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Pakistan Studies Notes Chapter 1 - The Pakistan Movement
Pakistan Studies - Chapter 1 - The Pakistan Movement Friendsmania.net * Demands of Muslims for separate homeland * What services to the nation were rendered by Allama Iqbal. * Important political events from 1940 to 1947. * Role of Quaid-e-Azam in the achievement of Pakistan. ________________________________________________ Chapter 1 - Demands of Muslims for separate homeland Q.1. Why did the Muslims of Indo-Pak subcontinent demand a separate homeland for themselves? Introduction Hindus and Muslims had lived peacefully together in India for centuries, but after the British invasion in South Asia and their undue support to Hindus, life became very difficult for Indian Muslims. In fact, the Muslims were a separate nation who always adhered to their religious identity. The British and the Hindus in spite of their great efforts could not put a wedge into the Muslim unity and their love for the national character. The creation of Pakistan owes much to this feeling of adherence to their national image and religious identity. The Muslims of Indo Pak Sub Continent demanded a separate homeland on
the following grounds. 1. Desire to establish an Islamic State Islam is a complete code of life for the Muslims and they are eager to implement it in their personal and collective life. Islamic code of Life or Islamic Ideology cannot be implemented until a pure Islamic Society free from all other unIslamic influences is established. The desire to establish an Islamic State was also one of the factors to demand a separate homeland. 2. Two Nation Theory The Two Nation Theory played an important role for demanding a separate homeland according to which Hindus and Muslims are the two nations and therefore they cannot live together. Quaid-e-Azam once said, Hindus and Muslims though living in the same towns and villages had never been blended into one nation. They were always two separate entities. So the Muslims should have a separate State where they could lead their individual and collective life in accordance with the Islamic principles. 3. Historical Collusion Hindu and Muslim historical collusion started when Muhammad Bin Qasim, defeating Raja Dahir, founded Islamic government in the subcontinent. Many battles were fought between Hindus and Muslims under Muslim Rule. The historical collusion continued also during the British Regime. Hindus, cooperating with British, tried to diminish Muslim culture and their way of life but they remained futile. The future of Muslims was obvious in such condition; therefore they decided to demand for the separate homeland. 4. Hindus and British Since the British snatched power from Muslims, they were doubtful about the faithfulness of Muslims. So, Hindus and British joined hands to destroy the Muslims morally, socially, economically and politically. They reserved all higher civil, judicial and military appointments for British only while Muslims were debarred from all official positions. The Islamic educational system was replaced by British one. Then Muslims were forced to change
their religion to Christianity and were compelled to send their children to co educational institutes and abandon purdha. This was the reason that Muslims became fed up with both British and Hindus and decided to have a separate homeland. 5. British Parliamentary System Indian National Congress demanded the British Parliamentary system of government in India which meant majority rule. The implementation of this simply meant the Hindus slavery of Muslims since they were in majority. This was the reason that Muslims stressed on separate electorates and got it accepted. Separate electorate was the first brick in the foundation of demand for separate homeland. 6. Shuddi and Sangathan Movement Hindu Muslim Unity evaporated in the year after the Khilafat Movement and Hindu Muslim Riots began. The poison of differences between the two nations aggravated with the passage of time. The differences reached to the peak when Shuddhi and Sangathan movements began. The Shuddhi Movement aimed at the mass conversion of certain backward groups of Muslims into Hindus by force whereas the Sangathan Programme sought to organize the Hindus into a Militant force to flight with the Muslims. 7. Activities of Maha Sabha Maha Sabha was established in 1900. It was a non political party until the Shuddhi and Sangathan Movement started. These movements motivated Maha Sabha to be involved in politics. It proved to be the worst enemy of Muslims. The party declared Muslims as outsiders and said that Muslims have no relation with India. If they want to leave it then they could leave it happily but if they want to leave it then they could leave it happily but if they want to live in India, they will have to accept Hindu Mut. So it was impossible for Hindus and Muslims to live in a country together. 8. Protection of Urdu Language Urdu was considered to be the language of Muslims in the subcontinent. In 1867, the Hindu-Urdu controversy began with some outstanding Hindus of Banaras demanding replacements of Urdu by Hindi as the court language. The supporters of Hindi claimed for it a national status whereas the Muslims hotly denied it. As the controversy spread, the two languages
To come out from this vicious circle. Economic Hardships During the period of British Government. Urdu Language placed the first brick in the foundation of Pakistan. at last. 11. That's why Muslims felt the need to set a political party. with the consent of British during the Congress Ministries. Band-e-Mataram. There was no concept of eating and drinding together. All the business. Furthermore Muslims were not allowed to touch the food items of Hindus. therefore. Protection of Muslim Culture Hindus. It is a reality that it was one of the major reasons for demanding a separate country. They considers themselves superior and used to call Muslims 'Maleech' (impure). Hindus practically threw out Muslims from the fields of trade and industry. industrial. past glory were damaged. The Hindu-Muslim riots were usual during the Congress rule. burnt and looted the properties and houses of Muslims. the signs of Muslims.http://vuattach. 10. Muslims decided to demand for a separate homeland.com/ became more and more exclusive. Maulvi Abdul Haque (1870-1961) has rightly said. Urdu was replaced by Hindi and the Muslim students were forced to worship statues of Gandhi in their schools.ning. The Muslims of India. Educational Syllabus was changed. three coloured flag and statue of Gandhi were introduced at national level. Hindus did worst possible injustice with Muslims. 12. Congress Ministries During the period of Congress Ministries (1937-1939). Muslims got very disappointed when in April 1900 UP Governor Sir Antony Mac Donnell gave Hindi the status of National language with Urdu. 9. decided that the Muslim culture could be protected in a free and separate Muslim State. Moreover. There was only way out for the Muslims to demand a separate homeland. Then after a detailed discussion at last All India Muslim League was established in 1906. Narrow mindedness of Hindus Hindu is a narrow-minded nation who does not believe the philosophy of equality. and services opportunities were occupied by Hindus and some degraded jobs were left for the Muslims. Muslims of India became the political slave of British and economic slave of Hindus. Urdu was replaced by Hindi and .
In 1931 and 1932 he represented the Muslims of India in Round Table Conference held in England to discuss the issue of the political future of India. Already in 1908. has been the chief force behind ..com/ slaughtering cow was banned. After this statement. search Prelude Allama Muhammad Iqbal was born on 9th November 1877 in Sialkot. After seeking early education. Therefore they quitted Congress and demanded separate land on the ground that they were different nation from Hindus. Iqbal was not unconcerned with the political situation of the country and the political fortunes of the Muslim community of India. Iqbal died (1938) before the creation of Pakistan (1947). Gandhi showed his helpless while Nehru plainly and openly said that there were only two nations in India.http://vuattach.D. And in a 1930 lecture Iqbal suggested the creation of a separate homeland for the Muslims of India.ning. where he obtained the degree of MA in the subject of philosophy. He left for England for higher studies in 1905.What services to the nation were rendered by Allama Iqbal. their cultural development. nothing for left for Muslims but to present Pakistan Resolution in 1940.. Services of Iqbal in Pakistan Movement Iqbal and Pakistan Movement Although his main interests were scholarly. their traditions and Islamic law. he was admitted to the Government College Lahore.) from Munich University. he had been chosen as a member of the executive council of the newly-established British branch of the Indian Muslim League. He obtained the degree of philosophy of ethics in 1907. Muslim leaders showed their resentment before Gandhi and Jawahar lal Nehru. According to Quaid-e-Azam The Muslims demanded Pakistan were they can rule in accordance with their own system of life. Congress and British and the rest should follow them. Chapter 1 . while in England. From Guess Papers Jump to: navigation. he obtained the degree of doctorate (Ph. Conclusion On the basis of above mentioned factors and bitter attitude of British and Congress the Muslims apprehended that they would lose their identity if they remained a part of Hindu society. but it was his teaching that spiritually .
1909. Allama Iqbal was along with him. Iqbal said India is a continent of human groups belonging to different races. During the elections of 1937. On 28th March. Iqbal's Political Life Allama Iqbal made his debut in politics then he was elected as the member of Punjab's Legislative Assembly in 1926. He always supported Quaid-e-Azam and the Muslim League. he excusing the invitation from the secular party "Minsva Lodge" said I have been a keen supporter of this theory that religious differences in the country should end and even now I practise the principle. Iqbal's Idea about Nationhood Allama Iqbal is the greatest philosopher and poet of the present era. But. When the Hindu philosophers presented this philosophy that a nation is born throughout the country and when Maulana Hussain Ahmed Madni seconded it.http://vuattach. on the occasion of the annual session of Muslim League at Allahbad. His thinking and poetry reflect the Two Nation Theory and his poetry awakened the feeling of Islamic Nationality among the Muslims of India. I therefore. He always respected Quaid-e-Azam's point of view. he possessed the view about political affairs. when Quaid-e-Azam started re contructioning of the Muslim League. This feeling was a milestone in the created of Pakistan. now I think that separate national identity for the Muslims and the Hindus is necessary for their survival. He awakened the feeling of Muslim nationhood among the Muslims of India through his poetry and told them about the propaganda of West about the Muslim nationhood. Iqbal and Two Nation Theory Allama Iqbal firmly believe that the Muslims of India have a separate identity and to protect his identity.ning. At his Presidential address in 1930. the establishment of a separate homeland for the Muslims of India was necessary. demand . Along with this.com/ the creation of Pakistan. speaking different languages and professing different religions. There behaviour is not at all determined by a common race conciousness. then Iqbal reacted strongly towards it.
he was keenly aware of the deep-seated Hindu and Sikh prejudice and unaccommodating attitude. Hence he reiterated his apprehensions and suggested safeguards in respect of the Indian Muslims In so far then as the fundamentals of our policy are concerned. Having attended the Second Round Table Conference in September. He had to assume the role of a jealous guardian of his nation till . according to my lights to show how far it is desirable to construct a fresh policy now that the Premier's announcement at teh last London Conference has again necessitated a careful survey of the whole situation.http://vuattach. Regarding these I have already expressed my views in my address to the All India Muslim League. I have got nothing fresh to offer. Iqbal attended Second and Third Round Table Conference. He had observed the mind of the British Government. at least of North-West India. In the second place. He further stated that The formation of a consolidated North-West Indian Muslim State appeares to be the final destiny of the Muslims. in the first place. In the present address I propose. Round Table Conference During 1930-1932 three sessions of Round Table Conference were held. he in clear words said I would like to see the Punjab. Thus. I shall try. Iqbal demanded a sovereign independent Muslim state even before the Muslim League demanded it in Pakistan's Resolution. North-West Frontier Province. among other things.ning. In his address. the responsibility of providing a proper lead to the India Muslim had fallen on him alone. 1931 in London. in arriving at a correct view of the situation as it emerged from a rather hesitating behavior of our delegation the final stages of the Round Table Conference.com/ the formation of consolidated Muslim state in the best interest of India and Islam Pakistan's Sketch Allama Iqbal's Presidential Address at Allahbad in 1930 determined the political path of the Muslims of sub-continent. Sindh and Balochistan be amalgamated into a single state. to help you. I mus be kep in mind that since Maulana Muhammad Ali had died in January 1931 and Quaid-e-Azam had stayed behind in London.
opposing the limitation and disadvantages of nationalism. Under the central Government the Muslims were bound to lose their cultural and religious entity at the hands of the overwhelming Hindu majority. of June 21. Members of the House of Lords and Muslim members of R. foreign diplomas. to the Quaid-e-Azam. He stressed the need for provincial autonomy because autonomy gave the Muslim majority provinces some power to safeguard their rights. He considered all the Muslims to be a part of One Umma.T. During the Third Round Table Conference. is the only course by which we can secure a peaceful India and save Muslims from the domination of Non-Muslims. referred to what he had said at Allahabad in 1930 and reiterated his belief that before long people were bound to come round to his viewpoint base on cegent reason. only ten months before the former's death A separate federation of Muslim Provinces. reformed on the lines I have suggested above. cultural traditions and religion. For him. Iqbal was invited by the London National League where he addressed and audience which included among others. 1937. Iqbal gave the philosophy of a "Millat-e-Islamia" and this philosophy is the basis of Pakistan ideology. Ideology of Pakistan and Iqbal Iqbal was strictly against nationalism. In that gathering he dilated upon the situation of the Indian Muslims.ning. the idea to began to evolve and take root. He explained why he wanted the communal settlement first and then the constitutional reforms. It soon assumed the shape of Muslim state or states in the western and eastern Muslim majority zones as is obvious from the following lines of Iqbal's letter. Iqbal's letter to Quaid-e-Azam The seed sown. Thus. members of the House of Commons.C delegation. He considered nationalism to be a coffin for the Muslim Umma. Why not the Muslims of North-West India and Bengal should be considered as nations entitled to self-determination just as other nations in India and outside India are. Conclusion .http://vuattach.com/ Quaid-e-Azam returned to the sub-continent in 1935. a Muslim whether he belonged to any part of the world was the part of brotherly relation.
War Advisory Committee was also launched. The demand of Pakistan is the most prominent among them. at the annual session of Muslim League at Lahore. It was due to Muslim achievements in this period that now we are living in a sovereign and independent state. Civil Disobedience Movement (April 1942) 28th session of League was held at Madras in which a resolution was . history and tradition. 2. In the past. customs and calender.ning. He was buried in front of the "Badshahi Mosque" in "Huzori Bagh". Both League and Congress rejected the offer. commonly known as the Pakistan Resolution was passed. the famous resolution. Iqbal died on 21st April. 1938. in short. art and architecture. we are a nation. The political events from Pakistan Resolution to the establishment of Pakistan are summarized under 1.http://vuattach. aptitudes and ambitions. Pakistan Resolution (March 1940) The attitude of the Hindus made it clear that the Hindus and the Muslims were two separate nations. legal laws and moral code. By all canons of international law. language and literature. On March 23rd. names and nomenclature.com/ In short. poetry and politics and he brought the ideas of independence among the Muslims of India. August 1940's Offer It was proposed to enlarged governor general councils to include members from political parties.Important political events from 1940 to 1947. Chapter 1 . He tried to awaken the Muslims of India through his philosophy. It was presented by Maulvi Fazlul Haq. sense of values and proportion. Many important events in the history of the Sub Continent took place. the demand of Pakistan was not raised clearly. 3. Introduction The era from 1940 to 1947 is the era of rapid changes. Quaid-eAzam said in the ever eloquent words We are a nation with our own distinctive culture and civilization. we have our own distinctive outlook on life and of life. personality of Allama Iqbal has left indelible marks in history.
Jinnah. they brought to Jinnah and the Muslim League two important political gains. Though the Gandhi-Jinnah negotiations failed to achieve the avowed goal of the Hindu-Muslim unity.ning. The Congress decided to launch its final assault on British imperialism in the movement that came to be known as the "Quit India" movement. Cripps Mission (March 1942) Sir Stafford Cripps was sent by the British Government to India in March 1942. the leadership of the Congress had now offered to discuss the question of Pakistan seriously before that. 7. 6. 4. Firstly.com/ 5. the Congress and Mahatama had kept the door to that subject uncompromisingly shut. Quit India (August 1942) The failure of the Cripps Mission. in his presidential address to the Allahabad session of the League. but no fruitful results came out of it because Gandhi did not accept Muslims as a separate nation. the Congress could no longer justifiably claim that it stood for all the communities in India including the Muslims. Louis Feisher wrote The wall between Jinnah and Gandhi was the Two Nation Theory. to discuss with Indian leaders.com/ adopted on Civil Disobedience Movement launched by Congress. the future Indian Constitutions.http://vuattach. Action Committee (December 1943) It was formed to prepare and organize Muslims of India for coming struggle for achievements of Pakistan. analyzed the Cripps proposals and expressed the disappointment that if these were accepted. Muslims would become a minority in their majority provinces as well. .ning. resulted in strengthening of the Muslim League case for Pakistan. The Congress characterized them as a post-dated cheque on a failing bank. http://vuattach. Gandhi Jinnah Talks (September 1944) Gandhi held talks with Jinnah to discuss about the future of India. Secondly. His proposal was rejected by both the Congress and the League. though unfortunate in many ways. It was "open rebellion" due to which many people were killed League raised a slogon of Divide and Quit India.
was the sole representative of the Muslims of the region. Jinnah called a convention at Delhi of all the newly elected League members in the central and provincial legistatures. Elections results were enough to prove that Muslim League. This was not acceptable to the Congress as the Congress claimed to represent both the Hindus and Muslims. In this convention the word "States" of 1940's Lahore Resolution is transformed into the word "State" and the legislators signed pledges solemnly declaring their firm conviction that the safety. In this conference. Muslim League managed to win all the 30 seats reserved for the Muslims in central legislative and 427 seats out of 495 Muslim seats in the provincial legislative. The Muslims of India told the world what they want.ning.http://vuattach. security. under the leadership of Quaid-e-Azam. 10. Quaid-e-Azam made it cystal clear that only the Muslim League can represent Muslims of India. No power of world can topple the opinion of 10 crore Muslims of India. Wavell's Plan (June 1945) Lord Wavell. Simla Conference (June 1945) Lord Wavell called a conference at Simla in June 1945 to give a practical shape to this plan. soon after the elections. General Elections (December 1945) Elections for the central and provincial assemblies were held in 1945-1946. announced his plan on 14th June 1945 to end the political ruin. The conference failed to achieve any purpose due to one-sided attitude of Lord Wavell.com/ 8. Delhi Convention (1946) On 19th April 1946. 11. 9. The Quaid-e-Azam insisted that the right to appoint five Muslim Members in the Executive Council should entirely rest with the Muslim League. Quaid-e-Azam said on this occasion I have no doubt now in the acheivement of Pakistan. . the Viceroy of India. salvation and destiny of the Muslims lay only in the achievement of Pakistan. As per the provisions of the Wavell Plan. the Executive Council would be reorganized and Hindus and Muslims would equally represent in the Viceroy's Executive Council and the Council would work as Interim Government till the end of war.
afterwards.http://vuattach. Cabinet Mission Plan (1946) The most delicate as well as the most tortuous negotiations began with the arrival. The Muslim League accepted the plan on June 6. But. where riots broke out. 15. constitution making machinery. 14.com/ 12. Prime . 1946 it finally sealed its rejection of the Cabinet Mission Plan. and decided to launch its famous "Direct Action" for the achievement of Pakistan. 1946) The Council of the All India Muslim League met in Bombay and on July 27. 13. The Viceroy should now have invited the Muslim League to form Government as it had accepted the interim setup. The crucial task with which the Cabinet Mission was entrusted was that of devising in consultation with the various political parties. in March 1946. Direct Action Day (16th August. Interim Government (1946) On 2nd September 1946 a Congress-dominated Interim Government headed by Nehru was established. Muslim League. 1946. London Conference (December 1946) The British Government convened a conference of Hindu leader in December 1946 in London to resolve the constitutional problems. So in this situation Cabinet Mission went back to England on June 29 without deciding anything. though it rejected the interim setup. Direct Action Day was observed peacefully throughout India.ning. which it could not achieve by peaceful means due to the intransigence of Congress on the one hand and the breach of faith with the Muslim by the British Government on the other. despite the Mission's prolonged efforts. The Congress accepted the plan on June 25. the basic attention of both the parties was to save their interests in the interim government. but he did not do so because he did not want to make Congress angry. However. 1946. thought that Congress. and of setting up a popular interim government. being in power could harm the Muslim interests so it joined the Cabinet after two months on 26th October 1946. except in Calcutta. The Muslim League refused to accept the proposal in the beginning and did not nominate its members on 5 reserved seats. the Mission had to make its own proposals in May 1946. of a three member British Cabinet Mission. because the Congress-League gulf could not be bridged.
1947. The plan was duly accepted by the three Indian parties to the dispute the Congress. The League's demand for the dissolution of the constituent assembly had proved to be the last straw. the communal riots had flared up to muderous heights. and hand over power to two successor States on 15 August. 16. The developing crisis was temporarily defused by the statement made by Attlee in Parliament on 20th February. Indian Independence Act (July 1947) In July. On 28th February Liaquat Ali Khan as a minister of Finance presented a budget for 1947-48 which was called a poor man's budget as it adversely affected the Hindu capitalists. Liaquat Ali Khan and Sardar Baldev Singh participated in this conference. Nehru. The two people it seemed.http://vuattach. the League and the Alkali Dal (representing the Sikhs). nine members of the Interim Government wrote to the Viceroy demanding that League members resign. 3rd June 1947 Plan By the close of 1946. This is effect placed the whole governmental setup under the Muslim League. was announced. 17. the British parliament passed the Indian Independence act which was enforced promptly. Attlee's Statement (1947) On 5th February 1947.ning. The deadlock between the Congress and the League further worsened in this setup. were engaged in a fight to the finish. This Conference also could not end political deadlock. Lord Wavell. 19.com/ Minister Attlee. His protracted negotiations with the various political leaders resulted in 3 June (1947) Plan by which the British decided to partition the subcontinent. The date for British withdrawal from India was fixed as 30th June 1948 and the appointment of a new Viceroy. 18. 1947. Realizing the gravity of the situation. Quaid-e-Azam. Poor man's Budget (February 1947) Congress Allocated the Finance Ministry to the League. engulfing almost the entire subcontinent. The time for a peaceful transfer of power was fast running out. His Majesty's Government sent down to India a new Viceroy Lord Mountbatten. harried by Muslim League's tactics. The Muslims of the Sub Continent finally . Lord Mountbatten (1900-1979).
1939) * 11 Demand for Pakistan (23rd March. * 1 Introduction * 2 Beginning of Political Career * 3 Member of Imperial Legislative Council (1910) * 4 Ambassador of Hindu-Muslim Unity * 5 Jinnah's Differences with the Congress * 6 Delhi Proposals (1927) * 7 Quaid's Fourteen Points (1929) * 8 Reorganizatoin of Muslim League * 9 Lacknow Session 1937 * 10 Day of Deliverance (22nd December. 1946) * 20 Partition Day (1947) * 21 Leader of a Free Nation * 22 Death of the Great Leader Introduction The services and dynamic leadership of Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah in the Pakistan Movement need no introduction.Role of Quaid-e-Azam in the achievement of Pakistan.com/ succeeded in carrying out an independent Islamic State for Muslims.http://vuattach. 1940) * 12 Cripps Scheme (1942) * 13 Divide and Quit (1942) * 14 Jinnah . Access the role of Quaid-e-Azam in the achievement of Pakistan. Transfer of Power (14th August 1947) The transfer of power ceremony was held in Karachi and finally Pakistan came into being on 14th August 1947. Quaid-e-Azam was sworn in as Governor General of Pakistan and Liaquat Ali Khan was appointed as Prime Minister of Pakistan on 15th August.ning. Q.Gandhi Talks (1944) * 15 Simla Conference (1945) * 16 General Elections (1945-46) * 17 Delhi Convention (1946) * 18 Cabinet Mission Plan (1946) * 19 Direct Action Day (16th August. the personality of Quaid-e-Azam and his immense struggle made the tough pall of the foundation of Pakistan easy and finally. In this movement.4. Consequently. 20. That was the culmination of a long struggle which the Muslims of the South Asian Sub Continent has wedged for a separate homeland in the name of Islam Chapter 1 . the Muslims of India .
Member of Imperial Legislative Council (1910) Three years later. which was considered a great honour for a budding politician. Here.ning. Jinnah had become a political giant before Gandhi returned to India from South Africa. at the close of the First World War. considered Jinnah Perfect mannered. as a member of a Congress delegation to plead the cause of India Self-government during the British elections. Montagu (1879-1924). after return from England. Beginning of Political Career If Jinnah's stay in London was the sowing time. at the Calcutta Congress session (December 1906). He went to England in that year along with Gopal Krishna Gokhale (1866-1915). Ambassador of Hindu-Muslim Unity . Jinnah came out of his shell. A political child during the first decade of the century. Jinnah formally entered politics in 1905 from from the platform of the Indian National Congress. soon became a leader of a group inside the legistature. political limelight shone on him. which spanned some four decades.ning. he was probably the most powerful voice in the cause of Indian freedom and Indian rights. impressive-looking. he served as Secretary of Dadabhai Noaroji (1825-1917). armed to the teeth with dialecties. who was also the first Indian to pilot a private member's Bill through the Council. in January 1910 Jinnah was elected to the newlyconstituted Imperial Legislative Council. http://vuattach.com/ were successful in reading their destination for which they underwent a long journey under the Quaid. it could also be called a period of idealism. he was budding as a lawyer and flowering as a political personality.com/ (Aziz Baig: Jinnah and his Times) Once he was firmly established in the legal profession. the next decade (1906-1916) marked the vintage stage. as Jinnah was a romanticist both in personal and political life.. Mr. the first decade in Bombay. was the germination session. All through his parliamentary career.http://vuattach.. he also made his first political speech in support of the resolution on self-government. the then Indian National Congress President. Secretary of State for India. A year later.
He has the true stuff and that freedom from all sectarian prejudice which will make him the best ambassador of Hindu-Muslim unity. representing.the only pact ever signed between the two political organisations. also known as the Act of 1919. Jinnah came to be recognised among both Hindus and Muslims as one of India's most outstanding political leaders. he was hailed as the ambassador. despite his differences with Mahatma Gandhi and the Khilafatists. as well as the embodiment.com/ For about three decades since his entry into politics in 1906. the Lucknow Pact represented a milestone in the evolution of Indian politics. In retrospect. For one thing. . More important. Jinnah passionately believed in and assiduously worked for Hindu-Muslim unity. the two major communities in the subcontinent. And to Jinnah goes the credit for all this. thus strengthening the trend towards Muslim individuality in Indian politics. the foremost Hindu leader before Gandhi.http://vuattach. he was responsible for the Congress-League Pact of 1916. For another. of Hindu-Muslim unity. as they did. still enjoyed the trust and admiration of the Muslims of Bombay which can be seen from the fact that he won the Bombay Muslim seat for the Legislative Assembly that he had resigned in protest against the Rowlatt Act. Gokhale. had once said of him. by 1917. their retention was ensured in the next phase of reforms. Thus. reservation of seats in the legislatures and weightage in representation both at the Centre and the minority provinces. The Quaid. it represented a tacit recognition of the All-India Muslim League as the representative organisation of the Muslims. it conceded Muslims the right to separate electorate. he did become the architect of Hindu-Muslim Unity. The Congress-League scheme embodied in this pact was to become the basis for the Montagu-Chemlsford Reforms. Jinnah's Differences with the Congress Mohammad Ali Jinnah differed with Gandhi on the means of achieving selfrule. the Congress and the All-India Muslim League. known popularly as Lucknow Pact. And.ning. The League session reassembled at Lahore under Jinnah's presidency and was attended by a number of Congressmen and leaders of the Khilafat Movement. because of his key-role in the Congress-League entente at Lucknow. Thus. Not only was he prominent in the Congress and the Imperial Legislative Council. to be sure. he was also the President of the AllIndia Muslim League and that of the Bombay Branch of the Home Rule League.
1929 to the Muslim League Council at their Session in Delhi. had again become a source of friction between the two communities. The Muslim League was in the hands of rich. He . his efforts came to naught. He performed two important tasks after his return from England. One such effort was the formulation of the Delhi Muslim Proposals in March. He was. Mohammad Ali Jinnah presented his famous fourteen points on March 28. This was the certainly the right answer to the Nehru report.http://vuattach. at the pleadings of his co-religionists. the Quaid had been watching the events that were happening in India and was saddened to see how Muslim interests were being sacrificed by the chaotic situation within the Muslim League. landlords or some middle class intellectuals with limited horizons. The second was to continue the struggle for freedom of India on constitutional lines. however. The points were to recommend the reforms that would defend the rights of the Muslims of the sub-continent. while the All India Congress was emerging as the leading party for Indian Independence. On the reply of Nehru report. and assume their leadership. because of the deep distrust between the two communities as evidenced by the country-wide communal riots. the most basic Muslim demand since 1906. Reorganizatoin of Muslim League Jinnah's disillusionment at the course of politics in the subcontinent prompted him to migrate and settle down in London in the early thirties. Since all the Muslims opposed the Nehru Report.ning. Quaid's Fourteen Points (1929) In 1928. Undismayed by this bleak situation. the first was to unite and activate the Muslim League as the sole representative body of the Muslims of India.com/ Delhi Proposals (1927) However. to return to India in December 1933. While in England. these proposals even waived the Muslims right to separate electorate. Jinnah devoted himself with singleness of purpose to organizing the Muslims on one platforms. which though recognised by the congress in the Lucknow Pact. 1927. In order to bridge Hindu-Muslim differences on the constitutional plan. these points were to counter the proposals made in the Nehru Report. and because the Hindus failed to meet the genuine demands of the Muslims. Pundit Moti Lal Nehru presented a report which turned down all the Muslims demand. Jinnah realized that organizing the Muslims of India into one powerful and dynamic organization was badly needed.
the elections represented the first milestone on the long road to putting Muslim India on the map of the subcontinent. He was. The great success was achieved the organization front of the Muslim League. struggling against time to make Muslim India a power to be reckoned with. With the assistance of the Raja of Mahmudabad. This Session marked a dramatic change not only in the League's platform and political position. it seemed. He exhorted the Muslim masses to organize themselves and joined the League He gave coherence and direction to Muslim sentiments on the Government of India Act. Within three months of the Lucknow session over 170 new branches of the League had been formed. and it claimed to have enlisted 1. http://vuattach.http://vuattach. the Lucknow Session was a grand demonstration of the will of the Muslims of India to stand up to the Congress challenge. the League's partial success assumed added significance in view of the fact that the League won the largest number of Muslims and that it was the only AllIndia party of the Muslims in the country. but also in Jinnah's personal commitment and final goal.00. Though not very impressive in itself. He pleaded with provincial Muslim leaders to sink their differences and make common cause with the League. He also formulated a viable League manifesto for the election scheduled for early 1937. the Muslim League won 108 (about 22 percent) seats out of a total of 492 Muslim seats int the various legislatures. Despite all the manifold adds stacked against it. It was the Lucknow Session that Jinnah persuaded Sir Sikander Hayat Khan to join the Muslim League along with his Muslim colleagues. It was for the first time he put on the compact cap. He changed his attire. 1939) The Second World War broke out in 1939 and the British Government was anxious to win the favor and co-operation of the major political parties and . 90 of them in the United Provinces. That development later became famous as the Jinnah-Sikander Pact.000 new members in the province alone. 1935. which would soon be known throughout the world as Jinnah Cap.com/ embarked upon country-wide tours. a dedicated adherent of the Muslim League.com/ Lacknow Session 1937 Jinnah utilized all his energies on revitalizing the League.ning.ning. Ti was at that session that the title of Quaid-e-Azam (the great leader) was used for Jinnah and which soon gained such currency and popularity that it almost became a substitute for his name. Day of Deliverance (22nd December. Thus. shedding the Seville Row suit in which he had arrived for a black Punjabi sherwani long coat.
On the one hand. 1940) Quaid-e-Azam said in the ever eloquent words. the Muslim League appealed to the Muslims and other minorities to observe December 22. Jinnah in his presidential address to the Allahabad session of the League. the constitutional problems of India would be re-examined and modifications made in the Act of 1935. in fact. 1939 as the Day of Deliverance. Hindu Empire exit from India: on the other.ning. bitter and malicious. The Congress reacted to that drastically. 1939. resulted in strenghtening of the Muslim League case of Pakistan. language and literature. we are a nation. We are a nation with our own distinctive culture and civilization. it shattered for ever the Hindu dreams of a pseudo-Indian.com/ leaders in their war effort. The Hindu reaction was quick. the future Indian Constitution. The formulation of the Muslim demand for Pakistan in 1940 had a tremendous impact on the nature and course of Indian politics. according to the opinion of India Parties.http://vuattach. Divide and Quit (1942) The failure of the Cripps Mission. customs and calender. art and architecture. sense of values and proportion. His proposal was rejected by both the Congress and the League. names and nomenclature.The . we have our own distinctive outlook on life and of life. Cripps Scheme (1942) Sir Stafford Cripps was sent by the British Government to India in March 1942. The Viceroy made a declaration in October assuring the people of India that after the war. Demand for Pakistan (23rd March. On the resignation of the Congress ministries. it heralded an era of Islamic renaissance and creativity in which the Indian Muslims were to be active participitants. legal laws and moral code. to discuss with Indian leaders. By all canons of international law. history and tradition. though unfortunate in many ways. condemned the Viceroy's policy statement and called upon the Congress ministries to resign by October 31. aptitudes and ambitions. analyzed the Cripps proposals and expressed the disappointment that if these were accepted Muslims could become a minority in their majority provinces as well. The Congress characterized them as a post-dated cheque on a failing bank. in short.
To the Congress slogan of Quit India. the leadership of the Congress had now offered to discuss the questions of Pakistan seriously -. was to be determined. The British had been watching with anxiety the progress of the JinnahGandhi talks and were making plans to meet the situation if the Congress and the League arrived at an agreement. Louis Feisher wrote The wall between Jinnah and Gandhi was the Two Nation Theory. the Congress and Mahatama had kept the door to that subject uncompromisingly shut. The Quaid-e-Azam insisted that the right to appoint five Muslim members in the Executive Council .http://vuattach.com/ Congress decided to launch its final assault on British imperialism in the movement that came to be known as the Quit India movement. Gandhi called upon the people to take initiative and to do or die in a last struggle for freedom. they brought to Jinnah and the Muslim League two important political gains. The failure of these talks spurred the Viceroy to make renewed efforts to break the political deadlock in India.before that. Simla Conference (1945) As per the provisions of the Wavell Plan.Gandhi Talks (1944) The two leaders also differed with regard to the boundaries of Pakistan and how the issue of whether India should be divided at all. Jinnah . Lord Wavell called a conference at Simla in June 1945 to give a practical shape to this plan. Secondly. Gandhi was adamant on the question of partition and although he appeared to be conceding the possibility of partition he did everything he could to persuade the Quaid to give up his demand of the establishment of two sovereign states. the Executive Council would be reorganized and Hindus and Muslims would equally represent in the Viceroy's Executive Council and the Council would work as Interim Government till the end of war. He did not consult the Muslim League or any other party and went ahead with his plans in the hope that the momentum of the mass movement would take violent forms and would involve all parties and sections of the people of India. the Quaid's answer was Divide and Quit which meant Muslims do not only want freedom from British but also from Hindu Raj. the Congress could no longer justifiably claim that it stood for all the communities in India including the Muslims. Though the Gandhi-Jinnah negotiations failed to achieve the avowed goal of the Hindu-Muslim unity.ning. throwing of the initial pretences of non-violence. Firstly.
The Viceroy should now have invited the Muslim League to form . No power of world can topple the opinion of 10 crore Muslims of India. salvation and destiny of the Muslims lay only in the achievement of Pakistan. Jinnah called a convention at Delhi of all the newly elected League members in the central and the provincial legislatures. though it rejected the interim setup. under the leadership of Quaid-e-Azam. Quaid-e-Azam said on this occasion I have no doubt now in the achievement of Pakistan. In this conference.http://vuattach. was the sole representative of the Muslims of the region. The was not acceptable to the Congress as the Congress claimed to represent both the Hindus and Muslims. Muslim League managed to win all the 30 seats reserved for the Muslims in central legislative and 427 seats out of 495 Muslim seats in the provincial legislative. and of setting up a popular interim government. constitutionmaking machinery. 1946. the Mission had to make its own proposals in May 1946. In this convention the word States of 1940's Lahore Resolutoin is transformed into the word State and the legislators signed pledges solemnly declaring their firm conviction that the safety. Cabinet Mission Plan (1946) The most delicate as well as the most tortuous negotiations began with the arrival. despite the Mission's prolonged efforts. Delhi Convention (1946) On 19th April 1946. The conference failed to achieve any purpose due to one-sided attitude of Lord Wavell. of a three-member British Cabinet Mission. 1946. The Muslims of India told the world what they want.com/ should entirely rest with the Muslim League. because the Congress-League gulf could not be bridged. General Elections (1945-46) Elections for the central and provincial assemblies were held in 1945-46. Election results were enough to prove that Muslim League. The crucial task with which the Cabinet Mission was entrusted was that of devising in consultation with the various political parties. Quaid-e-Azam made it crystal clear that only the Muslim League can represent Muslims of India. But. soon after the elections. security.ning. The Congress accepted the plan on June 25. The Muslim League accepted the plan on June 6. in March 1946.
The time for a peaceful transfer of power was fast running out. Today we have forged a pistol and are in a position to use it.http://vuattach. Direct Action Day was observed peacefully throughout India. the League and the Akali dal (representing the Sikhs). were engaged in a fight to the finish.ning. However Pakistan became constitionally independent at midnight between 14th and 15th August 1947. So in this situation Cabinet Mission went back to England on June 29 without deciding anything. Direct Action Day was celebrated on 16th August 1946. His protracted negotiations with the various political leaders resulted in 3 June (1947) Plan by which the British decided to partition the subcontinent. where riots broke out. Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah said Never have we in the whole history of the League done anything except by constitutional methods. engulfing almost the entire subcontinent. and hand over power to two successor States on 15 August. The two people. but he did not do so because he did not want to make Congress angry. 1947. Realizing the gravity of the situation. it seemed. and decided to launch its famous Direct Action for the achievement of Pakistan. the communal riots had flared up to murderous heights. We do not believe in equivocation. Partition Day (1947) By the close of 1946. The plan was duly accepted by the three Indian Parties to the dispute the Congress. Direct Action Day (16th August. Leader of a Free Nation In recognition of his singular contribution. His Majesty's Government sent down to India a new Viceroy Lord Mountbatten. There was a strike in all over the country that they. Today we bid good-bye to constitutional methods. which it could not achieve by peaceful means due to the intransigence of Congress on the one hand and the breach of faith with the Muslim by the British Government on the other. 1946) The Council of the All-India Muslim League met in Bombay and on July 27. except in Calcutta. 1946 it finally sealed its rejection of the Cabinet Mission Plan. Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali . But now we are forced into this position.com/ Government as it had accepted the interim setup. We mean every word of it.
Jinnah was nominated by the Muslim League as the Governor-General of Pakistan, while the Congress appointed Mountbatten as India's first Governor-General. Pakistan, it has been truly said, was born in virtual chaos. The problems which the Quaid-e-Azam had to face as Governor General of Pakistan were not only due to the happenings in East Punjab, and to provide shelter for the millions of refugees. What immensely increased the difficulties of the new state was the fact that it had yet to organize itself. Death of the Great Leader It was due to immense hard word for the Muslims that his health failed. The great leader breathed his last on 11th September 1948 and was buried in Karachi. His demise was mourned not only by Pakistan but by the whole world. It was, however, given to Surat Chandra Bose, leader of the Forward Bloc wing of the Indian National Congress, said on his death in 1948. Mr. Jinnah was great as a lawyer, once great as a Congressman, great as a leader of Muslims, great as a world politician and diplomat, and greatest of all as a man of action, By Mr. Jinnah's passing away, the world has lost one of the greatest statemen and Pakistan its life-giver, philosopher and guide. Such was Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah, the man and his mission, such the range of his accomplishments and achievements
Chapter 2 - The Ideology of Pakistan
Chapter 2 - The Ideology of Pakistan Friendsmania.net * Ideology and Basic Elements of the Ideology of Pakistan. * Two Nation Theory * Ideology of Pakistan expound by the Quaid-e-Azam and Allama Iqbal * Islam is the Ideological foundation of Pakistan
Chapter 2 - Ideology and Basic Elements of the Ideology of Pakistan. Q.1. Define Ideology and describe the basic elements of the Ideology of Pakistan. Contents [hide] * 1 Definition of Ideology * 2 Ideology of Pakistan * 3 Two Nation Concept * 4 Elements of Ideology of Pakistan * 5 Importance of Ideology in National Life * 6 Conclusion Definition of Ideology Science of ideas, visionary speculations, manner of thinking, characteristic of a class or individual, ideas on the basis of some economic, social or political theory or system is called Ideology. It contains those ideals, which a nation strives to accomplish in order to bring stability to its nationhood. Defining ideology, George Lewis say Ideology is a plan or program which is based upon philosophy. Ideology of Pakistan Pakistan is an ideological state and the ideology of Pakistan is an Islamic ideology. Its basic principle being The only sovereigner is Allah Islam acted as a nation building force before the establishment of Pakistan. Ideology of Pakistan basically means that Pakistan should be a state where the Muslims should have an opportunity to live according to the faith and creed based on the Islamic principles. They should have all the resources at their disposal to enhance Islamic culture and civilization. Quaid-e-Azam said http://vuattach.ning.com/ Pakistan was created the day the first Indian national entered the field of
Islam. From the above statement, it is clear that Ideology of Pakistan is an Islamic one. Two Nation Concept The fundamental concept of Ideology is that Muslims should get a separate identity. They should have a separate state where they could live according to Islamic rules and principles, profess their religion freely and safeguard Islamic tradition. On one occasion Quaid-e-Azam said The Muslims demand Pakistan where they can rule in accordance with their own system of life, their cultural development, their traditions and Islamic laws. Thus, this fundamental concept of Ideology led to the concept of two nations in the Sub Continent and resulted in the formation of Pakistan. Elements of Ideology of Pakistan Hindus and Muslims belong to two different religious philosophers, social customs, and literatures. They belong to two different civilizations which are based mainly on conflicting ideas and conceptions. Therefore, Muslim nation demanded a separate homeland where they could have the freedom to practice their religion and live their lives as free individuals of an independent country. There are five principles/elements of the ideological foundation of Pakistan. 1. Islam 2. Two Nation Theory 3. Territorial Land 4. Democratic System 5. Urdu Language 1. Islam, a Nation-Building Force Pakistan came into being on the basis of Islam. It was only Islam, which galvanized Muslims and lined them up behind Muslim League. Other
The fundamental teachings of Islam are universally accepted. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was the first to give the wake up call and decided to prepare Muslims to fight the advertisity with similar weapons . It is a religion in the wider sense of the word. his Aligarh Movement. also played some part in uniting Muslims to struggle for Pakistan but Islam was the preponderant factor as it serves as a cementing force for Muslim society and is the primary link between Muslims the world over. political and economic ones. he prepared the ground for uniting and galvanizing Muslim community of the subcontinent. Islamic ideology is not merely a matter of belief. they collectively struggled for the right of self-determination and the establishment of an independent homeland to be carved out from those territories where they constituted majorities where Islam could be accepted as the ideal pattern for the individuals life.ning. With him. finality of prophet-hood. tolerance and universal brotherhood. Belief in God. The only force which keeps Muslim nation united is Islam which is the ideological foundation of Pakistan. moral values of charitableness. on the contrary. a landmark in . human rights and social justice. the Muslim nation struggled for and brought Pakistan into being.com/ factors.modern education and knowledge. His colleagues including Nawab Mohsinul Mulk and others created conditions which led to the establishment of All-India Muslim League in Dhaka in 1906. these are sonic of the cardinal principles enshrined by the Quran and Sunnah. employed for domination. Pakistan itself did not give birth to any nation. Quaid-e-Azam said We do not demand Pakistan simply to have a piece of land but we want a laboratory where we could experiment on Islamic principles. It implies that Muslims of Subcontinent were a nation quite distinct and separate from the Hindus. The entire struggle of the Muslims of the subcontinent was to have a state where they could freely maintain their Islamic entity. Muslims gradually developed a national consciousness in the Indo-Pakistan subcontinent. They in spite of living together for centuries could not forget their individual cultures and civilization. Everything else follows Islam. It is a way of life. No other factor was so clear and intelligible for Muslim masses. dogma and ritual. management of affairs through consensus. the historical fact which could not be denied is that the formation of the Muslim nation preceded the demand for a homeland. he started an awareness movement.http://vuattach. Hence. They eventually secured what they wanted. a whole complex of social and moral norms entwined with theological metaphysics. his books and magazine Tahzibul Akhlaq. Two-Nation Theory The Two Nation Theory was the basis of struggle for creation of Pakistan. 2.
indomitable will. . The Hindu majority areas of India formed India and the Muslims majority regions came together under the unique name of Pakistan. it requires an independent land to settle where it can rule and our demand is the same. and dauntless courage. With Jinnah's untiring efforts. despite stiff opposition from the Hindu Congress and the British Government. Quaid-e-Azam formally declared this objective as the ideology of the Muslim League. They neither intermarry. On March 22. land is the third important element. It is this very ideology which is the second important ingredient of ideology of Pakistan. However. A piece of land was necessary for the existence. This was not a matter of mere hair-splitting but an everyday fact of life.com/ the history of Pakistan Movement. All-India Muslim League demanded a separate homeland constituting the areas in which the Muslims are numerically in a majority such as in the North-Western and Eastern zones of India on March 23. This then is the crux and substance of the Two Nation Theory. 1940 in his presidential address to the All-India Muslim League Lahore session. Nothing would be achieved simply by raising slogans for nation. Territorial Land Amongst the constitutes of ideology of Pakistan. On the same premises Quaid-e-Azam dismissed the wishes of the Hindu and the British colonialists for a joint Hindu Muslim nationhood as a pipe dream.http://vuattach. In the 28th Annual Session of the Muslim League in 1941 in Madras. Quaid-e-Azam said in his address to Punjab Muslim Students Federation in March 1941.ning. nor interdine together. which one cannot fail to feel in almost every sphere of human activity. 1940. social customs and literature. stabilization and promotion of Islamic ideology as soul requires body. the founder of Pakistan Muhammad Ali Jinnah made it plain that The Hindus and the Muslims belong to two different religious philosophies. and indeed they belong to two different civilizations which are based mainly on conflicting ideas and conceptions. 3. We are one nation and the nation cannot survive in the air. he united the Indian Muslims under the banner of the Muslim League and carved out a homeland for them within 7 years. With single-minded devotion be fought against this menace and succeeded in getting the idea of a separate Muslim identity recognized. which formed the basis of British India's partition in two independent Hindu and Muslim States.
During the last days of the Muslim rule. 5. In other words. Muhammad (P. Democratic System In an Islamic state.H) used to operate all the state affairs after discussing with his Sahabas (companions). which was similar to the Arabic Script. All India Muslim League was established in December 30. and Arabic was the language of the Quran.http://vuattach. the Holy Book of the Muslims. Urdu was considered to be the language of Muslims and Hindi to the Hindus. Urdu emerged as the most common language of the northwestern provinces of India. Creation of Pakistan is the glorious example of ijma-e-ummat (national consensus). and all official records were written in this language. it should. When this questions rose that what would be the system of government in Pakistan.ning. The same system has also been referred in Surah Al-Imram. Urdu Language Language is not a fundamental characteristic of a nation. The Urdu-Hindi controversy completely altered Sir Syed's point of view. It was declared the official language.B. The opposition by the Hindus towards the Urdu language made it clear to the Muslims that Hindus were not ready to tolerate the culture and traditions of the Muslims. So Muslims also began to think about establishing a political party of their own for their survival and centralizing their efforts to have their rights. all the affairs are decided on the basis of Shariat (Democracy). 1906. be Islamic. as the court language in the northwestern provinces. The movement grew quickly and within a few months spread throughout the Hindu population of the northwestern provinces of India.U. Consequently. all the social. In the sub-continent. Islamic system of government is Islamic democracy or system of Shariat. economic. and the Persian script with the Deva Nagri script. is the fifth ingredient of Pakistan. Sharai system of state. At the time of establishment of Pakistan. He had been a great advocate of Hindu-Muslim unity but after this event he put .com/ 4. some prominent Hindus started a movement in Banaras in which they demanded the replacement of Urdu with Hindi. no doubt. This situation provoked the Muslims to come out in order to protect the importance of the Urdu language. referendum was held in all the Muslim majority provinces to take their consent to the included in Pakistan. The reason for opposing Urdu was that the language was written in Persian script. political and the cultural affairs are operated on the basis of mutual consensus and Islamic democracy. In 1867. but still remains one of the features by which a nation may be distinguished or one of the grounds on which nationalism may be founded. therefore.
Thus the ideology of Pakistan which developed through the period of Mohammad Bin Qasim and others and followed by political leaders like Quaid-e-Azam was materialized in 1947 Two Nation Theory Q. These differences of out look. Importance of Ideology in National Life Ideology is a motivating force for a nation. religious.ning. which is striving hard to bring stability and homogeneity to its nation hood. religion and way of life. .com/ forward the Two-Nation Theory. Conclusion The fundamental concept of the ideology of Pakistan is that Muslims are separate nation having their own culture. literature.http://vuattach. They cannot be merged in any other nation. They stress on their adherents to insist on the realization of their ideal through total transformation of society. Maulvi Abdul Haque aptly said Urdu is the first brick in the foundation of Pakistan. economic and social dissimilarities between the two major communities. Meaning of Two Nation Theory The Two Nation Theory is its simplest way means the cultural. Hindus and Muslims of the Sub Continent. were greatly instrumental in giving rise to to two distinct political ideologies which were responsible for the partition of India into two independent states. in fact. Explain the Two Nation Theory. It provides the binding force to the scattered groups in a society and brings them close to each other on a common platform. Ideologies impel their adherence to follow a joint linked action for the accomplishment of their goal. Ideologies give shape to the revolutions and create new cultures and civilizations. political. They should be able to develop their culture and religious traditions in an Islamic State and they should be able to create a true Islamic society for themselves. predicting that the differences between the two groups would increase with the passage of time and the two communities would not join together in anything wholeheartedly.2.
http://vuattach. 2. each following its separate course.B. on the other hand is based on the concept of multiple Gods. Their society follows a caste system and is divided into four classes and has a very narrow approach towards life.U. Religious Difference The Hindus and Muslims belong to different religions. There are a few factors which split the inhabitants of the Sub Continent into two nations. The Hindus burnt their dead bodies while Muslims burried them. Al-Beruni recorded his ideas in 1001 A. Hindus considered the "Mother Cow" as a sacred animal and worshipped it while Muslims slaughtered it.com/ The Basis of the Creation of Pakistan The Two Nation Theory was the basis of the struggle for creation of Pakistan which held that Hindus and Muslims are two separate nations.D in his famous book "Kitab-ul-Hind" as The Hindu society maintained this peculiar character over the centuries. Hinduism. They in spite of living together for centuries could not forget their individual cultures and civilization. Hindus and Muslims. the Holy book Quran and hold a cohesive approach towards life.ning. Hindu Nationalism A number of Hindu nationalist movement. Their writings and ideas flared up the communal discord between Hindus and Muslims to further pollute condition. the Holy Prophet (P. Let us examine each of them separately. added fuel to the fire by playing up the tension and antagonism which already existed between the two communities. Islam preaches Tauheed (oneness of Allah) and believes in equality of man before law. like two streams have sometimes touched but never merged. 1. Muslims are the believers of God. 3. They performed "Sati" while Muslims . which emerged from time to time in the Indian history. The two societies.H). The Hindu nationalist leaders totally ignored the great contribution made by the Muslims in the Indian society by way of promoting education and other social activities. Cultural Differences Muslim followed the Islamic culture while Hindus inherited a self build culture.
They were thrown out of Government services and their estates and properties were confiscated while the Hindus were provided with the ample opportunities to progress economically. Economic Differences After 1857. Political Differences The political differences between the Hindus and Muslims have played an important role in the development and evolution of Two Nation Theory. the foods.http://vuattach. Social Differences The two communities of the Sub Continent differ in their social life as well. 7. The Hindus and Muslims do not intermarry nor they inter-dine. Hindus demanded that Urdu should be written in Hindi Script instead of Persian Script. (i). Hindi Urdu Controvery In 1867. 4. http://vuattach. (ii). the household utensils. 5. This created another gap between Hindus and Muslims. the words of salutation. the gestures and every thing about them was different and immediately pointed to their distinctive origin. . Educational Differences The Hindus had advanced in the educational field because they quickly and readily took to the English education while Muslims did not receive modern education which heavily affected their economic conditions. It claimed to represent all communities of India but oppressed all Muslim ideas and supported the Hindus. Congress Attitude The Indian National Congress was founded in 1885.com/ abhorred this tradition. the layout of homes. the Muslim economic was crushed and all trade policies were framed in such a way so as to detriment the Muslim condition. The clothes.ning.com/ 6.ning.
Importance of Two Nation Theory The Two Nation Theory was the basis of the struggle for creation of Pakistan which held that Hindus and Muslims are two separate nations.com/ (iii). the Hindi language was spoken by Hindus and it was written in Sanskrit. Wardha Scheme and Vidya Mandir scheme of education. Language The Muslim and Hindus wrote and spoke two different languages. but the Hindus launched an agitation against the partition and partition was annulled in 1911. The Muslims considered that western democracy was not suitable for India. where there were two communities. The Muslims had learnt from the past experience of Congress's rule of 1937-39 in which they adopted Gandhian philosophy. which will harm the interests of Muslims. arts. Bande Mataram as national anthem and promotion of Hindi language.http://vuattach. painting and words of music. Hindus will remain in power. 8. the partition of Bengal ensured a number of political benefits for the Muslims. In the case of United India. They also realized the difference between them and the Hindus and hence demanded separate electorate on the ground that they were different nation from Hindus.ning. On the other hand. Partition of Bengal In 1905. Urdu and Hindi language had the difference in writing. thoughts of poetry. Hence it is right to . one was in majority and other was in minority. Even this small difference led to a stirring conflict between the two nations. They in spite of living together for centuries could not forget their individual cultures and civilization. They were always two separate entities. Quaid-e-Azam Hindus and Muslims though living in the same towns and villages had never been blended into one nation. On one occasion. The language of the former was Urdu and it was written in Arabic Script. The Muslims also apprehended that they would lose their identity if they remained a part of Hindu society. Muslim mass contact compaign had convinced the Muslims that Congress was aiming at a death blow to Muslim political thought and was working for regneneration and revival of the old Hindu civilization and culture.
he continued with his efforts to bring about Hindu Muslim unity but he was greatly disappointed to see the prejudicial attitude of the Congress and Hindus towards the Muslims. Pakistan would not come into being on 14th August. After joining Muslim League in 1913. He had a strong believe in Hindu Muslim unity and was of the opinion that both Hindus and Muslims should launch joint efforts to get rid of British rule. any constitution you enforce shall not las for even 24 hours. They can adopt any means to promote and protect their . the great leader of Muslims of Sub Continent gave practical shape to the ideology give by the Allama Iqbal. He defined the two nation theory as The Muslims are a nation by every right to establish their separate homeland. 1947. and we would not be breathing freely in this open air of Pakistan. He considered the Muslims as a separate nation. two nation theory is the basis of the creation of Pakistan because without this concept. Address at Second Round Table Conference in 1931 Quaid-e-Azam believed that Congress and Hindus would never recognize the rights of Muslims.com/ say that this theory i. He said Pakistan was created the day the first Indian national entered the field of Islam. until you do not win the (Muslims) co-operation.http://vuattach.ning. Until you do not give guarantee for the safeguard of the Muslim interests. He declared while representing the Muslims in the Second Round Table Conference in 1913 The Hindu Muslim dispute must be settle before the enforcement of and system or constitution. Quaid-e-Azam and Two Nation Theory Quaid-e-Azam was a firm advocate of Two Nation Theory which became the ideological basis Pakistan.e. Following are some extracts from the speeches and statements which he delivered from time to time for explaining the ideology of Pakistan. Ideology of Pakistan and Quaid-e-Azam Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah.
the sheet anchor and the rock is Holy Quran. which is the sheet anchor providing base to the Muslim Millat. They are a nation by any definition. (Address at Islamia College Peshawar) .Pakistan Resolution At the historic session of the Muslim League at Lahore. In his presidential address at the annual session of Muslim League at Lahore in 1940. he said Hindus and Muslims through living in the same town and villages. social customs and literature. philosophies.com/ economic social.Their aspects on life and of are different. Hindus and Muslims being the two major nations. Address on March 08. Quaid-e-Azam and Millat-e-Islamia Quaid-e-Azam emphasized on the Islamic ideology as being the basis of the struggle for Pakistan because he believed that only Islam was the unifying force of the Muslim Millat. had never been blended into one nation. They neither intermarry nor interdine and they belong to two different civilization which are based mainly on conflicting ideas and conceptions.ning. 1940 . Address on 23rd March. political and cultural interests. It is a Sub Continent of Nationalities. The Hindus and Muslims belongs to two different religions.http://vuattach. They were always two separate entities. he said The Mussalmans are not a minority. 1944 While addressing the students of Muslim University. which is the formidable rock on which the Muslim edifice has been erected. It is quite clear that Hindus and Muslims derive their inspiration from different sources of history. He said What relationships knits the Muslims into one whole. By all canons of International law we are a nation. the relationship. he said India is not a nation. nor a country.
He also said India is a continent of human beings belonging to different races..ning. which has to be preserved which has come to us a precious gift and treasure and which we hope. the poet. NorthWest Fronties Province. Sindh and . philosopher and a great thinker with the help of his poetry tried to awaken the Muslims of the sub-continent. Ideology of Pakistan in the light of Statements of Allama Iqbal Allama Iqbal. I. (Address on 18th June 1945) In his message to the frontier Muslim Students Federation..http://vuattach. In 1930. He believed in the separate identity of Muslims as a nation. He said I am fully convinced that the Muslims of India will ultimately have to establish a separate homeland as they could not live with the Hindus in the United States.. The above sayings and statements largely prove that Quaid-e-Azam wanted an established Islamic system as a code of life because he believed that it was the sole objective of the Pakistan Movement.. therefore demand the formation of a consolidated Muslim state in the best interest of India and Islam.com/ In 1946. speaking different languages and professing different religions. he said Pakistan only means freedom and independence but Muslims ideology.. others will share with us. He stressed on the formation of a separate State by saying I would like to see the Punjab. Quaid-e-Azam declared 'We do not demand Pakistan simply to have a piece of land but we want a laboratory where we could experiment on Islamic principles. Allama Iqbal presented his mature political opinion on the political fate of Indian Muslims in his presidential address at Allahabad at the annual session of Muslim League.
I believe that Pakistan can not stand without Islam. Hence.4.com/ Balochistan amalgamated into a single State self-government within the British Empire or without the British Empire. Islam is the Ideological foundation of Pakistan. .http://vuattach. of unity. the Muslim nation struggled for and brought Pakistan into being. indeed. nor dine together and. Discuss.ning. This concludes that our all efforts should be concentrated on moulding our life pattern according to Islam. Q." Islam. on the contrary. Considering this factor we demanded for a separate homeland. In other words. to live in conformity with Islamic education and style. Pakistan itself did not give birth to any nation. apart from being a sanction. Muslims gradually developed a national consciousness in the Indo-Pakistan subcontinent. social customs and literatures. Ideological Foundation of Pakistan Religion has been. So to follow the Quranic teachings is the Ideology of Pakistan. Religion is also serviceable as a symbol. It guides us about every aspect of life. we in fact promise to follow the right path directed by God and his last Prophet Mohammad (SAW) and refrain from where he disliked. Islam acted as a nationbuilding force long before the establishement of Pakistan. Therefore. the formation of a consolidated North-West India Muslim state appears to me to be the final destiny of the Muslims at least of North West India. Professor Muhammad Khalilullah has explained the ideology of Pakistan in most comprehensive style in his book Fikr wa Ufkar as "Ideology of Pakistan was the resolution of Muslims for their survival as Muslims. It builds up civilizations and moulds cultures. they collectively struggled for the right of self-determination and the establishment of an independent homeland to be carved out from those territories where they constituted majorities where Islam could be accepted as the ideal pattern for the individuals life. they belong to two different civilizations which are based mainly on conflicting ideas and conceptions. They neither intermarry. a powerful nexus between individuals and groups. Muslim nation demanded a separate homeland where they have the freedom to practice their religion and live their lives as free individuals of an independent country. In other words ideology of Pakistan is the medium for Islamic style of life. When we recite God is one and Mohammad (SAW) the messenger of God. the historical fact which could not be denied is that the formation of the Muslim nation preceded the demand for a homeland. Ideology of Pakistan means Ideology of Islam. since time began. They eventually secured what they wanted. Hindus and Muslims belong to two different religious philosophies. Their aspects of life and our life are different. a Nation-Building Force The basis of nationhood in Pakistan is Islam.
Belief in God. Describe the contribution of Sir Syed Ahmed Khan towards Muslim education. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was born in 1817 to a Syed family in Delhi. management of affairs through consensus. love for Islam and hard work played a major role in the revival of Muslims in India. finality of prophet-hood. The Muslims were inimical to western education for three reason.Educational Movements Chapter 3 . It was being forced upon them by a foreign people. a whole complex of social and moral norms entwined with theological metaphysics. and . moral values of charitableness.http://vuattach. It is a religion in the wider sense of the word. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan alone among his contemporiies realized that the plight of Muslims could not be improved without a revolution in their attitude towards education.Educational Movements friendsmania. It is a way of life. His talent.1.com/ Conclusion Islamic ideology is not merely a matter of belief. dogma and ritual. Later on he served on important jobs. He flourished in the second half of the 19th century. deep-insight. human rights and social justice.ning. these are sonic of the cardinal principles enshrined by the Quran and Sunnah. 1. He started his career as a humble judicial official in the English East India Company. Chapter 3 . Sir Syed's (1817-98) Contribution towards Muslim Education Perhaps the Muslims of the Sub-Continent owe their greatest gratitude to Syed Ahmed Khan. The only force which keeps Muslim nation united is Islam which is the ideological foundation of Pakistan.net * Contribution of Sir Syed Ahmed Khan towards Muslim education * Aligarh Movement * Sind Madressah-tul-Islam Q. The fundamental teachings of Islam are universally accepted. 2. tolerance and universal brotherhood. They considered it inferior to traditional Islamic learning.
Thus. The Muslims hated English language and culture. He told the Muslims that without acquiring modern education they could not compete with the Hindus. On the other hand the Hindus acquired modem knowledge and dominated the government jobs. They kept their children away from the schools and colleges.com/ 3. He decided to devote his full efforts for the welfare of the Muslims. Shortly afterwards Syed Ahmed Khan wrote a commentary on the Holy Quran. But in this manner they were unconsciously damaging the interests of the Muslim Community. educational and religious contributions of Syed Ahmed Khan are as given below 1. These works restored confidence of the British in the Muslims to a large extent. He was greatly pained to see the miserable condition of the Muslims everywhere.ning. He pleaded that there was no harm in adopting western sciences and in learning English language. He issued a magazine named "Tahzib-ul-Ikhlaq" which projected adoptable European manners. Syed Ahmed Khan was the first Muslim leader to realize the gravity of the situation. Moreover he wrote Khutbat-e-Ahmedya in reply to Sir William Muir's book "Life of Muhammad".Essay on the causes of Indian Revolt in which he proved that there were many factors which led to the uprising of 1857 and that only the Muslims were not to be held responsible for it. In 1870 he issued his famous magazine named "Tehzib-ul-Ikhlaq" in order to apprise the Muslims of their social evils and moral short comings. http://vuattach. In 1869 Syed Ahmed Khan visited England. After the war of Independence the Muslims were passing through a critical phase.http://vuattach. Their ignorance of the English language and lack of modem education kept them away from respectable government posts. Syed Ahmed Khan was one of the pioneers of the Two . 2. For this purpose he wrote .com/ During the war of Independence he saved the lives of many Englishmen. In this work Syed Ahmed Khan interpreted Islam on logical and scientific basis. The Government centered the title of Sir on him.ning. In addition he wrote "Loyal Muhammadans of India" in which too he defended the Muslims against the charges of disloyalty. They thought that an education saturated with Christianity might corrupt their beliefs. 3. By refusing to acquire western education they were not keeping pace with modern times. There he studied the system of Education. Salient features of the political. The Sir Syed Ahmed Khan turned his attention towards the educational uplift of his co-religionists. he won the confidence of the British Government. The first need was the removal of mistrust about the Muslims from the minds of British rulers. 4. This magazine promoted Urdu language immensely. In 1863 Sir Syed Ahmed Khan established a Scientific Society. During his stay at Aligarh he issued a weekly Gazette called "Aligarh Institute Gazette". The purpose of this society was translation of English books into Urdu language.
Sir Syed founded.http://vuattach. 3.A. Arnold in Philosophy. They arrested and punished leading Muslims irrespective of the fact whether they were involved in the events of 1857 or not. the Muhammadan Educational Conference which held its meeting at various places to provide a forum for discussing problems that affected the Muslims at large. M. To enquire into the state of religious education in English schools founded and endowed by the Muslims. It rendered great services in imparting modern education to the Muslims. In May 1875. Two years later in 1877 this school was elevated to the status of a college by Lord Lytton the British Viceroy himself. To give some strengthened support to the instruction voluntarily imparted by Muslim divines in religious and other oriental learning's and adopt some measures to maintain it as a living concern.O College Aligarh was a residential institution.ning. and to find out means to conduct it in the best possible way. Maulana Shibli in Persian and Jadu Nath Chakarwati in Mathematics. Syed Ahmed Khan founded Muhammadan Anglo Oriental High School at Aligarh. Aligarh Movement The Aligarh Movement was founded by Sir Syed Ahmed Khan.A. As a result many innocent Muslims . in 1886.W. To examine a state of education and instruction in the indigenous primary schools and take steps to remove their present state of decay in directing them onto the path of progress. the greatest Muslim educationist of the 19th century. It boasted of the services of many renowned scholars of that period like professor T.2. This seat of teaming played a significant part in infusing spirit of Islamic nationalism among the Muslim students. As a result they adopted a policy of oppression and repression towards the Muslims. Sir Walter Raleigh in English. Muhammadan Educational Conference used to hold its annual meetings in various cities where by the cooperation of local Muslims steps were taken for the progress of Education. After the war of Independence of 1857 the British did not trust the Muslims. He advised the Muslims to refrain from Joining Indian National Congress. The principal aims of the Conference were 1.O College was raised to teh status of Aligarh University. What do you mean by Aligarh Movement? Describe its educational role. These students later on became the torch bearers of the freedom movement in Indo-Pakistan. Q. To make an effort to spread among the Muslims western education to the higher standard. He openly declared that the Hindus and the Muslims were two different communities with different interests.com/ Nation Theory. In 1921 M. With the view of promoting the educational cause of 70 million Indian Muslims.' 2. 4.
political and economic spheres. messenger.ning. natural and physical sciences and advanced mathematics. Hunter there was scarcely a Government office in Calcutta in which a Muhammadan could hope for any post above the rank of a porter. The basic purpose of this society was translation of English. 3. He decided to take necessary steps to better the lot of Muslims in the educational. ancient and modern science of agriculture. The British Government excluded the Muslims from the civil and military honors with the stigma of disdainful unfitness. besides Modern Education five languages (English. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was the first Muslim leader who diagnosed the causes of gradual decline of the status of Muslim Community. 4. The result was that the Muslims could not acquire modern education and were kept away from reasonable government jobs. In this school. which published translations of many educational texts and issued a bilingual journal . Persian and Arabic writings into Urdu language.in Urdu and English. English is also taught besides English. According to Dr. Victoria School Ghazipur Sir Syed establised first modern Victoria School at Ghazipur (1864). 1. The imparted information on history. Persian and Sanskrit) were also taught. . Establishment of Scientific Society A more ambitious undertaking was the foundation of the Scientific Society in 1863 at Ghazipur. 2. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan has observed these atrocities in these words There was no calamity in these days which was not attributed to the Muslims and there is no doubt that any calamity which fell from the firmament might not have come straight to some Muhammadan houses bringing ruin and destruction. His works for the educational development for Muslims are as follows.com/ became victim of British highhandedness. Farsi Maddarsa Muradabad He establised a Farsi Maddarsa at Muradabad in 1859. In this Maddarsa.http://vuattach. Urdu. It was the starting point of Sir Syed's Educational struggle. The Muslims refused to send their children to the European and Government schools because they hated English language. Arabic. and filler of ink-pots and mender of posts. Aligarh Institute Gazette During his stay at Aligarh he issued a weekly Gazette called Aligarh Institute Gazette. The sufferings of the Muslims multiplied when they refused to adopt the system of education introduced by the British.
It was a residential institution. In this way the Muslims of India came to have their own University after a long struggle. Unfortunately the draft was not approved by the secretary of state. In 1911 on the eve of the visit of King George . But the Muslims were not willing to accept a University with limited jurisdiction.A. Thus Aligarh University Act came into force on 1st December 1920. The Government was reluctant to grant the right of affiliating colleges outside Aligarh to the proposed Aligarh University. In January 1877 M. it played a major part in bringing about an intellectual revolution amongst Muslim thinkers. In 1925 sixty six percent of all the Muslim students admitted to the Indian University were given admission in Aligarh University only. Aligarh For the educational and social uplift of the Muslims Sir Syed Ahmed Khan decided to open Muslim educational institutions. Nawab Mohsin-ul-Mulk.V to India his Highness Sir Agha Khan made an appeal for funds needed to set up Aligarh University. This magazine also promoted Urdu language immensely.ning.O College was inaugrated at Aligarh by Lord Lytton the Viceroy of India.O College Aligarh was rendering great service in imparting education to the Muslims of India. Maulana Zafar Ali Khan. Thus the bill for the Muslim University was introduced in the Indian Legislative Council and was passed in September 1920. However on 15th October 1915 Muslim University Association approved the Muslim University as contemplated by the Government akin to other Hindu Universities. The graduates of Aligarh University were respected in all quarters. The Muslims responded generously and as a result a large collection was made. This journal contained articles from influential Muslims who agreed with Sir Syed that there was a need for a new approach to education. Maulana Muhammad Ali Jauhar etc at one time or another remained associated with this college. All the Aligarh students later on became the standard bearers on Pakistan Movement. . Aligarh Muslim University The M. It produced thousands of graduates which carried the spirit of nationalism to every nook and comer of the Sub Continent. The Muslims now wanted to get it elevated to the status of a Muslim University. The college soon showed tremendous progress. Although some ulema attacked the journal. The Aligarh University inculcated a vigorous spirit of nationalism in the Muslim students. Muhammadan Anglo Oriental College. It became the Centre of Muslim educational and intellectual activity in the Sub Continent. Many important Muslim figures like Maulana Shibli. 7. A draft constitution was drawn up and a consultative committee was formed. Earlier after his return from England he had established a Madrassah in May 1875. Some of them like Maulana Zafar Ali Khan.http://vuattach.com/ 5. 6. Tehzib-ul-Ikhlaq On 24th December 1876 he issued his famous magazine named Tehzib-ulIkhlaq from Benares in order to apprise the Muslims of their social evils and moral short comings.A.
com/ In 1938 Sind Madressah became free from Government control. Wali Mohammad and its foundation stone was laid by Lord Duffering on 14th Nov.M. and S.ning. Karachi (1885) The Sind Madressah-tul-Islam. The students from nearly all sections of the society and from areas far and wide joined the institution which later made an impact on national life. the administrative board of Madressah made it Sind Muslim College (S. The current site itself was previously a Municipal camel camping ground (carvansarai) which has bestowed by the Karachi Municipality to the Madressah Board. Rehman and A.com/ Maulana Mohammad Ali Jauhar and Maulana Shaukat Ali become dynamic leaders of the Muslims. Sir Ghalam Hussain Hidayatullah. The Sind Madressah-tul-Islam was founded for educational advancement of the Muslims of Sind on the new and modern lines. Fatima Jinnah Girls School. In 1947. Thus Pakistan. Hasan Ali Effendi.M. Sind Madressah provided good education at low cost. Tufail Ali A. This was a residential institution.http://vuattach. 1. http://vuattach.B. to a great extent Q. Maulvi Umeruddin Sahib was the first Principal of the Sind Madressah. faculty of Commerce and faculty of Science were built respectively.97. The total cost of construction of the main Madressah building came to Rs. 1887.K.M. S.ning. is located of Shahrah-e-Liaquat and was the first Muslim educational complex built in Sind. the Madressah moved to the current premises and has functioned uninterruptedly since then. Hasan Ali Abdul Rehman. 1890. In 1953 and 1957. Doctor Daud Pota. This is the proud institution where the founder of Pakistan Quaid-e-Azam received his early education.M College) which is inaugrated by Quaid-e-Azam. 1885 in a rented two storied building near Bolton Market by K. It has now expanded into several independent institutions to meet the rising needs of the time. On 21st June 1943. Liyari High School are also independent institutions of this Madressah which are playing their vital role in progression of educational and cultural activities.188. The building was designed by James Strachen according to the sketches of K. Sheikh Abdul Majeed Sindhi. The Madressah (school) was initiated on 1st Sept. For this purpose Hasan Ali Affindi himself visited Aligarh to benefit from the experience of Sir Syed and his co-workers. Law College. who played prominent roles in the creation of Pakistan.3. He said I am happy that my educational institution has now extended to college. S. Upon completion of this building on 14th November. owes its establishment to the Aligarh Movement. it was the only Degree College for Muslims in Karachi to meet the growing needs of the students influx from India. Baruhi are other popular students. What do you know about Sind Madressah-tul-Islam? Sind Madressah-tul-Islam. an Alma Mater of the Father of the Nation and dozens of other national leaders.M. .
Deebal and Mansoora in Sindh and Ajmer and Delhi in Northern India the centers of Islamic culture and civilization in India. became very famous in this regard. Raziuddin Hassan Sifani was the expert of knowledge of Hadiths and his famous work Mashariqul-Anwar remained as an authority on knowledge of Hadiths for a long time.net * Role of Ulema in Organizing the Muslim Society * Role of Sheikh Ahmed Sirhindi * Services rendered by Shah Wali-ullah * Syed Ahmed Shaheed Q. When the Muslim Society was established. Ghoris. Abu Mashir Sindhi and Rija Sindhi. Alauddin Khilji and Sadaat period. Sheikh Ismail. Role of Ulema in Organizing the Muslim Society The Muslim scholars played a vital role in organizing the Muslim society in India. His book Tabqat-e-Nasri is also a source of fame for Minhajuddin. rendering the Islamic services. Ghayasuddin Balban. Abu Hassan Lahori stressed upon the teaching of Hadiths but the history-maker was Ali Hajveri Data Ganj Buksh who was born in 1009 and died in 1070.com/ Chapter 4 . the scholars from the Muslim states of Central Asia entered India in a large number. He appointed Qazi Minhajuddin Siraj as the court justice who showed absolute realism and established ever lasting examples of Islamic mode of justice.http://vuattach. Discuss the role of Ulema in organizing the Muslim Society. played a crucial part in stabilizing Muslim society in India. The greatest literary personality of Ghayasuddin Balban period was .Muslim Society in Subcontinent Chapter 4 . Qazi Abu Mohammad Mansoori.1. The period of rulers of Delhi comprises on the ruling period of Ghaznavids. These scholars of Islam played a decisive role in making Lahore and Multan in Punjab.Muslim Society in Subcontinent Friendsmania. initiating preaching of Islam firs time in Punjab.ning.
During the period of Emperor Jahangir (1605-1627) the respect of Scholars of Islam was restored and Deen-e-Elahi was abondoned. These books were included in the syllabus of religious institution. during Mughal period. the understandings) created deep influences on education and . The academic works were performed by Sheikh Ali Mahaimi. the interpretation of Holy Quran in Arabic) and the interpretations of famous books by Shahabuddin and Sheikh Ibn-e-Arabi. were divided into two groups. He teamed up with Sheikh Nizamuddin Burhanpuri and other scholars and produced an authentic book Fatwa-e-Alamgir compiled on Islamic Laws. Sheikh Ahmed Sarhindi wrote a Risala (Magazine) Asbat-e-Nauwwat to oppose Deen-e-Elahi. Services of Ulema During Mughal Period The scholars of Islam. Sheikh Ahmed Sirhindi. The period of Aurangzeb Alamgir (1659-1760) was a glorious period for the establishment of and stability of Muslim society in South India. God is one) include Tabseer-urRehman (i. Kufr) Hazrat Mujaddid Alf Sani (1564-1624) opposed Kufr severly.e. did not hesitate to marry a Hindu princess Jodha Bai who did not accept Islam to her last breath. After the death of Auragzeb in 1707 Muslim society began to decline. a follower of the Philosophy of Wahdat-ul-Wajood (i.http://vuattach.e.e. He defended Hindus by saying that receiving Jazia (tribute) from Hindus is not just.e. The famous work of Shah Wali Ullah 'Tafhimaat' (i.com/ Maulana Burhanuddin alki who wrote Mashariqul Anwar and Fiqah-eHidaya which became an important base for Islamic instructions in India. Islam nourished successfully because Aurangzeb himself was the strict follower of Shariyah.ning. Shah Wali Ullah (1703-1762) rendered his services and wrote many books on Fiqah and Tasawuf and translated Holy Quran in Persian. He tried to influence the courtiers of Akbar and continued his tirade against the Hindus. To reinforce Islamic Society. Maulana Mugheesuddin Bayanvi was not only the court man of King Alauddin Khilji but was also the court justice. who was popularly known as Mujaddid (Renovator of Islam) had traced his descent from Caliph Umar. Shah Wali Ullah another Islamic mystic of the Sufi tradition of Sunnism who claimed his lineage from Quraish tribe of Prophet Mohammad and of Umar. rejected the heterodoxies of the great Mughal Emperor Akbar. Emperor Akbar. First the Scholars of Haq (rectitude) who kept themselves busy in worshiping God and the second Scholars of Soo (opportunities who interpreted religious teaching according to likings of the Kings. for Hindus-Muslim merger. Under this new religion he declared himself the messenger of Allah on earth (i. He introduced a new religion Deen-e-Elahi in 1581.
ning. Barely (1904). Syed Suleman Nadwi. Lahore (1884). Delhi (1920.e. he invited Afghan ruler Ahmed Shah ruler Ahmed Shah Wali Ullah with the help of Ahmed Shah Abdali restored the position of Muslim society. This movement spread the message that all Muslims should keep their acts confine to Shariyah and the Faraiz-e-Islam (i.2. NadwatulUlema. Titu Mir (1782-1831) also started his movement in Bengal against the cruel acts of Hindus landlords against Muslim tenants. Maulvi Mushtaq Hussain. Peshawar (1913) and Jamia Millia Islamia. Aziz's disciple Saiyid Ahmed of Rai Bareli under the deep influence of the jihadi spirit of the faith propounded by Wali Ullah and Sunni extremism of Maulana Wahab of Saudi Arabia launched jihad against the Non-Islamic power of the Sikh Kingdom of Ranjit Singh with a view to restore Dar-ulIslam (A land. Sheikh Ahmed Sarhindi (1564-1624) . Further.http://vuattach. Maulana Abd-ul-Islam Nadwi. kept the movement alive through institutional Islamic movement and founded Islamic institutions like Darul-Uloom. Mohsin-ul-Mulk. the duties of Islam). The Islamic clerics however. Lucknow (1898). Maulana Rasheed Ahmed Gungohi. Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi. Maulana Abu-al-Hassan Ali Nadwi. According to Shah Wali Ullah the mark of the perfect implementation of the Sharia was the performance of Jihad. to claim someone equivalent to Allah). Madressah Manzar-ul-Islam. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan. Services of Ulema During Colonialism The movement for Islamic fundamentalism got a severe jolt with the failure of the Sepoy mutiny in 1857. Maulana Ubaid-ullah Sindhi. where Islam is having political power) Haji Shariat Ullah (1768-1840) started his Faraizi Movement in Bengal because the Muslims started loosing the grip of Islam. Waqar-ul-Mulk. Sheikh-ul-Hind Maulana Mehmood Hassan.com/ syllabus of education. when the Muslim radicals lost all hopes to restore Islamic power in India. Maulana Ahmed Raza Barelvi and Maulana Hamid Raza Barelvi struggled for the renaissance of Muslim Society during the period of Britain Colonalism. Anjuman Himayat-eIslam. Deoband (1866). Hindus started indulging Muslim towards Shirk (i. Maulana Shabbir Ahmed Usmani. Karachi (1885). Sind Madressah-tul-Islam. Maulvi Charagh Ali. Islamia College. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan while taking inspiration Shah Wali Ullah's concept of tactical moderation of Islam formulated the two-nation theory which formed the basis for the demand for a separate Muslim land of Pakistan Q. Wali Ullah's son Abdul Aziz (1746-1823) carried forward the legacy of his father and as a result India faced violent communal disorder for decades. Muslim Ulemas like Maulana Mohammad Qasim. Maulvi Mehdi Ali Khan. Altaf Hussain Hali.e. Maulana Shibli Naumani. Discuss the role of Sheikh Ahmed Sarhindi as a pioneer of Islamic renaissance in South Asia.
He wrote letters to all the nobles' of Jahangir's court. Sheikh Ahmed Sarhindi came out to reform and to do away with all Un-Islamic practices and beliefs initiated by Akbar among the Muslims. His aim was to rid Islam of the accretions of Hindu Pantheism. The Ulema and theologians of the time had ceased to refer to the Quran and Hadith in their commentaries. 1564. He was educated at home and was inducted into mysticism by his father. In these circumstances. Sheikh Ahmed set upon himself the task of purifying the Muslim society.ning.http://vuattach. commonly known as Mujaddid-e-Alf-Sani (the reformer of the second millennium). who was himself an eminent Sufi. Successful Jihad against Deen-e-Elahi During his period the Muslims in India had become so deficient in the knowledge of true Islam that they had more belief in Karamat or miracles of the saints than Islamic teachings. a city of East Punjab. So Sheikh was summoned to the court of Jahangir ans was asked to bend down. 1624. At the age of 36 he went to Delhi and there he met Khawaja Baqi Billah who introduced him to the Naqshbandi Silsilah. 2. and considered jurispredence the only religious knowledge. the Mughal King had started a series of experiments with Islam. in Sirhind. who ordered for his imprisonment in the Fort of Gawaliar for two years due to his discourteous behaviour. He was so rigid in his approach towards Islam that he did not bend before the emperor as per the prevalent custom. propagating his own religion Deen-e-Elahi. an amalgamation of Hindu and Muslim beliefs. Akbar. Sheikh Abdul-al-Ahad.com/ Sheikh Ahmed Sirhindi. Most of them were the same who were present in Akbar's court. . was born on 26 June. Refusal to prostrate before Jahangir As soon as Akbar died and Jahangir ascended the throne. He died on 15 December. However the Mujaddid succeeded in his efforts at last and Jahangir cancelled all those orders of his father which were against the spirit of Islam and thus Deen-e-Elahi came to an ignoble end. Sheikh Ahmed was not new to Sufi discipline as he had made remarkable progress and soon reached the sublime heights of experience and beatific vision. The opponents of Sheikh also came out and he was dubbed as an atheist by them. at the age of 60 years. Mujaddid's Reforms 1. Sheikh Ahmed Sarhindi never entered into any political conflict directly. His plea that bending down before anyone except Allah was unIslamic annoyed Jahangir.
After Maghrib prayers the king would grant him special audience where Sheikh would talk about religious affairs to Jahangir. He also requested the scholars to show the right path to the people. not reality. that real Being is Allah and we are all His manifestations. This approach resulted in bringing about greater unity among people of different religion.http://vuattach.com/ 3. The king befriended and respected the Sheikh. Sheikh Ahmed Sirhindi preached the doctrine of what he called Wahdat-al-Shuhud i. Thus he maintained that we are not manifestation of One Being but it is only an appearance. and the King. Maktubat-e-Imam Rabbani Shiekh Ahmed adopted an effective method of persuasion by writing letters to the leading nobles of the royal court. Preaching of Islam during the Imprisonment in Gawaliar's Fort Hazrat Mujaddid continued preaching of Islam during the imprisonment in the Fort of Gawaliar. 6. Through preaching. discussions and his maktubat addressed to important nobles and leaders of religious thought. unity of witnessing.ning. Jahangir under the influence of his Islamic writings released him from jail and offered huge gifts to him. Letters and messages were sent to them exhorting to serve the cause of Islam. He asked the saints to give up their Un-Islamic practices and beliefs. against which he gave his philosophy of Wahdat-al-Shuhud. He vehemently opposed the Sufi doctrine of Wahdat-al-Wujud which maintained. 5. After a year however. He was highly critical of the philosophy of Wahdat-al-Wujud. he spread his message amongst the elite in particular.e. They believed that the entire universe is the symbol of Almighty God and a source of revelation of God's sovereignty. Due to his efforts thousands Non-Muslims accepted Islam. Wahdat-al-Shuhud The philosophy of Wahdat-al-wujud was presented by some Sufis of Akbar's time. His letters are known as Maktubate-Imam Rabbani. race and tribe. He listened to his advices. 4. The implications of the doctrine of Wahdat-al-Shuhud were quite grave as it emphasizes superiority of people of one religion on the other and for that reason that religion should be kept pure and divested of all other influences. Books and Magazines (Risala) . He asked his son Shah Jahan to become a spiritual disciple of the Sheikh.
He was a widely read scholar and a magnetic orator. he founded the first stone of Two Nation Theory in Indo-Pak subcontinent which led to the success of Pakistan Movement and establishment of Pakistan. His greatest work on Islamic philosophy was the Tauheed-iShuhudi.ning. His real name was Qutbud-Din Ahmed. 7. He wrote many books. In these works the need and importance of prophethood was described. to the cause of Muslim community of Indo-Pak subcontinent. Therefore. He was born to a noble learned family of Delhi on 21st February 1703.3. Two Nation Theory Mujaddid Alif Sani cleared on the Muslims that they were the separate nation from Hindus and nothing was common in them. With this declaration. dress. Isbat-ul-Nabat and Risal-i-Nabuwat. Hadith and Fiqh.http://vuattach. including his famous works. this eminent Islamic mystic of this time and a hardcore Sunni Muslim strongly refuted the shia point of view in his writing entitled Risala Tahliliyya and made a major contribution towards rehabilitation of orthodox Islam in India. social custom and way of life. Enumerate the services rendered by Shah Wali-ullah. That's why Hazrat Mujaddid was rightly called First Founder of Pakistan. the Muslim should keep themselves distinct from Hindus with reference to food. Then after the death of his father in 1719 he started delivering . Shah Wali-Ullah showed great promise at an early age. He is considered as a pioneer of Muslim self-assertion by denouncing Un-Islamic practices Q. By the age of fifteen he had completed the learning of Holy Quran.com/ Rejecting the heterodoxies of the great Mughal Emperior Akbar. Services rendered by Shah Wali-Ullah (1703-62) Shah Wali-Ullah was a great Muslim saint of the 18th century. Hazrat Mujaddid Alf Sani was the most powerful religious personality in the history of sub-continent who opposed Akbar and thereby invited his wrath. Sheikh Ahmed continued preaching Islam till the end of his days. He urged peopled to adhere to the accepted and clearly laid down path of Islam. His father Shah Abdur-Rahim was a renowned scholar of that period. Conclusion The efforts of Sheikh Ahmed to purify the religious and practical life of the Muslims left an indelible impact on the history of Muslim India. He got an opportunity in a liberal atmosphere in Jahangir's reign to use his powerful pen to denounce Akbar's religious innovations.
The contributions of Shah Wali-Ullah can be summarized as under: 1. Shah Wali-Ullah also arranged the Hadith in respect of their topics. the Muslim Renaissance Movement launched by Shah Wali-Ullah was the forerunner of all the future freedom movements of Indo-Pakistan.com/ lectures in Madressah Rahimyah at the age of seventeen. In short. He thus provided a spiritual basis or national cohension. He completed the translation of Holy Quran in Persian in 1738. Moreover he wrote a letter to Ahmed Shah Abdali. In his time Shias and Sunnis were aggressively hostile to each other and . King of Afghanistan requesting him to save the Muslims from the highhanded-less of the Marathas. on which all but the extremists could agree. He propagated that Islam was a universal power and thus the Muslims should be the dominant force in the SubContinent and elsewhere. Moreover Shah Wali-Ullah termed the Hadith collection by Imam Muttah as the most authentic and wrote its commentary in Arabic and Persian. At this critical juncture Shah Wali-Ullah in order to check their advance prepared Najid-ullah (Rohilla Chief) and Shuja-udDaulah (Nawab of Oudh) for Jihad. Later on his son Shah Abdul Aziz founded the Jihad Movement which was carried forward by Syed Ahmed Shaheed. In addition he worked for the renaissance of Islam. He died in 1762.ning.http://vuattach. In 1733 he returned to Delhi and took over the charge of Madressah Rahimyah. In the middle of the 18th century Marathas had become a great political power. He studied the writings of each school-of-thought to understand their point of view. and then wrote comprehensive volumes about what is fair and just in light of the teachings of Islam.e. Religious Services http://vuattach. He worked out a system of thought. In order to create a balance betweeen the four schools i. Later on his sons Shah Rafiud-Din and Shah Abdul Qadir translated the Holy Quran in Urdu. Political Services Shah Wali-Ullah possessed a deep political insight. religious and national services. There he wrote many books and rendered many political.ning. Shafii. Then in 1730 he performed Hajj again. Hanafi. and values. Maulana Mohammad Qasim Nanotvi founder of Madressah Deoband and Sir Syed Ahmed Khan were among his followers. They were threatening to occupy the crown of Delhi. He tried to trace the causes of the decline of Mughal Empire. Malaki. Hambali he wrote Al-Insaf-fi-bayan-sabab-al-Ikhtilaf. beliefs. He recommended the application of Ijtihad against blind Taqlid in his famous work Aqad-al-jaiyad-fi-Ahkam-al-Ijtihad wa-al-Taqlid.com/ Shah Wali-Ullah rendered many religious services. Consequently in the Third Battle of Panipat. Shah Wali-Ullah trained students in different branches of Islamic knowledge and entrusted them with the teaching of students. He adopted an analytical and balanced approach towards four major school-of-thought of mysticism. Ahmed Shah Abdali inflicted a crushing defeat on the Marathas. 2.
he pinpointed the causes of chaos and disintegration of Muslim society. The religio-political ideology of Waliullah made a permanent crack in Hindu-Muslim relation in this sub-continent. He created separate national identity among Muslims and convinced them to fight for their rights." In his opinion. which undermined the self-pride and dignity of integrated Indian society. Even after his death in 1762. a state can prosper only if there were light and reasonable taxes. Conclusion Shah Wali-Ullah was responsible for awakening in the community the desire to win back its moral fervor and maintain its purity. Heavy taxation on peasants. the health of Muslim society demanded that doctrines and values inculcated by Islam should be maintained in their pristine purity unsullied by extraneous influences. "Waliullah did not want the Muslims to become part of the general milieu of the sub-continent. 2.com/ their rivalry was damaging the Muslim unity. Ishtiaq Hussain Qureshi writes in The Muslim Community of Indo-Pakistan subcontinent. Social Services Shah Wali-Ullah was strongly opposed to integration of Islamic culture in the cultural cauldron of the sub-continent and wanted the Muslims to ensure their distance from it. Shah Wali-Ullah directed his teachings towards reorienting the Muslim society with the concepts of basic social justice. After Mujaddid Alf Sani. In his book "Hujjat-ullah-il-Balighah". In short the Muslim Renaissance Movement launched by Shah Wali-Ullah . merchants and workers. his sons and followers carried on his work and noble mission. To rescue a community's conscience. belief and faith from destruction was no small achievement. He established several branches of his school at Delhi for effective dissemination of his ideas. Pressure on public treasury. He wanted them to keep alive their relation with rest of the Muslim world so that the spring of their inspiration and ideals might ever remain located in Islam and tradition of world community developed by it. These were 1. removing social inequalities. Shah Sahab wrote Izalat-alAkhifa and Khilafat-al-Khulafa in order to remove misunderstanding between Shias and Sunnis. 3. the emoluments given to various people who render no service to the state. He refused to denounce Shias as heretics. with the result that tax evasion was rampant.http://vuattach. and balancing the iniquitous distribution of wealth. Shah Sahib rejected Combine Unity and ensured Religion as only identification of Muslims. Shah Wali-Ullah worked for unity of Muslims and to develop separate National identify.ning. Many future Islamic leaders and thinkers were inspired by his example. According to Shah Wali-Ullah.
Ajmer and Marwar. For this purpose he founded Jihad Movement. Battles Against Sikhs On his arrival in the Frontier province the warriors of Yousaf Zai tribe. He established an Islamic state in the area and announced his caliphate on January 11.ning. Syed Ahmed Shaheed was an outstanding orator. Tonak. Thus on 17th January 1826 he started his journey along with thousands of Mujahideens. He was a well built young man and took interest in manly sports. These victories and successes of Mujahideens disturbed Ranjit Sikh very much. Syed Ahmed Shaheed decided to launch Jihad from North West Frontier region of the country. In 1810 he joined the army of Nawab Ameer Khan of Tonak in order to take part in Jihad against the British. In the first half of the nineteenth century Punjab was under the rule of Sikhs who were very cruel to the Muslims. followers of Pir Syed Akbar Shah and the local Muslims joined the Jihad Movement. The Muslims of IndoPakistan responded to his call and thousands of Muslims got themselves enrolled in the Jihad Movement. He reached Peshawar and won the sympathies of two local chiefs Yar . Maulana Mohammad Qasim Nanotvi founder of Madressah Deoband and Sir Syed Ahmed Khan were among his followers. Ranjid Singh the Sikh ruler of Punjab sent Budh Singh at the head of ten thousand soldiers to meet the challenge of the Mujahideens. customs and religious places. He fought against the English forces and displayed his skill in the art of fighting. Then he went to Afghanistan through Balochistan.http://vuattach. From Afghanistan he arrived at Nowshera after nine months journey. His religious and political sermons won him many companions which included Shah Ismail and Shah Abdul Haye. He decided to weaken the Mujahideens through diplomacy. As a result thousands of Sikh soldiers were killed and Budh Singh had to retreat with heavy losses. Later on after several skirmishes the sikh army was defeated in the battle of Hazru. After these successes Syed Ahmed Shaheed decided to organize the local administration. Later on his son Shah Abdul Aziz founded the Jihad Movement which was carried forward by Syed Ahmed Shaheed Syed Ahmed Shaheed (1786-1831) Syed Ahmed Shaheed was born at Rai Barailly in November 1786. He reached Sindh via Gwalior. They were showing disregard to the Muslim culture. On hearing about these brutalities Syed Ahmed Shaheed decided to launch Jihad against the Sikhs. His father Shah Ilm-Ullah was pious religious scholar.com/ was the forerunner of all the future freedom movements of Indo-Pakistan. On 21st December 1826 a strong contingent of Mujahideens attacked the Sikh army at night. He was inspired spiritually by Shah Abdul Aziz. 1827. Syed Ahmed Shaheed declared war against Sikhs.
According to Islamic System and in the following of Sunnat-e-Rasul (P. he infiltrated his agents among Mujahideen who created misunderstanding amongst them. In the combat which took place between Ranjeet Singh and Mujahideen army of Ranjeet Singh used modern Mujahideen depended on out dated and all weapon. Mujahideen on the other side was ignorant of War Strategy.U. Through mistake Syed Ahmed Khan appointed Sultan Mohammad Khan the ruler of Peshawar. Consequently. The poverty suffering class. In the meantime Sikh army under Sher Singh advanced against the Mujahideen. The main causes of the failure can be listed as under: 1. dissimulation and slaughtered Mujahideen. Thousands of Mujahideens were murdered treacherously at Peshawar and other places. Therefore. Syed Ahmed after establishing Islamic rule collected Zakat (Islamic tax) from the rich Muslims but he could not arrange the proper distribution of Zakat amongst the needy poor people. Almost all the Mujahideens including Syed Ahmed Shaheed were martyred. Sardar Sher Singh too arrived at Balakot at the head of 20 thousands soldiers.http://vuattach. depravity and the sense of inferiority. The famous battle of Balakot was fought on 6th May 1831.H).com/ Mohammad Khan and Sultan Mohammad Khan by pointing them the ruler of Peshawar. it was not possible to defeat them. The Sikhs emerged victorious. The old weapon could not face the modern weapon. attracted pathans by bribing luring and sometimes pressurizing who committed spying. Thus the Muslims were divided into two camps. Failures of Jihad Movement The center and aim of life of Syed Ahmed Shaheed was Jihad which due to reasons became a failure. However Syed Ahmed Shaheed succeeded in conquering Peshawar in November 1830. Ranjeet Singh was aware of the fact that so long there unity of thought and action in amongst Mujahideen. revolt. 6. 4. Unfortunately Sultan Mohammad turned a trailer and hatched a conspiracy against Syed Ahmed Shaheed. 3. Ranjeet Singh exploiting the human weakness. They were ample financial sources with Ranjeet Singh but Mujahideen were facing the lack of financial resources. Syed Ahmed Shaheed gathered ail of his forces and encamped at Balakot which was a very secure place. The Sikh army besieged the area. the lower class (majority of the masses) became the victim of pessimism. 2. In this way refused to accept Islamic system and started the move against this .B. Ranjeet Singh acquired the military services of the Western generals Ventura and Elite who imparted training upon the soldiers of Ranjeet Army and the battle was also fought with the modern war weapons from the side of Ranjeet Singh. 5.ning.
Conclusion Although Syed Ahmed Shaheed failed to finish Sikh rule in Punjab yet his Jihad Movement Kindled a flame of freedom in the Sub-Continent. Chapter 5 . compulsory marriage of girl and widows.Downfall of Muslim Rule * Causes of Decline of Muslim Society * Causes of War of Independence * Causes of failure of the War * Condition of Muslims after the War .ning. 7. 9. Syed Ahmed Shaheed. For instance. Jihad Movement. The sentiments of pathans. dominated by feelings of reformation. The spirit of freedom led to the war of independence in 1857.http://vuattach. Jihad Movement failed also due the reasons that the Syed's government punished people severely even on every minor mistake.com/ government. The Pathans of the Frontier province were greatly inspired by the valiant deeds of the Mujahideens. For instance. lashing punishment to the liar woman and people who were not offering namaz. in the manner. wanted to implement the Islamic laws even during the period of war. Similarly the Mujahideen spread the spirit of Jihad throughout the length and breadth of Sub-Continent. Some points in Jihad Movement resembled with the Wahabi Movement while pathans were against of Wahabi Movement. 8. In addition the Jihad Movement imbibed in the Muslims the spirit of Islamic nationalism which ultimately led to the Two Nation Theory and establishment of Pakistan. The tribesmen continued the Jihad for freedom against the British. no doubt failed but this movement played a decisive role in creating and establishing an Islamic State (Pakistan) in future because this movement created unity of thought and act amongst the Muslims of Indo-Pakistan subcontinent.Downfall of Muslim Rule Chapter 5 . injured and they started to kill the government officials in nights. These were not Islamic punishments.
The causes of the decline and disintegration of the empire is generally regarded as the weakness of the successors of Alamgir-I but really the loss of feeling of solidarity among the Muslims was one of the principal causes of Muslims decadence.1. According to Erskine. "The sword was the grand arbiter of right and every son was prepared to try his fortune against his brothers. . Vastness of the Empire During the reign of Aurangzeb the Muslim Empire had become very vast and unwiedly.http://vuattach. Absence of a Definite Law of Succession There was no definite law of primogeniture. Most of them were devoted to merry making and neglected the affairs of the state. Consequently a war of succession was the only means to decide the successor of an Emperor." The result was that widespread bloodshed weakened the foundations of the Empire and provided opportunities to other adventures to interfere in the matters of state. They left their work to their Wazirs who eventually became all powerful. The empire of the Muslims began to weaken rapidly after the death of the great Emperor Alamgir-I in 1707. 2. 1. 3. Weak Successors of Aurangzeb The successors of Auranzeb were incapable. It was this sense of belonging to the same faith that enabled this numerically small minority to rule the teeming millions of the non-Muslim population.com/ Q. Various historians have arrived at the following main causes of the disintegration of the Muslim Society in Indo-Pakistan. worthless and unsuited to the job of Kingship.ning. What are the causes of the Downfall of Muslim Society? Causes of Decline of Muslim Society By the opening of the eighteenth century when Europe was ruled by Strong monarchies and the European merchant communities were well on the read to prosperity the Muslim powers everywhere showed a rapid decline. It became practically impossible for one ruler to control far flung provinces without any effective means of communication and transport. The unity of faith gave a unity of feeling to the Muslims.
Jehangir. The soldiers became easy going with the result that by the 18th century they began to avoid the hardships of battlefields. Degeneration of Nobility The character of the Rulers nobility also degenerated with their rulers. leisure and luxury rendered them inefficient and incompetent. Deterioration of character of the rulers expedited the disintegration of the Mughal Empire. the alien Mughal rule remained different throughout and could not provide homogeneous nature to all the castes.com/ 4. The demands of their religion clashed with the tenets of Hinduism. a terror for the enemies. 8. Deterioration of Morality of Mughal Emperors With the passage of time the character of the Muslim Emperors deteriorated quickly. creeds and religious of the Sub-Continent. 6. Some of them were reckless drinkers while the others were fond of women.ning. to Indian Soil The Mughals had come from the countries of Central Asia. Deterioration of Army Hot climate. Thus. Abundance of wealth. Babur. The army ceased to be what it had been. Demoralized army could not keep the provinces together. This affected the administration of the State.http://vuattach. 5. They brought their own culture and customs to Indo-Pakistan. The invasions of Nadir Shah and Ahmed Shah Abdali demolished the army. The invaders plundered the country at will. The soldiers lost their ancestral confidence of victories. Shah Jahan and Aurangzeb were all physically very strong. 7. Intellectual Bankruptcy The latter Muslim Rulers and nobility suffered from intellectual bankruptcy because there was no proper system of education in the country. Corrupt Administration . 9. Humayun. Lack of proper training resulted in the production of rulers who were not competent to face the challenges of their jobs. Mughal Rule Alien. Akbar. abundance of wealth and comforts deteriorated the standards of Mughal army.
http://vuattach. The stoppage of their influx resulted in deterioration of military and civil standards. Rise of Marathas . Stoppage of Adventures from Persia. Invasions of Nadir Shah and Ahmed Shah Abdali The invasions of Nadir Shah (1739) and Ahmed Shah Abdali (1754-67) not only exposed the hollowness of the Muslim rulers but also created a stale of anarchy in the country. Previously this vacuum was filled by adventures from neighboring states.com/ With the weakening of the hold of the rulers the Muslim administration became corrupt. Continuous fighting told upon the efficiency and the morale of the army. 10. courtiers. Absence of Naval Power The Muslim rulers did not develop their Navy whereas the European nations possessed modern naval fleets.ning. Such a situation weakened the foundations of the Muslim Society.ning. Afghanistan and Turkistan The Muslim leaders with the passage of time became habitual of luxurious living. Such situation proved ideal for the rise of Marathas and Sikhs as new powers. The ministers. nobles and officials accepted bribes.com/ 12. http://vuattach. 13. 15. 14. There was a dearth of good administration and fighters. The conquest of Bijapur and Golkonda finished the two states which served as a check to the Marathas. It proved a weak point of the rulers when they had to fight the British and the Portuguese. Plight of the Common People and Peasants The condition of the common people and Peasants worsened in the 17th and 18th centuries. 11. Bad economic conditions led to discontentment among the classes which resulted in uprisings like the revolts of Satnamis. Jats and Sikhs. Aurangzeb's Policy in Deccan Aurangzeb spent the last 25 years of his rule in the Deccan.
Later on in the 18th century they were able to extend their influence to Delhi.http://vuattach.ning. Backwardness in Science and Technology The rulers failed to keep pace with the developments in science and technology. Their clever maneuverings and the weaknesses of the Muslim Rulers enabled the British to seize control of the country by 1857. Thus they could not equip their army with the latest weapons. The rise of Sikhs also contributed to the downfall of Muslim Society. These acts created certain doubts in the minds of Hindus. Especially the Rajputs of Mewar and Marwar fought a prolonged war against the Muslim. 19. The Portuguese and the British (The English East India Company) came in the guise of traders but developed factories and forts which ultimately became centre of their subversive activities. 17. Advent of English East India Company The advent of Europeans like Portuguese and the English is an event of great significance in the Muslim rule. After the death of Aurangzeb the weak Muslim rulers could not check the emergence of Sikhs as a power in Punjab. During the reign of Jahandar Shah (1712-13) and Farrukhsiyar (1713-19) Banda Bahadur (the Sikh Leader) captured Sirhindi and killed its Governor Wazir Khan. 16. Causes of War of Independence . Rise of Sikhs Rise of Sikhs in the 18th century was another factor which contributed to the downfall of the Muslim Society. The emergence of Maralha power contributed to the downfall of Muslim rule. As a result they could not effectively face the European nations in the battles of Plassey and Buxer which ultimately decided the tale of the country. they were deprived of the services of their centuries old friends.com/ Second half of the 17th century saw the growth of Maratha nationalism. Besides he re-imposed Jazia on the Hindus. Rise of Hindus of Rajputana The religious policy of Aurangzeb was not liberal like his predecessors. 18. Thus.
(A). religious.com/ It is now an admitted fact that th mass uprising of the people of IndoPakistan against the British rule in 1857 was not a spontaneous reaction of alien rule but the emption of the volcano of discontent which had kept smoldering for about a century. They annexed many states. 2. . large scale unemployment. Confiscation of Estates It was a convention of the past rulers that the nobles were granted large estates.ning. social and military. economic. The causes of the War of Independence were political. permanent settlements. 1. destruction of local industry. monopoly of trade by the English and the Stamp Act were some important economic causes of the war. The British Government reversed this policy and confiscated thousands of such estates. Punjab. He annexed states on the grounds of Doctrine of Lapse and misgovernment. As a result their states were annexed when they died.http://vuattach. As such the rulers of the affected states like Sindh. Political Causes The English East India company got strongly implanted in the SubContinent after its historic victory over Nawab of Bengal in the Battle of Plassey fought in 1757. Annoyance of Rules of States Lord Dalhousie left no stone unturned for the expansion of the English territory. Economic Causes of War The new agrarian policy of the British. (B). Soon after wards in 1764 the British recorded another important triumph in the Battle of Buxar. 3. Doctrine of Lapse Lord Dalhousie applied Doctrine of Lapse for the expansion of the British Empire. Jhansi and Oudh became sworn enemies of the Company. According to this doctrine the rulers of the states were not allowed to adopt sons.
Permanent Settlement The after effects of the permanent settlement of land were very disastrous for the land owners. This resulted in frustration among the lower classes. Destruction of Local Industry As a result of the Industrial revolution of England cheaper and superior goods flowed into the markets of the Sub-Continent. 6. They had to deposit regularly a fixed amount which was not always possible. 5.http://vuattach. Court Fee Stamps The English Government declared court fee compulsory to be paid in the form of court stamps. Propagation of Christianity .ning. (C). The defaulters were very often degraded. Religious Causes 1. Unemployment The British did not trust the Indians. Domination of Trade by the English The British enacted such tows which facilitated their trade in Indo-Pakistan. New Agrarian Policy In the agrarian the Zamindars were asked to provide documentary proof of their holdings. This class was in the front rank when he war of Independence broke out in 1857. In addition the rate of taxes on the lands was increased. As a result they were not appointed on important jobs. They were deprived of their lands when they failed to furnish documentary proof of their ancestral estates. Thus the people were denied the right of free justice. This policy resulted in unemployment for the educated classes. 2.com/ 1. These steps mined the local industry. As a result the local industry suffered badly. The local industry could not compete with the imported stuff. 3. 4. Many sea ports were declared free ports and custom duty on imported goods was wiredrawn.
This attitude greatly agitated Muslim religious feelings. These inventions made the Indians suspicious of the intentions of the British. They considered themselves a super creation and often resorted to insulting attitude towards the people of the Sub-Continent. It was a sort of large scale effort by the Muslims to snatch freedom from alien rule. 4. post and telegraph. Jihad Movement Syed Ahmed Shaheed launched die Jihad Movement in the second decade of the 19th century. Insulting treatment with the People A hundred year rule over the Sub-Continent had given the English an air of superiority. (E). The English wanted to prove their culture as superior to others. Introduction of New Inventions In the first half of the 19th century the British introduced in Indo-Pakistan many inventions like railway. 3. The Jihad Movement though failed to achieve immediate aims yet it succeeded in Kindling a flame of freedom. Thus they adopted a policy of ridiculing the Muslim culture. Military Causes . (D). Moreover they made English as medium of education. Anti-Religion Laws The British Government enacted many laws which were contradictory to the fundamentals of various religions of Indo-Pakistan.http://vuattach. Mockery of Cultural Heritage The British were afraid of the Muslim cultural heritage which was very rich in all aspects.com/ Although at the outset the English had shown respect towards all religions yet with the passage of time they changed their mind and devised ways and means for the propagation of Christianity in Indo-Pakistan. 2.ning. 2. Social Causes 1.
Greased Cartridge The use of greased cartridge proved as the immediate cause of the war of Independence. However. Consequently he was executed. Mangal Panda a native soldier of the 34th native infantry fired at his British officers. he shot the major. . Dearth of English Troops It is estimated that before the start of the war of Independence there were 3.11. Thus the war was triggered on and the flames of war soon spread to all puts of the country. Events of the War The first incident of the war took place on 26th February 1857 when the native soldiers of the 19th Native infantry at Behrampur refused to used the greased cartridges. Then no 29th March 1857. It was rumored that the cartridges were greased with the fat of the cow or pig.com/ 1. Disbanded armies of annexed slates The British disbanded the armies of the annexed states. This ratio tilted the balance in favor of the natives. 2. As a result they were encouraged to launch the war of Independence. all the 34th native infantry was disbanded on 6th May 1857. In March a sepoy named Mangal Pandey defied his British officers and when his officers ordered to arrest him. Before the cartridge could be loaded. But the real trouble began two months later. Disputed Cartridges In January 1857 the British announced that they were introducing a new rifle with a paper cartridge covered in grease to keep the powder dry.ning. His fellows did not join him.http://vuattach. As a result he was caught and hanged. it was rumoured the grease on the cartridge was made from the fat of both cows and pigs.000 European troops. This action left thousands of the local soldiers unemployed.000 native troops as against 40. However. This situation agitated the religious feelings of both the Muslims and Hindu Soldiers. The sepoys were so angered by this that they refused to use the new cartridges. 3. the end had to be bitten off. 1.
3. Bahadur Shah Zafar became unifying symbol for the uprising. Jaggey and Jeony fought against British bravely. The fighters were assembled on the bank of Ravi and fought with the British troops under the command of Nicholson at Trimu Ghaat. The Mughal Emperor. Frontiers and Sindh As the reaction of Meerut rebellion.com/ 2. but their fellow soldiers broke into prison and freed them. Nizam Lohar. Peshawar. Sialkot prison was broken and the prisoners were freed. 1857 sepoys in Meerut refused to use the new cartridges. Jhansi and Allahabad as well as Delhi. Jhansi After the fall of Lucknow.http://vuattach.ning. Frontiers and Sindh. Ceased British Rule The revolt spread quickly and the British lost control of Mathura. Here the . In September 1857 Delhi was regained. the main centre of rebellion was Jhansi. Kanpur. In Punjab Rae Ahmed Kharal. The freedom fighters set British homes and offices to the fire. Hyderabad. Meerut Rebellion On April 24. Sahiwal. Their heads were then presented to the Emperor as a lesson. Mirza Sultan and Mirza Abu Bakar were brutally murdered. Then the soldiers marched to Delhi and captured it. Karachi. Retrieval of Power However British proved to be too powerful to be defeated by an uncoordinated uprising across many areas. Punjab. Lucknow was also taken and British rule ceased to exist throughout what is now called Uttar Pradesh. Unfortunately the freedom fighters were defeated. 4. winning the support of both Muslim and Hindu. Jehlum. Bahadur Shah surrendered peacefully. 5. It was treated as army rebellion and they were court martialled and put into prison. 6. Mardan and Hazara districts. British rulers disarmed the local army people but the condition continued to deteriorate persistently. English killed thousands of local soldiers indiscriminately in Multan. Pindi. Unrest was spread in Punjab. but his sons Mirza Mughal. Meerut was sacked and British officers and other Europeans were put to death. Lucknow was also regained by the British in September 1857.
7. But in June 1958 the British killed Lakshmibai (dressed as a man) in battle. The British thought that the Muslims were responsible for the war or Independence. Patiala. One ugly effect of the war of Independence was that the Muslims were subjected to oppression by the English. There were many causes of this failure. he was later captured and executed. Hindus and Sikhs helped British in taking the War of Independence to such tragic end. The failure of the war greatly encouraged the Christian missionaries to resume the propagation of their religion. She was assisted by Tatya Topee. Accordingly the hand of repression fell more heavily on the Muslims than on the Hindus. 3. 1. After the war the number of Europeans soldiers was increased in Indo Pakistan. __________________ Causes of failure of the War Q. Consequences of the War Followings were the consequences of the war. Many of the leading Muslims were hanged. A ratio of one and two was maintained with the native soldiers. an Indian general of great ability. Although he was 80 years old but he defeated English troops badly near Arrah but he died as a result of fatal wound. the Rani of Jhansi. Some are being detailed . What are the causes of failure of the War of Independence? Causes of Failure of the War The war of Independence of 1857 failed to achieve its immediate political objectives. 2.com/ sepoys were led by Lakshmibai. The rulers of the states of Jind.1.http://vuattach. Although Tatya Topee escaped.ning. Gawaliar and Hyderabad and also some rich Muslims. Bihar Canner Singh was the leader of war of Independence in Bihar.
Although it spread to various parts of the country yet some places like the Punjab. Gwalior and Nepal did not take part in the war. 2. Nana Sahib lost at Kanpur and Bahadur Khan was defeated at Baraille. Campbell etc. Bakht Khan and Kanwar Singh. They fought independent of one another. Bahadur Khan.ning. 5. Lack of Leadership and Discipline The freedom fighters fought mostly in independent groups at different places. There was no leader who could single handed lead all the groups. Thus their efforts could not get the required momentum of the national level. On the other hand the British fought the war of their survival with dedication and purpose. Rani Jhansi. Tatya Topee. Lack of Resources The freedom fighters lacked resources of all types. 3. Hyderabad. . As a result the revolutionaries lacked discipline. They were led by capable and experienced generals like Outram. They were led by leaders of their particular regions like Nana Saheb. Lack of Popular Support It is a stark fact that the war of independence never assumed the shape of a concerted national struggle. It lacked popular support. They were defeated at different places. Superior Technology of English Troops The British fought with latest weapons. Lack of Unity There was no unity among the freedom fighters. They were short of not only war equipment but food stuffs also. Rani Jhansi was routed at Jhansi. 4.http://vuattach. Begum Hazrat Mahal lost at Oudh. As a result they could not assemble their resources against a common enemy. The Mughal Emperor had no treasury to support the war.com/ as follows: 1. They had the backing of the latest technology. They had to face an enemy which was well equipped and well organized. Bakht Khan was defeated at Delhi.
Although the war was ill planned and short lived yet it shock the British Imperialism to its foundations.http://vuattach. The concern of the British Government can be judged from the fact that immediately after the war the crown took over the control of the country from the English East India Company. Its failure started a new era of alien rule in the Sub-Continent. die war of Independence remained confined to a few centers. The British Government took stock of the entire situation and held the Muslims of the Country responsible for the 1857 catastrophe. What were the Condition of Muslims after the war? Condition of Muslims after the War The war of Independence of 1857 was conducted mainly by the Muslims. 7.com/ 6. Role of Traitors The British succeeded in finding certain traitors in the ranks of the freedom fighters. In the beginning the Company had to depend on the few soldiers present in the country. Thus. Q. Non-Cooperation of Sikhs and Punjab The Sikhs of the Province of Punjab considered the Muslims as their traditional enemies. But soon afterwards the surplus troops from Crimea started. Thus the Muslims were subjected to . 8.ning. 9. Non-Cooperation of the Rulers of the States The rulers of different states of Indo-Pakistan did not come to the help of the freedom fighters. The war of Independence started in 1857. The Sikhs soldiers played a decisive role in the recovery of Delhi from the freedom fighters. This attitude turned all the British wrath and anger against the Muslims. Thus the British troops fighting there were then free to return to the Sub-Continent. Return of British Troops from Crimea The war of Crimea ended in 1856. For Example Maulvi Rajab Ali and Hakeem Ehsan Ullah blew off the royal ammunition depot at Delhi. Thus they decided to support the British in the war of Independence.4. Thus the revolutionaries suffered a great set back. It is contended that had the Sikhs not assisted the English in the war the history of Indo-Pakistan would have been written differently.
http://vuattach.com/ These details clearly demonstrate the awe-fully pitiable condition of the Muslims of India after the war. only eleven were granted to the Muhammadans." http://vuattach." Later on W. if any statesman wishes to make a sensation in the House of Commons he has only to truly narrate the history of these Mohammadan families of Bengal.. Leading Muslims were hanged or sentenced to jails. The British were hostile to Muslims and took all steps to ensure that they could not rise in future.." About the causes of the whole state of affairs Hunter writes. About the landowning classes of Eastern Bengal he writes.. In 1870 the Mohammadan pleaders presented two memorials to the High Court pointing out that while closed holidays allowed to the Christians were sixty two and those to Hindus fifty two. "In the three grades of Assistant Government Engineers there were fourteen Hindus and not one Muslim. among die apprentices there were four Hindus and two Englishmen and not one Muslim. Hunter writes. "Not only were the Muslims economically crushed. At Murshidabad a Mohammadan Court still plays its force of mimic state and in every district the descendent of some line of princes suddenly and proudly eats his heart out among roofless palaces and weed chocked tanks. They were denied important jobs under the crown. 711 Hindus and 1338 Europeans. "The truth is that when the country passed under our rule the Muslims were the superior race and superiour not only in the stoutness of me heart and strength of arm but in power of political organization and the science of political government. Hunter gives the position of the Muslims in the public services in these words. no Muhammadan holiday was sanctioned at all. Then W... Moreover it is stated that between 1852 and 1862 out of 240 natives admitted as the pleaders of the High Court there was only one Muslim..ning.. Sir William Hunter's book "The Indian Mussalmans" published in 1871 gives a lot of information about the pitiable conditions of the Muslims of India after the 1857 upheaval." According to another survey in 1871 out of a total of 2141 persons employed by the Bengal Government there were only 92 Muslims. In the government offices. . "All sorts of employments great and small are being gradually snatched away from me Mohammadans and bestowed on men of other races particularly the Hindus. Although the observations of William Hunter are confined only to the Muslims of Bengal yet the condition of the Muslims of rest of India was not different.com/ all sorts of oppression and repression.. Among me Sub-Engineers there were 24 Hindus to one Muslim and in the upper Subordinate Department there were 22 Hindus and again not one Muslim. The following extracts from his book illustrate the conditions of the Muslims. An Indian socialist leader Asoka-Mehta in his book "The Communal Triangle" throws light on the status enjoyed by Muslims in public offices. The properties of the Muslims were confiscated..ning. In addition to these misfortunes the Muslims refused to learn Western education and sciences.. educationally and socially also their position was deliberately depressed by the government..
The main characteristics of the economy of Pakistan are as follows.com/ They were not prepared to part with their age old customs and manners. The characteristics of the economy of Pakistan are almost the same of the economy of any under developed country. 1. Burder of International Debt Most of the developing countries are depending on foreign economic assistance to meet the short fall in domestic savings and for quickening the pace of economic developement. debt service payments amount to 2309 million dollars in 1996-97 which is a heavy burden. This gradual decline in the status of the Muslims as a community was first diagnosed and checked by Sir Syed Ahmed Khan. in this manner they were slowly but surely leaving the field open for the Hindus. The liability of debt servicing has increased manifold. But unconsciously. the amount of foreign loans is increasing. The Muslims considered the acquisition of modern education as a step contrary to their religion. Chapter 6 .http://vuattach. Discuss the main characteristics of the Economy of Pakistan? Introduction Islamic Republic of Pakistan is an under developed country.1. They hated English language and decided to continue with Persian.ning. .Economics of Pakistan Chapter 6 .Economics of Pakistan * Characteristics of the Economy of Pakistan * Natural Resources of Pakistan * Importance of Agriculture * Major Industries of Pakistan _________________________________Q. As the year pass. In Pakistan.
ning. 18. 3. Ultra modern facilities of life are available here. Dualistic Economy The economies of developing countries are characterized by dualism. People live in unsanitary conditions. . ill-housed and ill-educated. The standard of living of the people living in market economy is high but that of their brothers living in subsistence sector is low. industrial sector uses capital intensive techniques and produce variety of capital goods. But in rural areas the economy is primitive. Poverty is reflected in low per capital income. People here are involved in misery-go-round. The dualistic nature of the economy is not conductive to healthy economic progress. oriented. Similarly. In short. Both the economies exist side by side. Under-Utilization of Natural Resources An important characteristics of the developing countries is that their natural resources either remain un-utilized or under-utilized or mis-utilized. 4. ill-clothed.320 in 1996-97 (470 dollars). the Main Occupation In developing countries two third or even more of the people live in rural areas. Their main occupation is agriculture which is in a backward stage. In Pakistan the per capital income at current market prices is Rs. As far as Pakistan is concerned agriculture contributes 25% of GDP. education expand very slowly. The rural sector produces commodities mainly with traditional techniques. limited size of the market and sluggish nature of the people. mostly the people in LDCs (less developed countries) are ill-fed. The peasants mostly live at a subsistence level.http://vuattach. there is a market economy which is well developed. For instance. 5. Low per Capital Income Majority of the people living in developing countries are poverty ridden. The average land holding and the yield per acre is low. Agriculture.com/ 2. primitive techniques of production. backward and agriculture. In and around the city. Most of the countries are rich in resources but they remain un-utilized or under-utilized due to lack of capital. Dualism refers to economic and social division in the economy. Service like health. in the developing countries one is the market economy and the other is the subsistence economy.
As a result there is no or very slow improvement in the living standards of the people. High Rates of Population Growth Almost all the developing countries are having a high population growth rate and a declining death rate. 8. The development made with low per capital incomes and low rates of capital formation here is swallowed up by increased population. Deficiency of Capital Deficiency of capital is another common sign in all the developing countries of the word.77% per annum. 9. In Pakistan the rate of increase in population is estimated about 2. cultural and pshychological factors leading to low level of productivity. 7.ning. It is estimated at 31% of the labour force in LDCs. Unemployment Another notable feature of developing countries is vast unemployment and disguised unemployment both in the rural and in the urban areas.http://vuattach. Low Level of Productivity In developing countries people are economically backward. immobility of labour due to joint family system. This high growth rate is offsetting all achievements of developments.com/ 6. The unemployment is increasing with the spread of education and urbanization. 10. Backward State of Technology . The capital deficiency is mainly due to (1) low per capital income (2) low rate of saving (3) low rate of investment (4) Inequalities of wealth (5) adoption of consumption pattern of advanced countries (6) Higher level expenditure on consumption etc. The main causes of backwardness are low labour efficiency.
Dependence on Export of Primary Products The LDCs are still relying on the 19th century pattern of external trade. deserts. the poor are under the hard grip of feudal lords and tribal heads. air. plains. The term usually refers to natural resources like land. The important natural . Describe the natural resources of Pakistan? Introduction Resources are defined as a means of meeting a need. It is in the interest of the feudal lords that the poor should remain poor. particularly an economic or social need.http://vuattach. 12. Influence of Feudal Lords In Pakistan. It has mountains. The important thing is to utilize them for the welfare of the human beings and development of the country economically because the progress of a country totally depends upon the utilization of the available resources. Pakistan is rich in natural resources. Natural resources are largely unchanged materials of the land that are valuable to people and used in variety of ways. Natural Resources are very important for the development and prosperity of a country. of the people. rivers and oceans. fertile soils.ning. The technological backwardness is due to (1) higher cost of production despite low money wages (2) Deficiency of Capital (3) Predominance of unskilled and untrained workers (4) Dualism (5) Misallocation of resources etc These are the major hurdles in the spread of techniques in the LDCs. 11. like many other developing countries.com/ All the developing countries are in the backward state of technology.2. They are mainly producing and exporting primary commodities to the developed countries and importing finished goods and machinery from them. Q. water.
At the foot of the mountains the soil is sandy and generally becomes finer towards the plains where Khankah. the high aridity index of the country is adding further to the significance of water in development activities in Pakistan. Water Water is basic need of life. is occasionally found. Historically. As a result. with an ever increasing number and intensity of local and regional conflicts over its availability and use. The increasing pressures of population and industrialization have already placed greater demands on water. called Bangar. soils vary in their chemical composition colour. In southern Potwar a thin layer of residual soil covering is found. These soils are generally fertile due to process of formation. limestone concentration. 2. mineral and organic matter). Soil material transported and deposited by running water is known as alluvium which that transported and deposited by winds form aeolian soil. Human beings. This finite commodity has a direct bearing on almost all sectors of economy. animals and plants cannot live without water. once a water-surplus country with huge water-resources of the . (2) air and (3) water. These vary in colour from reddish brown in the north to red or gray in the south. Soil is defined as that part of the unconsolidated material covering the surface of the earth which supports plant growth. (1) Solid Particles (Salts. Water is essential for sustaining quality of life on earth. Since agriculture is the major user of water. consists of finer particles loams.ning. Soil forming process is complex and continuous. The share of agricultural sector in the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Pakistan is about 25%. texture and organic content place to place.com/ resources are described as under: 1. The type of soil formed is a function of topography. The old alluvium of the bar uplands. The newly deposited alluvium near the river is called Khaddar and mostly consists of sand. therefore sustainability of agriculture depends on the timely and adequate availability of water. Though.http://vuattach. Soil The Soil of Pakistan belongs to dry group having high calcium carbonate and content and deficient in organic matter. The soils of the Thal and the Thar deserts and of Balochistan are wind-blown. In Pakistan its importance is more than ordinary due to the agrarian nature of the economy. Soils formed in silt are termed residual. It has three major constituents. climate vegetation and the parent rocks from which the soil material is derived.
besides. Five major tributaries joining its eastern side are Jhelum. Beas and Sutlej. which maintains the fertility of the soil. Chenab. Alpine forests grow just below the snow line. Surface waterresources of Pakistan are mainly based on the flows of the Indus River and its tributaries. Manchhar Lake. coniferous forests are . forests provide raw materials to various industries e. The are many employment opportunities that depend on the forests. the trees on the slopes of hills also regulate the supply of water to the reservoirs thereby reducing floods.8 percent of the total area is forested which is very low. Pakistan is now a water-deficit country. In Pakistan only about 4. they help to maintain a balance in the environment by checking pollution and protecting the soil from erosion by wind or water and intercepting rainfall. Saiful Muluk Lake. continuous areas of land dominated by trees. Air/Winds Air is very important for the existence of life because all living beings respire through air. From an ecological point of view. oxygen and carbon dioxide etc.ning. From a commercial and industrial point of view. three minor tributaries are the Soan. timber.com/ Indus River System. there is hardly any vegetation. The famous lakes of Pakistan are Haleji Lake. The desired level of forests is 20-30 percent of the total land of a country.http://vuattach. The Indus River has a total length of 2900 kilometres (Km) and the drainage-area is about 9. Ravi. pharmaceutical paper. promote tourism and provide employment in the forest department. By preventing soil erosion. The type and distribution of forests are closely linked to altitude. This ensures food supply to millions of people. Keenjhar Lake. The forests of Pakistan reflect great physiographic. Forests Forests are extensive. 3. Harow. From 1000 to 4000 meters. Decomposition of leaves helps in humus formation. Hana Lake. The oxygen in the air is essential for our life whereas other gases are necessary for animal and plant life. 4.66. They also have recreational value. climate and edaphic contrasts in the country.km. particularly on sloping ground.000 sq.g. which drain in mountainous areas. These are the base of existence of ever form of life on earth. In areas above the snow line. and Siran. The air is composed of nitrogen. Forests are important in many different ways.
Determination of GDP Growth Rate The GDP growth rate in Pakistan is mainly dependent upon the growth rate in agriculture sector. fluorite. only irrigated plantations have good species of wood. china clay. Besides rock salt. Discuss the Importance of Agriculture in Economic Development. antimony ore. and the need to import oil has contributed to Pakistan's trade deficits and past shortages of foreign exchange. fire clay. About 70% of its population is living in rural areas and nearly 50% of them engaged in farming. bentonite. Minerals and Power/Energy Resources Minerals and power resources are the foundation of economic development. copper. These are the Pakistan Mineral Development Corporation (PMDC). especially in the production of power. The current government has announced that privatization in the oil and gas sector is a priority. Pakistan has a large variety of minerals some of which have Bubatantial reserves and quite a few are of high quality. magnetite and uranium useful deposits of magnesite. as is the substitution of indigenous gas for imported oil. soap stone and molybdenum are found in the country development. http://vuattach. marble. Pakistan has extensive energy resources. It is confirmed and supported by the following facts. They help in giving an initial push to the raising of production in all sectors of the economy.com/ Q. some proven oil reserves. coal. However. ore. Pakistan is a world leader in the use of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) for personal automobiles. including fairly sizable natural gas reserves. the GDP growth rate increased from . phosphate rock. barites.3. coal and a large hydropower potential. Agriculture sector plays a vital role in the economic development of a country. chromite. fuller's earth. iron.http://vuattach. Introduction Pakistan is basically a farming community. dolomite.ning. Below 1000 meters. However. Semiautonomous corporations under the Ministry of Petroleum and natural resources have been set up for the purpose.ning. livestock and agro-based industries. 5. Domestic petroleum production totals only about half the country's oil needs. For example.com/ found. the exploitation of energy resources has been slow due to a shortage of capital and domestic political constraints. sulphur. limestone. silica sand. gypsum. bauxite. 1. the Resource Development Corporation (RDC) and the Geological Survey of Pakistan (GSP).
com/ 4.1% in 199697 due to fall in the production of cotton. With the improved growth in the agriculture sector due to mechanization. Providing Labour Force to Industry In most of the developing countries (including Pakistan) agriculture is the main source of providing man power for various sectors of economy. technical know how etc which are essential inputs for development. 5. 4.ning. In Pakistan.2% in 1995-96 mainly due to increase in the production of cotton. 50% of labour force is employed in agriculture sector. rice etc fetch about 65% of our total export earnings. cotton based products. vegetable and other essential raw materials in the country. the surplus labour force can be easily absorbed in the small and large scale industries. 2. Foreign Exchange Earner The agriculture sector is the main source of foreign exchange earnings in Pakistan.http://vuattach. The prices of the essential goods go up. The export of cotton. The slow rate or fall in the production of agriculture sector generates inflationary pressure and creates bottlenecks in the economic development of the country. Its contribution is 25% to Pakistan's GDP. wheat and sugarcane. Agriculture Development Essential to Curtail Inflation If the rate of growth in agriculture sector is low. it brings shortage of food. This helps in the import of capital machinery. It came down to 3. Major Component of GDP Agriculture sector is the single largest component of GDP in Pakistan. The provision of new employment both in the agricultural industrial and other sectors can increase the income of the workers and help them to get out of low income equilibrium. 6. 3. Meets food requirements . The availability for foreign exchange not only helps in the industrialization programme but also improves the balance of payments. equipment. The progress of agriculture sector provides a sound base for economic development and is considered one of the preconditions for take off or self sustained growth. rice and wheat in the year 1995-96.5% in 1993-94 to 5.
fish. of cloth. jute bags etc but also earn foreign exchange by exporting them.http://vuattach. fans etc. This helps in bringing about rapid economic development. wheat. 10. 7. 8. Summing up. It is the largest source of (about 64%) foreign exchange earnings and meets raw material . silk. jute. capital equipments and technology. Had there been no green revolution in agriculture sector during sixties and seventies. The economic development would have also been retarded due to low capital formation. sugarcane.77% annually. sugarcane fruit processing and other agro based industries to get material from within the country and expand production. Marketable Surplus When the agriculture sector is expanded on scientific lines. The industries not only meet the domestic requirements. 9. we would have spent the major portion of foreign exchange earned on the food import. jute. jute. Expanded Industrial Market The expanding and progressive sector brings prosperity to the agriculturists. can help to pay the import of industrial raw materials. The agriculture sector is successfully meeting the food requirements of over 13 crore persons in Pakistan. sugar. timber etc.ning. agriculture sector in Pakistan contributes around 25% to Pakistan's GDP and engages about half of the labour force. The surplus which may be cotton. The increase in the income of formers is spent on the purchase of industrial output such as clothes. The improvement in the agriculture sector thus provides on outlet for the products of the expanding industries. The new values are essential for rapid economic development of the country. Pshychological Conditions The modernization and expansion of agriculture sector brings progressive outlook and new motivations to the persons concerned. cars. fruits etc enable the cotton. The production of cotton. Support to Industries The improved growth in the agricultural sector provides raw material to manufacturing industries. it yields handsome marketable surplus. motorcycles.com/ Pakistan's population is growing at an alarming rate of 2.
Sugar Industry In 1947. Various steps have been taken by the Government for the growth of the textile industry e. directly financing institutions and improvements in management and labour efficiency etc. Textile Industry The textile industry is the largest industry of Pakistan. Now there are 150 vegetable ghee and cooking oil factories in Pakistan. The textile industry accounts for 17. The installed capacity of spindles was 8841 thousand and installed capacity of looms was 10 thousand in the same year. Out of these 26 are in the public sector with an installed capacity of 500 thousand tonnes of ghee and cooking oil. The production of cloth was 558 million square meters by the organized mills sector. Pakistan is a prominent country for the production of textile.2% of industrial employment and 60% of total exports. At the time of partition.P. The decline in the production of vegetable ghee is due to lower scale turnover and operational difficulties & closing down of two units in N. the provision of incentives. 32. There were 354 mills operating in the textile industry in 2001-02. It must receive top priority in economic planning of the country. It economic development is to be accelerated and stabilized. The production of textile was very low and a large quantity of textile had to be imported to meet the domestic. there were only 2 sugar factories in Pakistan. Vegetable Ghee and Cooking Oil Industry At the time of independence oil industry was very poor. Give a brief account on major industries of Pakistan A brief introduction about the major/large scale industries of Pakistan is given along the following lines. 1. During the year 2001-02 total production of sugar was 3247 thousand tonnes. 3. freedom to acquire technical assistance from abroad. A large quantity of cooking oil is imported to meet the domestic needs. but at present there are 77 sugar factories in the industry. requirements. Pakistan received only 17 textile units in its share. then the development of agricultural sector is very essential.ning. Q.4. Now. Revolutionary steps are .com/ needs of the major industries of the country.http://vuattach.F. 2. Total production of ghee and cooking oil was 774 thousand tonnes in 2001-02.3% of value added.g.W.
decline in working hours and power failure/load shedding. 6. out of these 4 factories are in public sector and 20 are in private sector.000 N. Fertilizer Industry There are 10 fertilizer units (6 in the public sector and 4 in the private sector) in the country.74. This industry is not fulfilling domestic requirements. At present there are 12 Jute mills in the country. caustic soda. By the cooperation of PIDC. Total production of Jute goods was 81. The contribution of the chemical industry towards GNP is only 3%. 7. Jute Industry At the time of independence there was not a single jute factory in Pakistan.24. This industry has been allowed duty free import of plant and machinery.7 thousand tonnes during 2001-02.98.com/ required to expand the working capacity of this industry. 32 factories were setup in East Pakistan and one in West Pakistan by the time of separation of East Pakistan in 1971. The low production was caused.000 N. 8. Tonnes (16.http://vuattach. soda ash. Now a large quantity of Raw Jute is imported from China and Bangladesh every year to meet the domestic requirement.300 thousand tonnes out of which 9935 thousand tonnes of cement was produced in 2001-02. Chemical Industry There are 12 chemical factories in the country producing. The installed capacity of cement is 16. Tonnes is the private sector).000 N. 5. by operational difficulties. sulphuric acid. Engineering Goods Industry . chlorine gas and other chemicals.ning. which must be expanded and facilities should be provided to farmers for the production of better crops. so a large amount of foreign exchange is spent on the import of different chemicals every year. having an installed capacity of 42. A number of concessions are provided for the growth of this industry. 4. Cement Industry At present 24 cement factories are operating in the country. Tonnes in the public sector and 26. Total production of fertilizers in 2001-02 was 5012 thousand tonnes.
The raw tobacco used in the manufacturing of cigarettes is produced domestically. This industry is not only meeting the worsted and woolen yam requirements of the country.http://vuattach. Taxila (3) Pakistan Machine Tools Factory. There are (1) Heavy Mechanical Complex. but it is also exporting a large quantity of worsted cloth and carpets to foreign countries. In all the five year plans. These are located at Karachi. All these are in the public sector. A number of small and large ships are made by Karachi yard and Engineering works.ning. Now Pakistan is selling ships and boats abroad. 55. 10.com/ The engineering goods and capital goods produced domestically are very helpful for economic development of a country. Quaidabad and Hamai. 11. There are also a number of light and medium engineering goods industries producing a lot of items. Texila (2) Heavy Foundry Project. Karachi. Now we have 4 heavy engineering industries. Cigarette Industry At present 22 factories are producing cigarettes and Biri. Ship Building Industry Ships are constructed at Karachi. Landhi (4) Pakistan Steel Mills. 9. During the year 2001-02. This industry was given importance in the 3rd five year plan. this industry is given much importance.318 million cigarettes were produced in the country. This factory was establised by PIDC. . Nowshera. Our country is self sufficient in the production of cigarettes. Lawrencepur. Woolen and Worsted Textile Industry There are 16 woolen mills in Pakistan.
The neighbour country India did not want Pakistan to be economically stable and strong.ning. A plan when it is prepared requires a section or an authority to implement it as a legally enforceable document.Economic Progress of Pakistan Chapter 7 .Economic Progress of Pakistan * History of Economic Planning in Pakistan * Importance of Economic Planning in Pakistan * Effective Planning in Pakistan * Colombo Plan (1951-57) ________________________________ Q. It is usually attached 10 one of the national ministry. the economy of Pakistan was very poor.http://vuattach. The purpose of setting up this board was to advise and assist the development board in the process of planning. The various types of decisions involved in planning are partly political but mainly they are technical. supervision and evaluation of its results.com/ Chapter 7 . But the Government of Pakistan took up the job of establishing the institution of planning in the country. After independence in 1947. a planning advisory board was established. The . it requires administrative machinery for implementation. On the other hand. The function of planning is usually entrusted to a specialized body like planning board or a planning committee or a planning commission. or it may have a separate ministry of its own. History of Economic Planning in Pakistan National economic planning is a technical job and requires trained personnel to carry it out.1 Give a brief account on history of Economic Planning in Pakistan. Pakistan's economic development planning began in 1948. A development board was set up in 1948 to coordinate the growth and development among different run by the government. Meanwhile.
More resources than had been intended also were diverted to defense. the balance of payments deficit was kept under control. The fifth FiveYear Plan (1978-83) was an attempt to stabilize the economy and improve the standard of living of the poorest segment of the population. When the government of Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto came to power in 1971. as well as the sharp increase in International oil prices in 1979-80. In 1953. however. planning was virtually bypassed. the level of foreign assistance declined. and Pakistan became selfsufficient in all basic foodstuffs with the exception of edible oils. Pakistan's success. The plan envisaged a total expenditure of Rs. Never the less. The Second Five Year Plan (1960-65) surpassed its major goals when all sectors showed substantial growth. After the 1965 Indo-Pakistani War over Kashmir. but in 1958 the government renewed its commitment to planning by establishing the Planning Commission. partly because of inadequate staffing. drew resources away from planned investments. and they were largely ignored. this plan was not implemented. Yet the plan failed to stimulate substantial private industrial investment and to raise significantly the expenditure on rural infrastructure development. Many of the controls on industry were liberalized or abolished.com/ development board and planning advisory board jointly started the process of planning in Pakistan. 2600 million. partially depended on generous infusions of foreign aid. produced only modest growth. some of the plan's goals were attained. The first five year plan (1955-60) was prepared by this board and was released in 1957.http://vuattach. It was the beginning of systematic planning in Pakistan. A six year development plan (1951-57) was prepared on the recommendations of Colombo Consultation Committee. The plan encouraged private entrepreneurs to participate in those activities in which a great deal of profit could be made. Under Bhutto. As a result. while the government acted in those sectors of the economy where private business was reluctant to operate. the government replaced the development board with a new autonomous body called the planning board.ning. mainly because political instability led to a neglect of economic policy. however. designed along the lines of its immediate predecessor. The Zia government accorded more importance to planning. The Sixth Five-Year Plan (1983-88) represented a significant shift toward . This mix of private enterprise and social responsibility was hailed as a model that other developing countries could follow. The Fourth Five-Year Plan (1970-75) was abandoned as East Pakistan became independent Bangladesh. the Third Five-Year Plan (196570). But the initial effort was unsystematic. Increased defence expenditures and a flood of refugees to Pakistan after the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in December 1979. particularly from the United States. only annual plans were prepared. In practice.
It was also intended that public-sector corporations finance most of their own investment programs through profits and borrowing.2. 4 percent for health. It was designed to tackle some of the major problems of the economy. Total planned private investment was Rs. 18 percent for transportation and communications. and low spending on health and education. As the targets of production and development are different in different economies. Of this total. 5 percent industry and minerals. 292 billion. the eighth plan had not yet been announced. The economy grew at the targeted average of 6. 9 percent for water. the government established a working group on private investment for the Eight Five-Year Plan (1993-98). Presidents of chambers of commerce and senior civil servants. low investment and savings ratios. what and how mush is to be produced and to whom it is to be allocated by the conscious decision of a determinate authority. Prof. However. planning is considered an essential mean of guiding and accelerating their development. Dickinson defines economic planning as The making of major economic decisions. In developing countries. Q. The plan gave much greater emphasis than before to private investment in all sector of the economy. In August 1991. heavy reliance on imported energy. economic policy for fiscal year 1994 was being guided by an annual plan.com/ the private sector. low agricultural productivity. 8 percent for physical infrastructure and housing.D.5 percent during the plan period and would have exceeded the target if it had not been for severe droughts in 1986 and 1987. on the basis of a comprehensive survey of the economic system as a whole. so the definition of economic planning is different for all economists. submitted its report in late 1992. The Seventh Five-Year Plan (1988-93) provided for total public-sector spending of Rs. in early 1994. The idea under-lying planning is a conscious and deliberate use of resources of a community with a view to achieve certain targets of production for the overall development of the economy. The need for planning arises . Introduction There is no precise definition of economic planning which is acceptable to all economists and political thinkers. which included leading industrialists.http://vuattach. Instead. and 11 percent for other sectors. H. This group. 7 percent for education. Discuss the importance of Economic Planning in Pakistan. mainly because the successive changes of government in 1993 forced ministers to focus on short terms issues.ning. 38 percent was designated for energy. and the private to public ratio of investment was expected to rise from 42:58 in fiscal year 1988 to 48:52 in fiscal year 1993. 350 billion.
In developing countries of the world like Pakistan. there is a strong and powerful swing towards planning. how to produce. irrational. Planning has proved to be a powerful instrument in eliminating business fluctuations. There is also lack of information and rapid changes in the economy.ning. It can mobilize and utilize the available resources in the best interest of its citizens. The problems of what to produce. All the able bodied persons are gainfully employed. Planning has proved to be an effective weapon in reducing the shocking inequalities in income. for whom to produce and how to produce are not properly solved by price mechanism. The importance of economic planning can be looked from these perspective. This leads to excessive uncertainties about the economic events in the future. tenure and employment. 2. 3. Decisions of the Planning Authority are Superior The planning authority has a better insight into the economic problems of the country. There is generally inefficient allocation of resources among its many alternative uses. Coordinated Programme In a country there are millions of persons who are engaged in economic activities for earning profit.http://vuattach. 5. Eliminating Business Fluctuations All the market economies of the world have faced and are passing through various phases of trade cycle. Reducing Economic Inequalities In the capitalist countries. In addition to this. the economy can be set on the right lines and the country can progress at the maximum possible rate of growth. If machinery is created to coordinate the working of the businessmen. Provision of Job Opportunities With the aid of planning. The period of prosperity is followed by a period of low activity. There is also security of income. Considering all these conditions. it is increasingly felt that price mechanism cannot be fully relied upon to maximize growth in the economy. This has created social bitterness and heart burning among the have not. . The decisions taken by some of most of them may be short sighted. 1. self frustrating and socially disastrous. 4. the spill over benefits and costs (benefits obtained or cost imposed without compensation by third parties from the production of other parties) are not taken into consideration. the gap between the rich and the poor is widening. the resources of country are utilized to the maximum. The developing nations must adopt development planning to overcome poverty.com/ because the market mechanism does not function well and efficiently in underdeveloped nations.
cyclical unemployment etc. lipstick. through planning can control the volume and direction of foreign trade. 12. cartels. The government measures facilitate. However.com/ 6. it can. so that the terms of trade remain favourable and the country moves rapidly on the path of economic development. The state.http://vuattach. stimulate. the industrialists and businessmen withhold the supply of goods and create artificial scarcity with a view to making profits. market sharing etc is completely banned. rationalization movement in the country. secure for greater rate of capital accumulation than is possible in a market economy. 8. Pakistan is an under developed country and economic planning . The items may be cream. however. The formation of trusts. the prices of the commodities are not allowed to fluctuate. are passed on to the society as a whole by the capitalists. overcrowding. Creating Favourable Terms of Trade If the terms of trade are persistently unfavourable. patents.ning. smoke atmosphere. cloth etc. will be proper distribution of resources. Planning discourages such malpractices and through planned production and proper supply of goods. Elimination of Wasteful Competition Planning is also advocated on the ground that it eliminates wasteful competition among the produces on advertisment. Prevents Artificial Shortages In an unplanned economy. There is also no duplication of staff and machinery as it is the market economy. the resources of the country are utilized for the production of only those commodities which yield more profits. it adversely affects the rate of economic growth of the country. High Rate of Capital Accumulation As planning makes optimum allocation of a country's resources. 11. car. salesmanship etc. the social costs which normally take the form of industrial diseases. 10. 9. industrial accidents. Making Major Economic Changes In a free enterprise economy the market mechanism fails to create major economic changes such as industrial revolution. guide and control the means of production through planning. By planning. it is possible to eliminate or keep down these social costs by taking over the industries and extending the range of public ownership into various sectors of economy. Proper Distribution of Resources In the market economy. powder. between the production of essential and non-essential goods. fridge. In a planned economy. Keeping down the Social Costs In a market economy. 7. therefore. price agreement.
the date on natural. That's the period of development plans is usually kept five years.http://vuattach. Since Partition.com/ 2. The main factors which have inhibited partially or wholly effective planning in Pakistan are as follows: 1. All developments plans of Pakistan are of five years. the objectives of the plans would not be achieved and the plan ends in failure. support and enthusiasm of the people for the implementation of the plans. the Government of Pakistan has drawn up eight five years plans. If the date are obsolete or continue wide margins or error. like other less developed countries.3. Lack of Public Co-operation Lack of co-operation and mistrust of the Government has remained an important hurdle to effective planning in Pakistan. the developed countries are growing at a fast speed as they have a set of favourable conditions for growth. is caught up in the vicious circle of poverty. Except that twenty and fifteen years perspective plans were also made Q.ning. In order to overcome the shortcomings of market mechanism and to push up the tempo of development. On the other side. Discuss the factors hindering Effective Planning in Pakistan Introduction Pakistan. In Pakistan. (except for ten years) of Pakistan.com/ is necessary to boosts its resources. Some of the plans did succeed in raising industrial and agriculture production but the overall performance of the plans is discouraging. . In the entire history of the Planning Commission. The gap between the developed and the developing countries is widening instead of narrowing. Appointment of Non-Technical Persons Another important factor standing in the way of effective planning in Pakistan is the appointment of non-technical persons in drawing up and execution of the plans. This economic planning should be long-term because annual economic development plans cannot offer satisfactory results. Lack of Basic Data In order to draw a comprehensive and realistic plan. the accurate statistical information about the existing conditions of the economy should be available to the planners. rather than by a professional economist. the Planning Commission has been headed by a senior member of the civil service. human and financial resources provided to the planning machinery are mostly inaccurate and unreliable. http://vuattach. the Government of Pakistan is anxious to raise the standard of living of the people hut it has not yet been able to come out of the boggy of poverty. 3.ning. The Planning Machinery has not been able to enlist the co-operation.
1950 a meeting of the common wealth ministers was held at Colombo. Natural Calamities Agriculture is the backbone of our country. weather unfavourable or locust storm attacks the standing crop. Write a brief note on Colombo Plan (1951-1957) Colombo Plan (1951-1957) In January. Political Instability Another major bottleneck to effective planning is the political instability in Pakistan. So long the interest between the aid giving countries and the aid receiving countries do not conflict. have stood in the way of effective planning in Pakistan. the aid is immediately stopped or reduced Pakistan aid has been curtailed many a times in the past and the achievement of the plans fell short of expectations. the agricultural productions falls short of the target. Q. The difference in social customs. the rain is untimely. It now contributes 25% of GDP accounts for 45% of foreign exchange earning and engages 50% of the labour force. and slowed down the rate of economic development in the country and have made the plans mostly ineffective. difference of technology and a gap in the level of per capital income between the four provinces of the country. Dualism Dualism is another important constraint on the effective planning in Pakistan. 8. haphazard economic growth. Role of Foreign Assistance Pakistan has been relying on foreign aid for quickening the tempo of economic development since the first day of economic planning in Pakistan. The rapid change over of the government set up. we will find them too ambitious but they are not properly fetched in time.http://vuattach.ning. 5. has led to unplanned. 6.com/ 4. 7. Expenditure on the import of food-grain increases. it create discontentment among the people and reduce the usefulness of the development plans. In this meeting a common wealth consultative committee was set up and it was decided that common wealth countries would formulate their . The loan giving countries do not finance the project of the developing countries for philantrophic motive. The sectorial allocations in the plan then have to be revised which upsets the whole programme of planning. Export of raw material and manufactured goods decline. When the objectives of plans are partially achieved . The uncertainties of the election results have hindered. If in any year or years. Ambitious Plan If we look at the objectives of all the Eight Five Year Plans. the aid is given. As and when the interests of the two clashes.4. They have their political and economic interests.
32% of this was to be incurred on agriculture. machinery was set up in the form of economic council a planning commission and various sub-commissions.800 million.http://vuattach. 13% on industry. Malaysia. 50. 3.700 million would be provided from internal resources and Rs. According to the statistics collected by the planning board.The Emergence of Pakistan Chapter 8 .02. 18% on fuel and energy and remaining 11% on social welfare.5 crore were sent under this programme..C. Chapter 8 .The Emergence of Pakistan * Radcliff's Award (August 16. 1951 a two year priority programme was formulated. transport and communication. 2.C. 20% on transport and communication. rapid development of hydro electric power. 1.I. In April. national plans were prepared by Pakistan. So we may come to the conclusion that Colombo Plan has great importance in the earlier efforts of development planning in Pakistan. development occured during this plan period. In response to the decision. It was estimated that Rs. In August 1953 the programmed of this plan were evaluated and total expenditure was increased from Rs. was established in 1952 and various projects were started by this corporation. 1947) * Indian Princely States * Initial Difficulties of Pakistan .ning. Rs. The index of industrial production rose from 100 in 1950 to 285 in 1954. This plan covered a period of six years from 1st July 1951 to 30th June 1957. The total power generating capacity rose to 1. To implement the plan. establishment of P. The expenditure increased due to the introduction of village aid programme. North Boronoes and Saranak.000 kilowatts in 1954-55.com/ development plan for six years. Singapore. These plans were integrated in Colombo Plan. India. 900 million from external resources. It was also estimated that Rs. 2. The main objective of this plan was to increase the rate of development in various sectors. By the beginning of the year 1956. industry made remarkable progress. P.D. Inspite of the short comings of the Colombo Plan. the cost had increased to Rs. though agriculture remained relatively neglected.600 million to Rs.600 million would be spent on development programmes of Pakistan during this plan period. Ceylon.D.I. 564 crore.
* Indus Basin Water Dispute Q.1. Examine critically the Radcliff's Award with special reference to Punjab. Radcliff's Award (August 16, 1947) The Indian Independence Act, 1947, provided among the provisions the appointment of two Boundary Commissions for the division of Punjab and Bengal between Pakistan and India. Each boundary commission was to consist of an equal number of representatives of India and Pakistan and of one or more impartial members. Accordingly, Sir Cyril Radcliff was appointed as the chairman of both boundary commissions who would have the poor to make the Award. The members of the Punjab Boundary Commission were Din Mohammad and Mohammad Munir on behalf of Pakistan, and Mehar Chand Mahajan and Tej Singh on behalf of India. The members of the Bengal Boundary Commission were Abu Saleh Mohammad Akram and S.A. Rahman on behalf of Pakistan and C.C.Biswas and B.K.Mukherjee on behalf of India. All of them were High Court Judges. The members of the commission had acute differences of opinion regarding the setting up of the boundaries. It was then mutually agreed that in case of conflict the chairman should give his verdict. Here again the Muslim League was made to play a losers game. Radcliff gave his verdict in favor of India and against the interest of Pakistan. In consultation with Mountbatten the partial arbitrator sliced away further areas from Pakistan and handed them over to the Hindus. As for an illustration, in Gurdaspur District of Punjab, the distribution of population was as follows (1941 Census Report): * Hindus 21.2% * Sikhs 19.2% * Muslims 51.1% * Indian Christians 4.4% * Scheduled Castes (Non-Hindus) 4.0% In particular in the Tehsil of Batala of Gurdaspur District, the Muslim population was 70% and their boundaries were contiguous to that of Pakistan. The Christian and the Scheduled Caste people of the District also expressed themselves in favor of Pakistan. But the expressed wish of the people was turned down; the inherent right of majority was denied; and Radcliff robbed the Muslim homeland of these fertile regions and handed
them over to India. Mr. Din Mohammad, one of Pakistan's representatives on Boundary Commission stated before the West Pakistan High Court on 24th April, 1958, that Sir Cyril Radcliff, Chairmanof the Boundary Commission, had awarded Ferozpur, Ferozpur Head-works and some other areas to West Punjab, but consequently that Award was altered. This was later confirmed by another member of the Boundary Commission, Chief Justice Mohammad Munir in the Course of a speech on 22nd April, 1960, he said I was told by Radcliff in the most unequivocal terms that three Tehsils of Ferozpur, probably, Zira and Fazika, were coming to Pakistan and that it was unnecessary for me to discuss this part of the case with him. In Bengal, by for the most important question was related to the future of the great city of Calcutta. It was the capital of the province, its only major port, and its centre of industry, commerce, communication and education. In the city of Calcutta itself, Muslims formed only a quarter of the population, but the hinterland, on which the life of Calcutta as a city and port depended and of which it formed an integral part, was a Muslim majority areas. But Radcliff assigned Calcutta to India, and along with Calcutta, he also assigned to India the whole of the Muslim majority district of Murshidabad and the greater part of the Muslim majority district of India. Nearly 6,000 square miles of territory with a population of 3.5 million Muslims that had been provisionally assigned to East Bengal were severed from it and transferred to West Bengal. The result was disastrous. The major part of the irrigated areas went to Pakistan, but the headwords of some of the largest canals were left with India. Similarly the award of Gurdaspur District to India was most unkind. The basic unit in the partition was the district and, according to 1941 census, Gurdaspur, was a Muslim-majority district. Had the district been awarded to Pakistan, there would have been to Kashmir dispute. On 30 October, 1947, Mr. Jinnah felt so pained that he said We have been the victims of a deep-laid and well-planned conspiracy, executed with utter disregard of the elementary principles of honesty, chivalry and honor. Q.2. Write an essay on the accession of the Indian Princely States. The Accession of Indian Princely States The Indian states, numbering 562, comprised roughly a third of India's territory and a quarter of the population. They were outside the administrative set-up of British India and were ruled by Indian princes who
had accepted the United Kingdom as a paramount power. Most of them were small and exercised limited powers of jurisdictions, but there were 140 fully empowered states. The largest, such as Hyderabad, Meysore and Kashmir, were in extent of territory and population, comparable with british Indian provinces. At the time of India independence, these princely states were given the option to accede either to India or to Pakistan or to remain independent. All the states amicably acceded either to India or Pakistan. However, the future of three princely states (Hyderabad, Junagadh and Kashmir) remained undecided and created conflict between India and Pakistan. (a) The Recalcitrance of Hyderabad Hyderabad was the most important state of India. It had an area of 82,000 square miles, and a population of 16,000,000. Its annual revenue were Rs. 260 million, and it had its own currency and stamps. The majority of its people were Hindus, but its ruler, the Nizam was a Muslim. By virtue of its size, resources, importance and prestige. Hyderabad felt entitled to the status of an independent sovereign state. On the announcement of the June 3 plan the Nizam declared that he would not accede to India or Pakistan. He hoped to secure Dominion Status for his state, and sent a delegation to the Viceroy on July 11, 1947. Mountbatten told the delegation that the British Government would not agree to Dominion Status for Hyderabad. Instead, he pressed Hyderabad to accede to India. This, however was not acceptable to the Nizam. When the delegation hinted that if India pressed the Nizam too hard he might consider joining Pakistan Mountbatten replied. There was no doubt that Nizam was legally entitled to do so, but the mechanical difficulty presented by the facts of geography was very real. Without implying any king of threat, he foresaw disastrous results to the State in five or ten years if his advice were not taken. Lord Mountbatten left India on June 21, 1948, without having achieved his ambition of securing Hyderabad's accession. The pressure against Hyderabad increased in intensity. An economic blockade was imposed. Military preparation was begun. Nehru was reported to have said, "When we consider it necessary we will state military operations against Hyderabad". On August 24, 1948, Hyderabad filed a complaint before the Security Council of the UN. But before the Security Council could arrange a hearing, India forced a military decision on Hyderabad. After a brief resistance, the Hyderabad army surrendered on September 17, 1948. (b) The Junagadh Affair
its troops stood on the border of the State".ning. but India refused to acknowledge it and claimed the state by inheritance. The Maharaja Hari Singh miserably failed to suppress the mass upsurge and ultimately approached the Indian Government for help. He wanted to align with India. is the northernmost part of the Indo-Pakistan sub continent. 300 miles down the coast from Karachi. 1947. from refugee movements.com/ Junagadh was a small maritime state. A few weeks later India laid violent hands on this State "to force it to accede to India. The Azad Fauj consisted largely of trained military personnel organized and equipped by order of the Government of India. collaborated with the Maharaja. Pakistan at that time was in no position to defend Junagadh. the state of Jammu and Kashmir.337 square miles. there occured in Kashmir a clash of interests between Hindu ruler and the democratic aspirations of 77 percent of his devout Muslim subjects. It had an area of 3.00. Its warship lay off the coast under the pretext of combined operations exercises. there was a 93 percent Muslim population in the Kashmir province.471 square miles was the biggest of any state in India. The people of Kashmir wanted to accede to Pakistan but the ruler of Kashmir was Maharaja Sir Hari Singh of Dogra Hindu dynasty. The Muslim were in a majority in every province of the state.000 of whom 77 percent were Muslims.000. Thus on the eve of partition. The Indian Government lost no time in complying with their own heart's desire. Its area of 84. 1947 an Azad Fauj. "Nothing was wrong in the Accession".00. in which action Sheikh Mohammad Abdullah head of the Jammu and Kashmir National Conference who subsequently became de facto Prime Minister. as Sir Francis Observed. or liberation army. This created a dispute between India and Pakistan a "Muslim population was fighting for the State accession to Pakistan. On September 15. 61 percent in Jammu province. and almost 100 percent in the northern region of Gilgit. China. The Maharaja signed an instrument of accession to India on 26 October. Her armed forces were in the process of organization. On November 7. (c) Conflict in Kashmir Kashmir or to give its full name. Its International boundaries with Tibet. There was only the nucleus of a navy and an air force. and a population of about 7. 1947.000 men with armored cars and other modem weapons entered Junagadh.http://vuattach. Two days later control over the entire state was assumed by India. The majority of its population was Hindu and the ruler was a Muslim. The array was faced with innumerable problems arising. The total population of the state according to the 1941 census was about 40. Afghanistan and but for a small intervening strip with Russia gave it great strategic importance. of 20. Pakistan's Foreign Minister Zafarullah Khan summed up the position as follows in . A complaint lodged by Pakistan with the Security Council of the UN is still pending. the Indian forces entered in Kashmir. this State acceded to Pakistan.
Karachi was chosen as the capital of Pakistan.com/ 1948". after hearing both India and Pakistan's complaints. Pakistan would have been justified in sending her troops in October last. Nothing however. A plebiscite was to be held under the supervision of the UN. after a long and arduous freedom movement. was infact a great victory of the democratic idea of life.3. Arrangements were to be made to bring the officials who had opted for Pakistan from Delhi to Karachi. including their lives to make Pakistan possible. India took the Kashmir issue to the United Nations in January 1948. Some of the initial difficulties were 1. Liaquat Ali Khan was appointed as Prime Minister and a Cabinet of experienced persons was selected. Ferozpur and Junagadh to India hence providing them a gateway to Kashmir. incomprehensible and even perverse award. Q. Initial Difficulties of Pakistan From its very inception. unanimously decided that the future of Kashmir should be settled according to the wishes of its people. Introduction The emergence of Pakistan. 2. . Pakistan faced a large number of problems. He misused his powers and handed over Muslims majority areas like Gurdaspur. India later on went back its promise and refused to hold a plebiscite. Choice of Capital and Establishment of Government The first problem that Pakistan had to face was to choose a capital to form a Government and to establish a secretariat. but she had not done so in the hope that an amicable settlement would be arrived at. Quaid-e-Azam called it an unjust. has come of it so far due to the uncompromising attitude of India. Quaid-e-Azam on 15th August. The Security Council. The Indian Muslims happily and valiantly laid down their lives and properties to achieve a destination in which they saw the fulfillment of their dreams of living an independent life free from Hindu and British dominance. Unfair Boundary Distribution A boundary commission was set up under a British Chairman. Sir Cyril Redcliff. Examine the problems faced by Pakistan just after the independence. Quaid-e-Azam took the office of the Governor General. Pakistan has repeatedly supported the UN Resolution.ning. 1947 said My thoughts are those valiant fighters in our cause who readily sacrificed all they had.http://vuattach.
6. Pakistan also did not receive the due share of the military assets. Kashmir issue still remain unsolved. In 1948. Canal Water Dispute Most of the rivers flowing in Pakistan have their origin in India. Kashmir Dispute Kashmir dispute is the most important and unsolved problem. 4. India attacked Hyderabad on 13th September 1948 and forcibly annexed this state to . The Massacre of Muslim Refugees in India On the birth of Pakistan. This dishonest attitude put Pakistan into great difficulties.com/ 3. Constitutional Problem The constituent assembly failed to frame a constitution even in eight years. Division of Military and Financial Assets In order to embarrass Pakistan financially. 8. But pressure tactics began to the applied by Indian Government and Mountbatten.ning. 7. Hyderabad Deccan was the largest and richest state ruled by Muslim leader Nizam who decided to remain independent. the fate of some states remained undecided. Muslims properties were set on fire and they were compelled to leave India for Pakistan with nothing but their lives. However. Annexation of Princely States All Indian princely states were given the right to link up with either of dominions. The Muslim Nawab governing Junagadh favoured in acceding to Pakistan. declared Kashmir as a part of India. 1947. Pakistan received only 200 million.http://vuattach. India did a lot of honesty in the matters of Pakistan which were concerned with its benefits. 5. Millions of refugees were killed before they reached Pakistan. 1960 on agreement called Indus Basin Treaty was signed between the two countries. Pakistan was promised to get Rs. Kashmir is the natural part of Pakistan because at the time of partition 85% of the Kashmir's total population was Muslim. In a planned move. However on 9th September. Many migrants were looted and had to be provided boarding immediately as they reached Pakistan. Pakistan has continuously insisted that Kashmir must get their right of self determination but due to non-cooperation of India. Lack of a permanent constitution created chances of unscrupulous interference in democratic progress of Pakistan. But Indian Government sent Army troops towards Junagadh and occupied the State by force in November. Hindus and Sikhs became more furious. who was secretly with the Government of India. India stopped water supply to Pakistani canals to damage the Pakistani agriculture. 750 million but the Indian Government refused to give. The Hindu Dogra Rule.
Unfortunately. Constitutional Problem At the time of establishment of Pakistan the Government of India Act 1935 became the working constitution of Pakistan with certain adaptions. with the blessings of the British Government. tables or even stationary and paper pins for administrative purposes. had acquired complete monopoly in trade and commerce. the banks and other financial institutions were located in Indian territory. The power resources in the two wings were scarce and negligible which were insufficient to meet the national requirement.ning. The Government of Pakistan could not get enough time to set up workable administrative machinery because of the great difficulties created by Congress. The Indian Government adopted delaying tactics n transferring the Government servants and official record which aggravated the situation. Furthermore. The entire capital was in the hands of the Hindus. The roads were in shabby and irreparable condition. who operated the industries. Therefore the immediate task before the nation was to establish a workable administrative and Government machinery to run the affairs of the newly born state. Economic Problems When Pakistan came into existence. were all Hindus because the Muslims extremely lagged behind in education and financial capabilities. However. 10.http://vuattach. The railway system and river transportation in East Pakistan was in depleted condition. But the constituent assembly failed to frame a constitution even in . comparatively. Administrative Problems Pakistan came into being under the most appalling conditions. Before partition the Hindus. Besides these factors the technical experts and labourers. But the need of a constitution framed by the elected representatives of the people was necessary for free people. Quaid-e-Azam paid his immediate attention towards setting up of administrative machinery and took a number of steps to overcome the administrative problems of the new state. The communication and transportation system in West Pakistan. So the first constituent assembly was formed and was given the task to frame the constitution for the country. 9. 11.com/ India. The major industries were also in those areas which were part of India. The agricultural system was obsolete and outdated which added to the economic backwardness of the areas forming part of Pakistan. The biggest administrative problem facing Pakistan was the acute shortage of competent and experienced personnel in the Central and Provincial Governments. The inadequate system of transportation and communication also made its adverse affect on economic development of the country. there weren't enough chairs. it mostly consisted of economically backward and underdeveloped areas. was in better position.
he told the nation. when East Punjab in India cut off the flow of canal waters to West Punjab in Pakistan. a predominantly Muslim majority area. 1848. the Beas and the Sutlej . In his last message to the nation on 14th August 1948.4. gifted to Bharat but Quaid-e-Azam said If we are to exist as a nation. the Jhelum and the Chenab .com/ Conclusion Pakistan came into being as a free Muslim state in quite unfavourable circumstances. Agriculture.flow into Pakistan from the State of Jammu and Kashmir and three eastern rivers . it had to build up its administrative machinery from a scratch. entitled "The Indus Water Treaty 1960" was signed on September 19 in Karachi by Jawaharlal Nehru (Prime Minister of India) . Discuss the Indus Basin Water Dispute The Indus Basin Water Dispute The Indus Basin Water dispute had its origin in the partition of the Punjab.enter Pakistan from India. In a very sense the Indus river system is Pakistan's source of life. is dependent almost entirely upon irrigation by canals drawn from the Indus and its five tributaries.ning. It broke into the open on April 1. The foundation of your state has been laid and it is now for you to build and build as quickly and as well as you can.the Ravi.http://vuattach. His golden principles Unity. until a treaty governing the use of the water of the Indus system of rivers. Q. 12.com/ eight years. the constituent assembly conferred extra ordinary powers on Governor General which afterwards led to future constitutional crisis. electricity system of West Punjab was disrupted. The rainfall is scanty and undependable. The three western rivers . we will have to face the problems with determination and force http://vuattach.the Indus. Electricity Problem Due to transfer of Muslim majority areas to India and of unfair demarcation. Faith and Discipline gave way to Pakistan for a bright future of a strong and well developed country. Pakistan has fertile soil but a hot and dry climate. Lack of a permanent constitution created chances of corrupt interference in democratic progress of Pakistan. But Supreme efforts were made by the Quaid-eAzam and his colleagues to grapple with the situation. because all power stations were at Mundi.ning. It had no resources. the mainstay of the economy. The sharing of the waters of the Indus system has been a matter of dispute for many years between Pakistan and India and later on it became an international issue. On the other hand.
com/ on behalf of India and by Field Marshal Mohammad Ayub Khan (President of Pakistan) on behalf of Pakistan. and provided a measure of flood protection in both countries. Canada. . Simultaneously with the signing of the Indus Water Treaty. the United Kingdom and the United States and of the World Bank. The effect of the transfer was eventually to release the whole flow of the three Eastern Rivers for irrigation development in India. New Zealand. about equal to the entire flow of the Colarado River in the United States. Works Program The division of water provided for in the Treaty necessities the construction of works to transfer water from the three Western Rivers to meet the irrigation uses in Pakistan hitherto met by water from the three Eastern Rivers. Beas and Sutlej . Signature of the Treaty marked the end of critical and long standing dispute between India and Pakistan.ning. This agreement created an Indus Basin Development Fund of almost $900 million to finance the construction of irrigation and other works in Pakistan. Jhelum and Chenab . transfering water from the Western Rivers to areas formerly irrigated by the Eastern Rivers. and opened the way to the peaceful use and development of water resources on which the livelihood of some 50 million people in the two countries was dependent. Pakistan. Works in Pakistan The following works were built in Pakistan. Germany. It also made a much-needed contribution to soil reclamation and drainage in Pakistan. A system of eight link canals nearly 400 miles in total length. an international financial agreement was also executed in Karachi by representative of Australia.Ravi.http://vuattach. The system of canals and reservoirs that was constructed provided further substantial irrigation development and developed important hydro-electric potential. The total area to be thus irrigated became about 5 million acres and total annual volume of water to be transfered became 14 million acre-feet.for the use of Pakistan while the three Eastern Rivers . 1. in both India and Pakistan. The treaty allocated the waters of the Western Rivers .had been awarded exclusively to India.Indus.
and as well will make possible substantial new irrigation development. Chapter 9 . 4.00. 3.Pakistani Culture and Society * Pakistani Culture * Cultural Heritage of Pakistan * Rural and Urban Societies .2 million acre-feet).ning. These two reservoirs provided the water storage potential to meet on a firm basis the irrigation supplies of the Pakistan canals during critical periods of fluctuating shortflow supplies. These works included three barrages to carry new canals across rivers. irrigation engineers. The number of tube-wells installed was 2. Tube-wells and drainage to overcome water-logging and salinity in irrigated areas totaling 2.000 kilowatts. which in addition to Pakistani.500. Work done to integrate the former canal and river system into the new inter-river link canals. Two earth-filled storage dams. The general scheme of works was drawn up by an Indus Basin Advisory Board set up by the Government of Pakistan. one on the Jhelum River (with a live reservoir capacity of 4. and the remodeling of five existence barrage sand eight existing canals.Pakistani Culture and Society Chapter 9 .75 million acre-feet) and the other on the Indus (with a live reservoir capacity of 4.com/ 2.5 million acres.http://vuattach. included representatives of American and British engineering firms. Power stations installed at the Jhelum Dam with a capacity of more than 3. 5. and in consultation with the Water and Power Development Authority of Pakistan (WAPDA).
tools. It includes teh basic beliefs and faith. techniques. music and mode of dress. beliefs. Pakistani Culture is an Islamic Culture Pakistan is an ideological Islamic State. morals.1. ideas. spiritual and physical activities of a nation.ning. institution. All . codes. works of arts. Taylor defines culture as the complex whole which include knowledge.Pakistani Culture Q. belief. manners and customs prevalent in a given society. E. Define Culture and Describe the salient features of Pakistani Culture.com/ * National Integration ___________________________ Chapter 9 . Contents [hide] * 1 Definition of Culture * 2 Pakistani Culture is an Islamic Culture * 3 Salient Features of Pakistani Culture * 4 Conclusion Definition of Culture Culture may be defined as behaviour peculiar to human beings. art. so the Pakistani culture is primarily based on the Islamic way of life. Culture consists of language. Its very existence is due to Islam. According to Allama Iqbal Culture encompasses all the mental. law. ceremonies and so on. customs.B. custom and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society. values and literature. together with material objects used. art and architecture.http://vuattach.
This is the religion. Similarity of thought amongst poets and writers of all regions is an important factor of our cultural life. Some of them are Punjabi. it is the media of communication between all regions of Pakistan. Being the official language. Language A number of languages are spoken in Pakistan. in spite of some differences of languages. which is practiced by all people of Pakistan. The regional dresses of Pakistan under go changes in the light of local traditions. Mixed Culture Pakistani culture is mixed culture although majority of people are Muslims by birth and faith. 2. simplicity. The people. Pakistani culture is highlighted by its grandeur. But there is great influence of Hindus and British culture . customs and traditions commonly follow one religion of Islam. Religious Uniformity Pakistan came into existence to provide its people a system of life based on Islam. economic condition. But Urdu is spoken and understand in all parts of Pakistan.com/ other ingredients of culture are inspired by Islam. Sindhi. They gave the message of love and brotherhood. Pushto and Balochi. Salient Features of Pakistani Culture The main characteristics of Pakistani culture are as follows: 1.http://vuattach. way of living and wealth in the region. Literature and Poetry Literature is an important aspect of our cultural life. 5. 4. 3. But in all Provinces people generally wear Shalwar Kameez. firm convictions and noble deeds and ideas. Dress and Diet Dress is an important menifestation of culture.ning. Most of our poets reflect Islamic code and trend in their poetry.
It is therefore.http://vuattach. based on geometric figures and floral forms borrowed from nature. Kabaddi etc are popular in every part of our country. leather works. glazed pottery. 11. Family is headed by a male member and in most cases. They are known for the high quality works which is very popular in foreign countries. important that the entire syllabus right from the lower to higher level should be placed in accordance with the ideology of Pakistan. Unity and Solidarity of a nation. he is the sole source of income for other members of the family.ning. 6. Recreational Activities .com/ on the present Pakistani society. Hockey. The Shah Jahan Masjid. 9. Pakistani craftsmen are considered as the best in their craftsmenship. Badshahi Masjid. The games like Cricket.Sports The recreational activities all over the Pakistan are common. 10. Handicrafts Embroidery. Shahi Qila and many such graceful buildings are a living proof of the excellent Mughal architecture. Shalimar Garden. Education Education contributes a great deal in developing national character. These games reflect our cultural identity. 7. the male member of the family enjoys the key position. Football. 8. carpet making. Educational system plays a vital role in the formation of Culture. Male Dominated Society In Pakistani culture. metal crafts and ivory are the essential parts of our culture. Religious Festivals . Arts and Architecture The iconoclasm of Islam has given a characteristic form and pattern in the use of elegant designs. wood work.
ning. So it may be said that Pakistani culture represents the true picture of Islamic culture. fasts during the month of Ramadan and the payment of Zakat prescribed by Islam are being observed almost everywhere. Data Ganj Baksh. Define Culture and give a brief account on Cultural Heritage of Pakistan. Islam has described the rights and duties of every individual. Even in drinking.2. dresses. we have to observe certain rules prescribed by Islam.com/ Festivals play an important part of our culture. music. eating and dressing. Statistics reveal that Paksitanis attendance at Hajj is usually very high. They are celebrated with great happiness throughout the country. Mushaikh and Sufi Poets occupy an honoured place in our cultural aspect of life. architecture. Ulema. literature art. The rituals and festivals are observed with unusual enthusiasm. Sachal Sarmast. Mushaikh and Sufi Poets Ulema. Eid-ul-Fitr and Eid-ul-Azha are our two main religious festivals. Shah Abdul latif. Sufis like Lal Shahbaz. Q. 13. Hazrat Sultan Bahu and Waris Shah rendered meritorious services for the spread of Islam in the Sub Continent. They are celebrated with great happiness throughout the country. Islamic Rituals and Religious Festivals Islamic rituals and festivals play an important part of our culture. Eid-ul-Fitr and Eid-ul-Azha are our two main religious festivals. Obligatory prayers. Conclusion Culture which includes religion. manners and customs has its roots in the Islamic culture. * 1 Introduction * 2 Definition of Culture * 3 Pakistani Culture is an Islamic Culture * 4 Archaeological Heritage * 5 Architectural Heritage * 6 Heritage in Fine Arts * 7 Conclusion . 12. The enthusiasm with which Pakistani families celebrate religious festivals is a inspirational spectacle.http://vuattach.
as well as by internal migrations across the Sub Continent. customs. According to Allama Iqbal Culture encompasses all the mental. simplicity. It includes teh basic beliefs and faith.B.http://vuattach. morals. law. institution. ideas. A brief review of the different civilizations which flourished and then perished with the passage of time is as under: . Culture consists of language. music and mode of dress. Taylor defines culture as the complex whole which include knowledge. Definition of Culture Culture may be defined as behaviour peculiar to human beings. codes. Archaeological Heritage Pakistan has been the cradle of civilization that dates back more than five millenium.ning.West. together with material objects used. firm convictions and noble deeds and ideas. E. beliefs. Its very existence is due to Islam. belief. techniques. Pakistani Culture is an Islamic Culture Pakistan is an ideological Islamic State. Over the centuries. spiritual and physical activities of a nation. Our country Pakistan is accordingly proud of its cultural heritage. Arabs and Mughals came and settled in the region and have left behind the archaeological sites in Pakistan which is now being preserved. tools. Aryans. custom and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society. Greeks. art and architecture.com/ Introduction In the development of any nation. ceremonies and so on. manners and customs prevalent in a given society. Pakistani culture is highlighted by its grandeur. through successive waves of migrations from the North . works of arts. All other ingredients of culture are inspired by Islam. art. its cultural heritage and its glorious past play a vital role and serves as a source of inspiration and pride for its people. Persians. values and literature. so the Pakistani culture is primarily based on the Islamic way of life.
http://vuattach. Every house had walls. Moen-jo-Daro Moen-jo-Daro is situated at a distance of some kilometers from Larkana. quadrangles and monk's cells are also found. 5. Scientists and archaeologists believe that Harappa also belongs to the Indus Valley Civilization. Taxila is the most popular name in history. markets. lanes. It came into prominence during the Persian . pillared halls. as it was rule by many rulers. For a long time it remained the meeting place of various ancient cultures. Thousands monasteries and stupas were widely here Buddha's figures. 4.P. Moen-jo-Daro stands as most spectecular of all the excavate cities of the Indus Valley civilizaton.com/ 1. Some mounds were also found near Peshawar which represents Kanishka's mighty Pakistan. An impressive complex of Chapels. it was a beautiful city with brick walled houses. Stupas. baths. The great Buddhist civilization is now forming the heritage of the present Pakistan Culture. Harappa Harappa is situated in the city of Sahiwal. Peshawar valley and Eastern Afghanistan was known as Gandhara. 2. It is strange that at its glory. Buddhist Remains The Buddhist era ushered in some 500 years B.ning. A civilization fourished there some 4000 years ago. A distinctive art which is known as Gandhara Art took place from here and flourished during the 2nd and 3rd century of Christian era. drains and bathrooms inside it.F. Remains of this city were excavated in the 1920.C. the regions comprising Northern Punjab. it dates 2-5 century old. Taxila It was excavated in recent times near Rawalpindi. streets and public places. Gandhara It is comparatively a new civilization.W. The Buddhist monastery Takht-I-Bahi is in N. shapes and monasteries all made prominent features of Gandhara Arts. It was discovered by Sir John Marshall in 1922. 3.
It is known as a fine building of Lahore. Maktab Khana. Jahangir Tomb This tomb was built by Shah Jahan. The principle monuments of Thatta are located on the Makli Hill. 4. Shalimar Garden It is situated on the Grand Trunk Road and is a magnificent remnant of Mughal Granduer. The masjid has been built with red stones while the domes are in marble. 5. Its architecture is similar to the Jamia Masjid Delhi. 6. Badshahi Masjid It was built by Aurangzeb. 3. one above the other. Diwan-e-Aam. The garden constitutes of three terraces. Lahore Fort It is also known as the Shahi Qila. The Hathi and Alamgir gates are also remarkable constructions. water channels and fountains. Besides there is an elaborate and beautiful reservoir. 2.com/ occupation. At its zenith. Architectural Heritage 1. the Shish Mahal and Nawlakha. Thatta The main town of Thatta is famous for specimens of Indo-Muslim architecture in the Sub Continent. Masjid Wazir Khan It is situated in Kashmir Bazaar inside the walls of the old city. Notable among them is the great mosque built by Shah-Jahan. It was built by Nawab Wazir Khan who was a viceroy of Punjab under Shah Jahan. the city was the nucleus of religious and cultural activities. It was built by Akbar.http://vuattach. The main structures inside the fort are the Moti Masjid.ning. .
sieges and animal fights were painted with realism and unparalleled attraction. It was built during the rule of Mohammad Shah and it is also a very beautiful piece of architecture. birds and natural scenes were painted. Mir Syed Tabrezi and Khawaja Abdul Samad. There are two gardens near the fort. flowers. In the beginning the walls and roofs of palaces and other buildings were decorated with pictoral and floral designs. Gradually paintings gained firm ground.com/ The art of painting has developed slowly in the Muslim of South Asia. 8. This helped patronize the art of paintings. Humayun brought with him two Persian painters. Jahangir was a great connoisseur and admirer of this art. Mahabat Khan. Golden Masjid It is situated near Masjid Wazir Khan. animals. Heritage in Fine Arts 1. Paintings Muslims brought with them the artistic taditions of Baghdad when they came to South Asia. The Fort of Bala Hasar This fort was built on raised platform 92 feet from the ground level. Mughal emperors were fond of paintings. During the days of Akbar the number of painters in the court increased manifold.ning. Beautiful plants. The painters rendered pictorial copies of many a book and their fine paintings decorated a number of important public buildings. during Shah Jahan's reign.com/ 6. The Mughal rulers were very fond of paintings. In the beginning decorative paintings and embroidery were made on the walls and ceilings of buildings. He could name the painter by looking at his painting.http://vuattach. It has a fine massive structure with lofty minarets. They adorned the story of Amir Hamza was pictorially rendered through paintings by these luminaries. http://vuattach. The matching of colours reached its zenith. . The paintings of battle scenes. During his days the art of painting reached its climax. Mahabat Khan Masjid This masjid was built by a Governor of Peshawar.ning. 7.
its cultural heritage has played a vital role. Architecture and Sculptuer Architecture reflects the natural inclination and taste of people. Jamil Nagshare are the most distinguished painters. During this period various patterns of calligraphy were developed.D. Rural Societies Pakistan is an agriculture country and 80% of its people form the rural population of the country. Pakistani nation is justly proud of the historical period which brings with nearly 4th century B.http://vuattach.ning. Haji Mohammad Sharif. sculpture. Q. The Muslim art of architecture was unique in every aspect. patience and hard life. domes and minarets. mosaic works. Muslims introduced perpendicular design in their buildings and the upper portion of Muslim buildings is never a mere straight line. In the South Asian Muslim Society to be an educated and a civilized person on had to know the art of calligraphy. They all are in connection with life which is a fundamental part of Islamic teachings. wide. The architecture and all the miniature arts including carving. It is often traversed by balconies. Aurangzeb Alamgir was the last powerful Mughal ruler who practiced the art of calligraphy. tile works and paintings were called upon to build new Masjids and palaces. Conclusion In the development of Pakistani society. 3. Its main reason is their deep love for Holy Quran.C and continued with the advent of Islam in the Sub Continent in 8th century A. The Masjids constructed during early and medieval periods of Islam were decorated with masterpieces of calligraphy. 2. towns and small cities form the . Our cultural heritage expresses courage.com/ The traditional art of painting occupies a prominent place in the hearts of the people of Pakistan. Describe the differences between the rural and urban societies in Pakistan. The Muslim buildings are spacious broad. The villages.3. well proportioned and well exposed to ligth. Calligraphy The Muslim took a keen interest in the promotion of calligraphy. Calligraphy was not confined to paper only but it got its way even on the buildings. Abdul Rehman Ghugtai.
Urban Societies Urban areas in Pakistan completely differ from rural areas in the life pattern. Rapid and unplanned urban expansion has been parallel by deterioration in living conditions. However. Two cities have a dominating position . Our villages badly lack in civic amenities. post offices and markets in most of the villages making the life difficult and unhygienic. The drinking water and electricity are not available in a large number of our villages. due to the difficult living environs in the villages. the Government is very much alive to the problems of rural areas.http://vuattach. schools. Village is the most important and pivotal centre of rural life of Pakistan. A large number of prestigious educational institutions are situated in the big cities which attract the students from all parts of the country. Their main profession is cultivation and ploughing. particularly in the housing conditions of lower income groups. The entire population of Pakistan is scattered and resides in villages. The urban areas have become the centre of social activity because of their multifarious aspects of social life. The facility of drinking water and electricity has been made available to a number of villages. towns and big cities.Karachi and Lahore. unlike rural areas. dispensaries. The urban areas. Modern facilities of health and communication are being provided in the rural areas. which had become heavily concentrated in Karachi. Roads. are the centres of high modern education. schools. urban growth has been more evenly distributed among several cities. . There are no hospitals. There is no proper system of drainage. post offices and shopping centres have been provided at Government level. The village population. The big cities. Water supply and sewerage system are inadequate. Many urban households are unable to pay rent for the cheapest form of available housing and live in makeshift shacks. are well-planned and well-built with modern residential colonies. The industrial progress and the location of Government and other departments in the urban areas have made these areas prosperous and progressing.ning. keeps on migrating to urban areas where better facilities of social life and brighter chances of earning sustenance are available. The Government is making sincere endeavours to improve the conditions of rural areas. and in many areas residents have to share communal water taps. They pursue different professions to earn their livelihood. Since the 1960s. The urban population of Pakistan represents about a third of the total. Inadequate urban transport is also a major problem. which form the portion of our urban areas. The urban areas are the centre of social life with greater facilities and amenities of life. As a consequence.com/ rural areas of Pakistan. government policy has been directed towards the dispersal of industry.
In small towns. Similarly. This is not entirely the case in Pakistan. transport. However. usually know each other personally. In such areas people know each other and have closer contact with their neighbours.ning. The inhabitants of a village. these two sets of activities are not exclusively confined to rural and urban areas. Although the use of urban facilities changes their way of living. even in places like Karachi. urban areas are so highly populated that most people do not even know who their neighbours are. lumbering. Towns are engaged in secondary and tertiary activities. the lifestyles of the rich and poor differ far more than the lifestyles of city and village dwellers. medical treatment and other activities. for example. It is more a question of the predominance of one set of activities over the other. it is essential to understand how and why life in rural and urban areas differs. This is case in large urban centres like Karachi. Function Villages and towns differ in function. It is also argued that while village life is traditional. Villages are usually engaged in primary activities. there are pockets in the city where people who belong to the same community or village live. The objective application of lifestyle as a factor for distinguishing between villages and towns is therefore difficult. most people known one another as well. Lifestyle Some specialists believe that lifestyle is a distinguishing feature of villages and towns. for example. telecommunications. like manufacturing. which are in reality overgrown villages. relationships tend to be impersonal. animal keeping. including farming. education. Although this criterion is applied in many countries. there are vegetable fields within Karachi.com/ Differences between Rural and Urban Way of Life The rural and urban life differs in a number of ways. 3. it does not change their way of thinking much. 2. However. the line of distinction between a small town and a large village is difficult to determine. Population Another factor used to distinguish between villages and towns is population. on the other hand. In Canada. Lahore and other major cities. As a consequence.http://vuattach. 1. transportation services. According to them. In urban areas. close contact with other members of the community is a distinctive feature of rural life. Shops. too. educational and medical facilities are found in rural areas. fishing etc. In Pakistan. Most of the urban population in Pakistan has a strong rural background. a settlement with a population . there is no agreement on size. urban life is rational. For an agricultural country like Pakistan. trade.
000.4. in which he said You belong to a Nation now. you have now carved out a territory. What is National Integration? What steps have been taken in Pakistan to promote it? Introduction National integration is the mean by which the people constituting a nation are brought together so that the whole people are unified by the leadership on the basis of their common system of symbols and institutions which these groups select. a settlement can also call itself a town if it has a two committee or cantonment that controls electricity. there are only ten towns with populations of less than 5. mind and consciousness of every individual or citizen on the basis of the common ideals.. the formation and development of the character. values. In Pakistan. in Japan more than 30. Pakistani nationalism had taken shape in the minds of the Muslims of the Sub Continent long before Pakistan actually came into existence. or a Sindhi. vast territory. the existing pattern of state and government and secondly. beliefs and customs.http://vuattach. no matter to what . maintain arid transmit from generation to generation.. Pakistan has a traditional society which is full of several kinds of inequalities and various kinds of prejudices and discriminations based on caste. standardize. or a Pathan. Pakistani patriotism inspires all Pakistanis.ning. So in these circumstances Pakistani nationalism is the only ideology of the Pakistani nation. [or a Balochi] . Preaching the same lesson of nationalism Quaid-e-Azam.000 and in Pakistan. Its ideal and principles are love and devotion to Pakistan as a country and as a nation. The principles of Pakistani nationalism were proclaimed by Quaid-e-Azam in his speech at Dhaka on 21 March. regardless of any discrimination. However. Q. it is all yours. For example. But it is a misfortune of Pakistan that since the death of Quaid-eAzam it did not always have a dedicated political leadership and love of democratic practices. 1948. creed. laws. norms. to defend Pakistan against all challenges ot its unity. but it was still classified as a town because it had these amenities. wealth language etc. during the presidential address to the Constituent Assembly on 11 August. said Work together in a spirit that everyone of you. tribe. These words of Quaid-e-Azam are the true essence of Pakistani nationalism and are the real basis of Pakistan's unity. Ziarat in Balochistan had a population of 619 in 1998. sex. 1947.000 is considered urban. An ideology acquired territorial recognition to let the Islamic way of life flourish within its parameters. it does not belong to a Punjabi. solidarity and integrity. it is yours. solidarity and integrity. National integration has two important aspects. race.000 out of a total 478 urban centres in Pakistan. 5. firstly.com/ of more than 1. the water supply and drainage.
privileges and obligations.. This is only possible through mutual understanding and co-operation. the state will have to rely mainly on aggressive power to maintain itself. custom etc. The main casualty under all these circumstances is the national integration. . Once crimes against the humanity are committed in the name of race.. Sincerity of approach and purpose is the most vital element of success. customs. We are starting with the fundamental principle that we are all citizens and equal citizens of one State. however. media people. history.http://vuattach. There is need to develop a Pakistani nationhood which should give people the feeling that despite regional differences. culture. tradition. Unfortunately. When a culture with its languages. The people of Pakistan have an important role to play in national integration. they became selfsatisfied. May be that national identity once acquired by an individual is hard to erase from his psyche.. hope and confidence.." National Integration is the "will" of the people to live together which comes from sharing common ideals. Parochialism and regionalism must be replaced by national integration and cohesion. language..ning.. a blunder committed by our earlier leadership. Your may belong to any religion or caste or creed . a chain reaction sets in that ends up in death and destruction of the millions. caste or creed. Economic deprivation and exploitation of one section of a nation by the other brushes the national respect and honour aside and struggle for the control of material means starts off. students and people of all provinces. second and last a citizen of his State with equal rights. All threats to national solidarity must be faced courageously. This "will". relying too heavily on religious factor which they thought no Pakistani could afford to violate.. educationaists.. The identity factor is individualistic in character while the integration is a state that is achieved through the merger of individual identities. ethnic and economic. It must follow the unifying parth of democracy.. is first. The forces that tend to subvert the "will" of the people of a nation to live together are cultural. I cannot emphasize it too much. no matter what is his colour. religion. creed and cult.. will vanish. it tends to develop its own separate identity. Ethnicity is a basic human prejudice which can be ignited by the fiery speeches of the charismatic leader. Diverse groups may also continue in a common state for reasons of economic and other advantages but if the advantage is uncertain and solidarity missing.. however once it gets out of hand is difficult to restore.that has nothing to do with the business of the state. The fact is the national identity is one thing and national integration quite another. . they form a people destined for common statehood. The ruling party must evolve an identity of its own which should inspire faith. tolerance and unity in diversity and a policy of mutual respect. is not to be taken for granted. These include intellectuals. National Integration.com/ community he belongs. religions and other exclusive features fails to find roots in a society. We should begin to work in that spirit and in course of time all these angularities of the majority and minority communities.
Definition of Foreign Policy .The Foreign Policy of Pakistan Chapter 10 . politics and economics.http://vuattach. in its developmental stage. It also has formulated her foreign policy keeping in mind its geography. Define Foreign Policy and what are the principles of Pakistan's Foreign Policy? * 1 Introduction * 2 Definition of Foreign Policy * 3 Pakistan's Foreign Policy in Light of Quaid-e-Azam's Words * 4 Basic Goals of Pakistan's Foreign Policy * 5 Guiding Principles of Pakistan's Foreign Policy * 6 Conclusion Introduction No country today can think of a life independent of other nations.ning.1. * Pakistan and Kashmir Issue. * Relations of Pakistan with India. Pakistan is an important third world country. industrial and technological fields.net * Foreign Policy * Pakistan's Relations with the United States.The Foreign Policy of Pakistan Friendsmania.com/ Chapter 10 . Every country has to develop relations with other countries so as to meet its requirements in economical. __________________________________ Q. It is thus necessary for every country to formulate a sound foreign policy.
com/ Foreign Policy can be defined as Relations between sovereign states. It is a reflection of domestic politics and an interaction among sovereign states. Keeping cordial and friendly relations with all countries. Like any other country.ning. We believe in the policy of honesty and fair play in national and international dealings and are prepared to make our utmost contribution to the promotion of peace and prosperity among the nations of the world. 3. Acceleration of social and economic development. Quaid-e-Azam defined Foreign Policy towards other countries of the world in 1948. Maintenance of territorial integrity. Basic Goals of Pakistan's Foreign Policy 1. 4. she also considers with deep regard the need for . Pakistan will never be found lacking in extending its material and moral support to the oppressed and suppressed peoples of the world and in upholding the principles of the United Nations Charter. It indicates the principles and preferences on which a country wants to establish relations with another country. Pakistan's Foreign Policy in Light of Quaid-e-Azam's Words The father of the nation. Guiding Principles of Pakistan's Foreign Policy Following are the basic principles of Pakistan's Foreign Policy: 1. 2. Strengthening its place on the globe.http://vuattach. as follows Our Foreign Policy is one of friendliness and good-will towards all the nations of the world. We do not cherish aggressive designs against any country or nation. 5. Protection of Freedom and Sovereignity Pakistan came into being after great sacrifices of million of Muslims. Maintenance of its political independence.
5. Cordial Relations with Muslim Countries Pakistan always tries to establish cordial and friendly relations with Muslim countries. India and U. Kashmir and Afghanistan respectively. Non-Alignment Pakistan follows the policy of Non-Alignment i. 4. Non-Interference in Internal Affairs of Other Countries Pakistan has sought to establish normal and friendly relations with all countries especially in neighbouring countries. Therefore. She has shouldered high responsibilities and used her influence for safeguarding the rights of the Muslims. to keep away from alignment with any big power bloc.N Charter Pakistan's policy is to act upon UN charter and to support all moves by the UN to implement it. noninterference in the internal affairs of states.com/ preservation of its independence and does not allow any country to harm its freedom.e. It has always moved its concern against Israel. Pakistan has always held that the international disputes should be settled through negotiations rather than non-battlefield. 3. Promotion of World Peace Pakistan's policy is to promote peace among nations. the principle of protection of independence and sovereignity is the corner stone of Pakistan's Foreign Policy. 6. Implementation of U.http://vuattach. Neither does it support any such action. on the basis of universally acknowledge the principle of national sovereignity. 2. and avoids taking sides in the cold war.S.ning. It has no aggressive designs against any country. Pakistan has been the member of UN since the year of its birth.R capturing Palestine. non use of force.S. It has also given up its association with SEATO and CENTO and was included in NAM in 1979. Pakistan is also an active member of the Islamic Conference. .
Pakistan has a vital stake in promotion of disarmament both in the nuclear and conventional fields. Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN). Non-Aligned Movement (NAM). Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO). It is included in the principles of its foreign policy that a collective endeavour by countries at the regional level to promote disarmament and enhance security at the lowest possible level of armaments is an indispensable result to their advocacy of global disarmament.http://vuattach. to unify the Muslim countries and to promote regional co-operation. Conclusion The guiding principles of Pakistan's Foreign Policy are rooted in the country's Islamic ideology. Disarmament is the imperative condition for truly durable peace in the world. 8. and D-Eight. Pakistan's Relation with the United States . Organization of Islamic Conference (OIC).ning. Member of International Organization Pakistan had become the member of the British Commonwealth with the time of its establishment.2. Support for Self-Determination and Condemnation of Racial Discrimination Pakistan is a stomach supporter of the right of self-determination and has been in the fore front of efforts to eliminate colonialism and racism. its rich cultural heritage and historical experience.com/ 7. In addition it is the member of United Nations (U. Examine critically the foreign policy of Pakistan with special reference to United States. Nuclear Non-Proliferation and Disarmament Pakistan is deeply conscious of the fact that international peace and security cannot be achieved and sustained in the world with arms. which hold out the promise of a just and equitable world order in which nations can live in peace and security. South Asian Association for Regional Co-operation (SAARC).com/ 9. Being a member of International Organizations the objectives of Pakistan are to struggle for world peace. As an Islamic and non-aligned country. Pakistan supports Islamic causes and firmly upholds the above mentioned principles. It has advocated the right of self-determination of Kashmir.N). Q. http://vuattach.ning.
S. During his visit he tried to identify Pakistan as more near to the West and Islam more near to Christianity than to Communism and begged for economic and military aid. The U. agreement to provide economic and military assistance to Pakistan and the latter's partnership in the Baghdad Pact CENTO and SEATO strengthened relations between the two nations. and Pakistan . Liaquat Ali Khan's Visit 1950 In 1949. The United States and Pakistan established diplomatic relations in 1947. Pakistan was considered one of Washington's closest allies in Asia. 1965 and 1971 Wars and United States The United States suspended military assistance to both the countries involved in the conflict of 1965.S. United StatesPakistani relations preceding the 1971 was were characterized by poor communication and much confusion. Pakistan's strategic geographic position made it a valuable partner in Western alliance systems to contain the spread of communism. Pakistan's military links with the West continued to decline throughout Bhutto's tenure in power and into the first years of the Zia regime. Withdraw from SEATO and CENTO Following the lost of East Wing.http://vuattach. Pakistan withdrew from SEATO. received large amounts of economic and military assistance. However. The Prime Minister visited USA at the end of 1950. In 1954 Pakistan signed a Mutual Defence Agreement with the United States and subsequently became a member of SEATO (South East Asian Treaty Organization) and CENTO (Central Treaty Organization). Geographically the USA is not a neighbour of Pakistan. the U. Gradually. Bureaucracy and Generals have brought both the countries close together. in return. suspension of military assistance during the 1965 Indo-Pakistan was generated a widespread feeling in Pakistan that the United States was not a reliable ally.com/ Pakistan's relationship with the West. CENTO was disbanded following the fall of the Shah of Iran in March 1979.ning. The United States embargo on arms shipments to Pakistan remained in place during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 and was not lifted until 1975. During the cold War years. Pakistan. but interests of politician. was of major importance. Pakistan as Washington's Closest Ally Pakistan also used as a base for United States military reconnaissance flights over Soviet territory. particularly the United States. the US Secretary of State extended invitation to the Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan for a visit to the United States. relations improved and arms sales were renewed in 1975. SEATO and CENTO 1954-55 Pakistan's relations with the United States developed against the backdrop of the Cold War.
the United States agreed in 1981 to provide US$ 3. Cease of Economic Assistance Developing Pakistan's nuclear capability policy had originated as a defensive measure in reaction to India's explosion of a nuclear device in 1974. the United States president. who withdrew in 1988.com/ then joined the Nonaligned Movement. which required that the President certify annually that Pakistan "does not possess a nuclear explosive device". However. @import "/extensions/GoogleAdSense/GoogleAdSense. Zia also continued Bhutto's policy of developing Pakistan's nuclear capability. except for food assistance. In April 1979. Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan and American's Changed Policy The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in December 1979 revived the close relationship between Pakistan and the United States. Further. Initially. For several years. although the Symington Amendment was waived. as required under the Symington Amendment to the Foreign Assistance act of 1961. eventually defeating the Soviets. offered a package of US$ 400 million economic and military aid to Pakistan which was rejected by General Zia-ul-Haq. resulting in the death of four persons. This amendment called for ceasing economic assistance to those countries that had imported uranium-enrichment technology. the supply of F-16 jet fighters was also . assistance in the largest covert operation in history . with Pakistan's assurances that its nuclear program was for peaceful uses. who termed it "peanuts".0 billion.css". however the President Carter lifted the ban on aid to Pakistan and in January 1980. The violence had been sparked by a false report that the United States was involved in a fire at the Grand Masjid in Macca. 1990 however. Relations between the United States and Pakistan were further strained in November 1979 when protesters sacked the United States embassy i Islamabad. this time for over US$ 4.http://vuattach. with the Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan and the end of the Cold War. However. the United States took a harder position on the nuclear weapons issue and President George Bush refused to make the certification required under the Pressler Amendment.Pakistan armed and supplied anti-Soviet fighters in Afghanistan. Under President Ronald Reagan. With U. with 57 percent for economic assistance. the amount was subject to the annual appropriation process. was able to make this certification. President Jimmy Carter cut off economic assistance to Pakistan.S. Pressler Amendment 1985 On October 01.ning. and assistance to Pakistan was subsequently terminated. the United States suspended all military assistance and new economic aid to Pakistan under the Pressler Amendment. A second economic and military assistance program was announced in April 1986.2 billion to Pakistan aimed at helping Pakistan deal with the heightened threat to security in the region and its economic development needs.
The amendment opened the way for 28 undelivered F-16s to be sold to a third country and the money refunded to Pakistan. The joint statement failed to mention any solution to these issues. international terrorism. USA another action in regard of the nuclear issue occurred in September 1993 when the US imposed sanctions against China and Pakistan on alleged transfer of M-11 missiles to Pakistan labeling it a violation of the MTCR (Missile Technology Control Regime). Brown Amendment 1995 According to US officials the Pressler Amendment was a hurdle in the normalization of Pak-US relations. restoration of corporation in such areas as narcotics control.http://vuattach.ning. As a consequence. Nawaz Sharif's Meeting with President Clinton 1998 The relations improved a little after the former Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif's meeting with President Clinton in Washington in December 1998. release of $368 million worth defense equipment. delivery of F-16s. Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto paid an official visit to Washington in April 1995. Nuclear Weapon Tests 1998 India's decision to conduct nuclear tests in May 1998 and Pakistan's matching response set back U. relations in the region.com/ stopped for which Pakistan had already paid $650 million to the US. peace keeping and the availability of US insurance cover for investment made in Pakistan. As a result. economic assistance and loans to the government. on 21st September 1995.S. A notable achievement was a resolution of the F16s issue and accordingly US released $436.7 million to Pakistan as a claim . Sanctions on alleged transfer of M-11 missiles Pakistan's retention of the nuclear option became a defining issue in its relations with the United States. the US Senate under Clinton Administration passed the Brown Amendment to lessen its negative impact. An intensive dialogue on nuclear nonproliferation and security issues was initiated with discussion focusing on CTBT (Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty) signature and ratification. President Clinton's visit to Pakistan scheduled for the first quarter of 1998 was postponed and under the Glenn Amendment. military sales. sanctions restricted the provisions of credits. the economic sanctions imposed by the US after the Nuclear Test were eased. Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto's Visit to US 1995 In the background of the number of unresolved issues including nuclear non-proliferation. alleged supply of M-11 missiles by China. Pakistan declared that it would sign the treaty only when India did so first. Pakistan and US signed in Washington Memoranda of Unterstanding providing for $6 million of investment by American companies in Pakistan.
S. September 11 attacks and Pakistan-US relationship History changed its course on September 11. The Bush Administration expressed its desire that "an enhanced and enduring relationship" with Pakistan would continue to thrive in the years ahead. and is epitomized by the long-running conflict over the state of Jammu and Kashmir. Continuing interest of President Bush and personal diplomacy of Secretary Powell to defuse border tension between Pakistan and India also reflected the US desire for enhanced constructive engagement in the region. . Pakistan as major Non-NATO ally In March.000 people were killed in this attack.ning. But the October 1999 overthrow of the democratically elected Sharif government triggered an additional layer of sanctions with include restrictions on foreign military financing and economic assistance. U. depleted uranium ammunition and enhance cooperation in defense sector. President Musharraf's Visit to US 2003 President Musharraf visited United States in June 2003 and both Presidents negotiated on 24th June 2003 at Camp David. a number of military airports and bases for its attack on Afghanistan. More than 5. In response the United States stepped up its economic assistance to Pakistan providing debt relief. Afterwards President Bush announced to provide Pakistan $3 billion economic and military aid and plainly refused about the delivery of F-16s. This move will significantly enhance military cooperation between the two countries and enable Pakistan to purchase modern military equipment. Q. research and development with US. Examine the relations of Pakistan with India Pakistan's Relation with India Since partition of the sub-continent in 1947. The Pakistan-US relationship changed significantly when Pakistan moved decisively to ally itself with the United States in its war against Osama Bin Laden and Al-Qaeda. The animosity has its roots in religion and history. relations between Pakistan and India have been characterized by rivalry and suspicion.3. It gave the U.S. The 9/11 incidence gave a new direction to the global politics. 2001 when deadly terrorists attacks destroyed World Trade Centre at New York and severally damaged the Pentagon in Washington. 2004 the United States designated Pakistan as a "major NonNATO ally".com/ in connection with the F-16 aircrafts.http://vuattach. satellite technology. Government assistance to Pakistan was limited mainly to refugee and counter-narcotics assistance. It has arrested over five hundred AlQaeda members and handed them over to the United States.
When the Indians withdrew. following mediation efforts by the UN and interested countries.R. revolted in favor of joining Pakistan. About a million people were left homeless. U. In May 1948. the regular Pakistani army was called upon to protect Pakistan's borders. had an overwhelmingly Muslim population. In return he acceded to India. some of his Muslim subjects. handling over powers of defense. The referendum.. the territory of Jammu and Kashmir has remained in dispute with Pakistan and India both holding sectors. In December India invaded East . Besieged both by a revolt n his state and by the invasion. and agreed to attempt a peaceful settlement of Kashmir and their other differences. pitting the West Pakistan army against East Pakistanis demanding autonomy and independence. The war ended on 1st January 1949 when a ceasefire was arranged by the United Nations which recommended that both India and Pakistan should adhere to their commitment to hold a referendum in the state. the princely state of Kashmir. though ruled by a Hindu Maharaja. the Maharaja requested armed assistance from the Government of India. Later full-scale hostilites erupted in September 1965. Severe rioting and population movement ensued and an estimated half a million people were killed in communal violence. Fighting continued throughout the year between Pakistani irregular troops and the Indian army. aided by tribesmen from Pakistan. a sparsely inhabited region along the south-western IndoPakistan border. Pakistan claimed victory. A ceasefire line was established where the two sides stopped fighting and a UN peacekeeping force established.http://vuattach. First Indo-Pakistan War 1947-49 At the time of partition. Indian and Pakistani representatives met in Tashkent. Since partition. communication and foreign affairs. The first Indo-Pakistan war started after armed tribesmen from Pakistan's North-West Frontier Province invaded Kashmir in October 1947.S. a clash between border patrols erupted into fighting in the Rann of Kutch. When the Maharaja hesitated in acceding to either Pakistan or India in 1947. Hostilities ceased three weaks later.S. Both India and Pakistan agreed that the accession would be confirmed by a referendum once hostilities had ceased. when India alleged that insurgents trained and supplied by Pakistan were operating in Indiacontrolled Kashmir.ning. The 1971 War Indo-Pakistani relations deteriorated again when civil war erupted in Pakistan. however has never been held.com/ Historical Background The Indian Sub Continent was partitioned into Hindu-dominated India and the newly created Muslim state of Pakistan after India's independence from Great Britain in 1947. The 1965 War In April 1965. In January 1966.
Pakistan in support of the East Pakistani people. The Pakistani army surrendered at Dhaka and its army of more than 90,000 became India prisoners of war. East Pakistan became the independent country of Bangladesh on 6th December 1971. Indian Troops and Siachen Glacier 1984 India's nuclear test in 1974 generated great uncertainty in Pakistan and is generally acknowledged to have been the impetus for Pakistan's nuclear weapons development program. In 1983, the Pakistani and Indian governments accused each other of aiding separatists in their respective countries, i.e., Sikhs in India's Punjab state and Sindhis in Pakistan's Sindh province. In April 1984, tensions erupted after troops were deployed to the Siachen Glacier, a high-altitude desolate area close to the China border left undemarcated by the cease-fire agreement (Karachi Agreement) signed by Pakistan and India in 1949. Tensions diminished after Rajiv Gandhi became Prime Minister in November 1984 and after a group of Sikh hijackers was brought to trial by Pakistan in March 1985. In December 1985, President Zia and Prime Minister Gandhi pledged not to attack each other's nuclear facilities. In early 1986, the Indian and Pakistani governments began high-level talks to resolve the Siachen Glacier border dispute and to improve trade. Kashmir Insurgency 1990 Bilateral tensions increased in early 1990, when Kashmiri militants began a compaign of violence against Indian Government authority in Jammu and Kashmir. Subsequent high-level bilateral meetings relieved the tensions between India and Pakistan, but relations worsened again after the destruction of the Ayodhya Masjid by Hindu extremists in December 1992 and terrorists bombings in Bombay in March 1993. Talks between the Foreign Secretaries of both countries in January 1994 resulted in deadlock. Diplomatic Push 1996-97 In the last several years, the Indo-Pakistani relationship has veered sharply between rapprochement and conflict. After taking office in February 1997, Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif moved to resume official dialogue with India. A number of meetings at the foreign secretary and Prime Ministerial level took place with positive atmospherics but little concrete progress. In a speech at the UN, Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif offered to open talks on a non-aggression pact with India, proposing that both nations strike a deal to restrain their nuclear and missile capabilities. @import "/extensions/GoogleAdSense/GoogleAdSense.css"; Nuclear Rivalry 1998 The arms race between the rivals escalated dramatically in the 1990s. In May 1998, India conducted underground nuclear tests in the western desert
state of Rajasthan near the border with Pakistan. In response, Pakistan conducted six tests in Balochistan. In the same year, Pakistan test its longest range missile, the 1,500 km (932 mile) Ghauri missile, named after the 12th Century Muslim warrior who conquered part of India. Both sides were heavily criticized by the international community for the tests as fears of a nuclear confrontation grew. The United States ordered sanctions against both countries, freezing more than $20bn of aid, loans and trade. Japan ordered a block on about $1bn of aid loans. Several European countries followed suit, and the G-8 governments imposed a ban on non-humanitarian loans to India and Pakistan. The UN Security Council condemned India and Pakistan for carrying out nuclear tests and urged the two nations to stop all nuclear weapons programmes. Indian Prime Minister Atal Vajpayee Visit to Pakistan 1999 The relationship improved markedly when Indian Prime Minister Vajpayee traveled to Lahore for a summit with Sharif in February 1999. There was considerable hope that the meeting could lead to a breakthrough. They signed the Lahore accord pledging again to "intensify their efforts to resolve all issues, including the issue of Jammu and Kashmir." Kargil Conflict 1999 Unfortunately, in May 1999 India launched air strikes against Pakistani backed forces that had infiltrated into the mountains in Indianadministrated Kashmir, north of Kargil. Pakistan responded by occupying positions on the Indian side of the Line of Control in the remote, mountainous area of Kashmir near Kargil threatening the ability of India to supply its forces on Siachen Glacier. By early summer, serious fighting flared in the Kargil sector. The infiltrators withdrew following a meeting between Prime Minister Sharif and President Bill Clinton in July. Relations between India nad Pakistan have since been particularly strained, especially since the October 12, 1999 coup in Islamabad. The Brink of War 2001 Tension along the ceasefire lined continued. The worst fighting for more than a year broke out in October as India, which continued to condemn Pakistan for cross-border terrorism, started shelling Pakistani military positions. October saw a devastating attack on the Kashmiri assembly in Srinagar in which 38 people were killed. After the attack, the Chief Minister of Indian-administrated Kashmir, Farooque Abdullah called on Indian Government to launch a war against militant training camps across the border in Pakistan. On 13th December, an armed attack on the Indian Parliament in Delhi left 14 people dead. India again blamed Pakistani-backed Kashmiri militants. The attack led to a dramatic build-up of troops along the Indo-Pakistan border, military exchanges and raised fears of a wider conflict. Rail and bus
services between the two countries were also blocked. Relaxation of Tension 2003 A relaxation of tension began in 2003, when then Indian Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee called for a dialogue. Rail and bus services between the two countries resumed, and the two countries agreed to a ceasefire in Kashmir. Summit Talks 2004 Twelfth SAARC Summit was held in Islamabad in January 2004. On this occasion President Parvez Musharraf met Indian Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee on 5th January 2004. In this summit talk India and Pakistan resumed comprehensive discussions with an agenda the included the Kashmir problem, confidence-building measures, and ways to provide security against terrorism. No War Pact 2004 These comprehensive consultations have steadily built up trust, resulting in agreements to continue the suspension of nuclear tests, to give prior notification of missile tests, and to seek a peaceful resolution of the Kashmir problem. On June 20, 2004, both countries signed "No War Pact" and agreed to extend a nuclear testing ban and to set up a hotline between their foreign secretaries aimed at preventing misunderstandings that might lead to a nuclear war. Musharraf's Unofficial Visit to India 2005 In April 2005 President Parvez Musharraf and Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh agreed on various new confidence-building measures between the two nations. Their talks, held during Mr. Musharraf's unofficial visit to India on April 17, produced agreement, for example, on the passage of trucks for commercial purposes over Kashmir's Line of Control, or ceasefire line. This is expected to greatly help ease tensions between the countries. The improvement of relations between India and Pakistan still involves uncertain factors such as the activities of Islamic extremists, but efforts should be stepped up so that the latest summit can serve as a favorable tail wind for accelerating the thaw between the two nations. Q.4. Write a detailed note on Pakistan and Kashmir Issue Introduction Kashmir, the last of the defiant states, was the reverse of Hyderabad. It had a Hindu Ruler, Maharaja Hari Singh, but his subjects were mostly Muslims, accounting to 77 percent of the total population. The Maharaja was reluctant to join either India or Pakistan. But Lord Mountbatten urged him to take a decision to join either of the states before August 15, 1947. The
Despite her scant military resources. But Pakistan held that the accession of Kashmir had been brought about by force. She took control of the Azad Kashmir Army. The Maharaja panicked. India began to airlift her troops to Srinagar and launched a full-scale attack on the tribesmen. India agreed on the condition that Kashmir would accede to India. Rising up against this brutal action. the capital. Lord Mountbatten accepted the accession on behalf of India. India took the dispute to the Security Council. Indo-Pakistan War 1948 and United Nation's Involvement While the Kashmir issue was still on the table. wanting to avenge the deaths of their brothers.http://vuattach. Pakistan rushed her regular troops into Kashmir and a full-scale war with India ensued. Jinnah proposed an immediate ceasefire and later on a fair and free plebiscite in Jammu and Kashmir. On October 26. On reaching the valley of Kashmir. There it accused Pakistan of aggression and demanded that Pakistan withdraw her tribesmen. 1948 called for an immediate ceasefire the . The Pathan tribesmen from the Noth West Frontier Province. they defeated the Maharaja's troops and reached the gates of Srinagar. The government requested the Security Council to arrange a cease-fire and asked both the tribesmen and the Indian troops to withdraw so that a free impartial plebiscite could be held to ascertain the wishes of the people of Kashmir. He asked his Hindu paratroopers to open fire and within a matter of seconds. Pakistan was prepared to send in her troops but the British General Gracey. War of Kashmir 1947 The local population of Poonch began to press the Maharaja to accede to Pakistan. Kashmir Dispute and United Nations In January 1948. But the Security Council on August 13. the war of Kashmir had begun in earnest. Commander-in-Chief of the Pakistan Army. 1947. they held a massive demonstration to protest against the Maharaja's indecisiveness.ning. 1947. In August 1947. Pakistan was stunned.com/ Maharaja asked for more time to consider his decision. a local barrister called Sardar Mohammad Ibrahim immediately set up the Azad Kashmir government and began to wage guerrilla warfare against the Maharaja. By October 1947. the Maharaja acceded to India. Maharaja's Coalition with India The Maharaja sensing his defeat took refuge in Jammu whence he appealed to India to send troops to halt the onslaught of the tribesmen. In the meantime he asked the Indian and the Pakistani government to sign a "standstill agreement" with him. invaded the valley. the Indian troops launched a full-scale attack and drove the tribesmen right back to the Pakistani border. was against it. Pakistan consented but India refused. several hundred Muslims were killed. On October 26.
e..com/ withdrawal of all Pakistani and Indian troops and holding of plebiscite under United Nation's supervision.S. the ceasefire line was demarcated. Gilgit and a great chunk of Ladakh territory near the Chinese border in the North.S. In 1983. The Pakistani army surrendered at Dhaka and its army of more than 90. 1971 ceasefire. Following the 1971 Indo-Pakistan conflict. and agreed to attempt a peaceful settlement of Kashmir and their other differences. Indian and Pakistani representatives met in Tashkent. East Pakistan became the independent country of Bangladesh on 6th December 1971. Hostilities ceased three weaks later. and endorsed the principle of settlement of bilateral disputes through peaceful means. some areas of Western Kashmir. Pakistan claimed victory. The 1965 War In April 1965. Sikhs in India's Punjab state and Sindhis in Pakistan's Sindh province. Poonch. In January 1966. Jammu and the remainder of Ladakh territory near the Tiber border. Later full-scale hostilites erupted in September 1965. In April 1984.css". The cease-fire has remained in existence since 1949. U. a clash between border patrols erupted into fighting in the Rann of Kutch. a sparsely inhabited region along the south-western IndoPakistan border. following mediation efforts by the UN and interested countries. i. The 1971 War Indo-Pakistani relations deteriorated again when civil war erupted in Pakistan. the Pakistani and Indian governments accused each other of aiding separatists in their respective countries. when India alleged that insurgents trained and supplied by Pakistan were operating in Indiacontrolled Kashmir. tensions erupted after troops were deployed to the Siachen Glacier. Both the Indian and Paksitani government accepted the resolution. When the Indians withdrew. In December India invaded East Pakistan in support of the East Pakistani people. They agreed to a line of control in Kashmir resulting from the December 17. India in July 1972. the resolution began to be implemented. In January 1949. Indian Troops and Siachen Glacier 1984 India's nuclear test in 1974 generated great uncertainty in Pakistan and is generally acknowledged to have been the impetus for Pakistan's nuclear weapons development program.R. In July 1949. No plebiscite has been held and thus the Kashmir issue still remains disputed and unresolved. Pakistan's side of Kashmir consisted of some parts of Jammu.ning.http://vuattach..000 became India prisoners of war. India kept the valley of Kashmir. a high-altitude desolate area close to the China border left undemarcated by the cease-fire agreement (Karachi Agreement) signed by . pitting the West Pakistan army against East Pakistanis demanding autonomy and independence. @import "/extensions/GoogleAdSense/GoogleAdSense. President Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto and Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi met in the mountain town of Shimla.
Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif offered to open talks on a non-aggression pact with India. and its charter made clear the purposes behind the initiative. So. President Zia and Prime Minister Gandhi pledged not to attack each other's nuclear facilities. Subsequent high-level bilateral meetings relieved the tensions between India and Pakistan. Kashmir Insurgency 1990 Bilateral tensions increased in early 1990. United States of America appreciated the efforts of Pakistan which did not please India. Diplomatic Push 1996-97 In the last several years. 2001 attack on the Indian Parliament. the Indian and Pakistani governments began high-level talks to resolve the Siachen Glacier border dispute and to improve trade. In December 1985. 2002 which even India's hawkish Home Minister Lal Krishna Advani termed four days later as "path-breaking". but relations worsened again after the destruction of the Ayodhya Masjid by Hindu extremists in December 1992 and terrorists bombings in Bombay in March 1993. National Kashmir Committee It is in this context that Pakistan launched a new political initiative on Kashmir to reaffirm its long standing policy of supporting the right of selfdetermination for the people of kashmir that is enshrined in United Nations resolutions. Musharraf announced the formation of a National Kashmir Committee headed by a veteran Kashmiri politician. initially accepted even by India.ning. Effects of 9/11 on Kashmir If the world and the United States changed after September 11. The . India blamed Pakistanbased groups for the December 13. General Parvez Musharraf's speech of January 12. the Indo-Pakistani relationship has veered sharply between rapprochement and conflict. A number of meetings at the foreign secretary and Prime Ministerial level took place with positive atmospherics but little concrete progress. In reply. India was caught on the back foot. when Kashmiri militants began a compaign of violence against Indian Government authority in Jammu and Kashmir.com/ Pakistan and India in 1949. proposing that both nations strike a deal to restrain their nuclear and missile capabilities. the center of that change is the region where Pakistan is located. Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif moved to resume official dialogue with India. When it came to begin the war against terrorism Pakistan did not hesitate to do whatever it takes to fight against terrorism. Talks between the Foreign Secretaries of both countries in January 1994 resulted in deadlock. After taking office in February 1997. In early 1986.http://vuattach. In a speech at the UN. Tensions diminished after Rajiv Gandhi became Prime Minister in November 1984 and after a group of Sikh hijackers was brought to trial by Pakistan in March 1985.
Having addressed international concerns regarding terrorism and extremism in Musharraf's January 12 speech. 2005 was thus projected as a major event and development in the process of solving the "Kashmir Issue". though unsanctioned by Indian authorities to Pakistan between June 2-16. two of which were over the disputed kashmir region.ning. World community. The basic important dispute between the two countries is Kashmir issue and with its resolution all the other outstanding issues would be settled very easity. the two leaderships made a decision to open the dialogue process in a bid to resolve all disputes between the two sides. After his meeting with the President Musharraf. Indeed the visit strongly reiterated the fact that the APHC continues to be a faithful Pakistani proxy. The first formal visit of a faction of the separatist All Parties Hurriyat Conference (APHC) and the Jammu and Kashmir Liberation Front (JKLF) to Pakistan occupied Kashmir (PoK) and subsequently. Year 2005 .com/ challenge before the government is to promote confidence among the people in Pakistan and Kashmir regarding Pakistan's efforts to project the Kashmir cause as a popular and indigenous struggle internationally. In January this year. Mirwaiz Umer Farooq declared that We want . The Dialogue Process Pakistan always showed seriousness and sincerity towards resolution of the core issue of Kashmir by adopting several Confidence Building Measures (CBMs). 2004 Prime Minister Mir Zafarullah Khan Jamali said the Kashmir dispute remains the core issue between India and Pakistan.http://vuattach. On March 17. time and again has advised India to decrease the number of its force in Occupied Kashmir and release illegally detained Kashmiri Leadership. the United States is now more receptive to Pakistan's plea and is anxious to see a dialogue on all the issues of Kashmir. The two South Asian nations have fought three wars. India never hesitated from leveling baseless allegations against Pakistan of infiltration and also did not stop massive human rights violations in Kashmir. The need is to initiate vigorous efforts from both sides in resolving the Kashmir issue.Road to Peace The Prime Minister said that there wre many difficulties on road to peace but emphasized the need to take measures to promote mutual trust and find new avenues for a peaceful resolution of the lingering Kashmir dispute. Prime Minister Mir Zafarullah Khan Jamali said that Kashmir dispute should be resolved according to the United Nations resolution and with active participation of the Kashmiris. Peace in South Asia and the Kashmir Dispute Pakistan believes that the establishment of durable peace in South Asia hinges on the resolution of the Kashmir Dispute in light of the security Council resolutions and the wishes of the Kashmiri people.
* 1 Introduction * 2 Urdu . we support his [President Musharraf] approach.. It plays a vital role in building the character of an individual as well as a nation.National Language of Pakistan * Regional Languages of Pakistan Q. We wish both the governments to show courage.National Language of Pakistan * 3 Evolution of Urdu * 4 Progress of Urdu Language * 5 Qualities of Urdu * 6 Rich Treasure of Prose and Poetry * 7 Urdu .Languages of Pakistan * Urdu . Write a note on qualities of Urdu and its role in National Integration. . Chapter 11 . It was in fact the denial of justice and unabated Indian State-terrorism perpetrated against Kashmir. which can be termed as a milestone in the process of resolving the core dispute of Kashmir between Pakistan and India peacefully. Despite promised justice by the UN 57 years ago. This tour has been helpful in understanding the viewpoint of the Kashmiri leaders. the APHC leaders once again were assured full political. they have been denied their right of self-determination. They have been living under brutal Indian occupation since 1948. diplomatic and moral support. The recent visit of the APHC leaders was a significant development.ning.Languages of Pakistan Chapter 11 .1. Languages bring closer each other and it creates a sense of harmony among the people. During their meeting with President Musharraf. boldness and flexibility in settling the issue.com/ Kashmir to be divided on geographical grounds.An Important Part of Our Cultural Heritage * 8 Importance of Urdu in National Life * 9 Conclusion Introduction Language is the only media by which one can express his ideas and feelings. Their quest for a free hand to decide their future is valid.. We don't wand Kashmir to lose its identity.http://vuattach..
Several Committees have been formed for the level. The vitality of Urdu lies in its ability to adopt words from other languages in such a way as if they originally belonged to it. Without one state language no nation can remain tied up solidly together. Each Pakistani feels proud of speaking. Most of our national leaders. from time to time. He said Let me make it clear that the National Language of Pakistan is going to be Urdu and no other language.National Language of Pakistan After independence Quaid-e-Azam said in clear cut words that the National Language of Pakistan would be Urdu. Urdu is a word of Turkish language and its literal meaning is camp. The Urdu language has crossed its evolutionary stages after the Independence and is now on its way to the road of progress and development. After the emergence of Pakistan. The base of this language is Prakrit. Evolution of Urdu Urdu evolved over a period of centuried by cultural between local people of north of Sub Continent and Muslims of Arabia. Qualities of Urdu 1. reading and writing Urdu.ning. Great Power of Assimilation The splendour of Urdu is Turkish and its charm is Persian in its base.com/ Urdu . The chief reason for its . Progress of Urdu Language Due to the efforts of poets and writers during different periods of history. The Muslims. while visiting other countries. a great deal of work has been done for the progress of Urdu language. it is the binding force between different parts of Pakistan. deliver their speeches in Urdu language which enhances its prestige on the International level. Being the national language of the country. Iran and Turkey. an Aryan language. Urdu progressed well and reached almost all parts of the sub-continent in the 16th Century. brought about changes and amendments in it to make it more simple and easy to understand according to their needs and requirements.http://vuattach. The script of Urdu is modified form of Persian.
aims and objectives are common. According to Abdul Haque It is Sir Syed due to whom Urdu has made such a great progress within a period of only one century.ning. The poets and writers have contributed their most in its development. every nation gives out respect and importance to national language. Means of Brotherhood and Unity People of Pakistan are one nation.com/ country wide popularity was its power of Assimilation. 2. it had been adopted by the Muslims and the Hindus alike. therefore their thinking. An important factor for achieving this unity and . Rich Treasure of Prose and Poetry The Urdu language possesses a very valuable treasure of poetry and prose. That is why. Urdu . It would not be wrong to say if it is said that: Urdu is a part of our Cultural Heritage Importance of Urdu in National Life Certain points which express the importance of Urdu in national life are given below: 1. Maulana Shibli Nomani. Amir Khusro and many others adopted this language in their poetry and writings. Sir Syed wrote for the re-awakening of the Muslims of Sub Continent. Deputy Nazir Ahmed. When we are abroad we are identified as Pakistani because of our national language. Their progress and prosperity depends upon their unity and brotherhood. Maulana Hali.http://vuattach. Mirza Ghalib.An Important Part of Our Cultural Heritage Urdu grew in popularity and by the later Mughal Period and the advent of the British. According to Sir Syed Ahmed Khan Still now Urdu has great affinity for many other words and ideas which increases its beauty. Source of National Identity National language is the identity of a nation.
Islamic Studies. Pushto * 6 5.2. The Urdu Development Board and "Anjuman-e-Taraqi-e-Urdu" are trying to give Urdu a place in society and it is hope that Urdu would find its place in society within short period of time. Political Science and other subjects are taught upto M. they are joined together by one national language which is the heritage of all. People of two different areas can easily understood each other ideas and thoughts by Urdu. The officers have adopted Urdu language in their official work and the Government has published a dictionary contained Urdu terms for the office work.ning. 3.A level in Urdu. Source of Expression Urdu has become a source of expression. 2. thoughts and aspiration. feeling. Sindhi * 4 3. History. Q. Kashmiri * 8 Conclusion . Punjabi * 3 2. Lectures on Islamic education and religion are also delivered in Urdu throughout Pakistan. 4.com/ brotherhood is Urdu. Brahvi * 7 6.http://vuattach. Balochi * 5 4. Write a detailed note on regional languages of Pakistan * 1 Regional Languages of Pakistan * 2 1. Means of Communication and Co-ordination Urdu serves as a means of communication and is a binding force between all the four province of Pakistan. Conclusion Being the national language of the country it is the binding force in different parts of Pakistan. People living in different provinces realize that in spite of speaking different languages. Medium of Instruction Urdu language is the medium of instruction in most of the educational instituations of Pakistan.
Before partition it was spoken in Delhi. These languages are rich in literature. folksongs and spiritual sayings of their respective saints and contribute greatly to the culture of Pakistan. It was given various names during different periods of history. Brahvi and Kashmiri. Arabic and Turkish words. Maulvi Kamal-ud-Din also used this name for this language in his selected works. They cultivate in them love. Punjabi Punjabi is the local language of the province of the Punjab which is the biggest province of Pakistan with regard to population and development. It has different dialects in different parts of Punjabi like Saraiki and Potohari but the basic language remains the same. Bara Mah and Satwara the other one i "Narrative Poetry" which is composed of various rhythms and meters. mostly in verse has two forms one is "Lyric Poetry" which includes Bait. The highly imaginative and artistic exquisite literature. but mainly include five regional languages Punjabi. In the NWFP it was known as Hindko. Sindhi. Various forms of Lyric and Narrative Poetry Punjabi is rich in mystical and romantic poetry. Dhirpur. The regional languages of Pakistan are: 1. Hafiz Barkhurdar was the first person to use the name of Punjabi for this language in the first half of 17th century in his book entitled Muftah-ul-Fiqah. poetry. .com/ Regional Languages of Pakistan Pakistan is a multi-lingual country. respect and a firm adherence to the Pakistan Ideology. Kafi. However as time rolled on the vocabulary of Punjabi language became a mixture of Persian. The famous Sikh religious leader Baba Guru Nanak gave it the name of Zaban-e-Jattan. The regional languages though distinct from one another in their forms. Pushto.ning. Balochi. It has its links with the Aryan language Prakrit. Famous historian Masoodi called it Multani while Al-Beruni used the name of Al-Hindi for it. Si-harfi.http://vuattach. Various Names Punjabi is a very simple language and easy to understand. dialects and expressions of thoughts have several common factors in them. In the NWFP it was known as Hindko. No less than twenty-four languages and dialects are spoken by the people of Pakistan. Peshawar and Jammu too.
With the advent and influence of Arabs in the Sub Continent Sindhi changed its form and adopted maximum words of Arabic and also of Persian and Turkish. . Famous Punjabi Poets Some of the famous poets of Punjabi language are: * Baba Farid Shakar Ganj Baksh * Sheikh Ibrahim Farid Shani * Madholal Hussein * Sultan Bahu * Bullay Shah * Ali Haider * Waris Shah Progress of Punjabi Language http://vuattach. A present the Punjabi literature is taugth upto M. as it is today. After Independence concrete steps were taken for the promotion and development of this language which made it a popular language in other parts of the province. It appears that Sindhi was spoken in the Indus Delta from time immemorial. Gulzar. However travelers like AlBeruni have told us about the original script of the language.ning.http://vuattach.ning. Jang Nama and Vaar. "Chach Nama" being an authentic document proves that the dialect of the Sindhi language was the same in the 12th century. Sindhi Sindhi is one of the important regional languages of Pakistan. The Government is still making efforts for the progress of Punjabi language and extending support to those institutions which are striving for its development. level in Pakistan. The origin of this language is not exactly known. It is said that the language of the people of Moen-jo-Daro contained elements of the present Sindhi language.com/ Examples are Qissa Noor Namah.com/ Before partition Punjabi was spoken and understood in the eastern part of the Punjab.A. 2.
1430 to 1600 . Naw-i-Sind and Khadim-IWatan besides a number of Weeklies. Several newspapers published in Sindhi. Organizations like "Sindhi Literacy Board" and "Bazm-e-Talib-ul-Maula" etc were set up. The history of Balochi literature may be divided into four periods: 1. such as Ibrat. Balochi Balochi is the regional language of Balochistan. Famous Sindhi Poets Some of famous Sindhi Poets are * Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai * Sachal Sarmast * Makhdoom Noor * Shah Inayat * Bedil * Sabit Ali Shah * Kazi Kazah 3. Early Medieval Period . It is the least developed of all the regional languages. Steps Taken to Develop Sindhi Various steps have been taken to develop Urdu.ning. With the advent and influence of Arabs in the subcontinent this way of writing was subsequently changed into Arabic and adopted maximum words of Arabic and also of Persian and Turkish.http://vuattach. It was spread by Balochi tribal migrated from Iran.com/ Way of Writing In the beginning Sindhi was written in "Marwari" and "Arz Nagari"' way of writing.
Makrani Famous Literacy Figures and Poets of Balochi Some of the most literacy figures are: * Azad Jamaldini * Ulfat Naseem * Abdul Qadir Shahwani * Malik Mohammad Ramzan * Mir Aaqil Maingal Well known poets of Balochi language are * Jam Darag * Shah Murid * Shahdad . No newspapers or books were published in Balochi up till 1940.http://vuattach. Types of Balochi There are two types of Balochi namely: 1. however Balochi literature received a little boost due to the efforts made by many associations and by the establishment of T.1600 to 1850 3. Modern Period . Balochi literature is on the road to development.V stations.1930 up to date Literature produced by earlier poets has no record as it is preserved traditionally in the memories of the people.com/ 2.1850 to 1930 4. After partition.ning. Sulemani 2. Contemporary Period . At present. Later Medieval Period .
Arabic.F. A weekly magazine known as "Nan Kessan" was published.P and tribal areas. Atta Shah is a famous Balochi poet of Pakistan. however it received little boost when Radio Pakistan. Quetta Television Station With the establishment of Quetta Television Station the Balochi language has received great fillip. It belongs to the East Iranian group of languages and contains many Persian. After partition. Karachi began its broadcast in Balochi language. Balochi prose has also developed a great deal after partition.ning. Pushto Pushto is the regional language of the N. The renowned politician Gul Khan Naseer is also considered a good poet of Balochi language.com/ Progress of Balochi Language The Balochi literature was on the verge of decline before partition. A monthly known as "Olassis" was also published. Balochi programmes were relayed from Radio Pakistan Karachi which enhanced the developmental process of Balochi language.W.http://vuattach. Balochi Literary Association The Balochi literary Association was set up which published many magazines and articles in Balochi language. Greek and Pehlevi words. Ishaq Shamim is another famous poet of Balochi language whose poem "Dulhan" is very popular. 4. Famous Pushto Poets Some of the well known poets of Pushto language are: * Amir Karoro * Khushal Khan Khatak * Rehman Baba * Sher Shah Soori . Translation of the Bible has also been published in Balochi language.
The Pushto academy was set up in 1954 and Maulana Abdul Qadir (Alig) was appointed as its Director. Peshawar University was established after three years of Independence. Arabic and Persian words and is written in the Persian . Brahvi Brahvi is the next spoken language of Balochistan.P was established because of his dedicated services. 5. Arabic and English but remains in an unexplained isolation among the Indo-Iran dialects. An academy for the promotion of Pushto literature was set up under the supervision of the Government.ning. 6. Brahvi literature has a vast treasure of folklores. Persian.P. Kashmiri Kashmiri is the language of the people of inhabitting the occupied Kashmir and Azad Kashmir. The Islamic College. The services rendered by the Pushto poets and writers in the freedom struggle.W. Peshawar which became the citadel of freedom movement in N.com/ * Saif ullah * Kazim Kazim Steps Taken to Develop Pushto Although Pushto is an old language but its literature is comparatively new one.http://vuattach. The Brahvi language is said to be a member of Dravidian family of languages. Sahibzada Abdul Qayyum worked very hard to create political awareness in the people of N. It has borrowed heavily from Sindhi. This academy prepared Pushto dictionary.F. It contains many Turkish.F. in fact contributed a great deal towards the promotion of Pushto literature. It fact it is said to be spoken by a greater number of people than Balochi. It's script has borrowed much from Pushto script. After independence Pushto literature received a great boost. This language has been derived from Sanskrit. Kashmiri is generally spoken in Muslim families of the valley.W. Malik Dad was a great poet and learned person of Brahvi language.
Punjabi.Constitutional Development and Political Struggle in Pakistan * Objective Resolution * Salient features of the Constitution of 1956 * Salient features of the Constitution of 1973 * Steps towards Islamization . Kashmiri Literary Figures Famous authors of Kashmiri language are: * Sh. Nooruddin * Khatoon Lillah Anifa * Baba Nasiruddin * Ghani Conclusion The regional languages of Pakistan . Pushto.Constitutional Development and Political Struggle in Pakistan Chapter 12 . Brahvi are the most modern Pakistani languages.http://vuattach. Chapter 12 . which began with the composition of folk songs and ballads. Sindhi. Balochi.ning. Government has been doing its best to develop the regional languages. The have several common feature and their literature bears the same eternal message for mankind.com/ Script. Kashmiri like all the regional languages of Pakistan had its early literature flowered in the form of poetry.
the responsibility of framing the constitution fell onto the shoulders of the first Prime Minister.http://vuattach.1. Describe some of the important features of Objectives Resolution * 1 Introduction * 2 First Constituent Assembly * 3 Objective Resolution * 4 Salient Features of Objective Resolution * 5 Objective Resolution and Liaquat Ali Khan * 6 Importance of Objective Resolution * 7 Conclusion Introduction Pakistan is the first nation in the world. whose creation was based on the religious motives. However. Quaid-e-Azam in February 1948. The responsibility of making a constitution of Pakistan rested on Constituent Assembly. It was because of this reason that the popular and famous slogan of Pakistan ka Matlab Kiya? La Illaha Illallah was the main basis of the demand of Pakistan. so according to the independence act of 1947. Liaquat Ali Khan. a constituent assembly was formed in 1947 with Quaid-e-Azam as its leader. said: . First Constituent Assembly In order to establish a society based on Islamic principles. it had no Islamic constitution of its own. with the death of Quaid-e-Azam on 11th September 1948.com/ ________________________________Q. a new constitution was to be framed for the country since the old act of 1935 did not contain everything required for an independent Islamic State. It contained those objectives on which the future constitution was to be based as stated by the founder of the nation.ning. the government of India Act 1935. However. with certain amendments was adopted by Pakistan. Objective Resolution This resolution was passed by the First Constituent Assembly in March 1949 under the leadership of Liaquat Ali Khan. But at the very outset of its establishment.
4. 5. Sovereignity Belongs to Allah The resolution clearly laid down that sovereignity over the entire Universe belongs to Almighty Allah alone and the authorities to be exercised by the people of Pakistan are a sacred trust. 6. equality. Golden Principles of Islam Principles of democracy. Protection of the Rights of Minorities The rights and interests of the minorities to freely profess and practice their religion will be protected. freedom and social justice as laid down by Islam shall be fully observed. Life According to the Teachings of Islam The Muslims shall be provided with opportunity to order their in accordance with the teachings and requirements of Islam. Supreme Authority of the People The sovereignity of the state will be established through the elected representative of the people. Federal System Federal System of Government will be introduced in Pakistan. Salient Features of Objective Resolution The salient features of the Objective Resolution are as follows: 1.http://vuattach. 2. Islam and its ideology have taught us the lesson of democracy..ning. 3..com/ The constitution of Pakistan will be democratic and based on the fundamental laws of Islam.. .
At the time it was passed. he said We believe in God and his Supreme Sovereignity because we believe that . next in importance only to be achievement of independence. Objective Resolution and Liaquat Ali Khan While introducing the resolution in the constituent Assembly. it is a significant document in the constitutional history of Pakistan. 9. Liaquat Ali Khan said: The ideals that promised the demand for Pakistan should form the corner stone of the state. Liaquat Ali Khan called it The most important occasion in the life of this country. Equal Rights to Citizens All citizens will enjoy their rights on the principles of equality. When we use the word "Democracy" in the Islamic sense it pervades all aspects of life. It relates to the system of government and to our society with equal validity because one of the greatest contributions of Islam has been the equality of all men. Independence Judiciary Judiciary will be independent. When Liaquat Ali Khan visited America in the course of his speech at New Orleans. Importance of Objective Resolution This resolution is of fundamental importance in the history of constitutions making in Pakistan because from the first constitution of 1956 till the constitution of 1973 (present constitution) whatever constitution was framed it was based on this objective resolution. Mr.com/ 7. Hence. 8.ning. It contains those steps and principles which were to be taken for the fulfillment of the basic aim of the freedom struggle that is the establishment of an Islamic Society in Pakistan. Development of Under Developed Areas All efforts will be made for the development and progress of the under developed areas.http://vuattach.
1962 and 1973.http://vuattach. It consisted of 234 articles divided into thirteen parts and six schedules. It consisted of such principles which revealed that character of constitution shall be Islamic Q. Thus the principle of parity was adopted. The subjects were divided into three lists. Islamic Republic of Pakistan The name of the country was adopted as the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. But democracy. It provided a guide line of the future constitutions of Pakistan which were passed in 1956. Both the wings of the country were given representation in the National Assembly.com/ civic life must have an ethical content and a higher purpose. The National Assembly consisted of 300 members. Unicameral Legislature The Legislature was to consist of only one house. the Federal List. and the concurrent list. Some salient features of the constitution are as under: 1. 150 members were drawn from each wing. equality of opportunity and equality before the law of all citizens inrespective of their race and creed are also aspects of faith with us. .ning. 2. social justice. The powers were divided among the centre and the provinces. Federal System The constitution provide for a federal system in the country. the Provincial list. Conclusion All the above mentioned principles were presented in the Objective Resolution that is why this resolution is considered an important event in the constitutional history of the country. 3. The Objectives Resolution was included as Preamble in the constitution. Discuss the salient feature and drawbacks of the Constitution of 1956 Friendsmania. It was accepted by all classes of people.2.net The Constitution of 1956 was a lengthy document.
He was authorized to nominate his cabinet among the members of the National Assembly. He was to be a Muslim of at least forty years ago. Islamic Law No law would be passed against the teachings of Quran and Sunnah and the existing laws would be made Islamic in character. According to it President was the Head of the State and the Prime MInister headed the government. The Prime Minister The Prime Minister was the head of the government. Independent Judiciary The constitution provided for an independent judiciary in the country. The President According to the 1956 Constitution the President was the head of the state. The Supreme Court.com/ 4. Parliamentary System Parliamentary system was adopted. In case of internal or external danger he could declare state of emergency in the country. Language .http://vuattach. The Cabinet was answerable to the Assembly. 10. advised the state whenever required and decided the issues arising among the governments. 6. the Judges of the Supreme Court. 9. Fundamental Rights The Constitution of 1956 provided for the fundamental rights for the citizens of Pakistan. interpreted the constitution. 7. 8.ning. A Supreme Court was constituted. He was the leader of the Parliamentary group and was thus indirectly elected by the people. He was authorized to appoint the Governors. Auditor General and the Advocate General. The tenure of his office was five years. 5. It was headed by a Chief Justice.
This was contrary to the practice of advanced countries where the federal principle has been used in building up a common nationhood through a strong Centre. was not given a constitutional recognition and accepted as the basis. The federal list was substantially reduced and the provincial list greatly enlarged. Consequently the constitution was enforced in the country on 14th August 1973. Drawbacks of the Constition of 1956 1. 3. A far-reaching devolution of power already a political reality. industries.com/ Urdu and Bengali were made national languages. Bhutto look over as the tenth Prime Minister and Mr.A. Q.3.A.ning. 2. internal communications and the tribal areas in the North-West Frontier. Bhutto started work on a democratic constitution for the country. of the stale. Finally the Senate approved the constitution in August 1973. The Constitution was conceived in the belief that the political life of the country would always be tied to provincial moorings and will never rise to a higher plane of nationalism in which party affiliations would cut across the physical barriers. Z. control over mineral resources. The Committee worked hard and prepared the draft of the constitution which was presented to the leaders of all parliamentary leaders on 20th October 1972. recruitment of services. After that it was discussed and debated n the National Assembly which gave its approval on 10th April 1973. According to the Constitution of 1973 Mr. Discuss the salient features of the Constitution of 1973 The Constitution of 1973 After taking control of the government in 1971. Z. The constitution in Pakistan instead of being an instrument for unity a country already divided by geography. All the leaders signed the draft.http://vuattach. Parity was certain to foster parochial feeling equally in the region in whose favor it was to operate and in the region whose interests were adversely affected by it. Fazl-e-Elahi was sworn in as the President of Pakistan. sought to create two distinct political entities with maximum autonomy in the management of their affairs. The President gave his assent on 12th April 1973. transferring to the provinces among other subjects. On 17th April 1972 the National Assembly constituted a committee to prepare a draft constitution. . Regional loyalties were further consolidated by the introduction of parity of representation in the National Assembly.
The Federal Government is headed by a President elected by members of Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) 6. No Government can change it at will. http://vuattach. Federal System The Constitution of 1973 has introduced a Federal system in the country. Two-third majority of both the Houses is required for this purpose. 2.http://vuattach.ning.ning. Parliamentary form of Government The 1973 Constitution proposes a Parliamentary form of Government in the . Written Constitution Like the previous constitutions of 1956 and 1962 the Constitution of 1973 is a written document.com/ Salient Features of 1973 Constitution The Constitution of 1973 is strikingly different from the earlier Constitution of 1956 and 1962. Introductory and the Objectives Resolution It commences with an introductory which slates the Islam shall be state religion. Islamic System The inclusion of Islamic Provisions has given the 1973 Constitution an unprecedented Islamic character.com/ 5. It is not easy to make amendments in it. It ensures an Islamic system in the country. The principles and provisions set out in the Objectives Resolution have been made substantive part of the constitution. 3. 1. 4. It is very comprehensive and consists of twelve parts consisting of 280 articles. Rigid Constitution It is a rigid constitution. It has the following salient features. The federation of Pakistan consists of a Central Government and four Provincial Governments.
Direct Method of Election The Constitution of 1973 gives a direct method of election. The National Assembly consists of 200 members (Now this number has been raised to 207). 8. The members of the National Assembly. 9. Prime minister is the head of the Parliamentary system.ning.http://vuattach. the Provincial Assemblies are directly elected by the people. Bicameral Legislature The Constitution provides for the establishment of a bicameral legislature in Pakistan. The Prime Minister selects a cabinet of central ministers from the members of Parliament which conducts the affairs of the country.com/ country. According to 1973 Constitution the Prime Minister enjoys wide powers. The Majlis-e-Shoora enjoys wide powers of legislature. The Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) consists of two Houses named Senate and National Assembly. Fundamental Rights The 1973 Constitution ensures the following fundamental rights to the citizens of Pakistan. He is elected on direct adult franchise basis. The Senate or the Upper House consists of 63 members (the 8th Amendment has raised this number to 87). 7. * Security of person * Safeguard against unlawful arrest and detention * Prohibition of slavery and forced labor * Freedom of movement * Freedom of assembly * Freedom of association * Freedom of business * Freedom of speech * Freedom of profess religion . He is leader of the Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliamentary).
However English has been retained as the official language for 15 years.http://vuattach. Single Citizenship The Constitution of 1973 has established the principles of single citizenship. 10. * Social justice shall be promoted. * Bonds with Muslim world shall be strenghened. In addition the Judges are paid respectable salaries. The judges are appointed by the President. * The women shall be given full representation in all spheres of national life. 11.ning. Principles of Policy The Constitution of 1973 has set the following principles of policy: * Local electoral bodies will be set up for solving local problems. According to this principle the rights and duties of the citizens are determined by the Federal Constitution only.com/ * Right to hold property * Equality before law * Right to preserve language. They cannot be removed from service before the end of their term except on the recommendation of the Supreme Judicial Council. script and culture * Safeguard against discrimination in services. Similarly regional languages have been provided full protection. Thus the people . 13. Full job security has been provided. 12. National Language The 1973 Constitution has declared Urdu as the national language of Pakistan. Independence of Judiciary The Constitution of 1973 stresses upon the establishment of an independent judiciary. * The parochial and other prejudices shall be discouraged.
1. the Government of Pakistan has taken the following steps to introduce Islamic Laws in the Country. High Treason According to the Constitution of 1973 the act of unconstitutional abrogation of the Constitution has been declared as an act of High Treason. Rule of Law The 1973 Constitution establishes rule of law in Pakistan. Our Almighty Allah taught us that the decisions in the affairs shall be guided by discussing and consultation. All the citizens of Pakistan are equal before law. In the light of Hadood Ordinance different punishments were prescribed for various crimes. According to rule of law no person can be deprived of his fundamental rights. 16. Referendum The Constitution of 1973 has authorized the President to hold Referendum on any national issue. All the constitutions that have been implemented in our country (1956. manufacture. Similarly the Prime Minister can ask the President to hold referendum on any important national issue. . Hadood Ordinance It was promulgated in the country in 1977.4.http://vuattach. 15. export. What are the steps towards Islamization in Pakistan taken by the Government? Introduction Pakistan is an ideological state which was founded so that the Muslims would lead their lives according to the principles of Islam. Let us lay the foundation of our democracy on the basis of truly Islamic ideals and principles. Quaid said It is my belief that our saluation lies in following the golden rules of conduct set for us by our great law given by the Prophet of Islam. Q. All the laws made and implemented in this country have been designed keeping in view the teachings of Holy Quran and Sunnah. According to the Hadood Ordinance. The word Hadood means the punishment which has been prescribed in the light of Holy Quran.ning.com/ throughout Pakistan are citizens of Pakistan. 14. To accomplish these provisions. 1965 and 1973) have all contained Islamic Provisions.
7. The function of Jamia Islamia Bahawalpur has been streamlined and an Islamic University has been established in Islamabad. The third Hadood law is meant for adultery and rape (Zina-bil-Jabr) whose punishment is stoning the adulter to death. The second Hadood Law is concerned with the crime of theft. 6.ning. women universities will be set up in Lahore and Karachi. Establishment of Islamic University Shariat faculties have been established in various universities for the promotion of Islamic teachings. Ushr is the tax levied on yield of agriculture land in cash or kind. According to this ordinance. 4. a Zakat Fund will be established to collect all sorts of gifts and it will be compulsory for every Sahib-e-Nisab Muslim to pay Zakat by deducting it from his/her account in the bank. Interest-Free Banking On January 1981. Any citizen can challenge any law of the country in the Shariat Court where he has to prove that a certaining law is against the injunction of Islam and therefore be declared as unliable. Establishment of Federal Shariat Courts It is a highly important step undertaken by the Government. According to this ordinance. 3.com/ import and use of alcohols was considered as a crime. Zakat and Ushr Ordinance Zakat and Ushr Ordinance was promulgated in the country of June 20. According to this system. Teaching of Islamiat and Pakistan Studies In the light of University Grants Commission all Universities of Pakistan and boards of Education have been given instructions to introduce Islamiat and Pakistan Studies as a compulsory subject in intermediate. . the interest-free banking system was introduced in Pakistan. 1980. 2. the account holder becomes the partner with the bank in its profit or loss and shares it according to his investment in the bank. This courts decides various issues brought before it in the light of Holy Quran and Sunnah. Any person found guilty will be liable of the punishment of 30 lashes and 5 years imprisonment. New Education Policy In April 1979. every owner who ploughs and cultivates land is bound to deposit 10% of his earning in cash or kind as Ushr.http://vuattach. a new education policy was made on the basis of Islamic concepts and the Ideology of Pakistan. 5. In the light of the new policy. degree and post graduate classes so that the system of Education should become compatible to the Ideology of Pakistan.
distribution and sale of all kinds of literature which is likely to propagate against the ideology of Pakistan or to give rise to provincial. Also. Unislamic Literature A ban has been put on the printing. arrangements for Azan on radio and Television were made. lingual or sectorial prejudice.http://vuattach. Conclusion The above steps taken by the Government towards Islamization in the country will vertainly lead the nation to progress and prosperity within the limits prescribed by the Holy Quran and Sunnah.com/ .com/ 8. http://vuattach.ning. 9. Nizam-e-Salat and Arrangement of Azan Nizam-e-Salat was promulgated by which it was intended to persuate the general people and the employee's of the Government offices to pray five times a day.ning.
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