simple changes to conventional motors yield significant increases in power, performance and efficiency. With up to 3 times the power density, a lower cost per kilowatt, Symetron™ is ideal for use in electric & hybrid vehicles, industrial applications and power generation.
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Featured: Suppression / Electromagnetic >

Lester Hendershot's Fuelless Motor - In the 1920's Lester Hendershot was working on a new type of aviation compass and found a method of generating energy. He is reported to have accepted an offer he couldn't

refuse being paid never to work on his device again and "committed suicide" in 1960 the same year the U.S. Navy's Office of Naval Research began looking at his work. (PESWIki; Feb. 25, 2009)

Trinity Motors - Multiple Field™ motor technology with high performance armature configuration achieves 30% improvement in energy efficiency, while magnetic suspension greatly reduces bearing friction. PowerMax™ motor/generator features chargeback capabilities that can recharge batteries while the motor is running. Suitable for electric cars, heating and cooling motors, power generation.
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Copper Motor Rotor Project - Substitution of copper for aluminum in the rotor conductor bars will reduce I2R losses, and increase motor efficiency. If the design of the rotor and stator are re-evaluated to account for the better electrical conductivity of the copper, even greater improvements in efficiency can be obtained.
1.

See also Copper Motor Rotors Boost Performance of Army Trucks (pdf).

Variable Torque Motors - Axial field weakening yields higher efficiency over the rpm range, creating a "built-in" transmission that mechanically enables an operating range up to 10x the motor base speed for electric vehicles. VTM offers hybrid retrofit packages installed on the drive shaft of rear wheel drive vehicles using
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Maxwell BoostCap™ ultracapacitors for energy storage.

ExRo - The Variable Input Electrical Generator has been designed to more efficiently convert variable energy sources such as wind into electricity, producing 30% higher output. The VIEG is a permanent magnet brushless system, so maintenance costs are minimal, and since it is a direct drive system, the cost, weight and inefficiency of the gearbox is also eliminated.
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Best Electric Machine - The Advanced Brushless Wound-Rotor Synchronous Doubly-Fed Electric Machine System improves the cost-performance envelope in electric motor and generator systems. It shows nearly 50% reduction in cost and nearly 50% improvement in power density. It has high reliability and low maintenance with no brushes or slip rings.
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InMotion Technologies - The IMT motor is a single sided axial flux permanent magnet (PM) brushless motor with a slotted iron stator. New power electronics and magnetically strong materials allow dramatic improvements in efficiency of small machines and variable speed drives. Suitable for electric bicycles, air conditioners, fans and electrical appliances.
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Featured: Electromagnetic / Magnet Motors >

The Magnevex Research Project - Based on the research and writings of Ernest L. Norman, the Magnevex magnet motor / generator uses neodymium magnets passing coils of wire to generate electricity. The goal is to do away with the battery that is presently used to run the motor side of the magnetic vortex. (PESWiki; Feb. 1, 2009)

Ultra Motor Company - Permanent magnet DC Hub motors have only five major components, are simple in design, easy to manufacture and suited for narrow, wheel-mounted motor applications such as electric bikes and scooters. Ultra motors offer significant space-saving while delivering higher torque and efficiency - without the need for gears, belts or chains.
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Direct Drive Systems - High speed permanent magnet motors & generators above 1.5MW are able to operate at speeds of turbo-machines which are up to 12 times faster. DDS electric machines are smaller (20% the size and weight of conventional electric motors), more reliable, more efficient and more economical in capital and operating costs.
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UQM Technologies - Permanent magnet electric motor system achieves a 10 to 1 constant power speed ratio (CPSR), providing both high torque and high speed capability in the same machine at levels greater than that of other motor technology. Peak power is increased by 33 percent and continuous power output by nearly 100 percent, and system efficiency from 2 to 8 percent. Suitable for electric
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vehicles and distributed power generation. WaveCrest Laboratories - WaveCrest motors enhance dynamic performance and control of vehicles by providing high levels of both positive and negative torque at the wheel. They independently power the wheels on one or more of a vehicle’s axles, and occupy less interior space. The low-speed torque and fast response time replaces costly systems such as anti-lock braking and traction control. Regenerative braking reduces brake wear and extends electric range.
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Bodine Electric - Extremely high torque, energy efficiency, and extraordinary precision make e-TORQ motors the practical direct drive solution in applications which traditionally required a speed reducer. North Dakota State University used one of these motors to finish first in a field of 30 teams in the American Solar Challenge in July of 2003.
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NovaTorque - Produces small diameter fractional horsepower motors for the appliance industry with coils wound parallel to the axis of rotation, resulting in much higher efficiency and lower waste heat production.
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Synchro Pulse - High efficiency brushless motor technology utilising an innovative approach to the magnetic engineering inside the motors, delivering more load for less electricity without requiring exotic materials or unusual production techniques. The motors use much less electricity for a given load and the speed controller ensures you never deliver more power than needed.
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Batteryless Bicycle Flashing Light System - video A Non-Friction Bicycle Dynamo (Generator). No friction on any parts of the bicycle; no drag; very bright. Get the energy almost free (at least on bicycle). Uses a tumbling magnet electrical
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generating system. Exterior magnet can be in any orientation.

Theory

1.
Feature: Grand Unified Theories > Galactic Sea of Energy >

The role of the plasma with heterodyne resonance mechanism in overunity devices - "In my recent book, Field Propulsion by Control of
Gravity - Theory and Experiments, I describe a unique physical mechanism at the quantum mechanical level. Investigating many experiments that apparently succeeded in obtaining overunity, I am sure that the same mechanism is involved. It always involves EM activated plasma that in some cases may not be visually observed." (PESWiki; Sept. 17, 2010)

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Featured: Electromagnetic Overunity > Bearden >

Bearden writes to New Scientist about fundamental flaws in EE model Tom Bearden urges the scientific community to reexamine their core electrical models to account for asymmetric systems that physics acknowledges, thus providing explanation and support for the many inventors discovering overunity electromagnetic effects. (PESN; March 7, 2010)

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Electromagnetic >

Basic Principles of Over Unity Electro Machines (pdf) - In this work author analyzed several patented electromagnetic machines with over unity behaviour and explained basic principles behind their work. Author found four basic principles for construction over unity electromagnetic machines and one for increasing energy of the river. (VeljkoMilkovic.com; November 23, 2009)

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Electromagnetic / Aether

Robert Distini’s New Electromagnetism and Ethereal Mechanics - New Electromagnetism consists of spherical field models for both Coulomb forces and magnetic forces, introducing additional terms to resolve anomalies and paradoxes. Ethereal Mechanics proposes a more coherent explanation of time, energy, matter and existence.

Mathematical Proof of Free Energy (pdf) - Paper alleges that with simple formulas in electromagnetics it can be proven that the Newton's Third Law is not valid in all cases for electrical charges and that an electrical generator with high voltage achieved by high RPM has energy surplus in comparison with another generator with low voltage and high current. (VeljkoMilkovic.com; March 02, 2009)
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(Thanks Bobsy)

The Deliberate Curtailment of Nikola Tesla's Primary Energy Source Tom Bearden and Leslie Pastor discuss how the present electrical engineering model (and practice) was severely curtailed to exclude overunity (COP>1.0) electrical power systems that take their excess electromagnetic energy directly from their interaction with the active medium (vacuum/spacetime).
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Videos
(4.16 Minutes)The Electromagnetic Spectrum Song Composed and performed by Emerson & Wong Yann (YouTube; Dec 4, 2007)

1.
Electromagnetic > Bedini SG >

Spinning Magnet Using Bedini Circuit (video) - I found this looking for a back-up copy of Bedini's video about Howard Johnson's linear track and magnet motor. A cow magnet is seen spinning vertically on top of a plate over a Bedini coil powered by a 9-V battery on the input side, powering a 9-V on the output. (YouTube by Pirate88179; May 03, 2009)

Why Batteries Work and Capacitor's Don't
NEC member, Ken Rauen gave the following comment on June 12, 2006. Harold Aspden composed what he calls Aspden's Law, an equation, which creates an opportunity for an asymmetrical circuit to introduce energy when the charge carriers in a circuit have mass that slows down the current motion. Ionic

motion in a battery causes this disjunction in charge motion. The Correas have it posted on their website, http://www.aetherometry.com. This is why Bedini says a cap won't work but a battery will. Capacitors just shuttle electrons like the wires. Batteries convert the charge carriers to metal ions which move MUCH slower. Pulsing makes the transition significant enough to allow energy to be gated. The original Tesla coil was energized by pulsed DC, quenched with a magnetic arc blowout. Pulsed AC does not do the same thing.

Cautions

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Featured: Electromagnetic > Bedini SG >

Magniwork free energy plans = bogus claim; say they'll remedy that Magniwork has been selling a set of plans for a free energy device they say could be scaled to power an entire house. However, it turns out that the device is nothing more than the Bedini SG circuit, which, though interesting, has never been embodied in a self-looped system with energy left over for practical use. They've apologized and removed the Bedini stuff. (PESWiki; June 2, 2009)

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Featured / Polls: Electromagnetic > Magniwork >

Poll regarding the Magniwork power generator - We've been calling it a scam, but is it? What's your experience? Haven't bought the plans. • Won't get plans; a scam. • Got the plans; looks bogus. • Got the plans; haven't tried building. • Plans not clear enough. • Built it; doesn't tap free energy. • It's powering stuff, but not house. • It's powering my house completely. (PES

Network; Aug. 16, 2009)

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Featured: Wind / Electromagnetic > Boswell

Boswell Power Production Unit Runs Continuously Even Without Wind - Finally, we may have found a 24-7 clean energy device that is available for purchase, capable of powering a home (3 kW), yet looks like a conventional device. Company claims a few hundred have been installed since late 2007. (PESN; Mar. 11, 2009)

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Featured / Buyer Beware: Electromagnetic > Boswell >

Boswell Power Production Unit Videos Posted - Claims that something turning in a 5-gal. bucket elevated on a 4-foot PVC pipe, having 12-gauge wire coming from it is producing 5.4 kW and has been powering his home for months. Documents PG&E vehicle stopping by the day after he posted his video. (PESN; April 14, 2009)

GMC Holding > SEC Files Action On Fuelless Motor Fraud - The US Securities and Exchange Commission has filed an action against GMC Holding Corporation (GMC) and its CEO, Richard Brace, for defrauding investors by issuing false press releases touting the company's development of a motor technology
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device capable of generating unlimited energy. (PESN; Feb. 27, 2008)

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Electromagnetic >

LEGO electromagnetic motor hoax by Tom A - In February of 2009, Tom Altman(?) posted a video on YouTube showing magnets around a wheel with an inductive coil supposedly firing from the incoming magnetic flux to kick the magnet along. It turns out, though, that a hidden capacitor, pre-charged-was assisting the kick. (PESWiki; Sept. 19, 2009)

Planes Could Be Brought Down By DIY 'E-bombs' - Electromagnetic pulse weapons capable of frying the electronics in civil airliners can be built using information and components available on the net. All it would take to bring a plane down would be a single but highly energetic microwave radio pulse blasted from a device inside a plane, or on the ground and trained at an aircraft coming in to land. (New Scientist; April 1, 2009)
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Resources
Testing

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Feature: Electromagnetic / Tools > Testing >

NASA scientists Nelson & House willing to verify overunity electromagnetic machines - A couple of NASA scientists have been following the free energy world for years and would like to believe that Tesla type of technology is possible that harnesses limitless energy from the environment via electromagnetic means. One of them has a lab set up to test such claims. (PESWiki; May 19, 2010)

Volunteers

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Featured: Classifieds > Electromagnetic OU >

Volunteer Researcher, Jose Ruiz, Looking for an OU Lab - Single,
34-year old mechanical engineer from California State University, LA, is looking into the possibility of volunteering on designing, building and testing overunity devices. "I ask for a few things: food, shelter, high speed internet, a few free hours a day or night for trading and, most importantly, interesting projects to work on." (PESWiki; December 15, 2010)

Humor

1.
Featured: Humor / ZPE > Vortex / Anti-Gravity / Electromagnetic / Radiant Energy >

Energy from the vacuum (cleaner) - U.S. inventor, Dr. Thie, gets more than he had hoped for when he figures out a way to harness the vortex formed in his vacuum cleaner, combining the principles of quantum physics, Schauberger's vortices, and Tesla's radiant energy. (BeforeItsNews; April 1,

2010) (PESN; Examiner)

In the News
Moved to News:Electromagnetic

Comments
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