HARDWARE SERVOMOTORS 1) NRS-585 RC Servo Motor

NRS-585 is a high performance servo motor. It can provide 4kg-cm torque. Servo motor has built in motor, gearbox, position feedback mechanism and motor controller. It can be controlled to move to any position just by using simple pulse controller. This motor has three wire interface for control and power supply. All the robots from NEX Robotics support this servo motor. Specifications Dimension: 40mm x 20mm x38mm Torque: 4kg-cm at 6V Stall current: 900mA Idle current: 5mA Operating voltage: 4.8V to 6V Motor weight: 50gms Operating speed: 0.15sec/60 degree Temperature range: -20°C to 55°C 0.6 ms for 0 degree Rotation 2.2 ms for 180 degree Rotation Motor Pinout Brown cable ---- Gnd Red cable ---- 5V Supply Voltage Orange cable ---- PWM Signal Dimensions

A (mm) B (mm) C (mm) D (mm) E (mm) F (mm) 46 40 38 20 55 26 .

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Servomotor has built in motor. Specifications y y y y y y y y Dimension: 40.8V to 6V Temperature range: 0-55C 0.2) High Torque Dual Bearing RC Servo Motor Introduction NRS-785 is a high torque plastic gear servo motor measuring with dual ball bearings.Gnd Red cable ---. They are very useful in robotics applications because of there small size and low cost. gearbox.6 ms for 0 degree Rotation 2.5mm Torque: 6. position feedback mechanism and motor controller.4kg/cm Motor weight: 41gms Operating speed: 0.2 ms for 180 degree Rotation Motor Pinout Brown cable ---.5V Supply Voltage Orange cable ---. This motor has three wire interfaces for control and power supply. It gives 6.PWM Signal Dimensions .4Kg/cm cm torque.17sec/60 degree Operating voltage: 4.7mm x 20. The servo motor can be controlled to move any position just by using simple pulse controlling.5mm x39.

A (mm) B (mm) C (mm) D (mm) E (mm) F (mm) 44.2 40 41 20 55 29 .

6 analog inputs. It has 14 digital input/output pins (of which 6 can be used as PWM outputs). a USB connection. It contains everything needed to support the microcontroller. simply connect it to a computer with a USB cable or power it with a AC-to-DC adapter or battery to get started. and a reset button. an ICSP header. . a 16 MHz crystal oscillator. a power jack.MICROCONTROLLER BOARD Arduino Uno Arduino Uno Description The Arduino Uno is a microcontroller board based on the ATmega328.

3V Pin Flash Memory SRAM EEPROM Clock Speed 6-20V 14 (of which 6 provide PWM output) 6 40 mA 50 mA 32 KB (ATmega328) of which 0.5 KB used by bootloader 2 KB (ATmega328) 1 KB (ATmega328) 16 MHz .Summary Microcontroller Operating Voltage ATmega328 5V Input Voltage (recommended) 7-12V Input Voltage (limits) Digital I/O Pins Analog Input Pins DC Current per I/O Pin DC Current for 3.

Arduino Uno Schematic .

The board can operate on an external supply of 6 to 20 volts. Memory The ATmega328 has 32 KB (with 0. however. External (non-USB) power can come either from an AC-to-DC adapter or battery. The input voltage to the Arduino board when it's using an external power source (as opposed to 5 volts from the USB connection or other regulated power source). The regulated power supply used to power the microcontroller and other components on the board.1mm center-positive plug into the board's power jack.Power The Arduino Uno can be powered via the USB connection or with an external power supply. The recommended range is 7 to 12 volts. or be supplied by USB or another regulated 5V supply. if supplying voltage via the power jack. the voltage regulator may overheat and damage the board. This can come either from VIN via an on-board regulator. Leads from a battery can be inserted in the Gnd and Vin pin headers of the POWER connector. The adapter can be connected by plugging a 2. It also has 2 KB of SRAM and 1 KB of EEPROM . The power source is selected automatically. The power pins are as follows: y VIN. A 3. y 3V3. y 5V.3 volt supply generated by the on-board regulator. y GND. If supplied with less than 7V.5 KB used for the bootloader). You can supply voltage through this pin. Ground pins. Maximum current draw is 50 mA. access it through this pin. If using more than 12V. or. the 5V pin may supply less than five volts and the board may be unstable.

There are a couple of other pins on the board: y y AREF. These pins can be configured to trigger an interrupt on a low value. Used with analogReference(). y PWM: 3. or a change in value. Typically used to add a reset button to shields which block the one on the board. 10. when the pin is LOW. a rising or falling edge. These pins support SPI communication using the SPI library. digitalWrite(). labeled A0 through A5. . each of which provide 10 bits of resolution (i. 11 (MOSI). it's off. y SPI: 10 (SS). 12 (MISO). some pins have specialized functions: y Serial: 0 (RX) and 1 (TX). y LED: 13. y External Interrupts: 2 and 3. There is a built-in LED connected to digital pin 13. They operate at 5 volts. using pinMode(). In addition. By default they measure from ground to 5 volts. and 11. 6. Each pin can provide or receive a maximum of 40 mA and has an internal pull-up resistor (disconnected by default) of 20-50 kOhms.Input and Output Each of the 14 digital pins on the Uno can be used as an input or output. 5. These pins are connected to the corresponding pins of the ATmega8U2 USB-to-TTL Serial chip. Additionally. The Uno has 6 analog inputs. 13 (SCK). Used to receive (RX) and transmit (TX) TTL serial data. some pins have specialized functionality: y TWI: A4 or SDA pin and A5 or SCL pin. the LED is on. though is it possible to change the upper end of their range using the AREF pin and the analogReference() function. Reference voltage for the analog inputs. See the attach Interrupt() function for details. When the pin is HIGH value. 9. 1024 different values).e. Provide 8-bit PWM output with the analog Write() function. Reset. Support TWI communication using the Wire library. and digitalRead() functions. Bring this line LOW to reset the microcontroller.

the Arduino Uno is designed in a way that allows it to be reset by software running on a connected computer. another Arduino. The ATmega328 on the Arduino Uno comes preburned with a bootloader that allows you to upload new code to it without the use of an external hardware programmer. The '16U2 firmware uses the standard USB COM drivers. The Arduino software includes a serial monitor which allows simple textual data to be sent to and from the Arduino board. which is available on digital pins 0 (RX) and 1 (TX).Communication The Arduino Uno has a number of facilities for communicating with a computer. see these instructions for details. The ATmega328 also supports I2C (TWI) and SPI communication. You can also bypass the bootloader and program the microcontroller through the ICSP (In-Circuit Serial Programming) header. An ATmega16U2 on the board channels this serial communication over USB and appears as a virtual com port to software on the computer. However. A SoftwareSerial library allows for serial communication on any of the Uno's digital pins. a . Automatic (Software) Reset Rather than requiring a physical press of the reset button before an upload. on Windows. It communicates using the original STK500 protocol . or other microcontrollers. The ATmega328 provides UART TTL (5V) serial communication. Programming The Arduino Uno can be programmed with the Arduino software . The RX and TX LEDs on the board will flash when data is being transmitted via the USB-to-serial chip and USB connection to the computer (but not for serial communication on pins 0 and 1). . and no external driver is needed. Select "Arduino Uno from the Tools > Board menu (according to the microcontroller on your board).inf file is required.

For the following half-second or so. The Uno contains a trace that can be cut to disable the auto-reset. the reset line drops long enough to reset the chip. the fuse provides an extra layer of protection. the fuse will automatically break the connection until the short or overload is removed. This setup has other implications. it will intercept the first few bytes of data sent to the board after a connection is opened. When the Uno is connected to either a computer running Mac OS X or Linux. as the lowering of DTR can be wellcoordinated with the start of the upload. Although most computers provide their own internal protection. This means that the bootloader can have a shorter timeout. When this line is asserted (taken low). anything besides an upload of new code). USB Overcurrent Protection The Arduino Uno has a resettable polyfuse that protects your computer's USB ports from shorts and overcurrent.1 inches respectively. Four screw holes . While it is programmed to ignore malformed data (i. If a sketch running on the board receives one-time configuration or other data when it first starts. Physical Characteristics The maximum length and width of the Uno PCB are 2. The pads on either side of the trace can be soldered together to re-enable it. it resets each time a connection is made to it from software (via USB).e. see this forum thread for details. the bootloader is running on the Uno. The Arduino software uses this capability to allow you to upload code by simply pressing the upload button in the Arduino environment. with the USB connector and power jack extending beyond the former dimension. make sure that the software with which it communicates waits a second after opening the connection and before sending this data. You may also be able to disable the auto-reset by connecting a 110 ohm resistor from 5V to the reset line. It's labeled "RESET-EN".One of the hardware flow control lines (DTR) of the ATmega8U2/16U2 is connected to the reset line of the ATmega328 via a 100 nanofarad capacitor. If more than 500 mA is applied to the USB port.7 and 2.

allow the board to be attached to a surface or case. . Note that the distance between digital pins 7 and 8 is 160 mil (0. not an even multiple of the 100 mil spacing of the other pins.16").

GND Digital supply voltage.ATmega328 Pin Configurations Pin Descriptions 1. VCC 2. Depending on the clock selection fuse . Ground. even if the clock is not running. PB6 can be used as input to the inverting Oscillator amplifier and input to the internal clock operating circuit. The Port B output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability. As inputs. 3. Port B (PB7:0) XTAL1/XTAL2/TOSC1/TOSC2 Port B is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The Port B pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active. Depending on the clock selection fuse settings. Port B pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up resistors are activated.

AREF AREF is the analog reference pin for the A/D Converter. By executing powerful instructions in a single clock cycle. . It should be externally connected to VCC. even if the clock is not running.0 output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability. PC6/RESET If the RSTDISBL Fuse is programmed. 5. If the RSTDISBL Fuse is unprogrammed.. 6.settings. The Port D output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability. it should be connected to VCC through a low-pass filter. Port C (PC5:0) Port C is a 7-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). VCC. PC6 is used as a Reset input. Port D pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up resistors are activated. Overview The ATmega328P is a low-power CMOS 8-bit microcontroller based on the AVR enhanced RISC architecture.4 use digital supply voltage. PC6 is used as an I/O pin.If the Internal Calibrated RC Oscillator is used as chip clock source. 4. even if the ADC is not used. 8. The Port C pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active.. even if the clock is not running. As inputs.. and ADC7:6. A low level on this pin for longer than the minimum pulse length will generate a Reset. 7. Note that the electrical characteristics of PC6 differ from those of the other pins of Port C. the ATmega48PA/88PA/168PA/328P achieves throughputs approaching 1 MIPS per MHz allowing the system designer to optimize power consumption versus processing speed.6 is used as TOSC2. PB7 can be used as output from the inverting Oscillator amplifier. Note that PC6. . As inputs. AVCC AVCC is the supply voltage pin for the A/D Converter. even if the clock is not running.1 input for the Asynchronous Timer/Counter2 if the AS2 bit in ASSR is set. If the ADC is used.. The PC5. The Port D pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active. Port C pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up resistors are activated. Port D (PD7:0) Port D is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). PC3:0. PB7.

Block Diagram The AVR core combines a rich instruction set with 32 general purpose working registers. All the .

an SPI serial port. This allows very fast start-up combined with low power consumption. By combining an 8-bit RISC CPU with In-System Self-Programmable Flash on a monolithic chip. a serial programmable USART. the crystal/resonator Oscillator is running while the rest of the device is sleeping. The ADC Noise Reduction mode stops the CPU and all I/O modules except asynchronous timer and ADC. The Power-down mode saves the register contents but freezes the Oscillator. disabling all other chip functions until the next interrupt or hardware reset. and interrupt system to continue functioning. or by an On-chip Boot program running on the AVR core. The Boot program can use any interface to download the application program in the Application Flash memory. three flexible Timer/Counters with compare modes. allowing the user to maintain a timer base while the rest of the device is sleeping. Timer/Counters. The Idle mode stops the CPU while allowing the SRAM. a 6-channel 10-bit ADC (8 channels in TQFP and QFN/MLF packages). to minimize switching noise during ADC conversions. 32 general purpose working registers.32 registers are directly connected to the Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU). the asynchronous timer continues to run. the Atmel . 23 general purpose I/O lines. a programmable Watchdog Timer with internal Oscillator. The On-chip ISP Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed In-System through an SPI serial interface. and five software selectable power saving modes. In Power-save mode. a byte-oriented 2-wire Serial Interface. allowing two independent registers to be accessed in one single instruction executed in one clock cycle. 512/1K/1K/2K bytes SRAM. The ATmega48PA/88PA/168PA/328P provides the following features: 4K/8K bytes of In-System Programmable Flash with Read-While-Write capabilities. providing true Read-While-Write operation. 256/512/512/1K bytes EEPROM. by a conventional non-volatile memory programmer. SPI port. internal and external interrupts. The device is manufactured using Atmel¶s high density non-volatile memory technology. The resulting architecture is more code efficient while achieving throughputs up to ten times faster than conventional CISC microcontrollers. Software in the Boot Flash section will continue to run while the Application Flash section is updated. USART. In Standby mode. 2wire Serial Interface.

The ATmega48PA/88PA/168PA/328P AVR is supported with a full suite of program and system development tools including: C Compilers. In-Circuit Emulators.ATmega48PA/88PA/168PA/328P is a powerful microcontroller that provides a highly flexible and cost effective solution to many embedded control applications . . Macro Assemblers. Program Debugger/Simulators. and Evaluation kits.

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