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The Biology of Belief
Recent advances in cellular science are heralding an important evolutionary turning point. For almost fifty years we have held the illusion that our health and fate were preprogrammed in our genes, a concept referred to as genetic determinacy. Though mass consciousness is currently imbued with the belief that the character of one’s life is genetically predetermined, a radically new understanding is unfolding at the leading edge of science. Cellular biologists now recognize that the environment (external universe and internal-physiology), and more importantly, our perception of the environment, directly controls the activity of our genes. The lecture will broadly review the molecular mechanisms by which environmental awareness interfaces genetic regulation and guides organismal evolution. The quantum physics behind these mechanisms provide insight into the communication channels that link the mind-body duality. An awareness of how vibrational signatures and resonance impact molecular communication constitutes a master key that unlocks a mechanism by which our thoughts, attitudes and beliefs create the conditions of our body and the external world. This knowledge can be employed to actively redefine our physical and emotional well-being. Lecture Outline: Knowledge of the philosophical foundation underlying conventional (allopathic) medicine is relevant for it illuminates why and how the dogma of genetic determinacy was derived. Francis Bacon defined the mission of Modern Science shortly after the onset of the Scientific Revolution (1543). Accordingly, the purpose of science was “to dominate and control Nature.” To accomplish that goal, scientists had to first acquire knowledge of what “controls” an organism’s structure and function (behavior). Concepts founded in the principles of Newtonian physics defined the experimental approach to this quest. These principles stipulate that the Universe is a “physical mechanism” comprised of parts (matter), there is no attention given to the invisible “energy.” In this world view, all that matters is “matter.” Consequently, modern science is preoccupied with MATERIALISM. The way to understand how a finely tuned mechanism works is to disassemble it and analyze all of the component “parts.” This approach is called REDUCTIONISM. Through an analysis of the parts and how they interact, defective part(s) in a malfunctioning organism can be identified and either repaired or replaced with “manufactured” parts (drugs, engineered genes, prosthetic devices, etc.). Knowledge of the body’s mechanism would enable scientists to DETERMINE how an organism works and how to “control” the organism by altering its “parts.” Biologists were preoccupied with taking organisms apart and studying their cells for the first half of this century. Subsequently, cells were disassembled and their molecular “parts” catalogued and characterized. Cells are comprised of four types of large (macro-) molecules: Proteins/Polysaccharides (sugars)/Nucleic Acids (gene stuff)/Lipids (fats) The name PROTEIN means “primary element” (proteios, Gr.) for proteins are the primary components of all plant and animal cells. A human is made of ~100,000 different proteins. Proteins are linear “chains,” whose molecular “links” are comprised of amino acid molecules. Each of the 20 different amino acids has a unique shape, so that when linked together in a chain, the resulting proteins fold into elaborate 3-dimensional “wire sculptures.” The protein’s sculpture’s pattern is determined by the sequence of its amino acid links. The balancing of electromagnetic charges along the protein’s chain serves to control the “final” shape of the
Watson and Crick unraveled the mystery of the “genetic code. the nucleus would be expected to be the equivalent of the cell’s “brain. Changes in “charge” cause the protein to change its shape. The source of replacement protein parts is related to “memory” factors that provide for heredity…the passing on of “character” The search for the hereditary factors that controlled protein synthesis led to DNA.” Groups of interacting proteins which work together in carrying out a specific function are referred to as “pathways.sculpture. it is the environment that controls gene expression. Removing the cell’s nucleus. Like parts in a car. how can they control the behavior of the cell? Nijhout further emphasizes that genes are regulated by “environmental signals. biologists have assumed that DNA “controls” life. In this context.” Dispelling the Myth of Genes: If the brain is removed from any organism. A protein’s movement can be harnessed to do “work. the immediate and necessary consequence of that action is—death of the organism. protein sculptures compliment the shape of environmental molecules (which includes other proteins). respiration. Proteins provide for the organism’s structure and function. a protein’s will shift its shape from one conformation to another conformation. reproduction and all of the other physiologic “functions” employed by living organisms. Since proteins define the character of an organism and the proteins’ structures are encoded in the DNA.” It was concluded that DNA “controls” the structure and behavior of living organisms. Primacy means “first level of control. we must acknowledge the Primacy of the Environment! 2 . but random protein actions can not provide for “life. the organ that “controls” life is known as the brain. To resume function. In fact. Since DNA “determines” the character of an organism. realize Science’s mission of “controlling” the expression of an organism. cells can live for two or more months without a nucleus. When proteins chemically couple with other molecules it changes the distribution of electromagnetic charges in the protein. The DNA blueprint for each protein is referred to as a GENE.” In the manner of a lock and key.” The activities of specific protein pathways provide for digestion. In multicellular animals. Therefore. upon coupling with chemicals. behavioral functions were thought to be controlled by “regulating” the presence or absence of proteins comprising the pathways. Consequently. the protein must be replaced. proteins “wear-out” when they are used. the idea that the structure and behavior of an organism are defined by its genes. then it is appropriate to acknowledge the concept of Genetic Determinism. they assemble into complex structures (similar to the way cogged “gears” intermesh to make a watch). referred to as enucleation.” that is genes can not turn themselves on or off. Since genes are presumed to control cellular life. the assumption that genes “control” cell behavior is wrong! As is described by Nijhout (X). Since 1953. and genes are contained in the cell’s nucleus. When proteins interlock with the complimentary environmental molecules. would be tantamount to removing the cell’s brain. Science’s materialist-reductionist-determinist philosophy led to the Human Genome Project. biologists established the dogma known as the Primacy of DNA. it is assumed that we can use that knowledge to repair or replace “defective” genes and in the process. In 1953. the multibillion dollar program to map all of the genes. A protein generates “motion” as it changes shape.” which revealed how the DNA served as a molecular “blueprint” that defined amino acid sequences comprising a protein.” Consequently. If genes can’t control their own expression. Their search was linked to the fact that proteins are labile (opposite of stabile). The unique shape of a protein sculpture is referred to as its “conformation. Once this is accomplished.” Scientists needed to identify the mechanism that “integrates” protein functions to allow for the complex behaviors. Though enucleation should result in the immediate death of the cell. excretion. If an individual protein in a pathway wears-out and is not replaced then the action of the pathway will stop. enucleated cells may continue to survive and exhibit a “regulated” control of their biological processes. Clearly. genes are “not self-emergent. Rather than endorsing the Primacy of DNA.
consequently. which include thought. When activated by its complimentary signal. research that clearly reveals the regulatory influence that electromagnetic fields have on cell physiology. When a receptor recognizes and binds to a signal. ears.” which by dictionary definition represents perception. The IMP complex controls behavior.. Built into the membrane are special proteins called Integral Membrane Proteins (IMPs). when the receptor binds to the effector protein. If specific functional proteins are not already present in the cell. these organisms do not contain any organelles (diminutive of “organs) such as nuclei. are arranged in a crystalline bilayer. the protein receptor changes its conformation so that it is able to complex with a specific effector protein. excretory and integumentary (skin) systems. it responds by changing its conformation.” Leading edge contemporary cell research has transcended conventional Newtonian physics and is now soundly based upon a universe created out of energy as defined by quantum physics. assess the information and then select appropriate behavioral programs to maintain their survival. Conventional biology stipulates that receptors only respond to “matter” (molecules). Pulsed electromagnetic fields have been shown to regulate virtually every cell function. the equivalents of eyes. Phospholipids. Effector proteins carry out cell behaviors. Generally effector proteins are inactive in their resting conformation.Cells “read” their environment. etc. Conventional medicine has consistently ignored research published in its own main-stream scientific journals. morphogenesis and neuroendocrine regulation. Cytologically. including DNA synthesis. processed and used to make a calculated behavioral response emphasizes the existence of a “brain” equivalent in the cell. Each receptor-effector protein complex collectively constitutes a “unit of perception. activated effector IMPs send a signal to the nucleus and elicit required gene programs. It also serves as the cell’s “brain. RNA synthesis. The many processes and functions of this unicellular life form are highly integrated. These findings are relevant for they acknowledge that biological behavior can be controlled by “invisible” energy forces. once thought to be like a permeable Saran Wrap that holds the cytoplasm together. cell differentiation. Receptor IMPs “see” or are “aware” of their environment and effector IMPs create physical responses that translate environmental signals into an appropriate biological behavior. cytoskeletal elements (cellular equivalents of muscle and bone ) or transporters (proteins that carry electrons. it causes the effector to changes its own conformation from an inactive to an active form. The membrane resembles a bread and butter sandwich. The fact that data is integrated. cell division. and cell movement.” The cell membrane is primarily composed of “phospholipids” and proteins. and other specific molecules across the “bread and butter” barrier). Consequently. IMPs look like olives in the membrane’s bread and butter sandwich. The activity of effector IMPs generally regulate the behaviors of cytoplasmic protein pathways. This is how an environmental signal activates a cell’s behavior. Where is cell’s brain? The answer is to be found in bacteria. This new physics emphasizes energetics over materialism. The cell membrane. these IMPs also control gene expression. The only organized structure in these primitive life forms is its “cell membrane. mitochondria. we now recognize that receptors respond to energy signals as well as molecular signals. nose. Golgi bodies. a belief consistent with the Newtonian view of the Universe as a “matter machine. There are two classes of IMPs: RECEPTORS and EFFECTORS. it must have a brain equivalent. etc. excretion.” . substitutes holism for reductionism. wherein the lipid “sticks” form the central butter layer. and recognizes uncertainty in place of determinism. which resemble lollipops with two sticks. The phospholipid bilayer forms a skin-like barrier which separates the external environment from the internal cytoplasm. protein synthesis. protons. Effector proteins may be enzymes. ions. the most primitive organisms on Earth.” also known as its plasmalemma. and through its affect upon regulatory proteins. Receptors are the cell’s “sense” organs. However. The IMP complexes provide the cell with “awareness of the environment through physical sensation. respiratory. actually provides for the bacterium’s digestive. like those associated with digestion.
A special group of receptors confer “identity” so that members of the cellular community can collectively respond to a “central” command. In single-celled organisms (bacteria.” 4 . a cell can not be in growth and protection at the same time. Antibodies are “receptors” for they specifically recognize their antigen “signal. the cells evolved additional receptors required for “community” identity and integration. semiconductor (the only things that can cross the membrane barrier are those brought across by transport IMPs) with gates (receptor IMPs) and channels (effector IMPs). invasive ANTIGENS (e. At the cellular level. growth factors) used to coordinate functions in cell communities. the screen (data output) is the physical state of the cell. if an organism “perceives a stress that is actually not there. and life-threatening agents (toxins.” are equivalent to computational BITS. Cells “learn” by making new receptors and integrating them with specific effector proteins. etc. The cell’s ability to make new IMP receptors and respond to the new signal with an appropriate survival-oriented response (behavior) is the foundation of evolution. T-lymphocytes create protein ANTIBODIES which complement and bind to the antigens.” or “histocompatibility receptors. Recent studies have verified that the cell membrane is in fact an organic HOMOLOGUE of a silicon chip. protozoa and algae). Furthermore. gravity. the cell is a self-powered microprocessor. If our tissues and organs perceive a need for protection. When a perception unit recognizes an environmental signal. the disk (memory) is the nucleus. the cell IS an organic computer.g. These signals include elements of the physical environment (light.” Protein antibody structure is encoded in genes (DNA). food (nutrients. the keyboard (data entry) are the membrane receptors. Integration receptors respond to information signals (hormones. growth and protection are mutually exclusive behaviors. “signals” enter the environment. This process enables organisms to survive in ever changing environments. Cells move toward growth signals and away from life-threatening stimuli (protection response). New perception units require “new” genes for the IMP proteins. bacteria. This is true for human cells as well. Simply stated. Though there are hundreds of behavioral functions expressed by a cell. Until recently. toxins. These DNA changes are mutations. A cell’s awareness of the environment is reflected in its receptor population.).” meaning that the outcome of the mutation could not be directed. In multicellular organisms. To the immune cell (T-lymphocyte).” Self-receptors are used by the immune system to distinguish “self” from invasive organisms. What happens if a cell experiences a stressful environment but does not have a gene program (behavior) to deal with the stress? It is now recognized that cells can “rewrite” existing gene programs in an effort to overcome the stressful condition. Taken in this context. heretofore unrecognized. etc. predators. Identity receptors are referred to as “self receptors. the misperception can actually change the genes to accommodate the “belief. temperature. Since a cell can not move forward and backward at the same time. When new. It is now recognized that environmental stimuli can induce “adaptive” mutations which enable a cell to specifically alter its genes.. other organisms). For example. cells “create” new genes. the cell creates new perception units to respond to them. In making new antibodies. they will compromise their growth behavior. all mutations were thought to be “random. minerals. Organs or tissues can not be exchanged unless they bear the same self-receptors as the recipient. all behaviors can be classified as either growth or protection responses.). the units of “perception.) represent “new” environmental signals. etc. parasites.A biochemical definition of the cell membrane reads as follows: the membrane is a liquid crystal (phospholipid organization). the cell’s receptors respond to all survival-related environmental signals. it will activate a cell function. This learning/evolution mechanism is employed by the immune system. such mutations may be mediated by an organism’s perception of its environment. salts. Cellular memory is represented by the “new” genes that code for these proteins. Chronic protection leads to a disruption of the tissue and its function. The operation of the cell can be easily understood by noting its homology to the computer: the “CPU” (information processing mechanism) is the cell membrane. Receptor/effector IMP complexes. viruses. This definition is exactly the same as that used to define a computer chip.
Hartman. Moffat Science 2000. 284:62-63.. Nijhout BioEssays 1990. new gene control scheme compared to Darwinian scheme) Evolution Evolving* Tim Beardsley Scientific American September 1997. J. Miller Nature 1988. Lewontin. Wolffe and M. pages 15-16 (Provides the first notice of Cairns’ study to the “general public. Ridley Nature 2000. If our perceptions are accurate. Matzke Science 1999. the IMP perception units can activate expression of appropriate genes in the cell’s nucleus. allows “buffering” of effect of individual mutated genes) New Clues to How Genes Are Controlled J. Reception of environmental signals change protein conformations. Most references are from the journal Science. PhD Literature Cited. 284:79-109 Collection of 10 articles that question continued use of “Reductionism” and endorse “Holism” as necessary for acquiring new knowledge. Proteins represent physical complements of the environment. Glanz Science 1996.” almost ten years after it was first published!) Transposons Help Sculpt a Dynamic Genome Anne S. A.e. 290:1066-1067 (Same “transcription factors” used for 3 different genes in same nucleus. Appenzeller Science 1999 284:2108-2110 (The “regularity” and “reproducibility” (not chance) of mutational response in genetic “adaptations. 406:347-348 (Reviews 2 books by evolutionary geneticist R. A. 291:1001-1004 (Discusses that traits are due multi-genes.In conclusion: The structure of our bodies are defined by our proteins. 288:39 (Environment controls genes through “epigenetic” mechanisms) Gaia and Natural Selection T. 394:439-447 (Nature selects organisms that benefit Earth. 287:791 (Microtubules not source of “quantum” consciousness) NEW CONCEPTS REGARDING GENE EXPRESSION AND MUTATION: Metaphors and the Role of Genes in Development H. Letokhov Scientific American September 1988 pgs 54-59 (Atoms and molecules communicate via frequency resonance) Laser Chemistry: The Light Choice R. 1974. 335:142-145 (This was first major paper on “adaptive” mutations [i. 12 (9):441-446 (Describes that genes are not self-emergent.” our behavior will be inappropriate and will jeopardize our vitality by compromising our health. IMP perception units in the cell’s membrane convert the environment into awareness. 266:215-217 (Research on how vibrational energy affects specific molecular bonds) Physicists Advance into Biology* J. 411:539-541 (Reveals why Newtonian-based chemistry textbooks hinder advance into quantum mechanical understanding of molecular interactions) Biologists Cut Reductionist Approach Down to Size Nigel Williams.” Life (animation) results from protein movements which are translated as “behavior. Overbaugh and S. Cairns. P. Detecting Individual Atoms and Molecules with Laser: Every atom or molecule emits and absorbs light of characteristic wavelengths. A. W. 264:224-225 (Discusses new papers which verify adaptive (Cairnsian) mutations. our bodies are physical compliments of our environment. Bridges Science 1999. 277:476-477 (Current science is materialistic since “information” considered to be only found in physical molecules) Complex Systems: Beyond Reductionism Science 1999. Relevance of each article enclosed in parentheses. et al. Nature 2001. F.. 227:74-83 (States that vibrational energy interfaces biological tuned resonance information system) Cold Numbers Unmake the Quantum Mind C. The “movement” generated by protein shape changes is harnessed by the cell to do “work. If the necessary behaviorproviding proteins are not present in the cytoplasm. many genes acting together. BRUCE H.” brings up environment-gene issues) .”) Epigenetics: Regulation Through Repression A.and Additional Good References: These references are organized into subject categories and serve as references to related information. V. Science 2001. Science 1997. how does single factor select among three genes?) Tangled Strands In The Double Helix M. M. F. 286:481-486 (“Acquired” characteristics passed from parent to child without changes in DNA coding) Was Lamarck Just a Little Bit Right? M. this source is present in almost all local libraries and schools of higher learning. Balter Science 2000. If we operate from “misperceptions. McClare Annals NY Acad.” Cells respond to perception by activating either growth or protection behavior programs. 408:639-641 (Brief review of quantum physics origins and its impact on civilization) A New twist on Molecular Shape Frank Weinhold. Lenton Nature 1998. mutations that are not random!]) The Evolution of Genetic Intelligence David S. the resulting behavior will be life enhancing. S. 272:646-648 (Bringing new physics to cell biology) Resonance In Bioenergetics C. Thaler Science 1994. Seife Science 2000. Articles with an * are written for general reading audiences. Sci. not survival of the “fittest”) Principles for the Buffering of Genetic Variation J. “Perceptions” lie between the environment and cell expression.. they need environmental signal for activation) The Origin of Mutants John. (Genetic mechanisms for “adaptive” mutations) Test Tube Evolution Catches Time in a Bottle T. Consequently. Kerr Science 1994... 289:1455-1457 (Moveable genes create rapid changes in DNA code) Dirty Transcripts from Clean DNA B. LIPTON. who questions current genetics dogma as “bad science. Zellinger Nature 2000. PHYSICS AND BIOLOGY: The Quantum Centennial A. Marx Science 2000.
Gerstein and C. Lisman and J. Wills Scientific American January 1999. 274:1850-1851 (Reviews mechanisms by which proteins incorporate into lipid membrane) Signaling Across Membranes: A One and a Two and a . Science 1998. 290:1721-1726 (Describes cholesterol’s role in membrane dynamics. Attwood Science 2000. 280:521-522 (Bacteria pick-up environmental genes) Close Encounters: Good. Vogel Science 1998. Fallon Science 11999 283:339-340 (Addresses issues of holism versus reductionism in cell information pathways) CREATING NEW PERCEPTION PROTEINS: THE ANTIBODY AS A MODEL SYSTEM Evolutionary Chemistry: Getting There from Here* G. Cornell. J. Sejnowski Science 1997. King and J. J. Stock Science 1996. 291:843-847 (Describes role of nuclear proteins in gene expression) PROTEINS: A Glimpse of the Holy Grail?* H. 281:1131-1134 Doubled Genes May Explain Fish Diversity* G. 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Pennisi Science 1998. 1985. 276:16651669 (The precise nature of gene mutations in antibody formation) B Cell Receptor Rehabilitation-Pausing to Reflect L. so what. 272:652-653 (How genes respond to environment) Dialing Up an Embryo: Are Olfactory receptors digits in a developmental code?* J. P. DNA Microsatellites:Agents of Evolution?* E. Pennisi Science 2000. Travis Science News 2000 157:406 (A single gene can create 38. Misteli Science 2001. Chothia Science 1999. J. 274:370-371 (Describes universality and “multiplicity” of receptor proteins) Receptors as Kissing Cousins G. 276:1658-1659 (The molecular nature of “learning and memory” as seen in antibody maturation) Structural Insights into the Evolution of an Antibody Combining Site G. 273:323-324 (Membrane mechanism to transduce physical stresses into electrical activity/cell control) The Architecture of Life* D. Major obstacle was not in identifying the genes but in understanding the code) A Biosensor That uses Ion-Channel Switches B.000 different versions of a protein. Bad.. Grady Science 1996. 290:1491-1493 (Microrganisms exchange DNA in cooperation. Barinaga Science 1999. pages 94-99 Twinned Genes Live Life In The Fast Lane E. et al. Travis Science News 1998. 282:1844-1845 (Insight into how protein conformation changes produce work) New Clues to How Proteins Link Up to Run the Cell* M. 282:642-643 (How proteins fold into shapes) Folding Proteins Caught in the Act* R. Ikonen Science 2000. Chang et al. 283:1247-1249 (How connections between proteins regulate cell pathways) MEMBRANE STRUCTURE/FUNCTION: The Molecules of the Cell Membrane Mark S. Engelman Science 1996. Roush Science 1996. C. discusses lipid “rafts” that transport IMPs) INFORMATION IN BIOLOGY: The Babel of Bioinformatics T. 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