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, habits, lifestyles, attitudes, beliefs, and customs that link and give a common identity to a particular group of people at a specific point in time. All social units develop a culture friends, family, group, organization, society Groups also develop cultures, composed of the collection of rules, rituals, customs, and other characteristics that give an identity to the social unit Organizations also have cultures The most rich and complex cultures are those that are associated with a society or a nation - refer to the characteristics including language and language-usage patterns, rituals, rules, and customs. Thus, any social unit whether a relationship, group, organization, or society develops a culture over time. Culture we typically refer to the pattern of development reflected in a society s system of knowledge, ideology, values, laws, social norms and dayto-day rituals. Accordingly culture varies from one society to another. The word culture has been derived metaphorically from the idea of cultivation , the process of tilling and developing land. Thus, culture can be considered as a constellation of factors that are learned through our interaction with the environment. Culture is what you eat, talk, sing and dance. Culture is what we see, and hence we are having something called global culture India's languages, religions, dance, music, architecture, food and customs differ from place to place within the country, but nevertheless possess a commonality. The culture of India is an amalgamation of these diverse subcultures spread all over the Indian subcontinent and traditions that are several millennia old.
organization or group Communication is a process of expressing one s knowledge. values.First. 2. transmitted. belief. . thus communication can occur across vast distances in time and space. 3. . Culture. it helps to explain the origin of differences between the practices. Understanding the nature of culture in relationship to communication is helpful in a number of ways. a message. and learned through communication. beliefs. values. and it provides a reminder of the communication process by which these differences came into being. This knowledge can and should heighten people s tolerance for cultural differences. not static.The word "culture" is most commonly used in three basic senses: y y y Excellence of taste in the fine arts and humanities. shaped. 1. . also known as high culture An integrated pattern of human knowledge. shaped. and practices that characterizes an institution.culture is created. Communication practices are largely created. although the receiver need not be present or aware of the sender's intent to communicate at the time of communication. 4. Cultures are created through communication. Culture is dynamic. goals. and customs of various groups and societies. beliefs. behaviours and thoughts and it can be through various mediums Communication requires a sender. and transmitted by culture. and behaviour that depends upon the capacity for symbolic thought and social learning The set of shared attitudes. Communication Relationship The relationship between communication and culture is a very complex and intimate one. Communication facilitates change in culture. and an intended recipient.
. Eg. he may begin to make insensitive comments or jokes about the new culture. acculturation and transculturation. organizations.While acculturation is what happens to an entire culture when alien traits overwhelm it. it helps to explain the process that individuals go through in adapting to new relationships. MODERNITY CULTURE INDUSTRY ENLIGHTENMENT AS MASS DECPETION . Culture Shock . and societies and the cultures of each. groups. He feels surrounded by the new and now strange cultural practices and begins to miss the familiar and comforting elements of his home culture. Acculturation is what happens to an entire culture when alien traits diffuse in on a large scale and substantially replace traditional cultural patterns. also known as the crisis period.If the individual stays in a new culture long enough.The culture shock period. it underscores the importance of communication as a bridge between cultures and as a force behind cultural change.html ) Processes of change in culture . transculturation is what happens to an individual when he or she moves to another society and adopts its culture. Immigrants who successfully learn the language and accept as their own the cultural patterns of their adopted country have transculturated. McDonald s culture to India. Diffusion is the movement of cultural objects and ideas from one culture to another. Eg. To protect himself. s/he will progress to the adaptation phase.ehow.Third.. This phase may last for a few weeks or months Cultural Adaptation . learning to efficiently navigate it. Eg. S/he may begin to feel at home in his new environment ( for more reading http://www.The processes leading to change that occur as a result of contact between societies are diffusion.com/list_6107643_stages-cultural-adaptation. English becoming the mother tongue of children in the cities of India Tranculturation .Second. where s/he will learn to fully appreciate and enjoy the new culture. comes into play when the individual experiencing the new culture begins to be disappointed with the new culture.
rationalization.is the process whereby the mass media determine what we think and worry about Agenda setting describes a very powerful influence of the media the ability to tell us what issues are important The Agenda-Setting Theory says the media (mainly the news media) aren t always successful at telling us what to think. Conceptually. the Internet. be it publication. Modernity may also refer to tendencies in intellectual culture. industrialization.from a reporter deciding which sources are chosen to include in a story to editors deciding which stories are printed or covered. particularly the movements intertwined with secularisation and post-industrial life. individuals can also act as .Modernity typically refers to a post-traditional. but forms a distinct concept.Maxwell McCombs and Donald L. Outside of media organizations. modernity relates to the modern era and to modernism. Gatekeeping occurs at all levels of the media structure . Shaw Date: 1972/1973 Gatekeeping is the process through which information is filtered for dissemination. secularization. and the formal establishment of social science. the nation-state and its constituent institutions and forms of surveillance. broadcasting. and includes media outlet owners and even advertisers. one marked by the move from feudalism toward capitalism. such as Marxism. modernity tends to refer only to the social relations associated with the rise of capitalism. post-medieval historical period. Whereas the Enlightenment invokes a specific movement in Western philosophy. or some other type of communication. In context. existentialism. but they are quite successful at telling us what to think about Theorists . modernity has been associated with cultural and intellectual movements of 1436--1789 and extending to the 1970s or later PROPAGANDA AND PUBLIC COMMUNICATION Agenda Setting .
for example. The concept of priming is based on the assumption that people don't carefully weigh all possible aspects of a situation or problem when making decisions. While the term propaganda has acquired a strongly negative connotation by association with its most manipulative and political examples. a communication campaign can put it on the public agenda (agenda setting) and make it a salient issue by repeatedly reporting about it (priming). people employ mental shortcuts when making up their minds. The amount of communication and coverage of health care will then influence the importance of health care in the voters' decisions understanding of the media." which he used to describe a wife or mother as the person who decides which foods end up on the family's dinner table Priming . If.gatekeepers.second order agenda setting In agenda setting t he media sets the public and the political agenda by bringing issues to the attention of the audience and of policy makers Priming effects of communication are important for decision making. for instance. for example which candidate to vote for in an upcoming election. propaganda in its original sense was neutral. Rather. and could refer to uses that were generally benign or . the manipulation of the public. and the formation of public opinion Propaganda is a form of communication that is aimed at influencing the attitude of a community toward some cause or position. media bias Kurt Lewin was apparently the first one to use the term "gatekeeping. Censorship. One of the heuristics they apply is to rely on information that is most accessible in their memory. health care has not been perceived as a big problem by the public so far. deciding what information to include in an email or in a blog.
sexual orientation.innocuous. or messages encouraging persons to report crimes to the police. without any one culture dominating the region. to motivating people to act. MULTICULTURALISM Co-existence of many cultures in a locality. to simply telling a story. social role or occupation. although the latter has more of a commercial connotation In public speaking. entertainment and news industries. not just inform them MEDIA STEREOTYPES AND REPRESENATATION Media stereotypes are inevitable. as in any form of communication. the groups being stereotyped have little to say about how they are represented. It is closely allied to "presenting". But stereotypes can be problematic. deliberate manner intended to inform. gender. there are five basic elements. Stereotypes act like codes that give audiences a quick. such as public health recommendations. ethnicity or race. or entertain the listeners. among others. which need as wide an audience as possible to quickly understand information. especially in the advertising. Public speaking is the process of speaking to a group of people in a structured. often expressed as "who is saying what to whom using what medium with what effects?" The purpose of public speaking can range from simply transmitting information. Good orators should be able to change the emotions of their listeners. common understanding of a person or group of people usually relating to their class. influence. signs encouraging citizens to participate in a census or election. . They can: y y y y reduce a wide range of differences in people to simplistic categorizations transform assumptions about particular groups of people into "realities" be used to justify the position of those in power perpetuate social prejudice and inequality More often than not.
therefore. This means that they are deeply shaped by it. 2002) Overcomes Racism. and that cultures are best changed from within. The American Whites. can only be countered by undertaking a rigorous critique of the dominant culture and radically restructuring the prevailing inequalities of economic and political . This means that its identity is plural. Human beings are culturally embedded in the sense that they grow up and live within a culturally structured world and organize their lives and social relations in terms of a culturally derived system of meaning and significance. that it deserves at least some respect because of what it means to its members and the creative energy it displays. Misrecognition has both a cultural and a material basis. 2. Social recognition is central to the individual s identity and self-worth and misrecognition can gravely damage both. take a demeaning view of Blacks partly under the influence of the racist culture. This means that no culture is wholly worthless. as a state or nation. 3. decisions and efforts (Bruch & Higbee. Sexism. and partly because the deeply disadvantaged Blacks do sometimes exhibit some of the features that confirm white stereotypes. Misrecognition. Casteism and other discrimination. partly because this helps them justify the prevailing system of domination.the preservation of different cultures or cultural identities within a unified society. that no culture is perfect and has a right to impose itself on others. for example. Important insights about multiculturalism 1. People who have more than one culture in them or who grew up with more than one cultural identity become multicultural. 4. can overcome some but not all of its influences. and necessarily view the world from within a culture. fluid and open. Different cultures represent different systems of meaning and visions of the good life. Every culture is internally plural and reflects a continuing conversation between its different traditions and strands of thought. It embraces the commitment to universal humanity and dignity the idea that all individuals have the right to be measured by their own actions.
indiaseminar. four ideas are common to the various forms of structuralism. and architecture. (for more reading . Deconstruction Deconstruction is a term that French philosopher Jacques Derrida introduced in 1967. structures are the "real things" that lie beneath the surface or the appearance of meaning. Structures refer to mental models built after concrete realty and these structures are based on cultural realities such kinship organization or tales. For architecture. Structuralism Structuralism is a theory of humankind in which all elements of human culture.com/1999/484/484%20parekh. Mass culture is popular culture produced by mass production and widely disseminated via mass media.htm) 5. China and England. sociology.http://www. Third. The mental models we create based on Fairy tales such as sleeping beauty or stories like Panchatantra Structuralism argues that a specific domain of culture may be understood by means of a structure -modelled on language -that is distinct both from the organisations of reality and those of ideas or the imagination According to Alison Assiter. that every system has a structure. The structuralism mode of reasoning has been applied in a diverse range of fields. Eg. including literature. structural laws deal with co-existence rather than change. It says that any text can have more than one interpretation as the text can contain several irreconcilable and contradictory meanings . including anthropology. that a structure determines the position of each element of a whole. Fourth. Eg.power. Second. think about the structures old buildings in India. are thought to be parts of a system of signs. First. Structures in structuralism are not neither concrete nor physical. literary criticism . psychology.
Superhero comics had a huge wave of deconstruction in the '80s and '90s . Eg. Eg. and/or cultural community values as central. cities or nations. The term may also describe people who have more than one culture in them (people who grew up with more than one cultural identity. applied to the demographic make-up of a specific place. also sometimes called bicultural) In a political context the term has come to mean the advocacy of extending equitable status to distinct ethnic and religious groups without promoting any specific ethnic. Deconstruction can be applied in various ways to a number of targets like media genres: literature. TV tropes. to the point of exposing the supposed contradictions and internal oppositions. comic books. video games. web comics . e. It can be explained as the critical analysis of a text or creation to understand the meaning or mission involved in it. At one level the term means the appreciation. Whereas deconstruction aims to attack our fantasies by showing them to be "flawed" and "unworkable" in reality. Deconstruction is also usually followed by Reconstruction. businesses.g. usually at the organizational level.The meaning of the text is studied carefully and thoroughly. In this sense multiculturalism approximates to respect for diversity. acceptance or promotion of multiple cultures. religious. Of video game:The video game Megaman X is a deconstruction of the Sentient Robot Heroes genre. film.Frank Miller's Batman: The dark Knight Returns takes straightforward superhero action and makes it look absurd by having politics interfere. music and so on. reconstruction accepts these criticisms and builds a new fantasy that allegedly would work in reality Multiculturalism has a number of different meanings. schools. Multiculturalism as "cultural mosaic" is often contrasted with the concepts assimilationism and social integration and has been described as a "salad bowl" rather than a "melting pot. neighbourhoods." GLOBALISATION AND LOCALISATION . Batman's work becomes a tool for debates about "toughness on crime." while Superman's idealism makes him an easy dupe for the US government's plans for nuclear war.
and military presence. Culture and Consumerism Consumerism is a social and economic order that is based on the systematic creation and fostering of a desire to purchase goods and services in ever greater amounts. Consumer Culture: ( I am adding a few points from Shraddha s presentation in the next slide) Consumer culture refers to a theory that human society is strongly influenced. An aspect of the world which has gone through the process can be said to be globalized. societies. However.g. or popular culture through acculturation.Globalization (or globalisation) describes the process by which regional economies. or expensive jewelry . migration. e. In many critical contexts. This concept states that economic and social cultures are based on the purchasing of . The term can also refer to the transnational circulation of ideas. political. capital flows. and preferences trickle down to become the standard for all consumers. and biological factors. socio cultural. globalization is usually recognized as being driven by a combination of economic. and cultures have become integrated through a global network of political ideas through communication. foreign direct investment. transportation. technological. languages. by consumerism. A consumer can have the instant gratification of purchasing an expensive item to improve social status. the spread of technology. consumerism is used to describe the tendency of people to identify strongly with products or services they consume. a luxury car. and trade. The not so wealthy consumers can purchase something new that will speak of their place in the tradition of affluence . designer clothing. lifestyles. businesses have realized that wealthy consumers are the most attractive targets of marketing. By 21st century. especially those with commercial brand names and perceived status symbolism appeal. The term is most closely associated with the term economic globalization: the integration of national economies into the international economy through trade. The upper class's tastes. even predominantly influenced. A culture that is permeated by consumerism can be referred to as a consumer culture or a market culture.
the economy is self-regulating and selfsustaining.commodities and services and that social functioning and behaviour is bound up with the fostering a desire for these goods. Meaning has become invested in things rather than. as supply and demand play themselves out naturally. expensive things whose primary . consumer culture thrives. That is to say. One of the ways that industries and businesses seek to attract customers is through advertising. and that buying and owning things is a means to that end. The opposing viewpoint is that consumerism is wasteful and greedy and encourages consumption for its own sake. which burgeoned from the 1920s onward. It is also intricately bound up with notions of advertising and globalization. A consumer culture can be viewed both positively and negatively. Criticism: Critics say consumerism is shallow and drives people not just to meet their needs but to acquire status symbols. In this sense. say. a product will not exist if no consumers are interested in buying it. Benefits: When a country's economy is strong. There is a perceived link between the accumulation of objects and the degree of happiness one attains. Both sides agree that consumerism is a sign of economic freedom. deeds. Consumerism also dictates that it is not the producers of goods who determine what a society should consume. Features of consumer culture: The primary feature of a consumer culture is the idea that people's identities are defined by the things that they possess and the services that they can afford to purchase. Much of the way we define the "American Dream" is directly tied to America's consumer culture. All these features are linked to free market politics that assert the right of individuals to choose which products they purchase and of industries to be able to compete for their money. but rather the free-thinking consumers. Proponents say that people are happier and more productive when their wants and needs are met. Purchases lead to more purchases. There is also a greater focus on leisure time (within which shopping is included).
A contemporary Indian man and English man would have more in common with each other. transportation. arts. Migration results in people of different cultures living together. Globalization is accelerating the contact between different cultures. with which we often live side-by-side. technological and informational revolution and accessibility of the media products across the globe.purpose is to demonstrate the owner's ability to purchase them. societies. Critics also say consumerism exacerbates class divisions. We also have greater contact with different cultures. International investment brings multinational enterprises into contact with foreign lands and communities. beliefs. Globalisation paved the way for availability of consumer goods and products. Globalisation and Culture Globalization describes the process by which regional economies. than either would have with an ancestor of one century ago. Traded goods are often the reflection of culture. Culture is the totality of socially transmitted behavior patterns. buying habits. . These impacted the culture of the people in all spheres by changing their life styles. and is an important public good. institutions. Instead of fulfilling spiritual or aesthetic desires. these arguments go. Culture plays a very important role in our society. and cultures have become integrated through a global network of political ideas through communication. ideas and values of others. a consumer culture pursues external riches. social life and so on. Japanese anime or French wine. All cultures are mixtures of different influences. Obvious examples are Hollywood movies. and all other products of human work and thought. and trade. Through globalization we have greater awareness of cultural differences across the globe. hybrids and all cultures have evolved over time. and exposure to the various cultures of the world. Global communications and the Internet expose us to the lives.
the Japanese are still very Japanese. Groups of people or community are many a times attributed with certain characteristics Characteristics of Stereotypes . some one and a half centuries after the Meiji Restoration. cultural identities and other abstract concepts. Stereotyping Stereotyping means the widely circulated ideas or assumptions about particular groups. Representation always involves 'the construction of reality'. The media re-present reality to us . Stereotypes and Representations in the Media Representation refers to the construction in mass media of aspects of reality such as people. Representation is the process by which the media present to us the real world . values and even civilization changes much more slowly. iconic and indexical signs. But there is more to culture than consumer products and artistic expression. Critics of globalisation contend that even if increased trade promotes material prosperity. Representation is therefore a version of reality. The cultural part in the sense of society's beliefs. environment. Media texts are constructed using codes combinations of symbolic. it comes with a high cultural cost. Semiotics and content analysis are the main methods of formal analysis of representation. Such representations may be in speech or writing as well as still or moving pictures.what we treat as 'direct' experience is 'mediated' by perceptual codes. destroying many of the world s distinctive cultures and making the globe into one big mall. places. Notwithstanding their apparent modernity. events. objects.
Recent media texts have shown a growth in gender equality in the media strong independent females sometimes referred to as Postfeminism. Girl Power. ± . Media Representation of Race/Caste 3. Representation is unavoidably selective. foregrounding some things and back grounding others. Buffy the Vampire Slayer 4. homemaker. Representations and stereotyping in the media 1. Absolutely Fabulous. . .For many people. Eg. . social and ecological reality. knowledge of environmental issues is based upon what they have learned through print and electronic media.. housewife.women in subservient roles to men.They place emphasis on a particular aspect of the group. which help construct conceptions of political.Stereotypes can be positive and negative. and also the Idealised version of female beauty. Representation of environment. as sexual objects. Gender representations in the media.They categorise and evaluate groups. mother. Rigid stereotyping of old people in the media 2.Feminist criticisms of depiction of women focuses on the stereotyping of women .
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