U.S.

ARMY MEDICAL DEPARTMENT CENTER AND SCHOOL FORT SAM HOUSTON, TEXAS 78234-6100

ORGANIZATION OF PEST MANAGEMENT OPERATIONS

SUBCOURSE MD0174

EDITION 100

DEVELOPMENT This subcourse is approved for resident and correspondence course instruction. It reflects the current thought of the Academy of Health Sciences and conforms to printed Department of the Army doctrine as closely as currently possible. Development and progress render such doctrine continuously subject to change. When used in this publication, words such as "he," "him," "his," and "men" 'are intended to include both the masculine and feminine genders, unless specifically stated otherwise or when obvious in context. The instructional systems specialist responsible for development of this edition was William H. Shade, DSN 471-8906 or commercial (210)221-8906; Academy of Health Sciences, Multimedia Development Branch, ATTN: MCCS-HLD, 2250 Stanley Road (Room 326), Fort Sam Houston, Texas 78234-6130. The subject matter experts responsible for writing and content accuracy of this edition were from Preventive Medicine Division, DSN 471-8909 or commercial (210)221-8909; Commander, U.S. Army Medical Department Center and School, ATTN: MCCS-MP, Fort Sam Houston, Texas 78234-6100. ADMINISTRATION Students who desire credit hours for this correspondence subcourse must meet eligibility requirements and must enroll through the Nonresident Instruction Branch of the U.S. Army Medical Department Center and School (AMEDDC&S). Application for enrollment should be made at the Internet website: http://www.atrrs.army.mil. You can access the course catalog in the upper right corner. Enter School Code 555 for medical correspondence courses. Copy down the course number and title. To apply for enrollment, return to the main ATRRS screen and scroll down the right side for ATRRS Channels. Click on SELF DEVELOPMENT to open the application and then follow the on screen instructions. In general, eligible personnel include enlisted personnel of all components of the U.S. Army who hold an AMEDD MOS or MOS 18D. Officer personnel, members of other branches of the Armed Forces, and civilian employees will be considered eligible based upon their AOC, NEC, AFSC or Job Series which will verify job relevance. Applicants who wish to be considered for a waiver should submit justification to the Nonresident Instruction Branch at e-mail address: accp@amedd.army.mil. For comments or questions regarding enrollment, student records, or shipments, contact the Nonresident Instruction Branch at DSN 471-5877, commercial (210) 221-5877, toll-free 1-800344-2380; fax: 210-221-4012 or DSN 471-4012, e-mail accp@amedd.army.mil, or write to: NONRESIDENT INSTRUCTION BRANCH AMEDDC&S ATTN: MCCS-HSN 2105 11TH STREET SUITE 4191 FORT SAM HOUSTON TX 78234-5064

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Lesson INTRODUCTION 1. INSTALLATION PEST MANAGEMENT OPERATIONS Section I. Introduction.1 Section II. The Pest Management Program Exercises 2. PEST MANAGEMENT DURING MILITARY OPERATIONS Exercises 3.

Paragraphs

Page ii 1-1

1-1--1-2 1-3--1-7

1-2 1-6 1-13

2-1--2-2

2-1 2-6 3-1 3-5 4-1

PEST MANAGEMENT SUPPORT ORGANIZATIONS 3-1--3-2 Exercises

4.

SUPPORT OF PEST MANAGEMENT OPERATIONS Requisitioning of Supplies and Equipment Section II. Supply Programming Exercises Section I.

4-1--4-4 4-5--4-6

4-2 4-4 4-5

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Figure 1-1 Typical Organization of Directorate of Public Works Page 1-7

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CORRESPONDENCE COURSE OF THE U.S. ARMY MEDICAL DEPARTMENT CENTER AND SCHOOL SUBCOURSE MD0174 ORGANIZATION OF PEST MANAGEMENT OPERATIONS INTRODUCTION The control of insects, rodents, weeds, and other pests is an essential service that should have high priority because of its importance in combating disease, maintaining morale and efficiency, and preventing property loss. Measures now in practice have reduced the incidence of disease to the lowest point in history, but only through an aggressive, continuing program will this level be maintained. Unless they are effectively controlled, insects and rodents could destroy enormous quantities of stored supplies each year. By the same token, damage to buildings and other structures by termites, woodborers, rodents, and fungi is a needless waste. It is only through an effective pest management program that these pests will be controlled. A functionally organized pest management shop will greatly increase the efficiency of the overall operation and contribute to maximum mission accomplishment. It is the objective of this subcourse to provide general guidelines for organizing pest management operations that may be adaptable to the operation at your home station. Subcourse Components: This subcourse consists of four lessons and an examination. The lessons are: Lesson 1. Installation Pest Management Operations. Lesson 2. Pest Management During Military Operations. Lesson 3. Pest Management Support Organizations. Lesson 4. Support of Pest Management Operations. Credit Awarded: Upon successful completion of this subcourse, you will be awarded 4 credit hours.

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Materials Furnished: Materials provided include this booklet, an examination answer sheet, and an envelope. Answer sheets are not provided for individual lessons in this subcourse because you are to grade your own lessons. Exercises and solutions for all lessons are contained in this booklet. You must furnish a #2 pencil. Procedures for Subcourse Completion: You are encouraged to complete the subcourse lesson by lesson. When you have completed all of the lessons to your satisfaction, fill out the examination answer sheet and mail it to the AMEDDC&S, along with the Student Comment Sheet, in the envelope provided. Be sure that your social security number is on all correspondence sent to the AMEDDC&S. You will be notified by return mail of the examination results. Your grade on the examination will be your rating for the subcourse. Study Suggestions: Here are some suggestions that may be helpful to you in completing this subcourse: --Read and study each lesson carefully. --Complete the subcourse lesson by lesson. After completing each lesson, work the exercises at the end of the lesson, marking your answers in this booklet. --After completing each set of lesson exercises, compare your answers with those on the solution sheet, which follows the exercises. If you have answered an exercise incorrectly, check the reference cited after the answer on the solution sheet to determine why your response was not the correct one. --As you successfully complete each lesson, go on to the next. When you have completed all of the lessons, complete the examination. Mark your answers in this booklet; then transfer your responses to the examination answer sheet using a #2 pencil and mail it to the AMEDDC&S for grading. Student Comment Sheet: Be sure to provide us with your suggestions and criticisms by filling out the Student Comment Sheet (found at the back of this booklet) and returning it to us with your examination answer sheet. Please review this comment sheet before studying this subcourse. In this way, you will help us to improve the quality of this subcourse.

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LESSON ASSIGNMENT

LESSON 1 TEXT ASSIGNMENT LESSON OBJECTIVES

Installation Pest Management Operations. Paragraphs 1-1 through 1-7. After completing this lesson, you should be able to: 1-1. Identify commander and organization responsibilities for supervision, execution, and evaluation of pest management operations. 1-2. Identify building occupant responsibilities in relation to pest management. 1-3. Identify the components of a properly planned and executed pest management operation. 1-4. Identify the personnel of a pest management shop and their responsibilities. 1-5. Identify procedures for recording and reporting requirements.

SUGGESTION

After completing the assignment, complete the exercises of this lesson. These exercises will help you to achieve the lesson objectives.

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LESSON 1 INSTALLATION PEST MANAGEMENT OPERATIONS

Section I. INTRODUCTION

1-1.

GENERAL

There are many species of insects, rodents, and related pests that seriously affect military operations by spreading disease, reducing efficiency of personnel, or destroying property. Such diseases as malaria, typhus, lyme disease, dengue, sandfly fever, encephalitis, plague, filariasis, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, tularemia, dysentery, cholera, and typhoid fever can result in death, or at the very least, a reduction in effective man-hours. Insects and rodents annually destroy enormous quantities of stored food and other supplies. Termites, rodents, woodborers, and fungi damage buildings and other structures. An effective insect and rodent control program is imperative since forested areas, shade trees, shrubs, airfields, and grassed areas are also subjected to damage and loss caused by pests. 1-2. RESPONSIBILITIES

a. General. The supervision and execution of pest management operations are performed under the direction of the installation commander. Pest management operations are conducted as a part of the scheduled installation maintenance programs and include all measures for the safe and efficient control of insects, rodents, and other pests. Pest management operations are a cooperative program involving the major army command, the installation commander, the facility engineer, and the medical authority. For the program to be successful, this cooperation is vital. Pest Management operations are covered in detail in AR 420-76, Pest Management. b. MACOM Commanders and PMCs. The MACOM (Major Army Command) commanders will provide command and technical direction for implementing the pest management program at installations under their command. They will designate sufficient pest management consultants (PMCs) to ensure that all areas of pest management have professional direction. They will coordinate annual installation onsite pest management plan/program review schedules with other MACOMs, the U.S. Army Environmental Hygiene Agency (USAEHA), and other services with installations in the same geographical area to optimize the use of available personnel and minimize travel costs. The PMCs will: (1) Advise on all aspects of past management operations. (2) Coordinate with other agencies to implement environmentally safe and efficient pest management programs.

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(3) Coordinate with Army medical authorities to implement their responsibilities. (4) Review and provide written approval to obtain and use pesticides and pesticide dispersal equipment. (5) Ensure that the following actions are taken: (a) Perform annual on-site reviews of installation pest management programs and plans. (b) Provide recommendations that will result in safer, more economical, and more effective operations to the facility engineer. (c) Coordinate MACOM requirements for U.S. Army Medical Department (AMEDD) professional pest management personnel (PPMP) help in providing on-site reviews of installation pest management and pest surveillance programs with the U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine (USACHPPM). (6) Maintain professional proficiency. (7) Assist in providing on-the-job training for installation pest management personnel. (8) Maintain records of training and certification status of pesticide applicators and check their activities to determine competence. (9) Certify pest management personnel in accordance with DOD Plan for the Certification of Pesticide Applicators. (10) Review and approve technical provisions of all pest management contracts prior to solicitation of bids. (11) Provide technical review of all military construction, modification, and repair projects to assure structural pest management requirements are met. (12) Review and approve installation pest management plans. (13) Review the installation self-help pest management program and provide guidance to assure that it is effectively accomplished. c. Installation Commanders. The installation commander will: (1) Determine an installation’s position and responsibilities in community wide pest management regarding quarantine and epidemics.

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(2) Maintain liaison with MACOMs about pest surveys and investigations proposed by other agencies. (3) Establish leasee responsibility for using pesticides on military property. (4) Initiate requests for aerial application of pesticides. (5) Designate a pest management coordinator for all installation pest management activities. (6) Approve and support the installation pest management program formulated by the facilities engineer and the installation surgeon and approved by the MACOM PMC. d. Directorate of Public Works. The directorate of public works (DPW) will: (1) Prepare a comprehensive written pest management plan for the installation. (2) Supervise and direct pest management operations. (3) Conduct preventive maintenance and surveillance inspections. (4) Ensure that operating personnel receive adequate training to achieve required pest management certification. (5) Provide on-the-job training to new personnel. (6) Obtain and maintain adequate supplies of pesticides and pesticide dispersal equipment. (7) Ensure all pest management operations are done safely. (8) Decide the phases of pest management to be done by contract, based on existing policies. Included are: (a) Preparing needed specifications and technical provisions for the contract. (b) Arranging for the purchasing and contracting officer to obtain contract services. (c) Ensuring that personnel holding a valid Certificate of Competency do contract operations per specifications through continuous inspection.

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(9) Perform all record-keeping and reporting requirements in accordance with AR 420-76. (10) Inform heads of non-appropriated fund activities that applying restricted-use pesticides at these activities will be done by, or under the direct supervision of, trained and certified personnel. Also, they should be informed where training facilities are located that train for certification of pesticide applicators. (11) Ensure that pest management services are conducted so as to minimize any adverse effects on the environment. (12) Cooperate with the installation medical authority by: (a) Furnishing and maintaining mosquito light traps. (b) Performing essential pest management operations indicated by results of surveillance of medically important and quarantined pests. (c) Providing all needs to meet health safety criteria, including shops, equipment, and protective gear. (13) Maintain records of operations. e. Medical Authority. The medical authority serving the installation will: (1) Conduct surveillance of pest populations involved in the health of the command and those involved in U.S. Department of Agriculture quarantine regulations. The medical authority will provide the facilities engineer the results of the survey activities. (2) Conduct the installation pesticide-monitoring program. (3) Obtain timely identification and susceptibility status of pests to pesticides as necessary. Furnish this information to facilities engineers to be incorporated into pest management operations. (4) Establish health and personnel safety criteria for pesticide operations. (5) Assist the engineer MACOM PMC to conduct annual on-site installation pest management program reviews. (6) Provide the certification training of pesticide applicators in accordance with the DOD plan. (7) Conduct other responsibilities as required by Federal, DOD, DA, or command directives.

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f. Building Occupants. Occupants of buildings, including family housing, will: (1) Apply good sanitation practices to prevent pest infestations. (2) Apply only those pesticides approved for use. (3) Cooperate fully with installation pest management personnel in scheduling major operations, to include preparing the areas to be treated. (4) Obtain, through command channels, MACOM PMC approval before using any contract pest control services. g. Installation Pest Management Coordinator. The coordinator will: (1) Develop and monitor the installation pest management annual work plans. (2) Coordinate with activities conducting pest surveillance or applying pesticides to ensure all applicable information is recorded and reported per AR 420-76.

Section II. THE PEST MANAGEMENT PROGRAM

1-3.

ORGANIZATION

Programs of properly planned and executed pest management operations prevent undesirable infestations from developing on military installations. It is essential that pest management operations be organized along functional lines geared to the accomplishment of the mission—the elimination of harmful pests. A functionally structured organization leads to a clear understanding of areas of responsibility, provides each person assigned with an understanding of what must be done, and greatly aids in ensuring that all work is accomplished. Although a definite organizational structure will be helpful in the accomplishment of the mission, it is important that it not be so rigidly structured that it loses its flexibility. a. Pest management is a function of the Operations and Maintenance Division of the DPW. Figure 1-1 shows the organization of a typical DPW.

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Figure 1-1. Typical organization of Directorate of Public Works

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b. Various branches/sections (Insect and Rodent Control Section, Land Management Branch, Fish and Wildlife Branch, etc.) provide the following pest management services: (1) Provide trained and certified personnel to accomplish pest control in buildings and on grounds. (2) Conduct pest management programs for the protection of personnel, material, dry food stores, buildings, grounds, and other facilities. (3) Provide inspection support for pest control work done by contract. (4) Prepare statistical activity reports, as required. 1-4. FUNCTIONS The pest management program implements an IPM program to include: a. The application of insecticides, rodenticides, herbicides, and fungicides; trapping and baiting for rodent control; and all other pest control measures applied in and under buildings to protect them, their occupants, and their contents from insects, rodents, fungi, and related pests. b. Measures for the management of pests on the grounds of Army installations and, when applicable, in immediately adjacent areas. These may include the preparation of requests for and assistance in the accomplishment of aerial application of insecticides. c. All measures applied for the management of pests in stockpiles of supplies including subsistence, clothing, and other materials. These measures include atmospheric fumigation; the use of insecticides and fungicides for the preservation of lumber and other wood products; and the use of residual and space sprays, screening, and all other operations utilized in the control of pests in stored materials. d. Adequate training programs, under engineer supervision, for personnel assigned to insect and rodent control operations, and cooperation with the installation surgeon in training preventive medicine units in pest management techniques applicable to theaters of operation. 1-5. PERSONNEL

Within the past few years, hundreds of new pesticides have been developed and still newer pesticides are being tested. These new chemicals permit new approaches to pest control through their residual and other actions. These newer pesticides, unfortunately, may present a wide range of hazards in their use. Therefore, it is imperative that personnel be carefully selected and certified for pest management

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positions. It is through certification that commanders can be assured that personnel are qualified to conduct pest management operations in a safe, effective, and economical manner. Trained pest controllers who are employed in the facilities engineering organization and are certified include: a. The Supervisor. The supervisor is in charge of and supervises the pest management services performed by the Directorate of Public Works. b. The Foreman. The foreman is directly responsible to the supervisor and is in charge of one or more working groups or crews engaged in performing pest management services. c. Other Pest Controllers. These are the personnel under the supervision of the foreman or supervisor. They perform pest control services individually or as members of working groups or crews. 1-6. RESPONSIBILITIES OF PEST MANAGEMENT PERSONNEL

The Pest Management Section of the Directorate of Public Works is responsible for the planning, supervision, execution, and evaluation of pest management operations. These services include: a. Preparing and utilizing work plans and schedules for safe and efficient pest management operations. (1) Work schedule programming. A standard method of work scheduling should be established in all pest management shops. As a rule, two-thirds of the total effort should be oriented toward the accomplishment of routine preventive control work based on a standard work schedule. Work schedules should be programmed as far in the future as practical. Properly used, work schedules can assist in accomplishing the overall mission in addition to giving pest management personnel the opportunity to see exactly what must be accomplished in each time period. Additionally, programming work far in advance allows realistic and fair programming of leaves and allows the supervisor to visualize when time and resources will be available to catch up on special pest management projects or other short-term requirements. (2) The seasonal concept. The annual schedule of operations should reflect all the work that must be done, including the seasonal work that must be accomplished during certain periods and the non-seasonal work that must be conducted throughout the year. This annual schedule of operations should be set up to reflect the four-season concept of major pest management activities, to permit the most effective utilization of available manpower, and to produce the maximum control of local pests. The schedule should also reflect those minor control activities carried out throughout the year, those which are required infrequently, and service orders.

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b. Conducting surveillance inspections to determine need for pest management and effectiveness of accomplished management operations. c. Protecting the environment from undesirable pesticide effects. d. Establishing procedures in conjunction with: (1) Construction and maintenance for control of termites, wood borers, and wood rot. (2) Screening and rodent proofing of buildings and structures. (3) Prevention and control of pests in stored supplies (including subsistence, clothing and other textiles, household goods, and wood products) by fumigation, residual sprays, poison baits, and other measures. (4) Applications of preservatives to lumber and allied forest products. (5) Use of pesticides for soil treatment. (6) Draining, clearing, and ditching to control vegetation and prevent mosquito breeding. (7) Application of pesticides for protection of grasses, ornamentals, and trees. (8) Control of rats, mice, field rodents, nuisance birds, and predatory animals. (9) Pest control phases of woodland and wildlife management programs. (10) Maintenance of pest management shop and storage facilities. (11) Storage and minor maintenance of tools and equipment (sprayers, dusters, and so forth.). e. Applying pesticides (residual and aerosol sprays, dusts, and baits) in and around buildings and structures. f. Conducting related operations. 1-7. RECORDS AND REPORTING REQUIREMENTS

a. Adequate records of all pest management operations must be maintained. The records act as a reference for monitoring and managing pest management operations.

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b. All installations will maintain daily records of pest management activities on DD Form 1532-1 (Pest Management Maintenance Record) or other similar formats. Included are the data required by the MACOM for the pest management report. These records will be retained at least 2 years. c. Use DD Form 1532-1 to report all pesticides and pest control information. d. Each installation and sub-installation performing pest management will submit the reports monthly or in accordance with MACOM requirements. Copies will be distributed according to instructions on the back of the DD form and to: (1) The appropriate MACOM PMC. (2) The installation medical authority (usually the Preventive Medicine Activity). (3) The USACHPPM, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010. e. These reports will include all pest control operations conducted by: (1) The Directorate of Public Works. (2) Contractors. (3) Government-owned, contractor-operated activities. (4) Non-appropriated fund activities, (for example, golf course). (5) All out-grant lease holders. (6) Installation self-help pest management activities. f. These reports will include pest surveillance conducted by the following: (1) Facilities engineer pest management personnel. (2) Installation veterinarian. (3) Installation preventive medicine personnel. g. Installations will annually prepare the installation pest management plan giving special attention to any pesticide application that: (1) Uses a restricted-use pesticide.

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(2) Uses any pesticide that could reasonably be expected to significantly contaminate surface or ground water. (3) Includes 259 or more contiguous hectares being treated as one application. [Note: A hectare equals 2.471 acres, 259 hectares equals 640 acres or one square mile.] (4) Involves applying a pesticide by aircraft. (5) Might adversely affect endangered or other protected species or habitat. h. Included in the report will be such things as: (1) Objective of the program (target pests, life stage or stages, and purpose). (2) Surveillance (responsible organization or official, techniques and procedures, locations, schedules). (3) Treatment or control to be applied (responsible organization, nonchemical controls, and pesticides). (4) Sensitive areas (treated with caution or avoided). (5) Special health and safety measures required. (6) Any control procedures that require PMC approval or coordination with the Armed Forces Pest Management Board (AFPMB). (7) Any remarks helpful in reviewing the program. (8) Manpower requirements for prevention or control of the target pest based upon the program detailed above.

Continue with Exercises

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EXERCISES, LESSON 1 INSTRUCTIONS: Answer the following exercises by marking the lettered response that BEST answers the exercise, or BEST complete the incomplete statement, or by writing the answer in the space provided at the end of the exercise. After you have completed all of these exercises, turn to “Solutions to Exercises” at the end of the lesson and check your answers. For each exercise answered incorrectly, reread the material referenced with the solution. SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR EXERCISES 1 THROUGH 4. Match the personnel in Column I with the appropriate responsibility in Column II. Column I 1. ___ 2. ___ Installation commander. MACOM Pest Management Consultant. Foreman, Pest Management. c. 4. ___ Medical authority. d.. Is responsible for maintaining property expendable items. Conducts surveillance of pests affecting the health of the command. Participates in the Self-Help Program. Conducts annual reviews of installation pest management programs. a. Column II Directly responsible for crews performing pest management. Designates the pest management coordinator for the installation.

b.

3. ___

e.

f.

5.

Who is responsible for coordinating with other agencies concerning implementation of environmentally safe and efficient pest management programs? a. b. c. d. The Directorate of Public Works (DPW). The surgeon. The MACOM PMC. The foreman.

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6.

The _________________________ will ensure that pest management personnel receive adequate training to achieve required certification. a. b. c. d. CDR, MEDDAC. DPW. CDR, Installation. None of the above.

7.

The ________________________ is responsible for record keeping and reporting requirements to higher headquarters. a. b. c. d. COR, MEDDAC. DPW. CDR, Installation. None of the above.

8.

Which of the following is not a responsibility of the medical authority? a. Conduct surveillance of pest populations that affect the health of the command. b. Assist in conducting annual on-site pest management program reviews. c. Develop a pest management plan for an installation.

9.

Building occupants must use ______________________ measures to prevent pest infestations. a. b. c. d. Chemical control. Mechanical control. Good sanitation. None of the above.

10.

Building occupants may only apply pesticides: a. b. c. d. From 2 gallon sprayers. Approved for use. Indoors. None of the above.

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11.

Installation pest management is a function of the: a. b. c. d. Engineering Plans and Services Division, DPW. Operations and Maintenance Division, DPW. Housing Division, DPW. None of the above.

12.

Installation pest management programs should include what three items? a. Adequate training, measures for the management of pests on grounds of installations, and management of pests in stockpiles of supplies. b. Adequate training, pests control in off post housing, pest control in warehouses. c. Adequate training, pest controls on grounds, pest control for deployed units. d. None of the above.

13.

An annual schedule of operations should be established to: a. Provide more lead-time to catch up on special pest management projects. b. Reflect the four-season concept of major pest management operations. c. Ensure that pest management operations do not interfere with other Directorate of Public Works (DPW) programs.

14.

The Pest Management Section of the Directorate of Public Works is responsible for: a. b. c. d. e. Planning. Supervision. Execution. Evaluation. All of the above.

15.

The person who is actively in charge of and supervises the pest management services performed by the Directorate of Public Works (DPW) organization is the: a. b. c. d. Pest controller only. Foreman only. Supervisor only. Foreman and supervisor.

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16.

Through a program of _______________________, commanders can be assured that personnel are qualified to conduct pest management operations in a safe, effective, and economical manner. a. b. c. d. Using only experienced personnel. Assigning only graduate entomologists. Certification of pest controllers. Rotating pest controllers through all related jobs.

17.

How often must a Pest Management Report be submitted by an installation? a. b. c. d. Daily. Weekly. Monthly. Annually.

18.

The Pest Management Report contains: a. b. c. d. Only the amount of toxic materials that are being applied to the environment. Only the number of man-hours being spent on pest management operations. Only the current and projected level of expenses of pest management. All of the above.

Check Your Answers on Next Page

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SOLUTIONS TO EXERCISES, LESSON 1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. b (para 1-2c(5)) f (para 1-2b(5)(a))

a (para 1-5b) d (para 1-2e(1)) c (para 1-2b(2))

b (para 1-2d(4)) b (para 1-2d(9)) c c (para 1-2g(1)) (para 1-2f(1))

b (para 1-2f(2)) b (para 1-3a) a (para 1-4b,c,d) b (para 1-6a(2)) e (para 1-6) c c c (para 1-5a) (para 1-5) (para 1-7d)

b (para 1-7h(5),(7),(8))

End of Lesson 1

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LESSON ASSIGNMENT

LESSON 2 TEXT ASSIGNMENT LESSON OBJECTIVES

Pest Management During Military Operations. Paragraphs 2-1 through 2-2. After completing this lesson, you should be able to: 2-1. Select responsibilities that an individual should perform to ensure personal protection and/or what management practices are conducted IAW AR 40-5. Select responsibilities that a unit should perform to ensure personal protection and/or what pest management practices are conducted IAW AR 40-5. Select responsibilities that should be performed on an area basis to ensure personal protection and/or what pest management practices are conducted IAW AR 40-5.

2-2.

2-3.

SUGGESTION

After completing the assignment, complete the exercises of this lesson. These exercises will help you to achieve the lesson objectives.

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LESSON 2 PEST MANAGEMENT DURING MILITARY OPERATIONS

2-1.

GENERAL

a. History teaches that in past conflicts, more soldiers have been rendered noneffective from disease and non-battle injury (DNBI) than from injury received as a direct result of combat. Preventable cases of diseases transmitted by arthropods (malaria, dengue, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, and typhus) and diseases associated with poor sanitation and personal hygiene (hepatitis, cholera, typhoid, and dysentery) have occurred which greatly affected combat operations. At certain times, the occurrence of preventable diseases and non-battle injuries has affected fighting forces to the extent of rendering major units combat noneffective. This has happened during critical tactical operations and has on occasion seriously jeopardized mission accomplishment. b. The commander of a military organization is responsible for the health of his command. In the fulfillment of this responsibility, he is assisted by a staff of trained specialists. Using the technical advice and guidance of these individuals, he issues orders and enforces measures which will most effectively maintain sanitation and practices conducive to the health and well being of his troops. The maintenance of their health, and consequently their fighting efficiency is one of his greatest responsibilities. The commander must rely on the cooperation and assistance from everyone in his unit. Now, we will discuss the responsibility of personnel in his command and others out of his command in providing a healthful environment in the field situation. Detailed guidelines are presented in AR 40-5, Preventive Medicine. 2-2. LEVELS OF RESPONSIBILITY

a. Individual. The individual is the key in the prevention of arthropod-borne diseases. Although the commander is ultimately responsible for the health of his command, the individual must assume certain tasks to ensure that this responsibility is achieved. This can be achieved through: (1) Personal hygiene. Daily use of plain soap and water reduces the risk of louse, tick, and flea infestations and thereby helps control related diseases, such as typhus, relapsing fever, and plague. Frequent changing and laundering of clothing will further reduce the possibility of arthropod-borne disease outbreaks within troop populations. Proper diet and physical exercise are essential factors in conditioning to withstand the effects of various arthropod-borne diseases. (2) Proper wearing of uniform. Proper wearing of the uniform, to include sleeves rolled down and buttoned, trousers tucked inside boots, buttoning of collar, and wearing a hat, will help prevent bites and/or envenomization by arthropods. Although this method is not 100 percent effective, it will significantly reduce casualties due to

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arthropod-borne diseases. Practices, which should be specifically avoided, include wearing of shorts and short-sleeved shirts, wearing of skintight uniforms, and use of blousing rubbers or rings on trousers. (3) Immunization/chemoprophylaxis. At the present time, we have immunizations for yellow fever, plague, typhoid, cholera, and epidemic typhus; however, these immunizations must be administered at specified times prior to deployment to be effective. Chemoprophylaxis in the form of chloroquine-primaquine tablets is available for malaria control. (4) Personal protective devices. Repellents such as DEET offer protection against bites from mosquitoes, fleas, ticks, chiggers and many other arthropods when applied to exposed skin and where the uniform fits tight. Permethrin is a clothing impregnant which affords similar repel lent protection. The misguided use of dog or cat flea/tick collars by humans as repel lent devices must be prevented. These devices are toxic to humans. Aerosol insecticides, such as pyrethrin, resmethrin, and d-phenothrin, are available to control flying insects. Mechanical exclusion of pests can be effected by use of bednets and headnets. (5) Avoidance techniques. The last of the personal protective measures involves a combination of education and common sense. One of the most effective methods of preventing vector-borne diseases is to avoid, when practical, those areas inhabited by the vector or reservoirs of disease, be it arthropod, reptile, mammal, etc. This involves educating personnel on those vectors that may be encountered in an area, the diseases they carry, and their biologies, e.g. feeding habits, life cycle, habitat. b. Unit (Echelon I). Under provisions of AR 40-5, the unit commander of each company size or equivalent unit will appoint a field sanitation team. This team is responsible for conducting special control operations essential to the establishment of a healthful environment. It also provides the capability of controlling animal reservoirs, disease vectors, and other unit area environmental sanitation hazards. (1) Organization. The commander of each company, battery, or similar unit required to perform field duties will appoint a field sanitation team. Medical specialists (91B) organic or attached to deployed units will be trained and will function as the unit field sanitation team. If medical personnel are not available, two soldiers will be selected and trained, one of who must be a noncommissioned officer. (2) Duties. The role of the field sanitation team is to aid the unit commander in protecting troop health by advising and assisting in the many time-consuming duties essential to the establishment and maintenance of a healthful environment. By means of performance, instruction, supervision, assistance, inspection, and reporting, the field sanitation team ensures that appropriate field sanitation facilities are established and maintained and that effective sanitation and protective methods are practiced by the troops. This role may be categorized both as basic sanitation and as arthropod and rodent control. The duties as they relate to arthropod and rodent control are as follows:

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(a) Ensure the practice of proper waste disposal. This is essential for the control of arthropods and rodents. (b) Explain to troops the ways in which arthropods may affect their health and instruct them in the use of personal protective measures against arthropods. (c) Supervise the application of pesticides as required in the control of arthropods. (d) Inspect to ensure the elimination of food and shelter for pests. (e) Supervise the use of traps and rodenticides as required to control rodents. (f) Advise the unit commander of inadequacies. (3) Training. The field sanitation team will be trained in use, maintenance, and care of the field sanitation team equipment as well as communicable disease control, food service sanitation, water supply, waste disposal, the use and repair of insect screening and bednets, the use of residual and space insecticide sprays for pest control, rodent control measures, mess sanitation, unit waste disposal, individual water purification procedures, water supply residual chlorine determinations, and personal hygiene. c. Unit (Echelon II). Echelon II preventive medicine sections of the divisions, separate brigades, and Armored Calvary Regiments (ACRs) are organized to coordinate, supervise, and support the efforts of the unit field sanitation team. They are responsible for: (1) Assessing the medical threat and determining preventive medicine measures. (2) Advising commanders and staffs of preventive medicine requirements. (3) Training, monitoring, and providing technical assistance to unit field sanitation teams. (4) Monitoring the training of all individuals in personal preventive medicine measures. (5) Conducting surveys, inspections, and limited control activities. d. Unit (Echelon III and IV). Echelon III and IV preventive medicine detachments provide general support on an area basis. On occasion detachments can be attached to specific units in a direct support role. There are two types of preventive

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medicine detachments: Preventive Medicine Detachment (Sanitation) and Preventive Medicine Detachment (Entomology). (1) Both types of detachments contribute to the preventive medicine mission of providing services and support within a theater of operations in the areas of epidemiology, entomology, environmental science, and engineering. (2) The Preventive Medicine Detachment (Entomology) has an additional entomological control capability for providing large area surveillance, to include aerial vector control. (3) Assistance in conducting entomological surveillance beyond the capabilities of these detachments is provided by the Theater Area Medical Laboratory (TAML). (4) These detachments are assigned on a basis of allocation, which may be altered by analyzing the medical threat. The rule of thumb for allocation is two sanitation and one entomology detachment per division supported. This number and mix will depend on the specific theater and the anticipated DNBI threat.

Continue with Exercises

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EXERCISES, LESSON 2 INSTRUCTIONS: Answer the following exercises by marking the lettered response that BEST answers the exercise, or best completed the incomplete statement, or by indicating whether a statement is true or false. After you have completed all of these exercises, turn to "Solutions to Exercises" at the end of the lesson and check your answers. For each exercise answered incorrectly, reread the material referenced with the solution.

1.

The most fundamental and effective approach for preventing arthropod-borne disease is the: a. b. c. d. Area level. Unit level. Individual level. None of the above.

2.

Which of the following personal hygiene tasks is not a procedure the individual can do to prevent arthropod-borne disease? a. b. c. d. e. Use soap and water. Change and launder clothing frequently. Wear a flea collar around his neck. Eat a proper diet. Frequent physical exercise.

3.

Which of the following tasks is the responsibility of the individual? a. b. c. d. e. Personal hygiene. Proper wearing of the uniform. Immunization/chemoprophylaxis. Personal protective devices. All of the above.

4.

How many personnel should be appointed by the commander for the field sanitation team when medical personnel (91B) are not available? a. b. c. Two soldiers, both of which are NCOs. Two soldiers, one of which is an NCO. Three soldiers, one of which is an NCO.

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5.

Which one of the following is a duty of the Field Sanitation Team (FST)? a. b. c. d. e. Only ensure proper waste disposal. Only Instruct troops on personal protective measures. Only Inspect to ensure pest food and shelters are eliminated. Only supervise the application of pesticides. All of the above.

6.

The field sanitation team usually is not appointed prior to going to the field. a. b. True. False.

7.

The sanitation team is responsible for providing the capability of controlling animal reservoirs and disease vectors. a. b. True. False.

8.

The preventive medicine detachment is a/an ____________ level organization. a. b. c. Unit. Individual. Area.

9.

The function of the Echelon II preventive medicine section of the division is to coordinate, supervise, and support the efforts of the unit field sanitation team. a. b. True. False.

Check Your Answers on Next Page

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SOLUTIONS TO EXERCISES, LESSON 2

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

c c e b e b a a a

(para 2-2a) (para 2-2a(4)) (para 2-2a) (para 2-2b(1)) (para 2-2b(2)) (para 2-2b(3)) (para 2-2b) (para 2-2c) (para 2-2c)

End of Lesson 2

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LESSON ASSIGNMENT

LESSON 3 TEXT ASSIGNMENT LESSON OBJECTIVES

Pest Management Support Organizations. Paragraphs 3-1 through 3-2. After completing this lesson, you should be able to: 3-1. Select those responsibilities for supporting pest management operations that belong to the Office of the Surgeon General. Select those responsibilities for supporting pest management operations that belong to the Office of the Armed Forces Pest Management Board. Select those responsibilities for supporting pest management operations that belong to the Defense Pest Management Information Analysis Center. Select those responsibilities for supporting pest management operations that belong to the Environmental Hygiene Agency. Select those responsibilities for supporting pest management operations that belong to the Preventive Medicine Services. Select those responsibilities for supporting pest management operations that belong to the U.S. Air Force Special Spray Detachment.

3-2.

3-3.

3-4.

3-5.

3-6.

SUGGESTION

After completing the assignment, complete the exercises of this lesson. These exercises will help you to achieve the lesson objectives.

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LESSON 3 PEST MANAGEMENT SUPPORT ORGANIZATIONS

3-1.

GENERAL

To provide a healthy environment for the individual, a comprehensive disease prevention program must be developed and carried out and this must be a cooperative effort involving many Army and DOD activities. Also, knowledge concerning control of disease vectors and procedures on how to control pests must be shared. It is important to know the organizations and agencies that are available to assist local commanders in responsibilities are listed in AR 420-76, Pest Management. 3-2. SUPPORT ORGANIZATIONS

a. Office of The Surgeon General. The Surgeon General is responsible for the overall development and oversight of DA policies and programs for the Army-wide Preventive Medicine Program, which includes the following pest management related fields: (1) Disease and climatic injury control. (2) Occupational health. (3) Health hazard assessment. (4) Medical safety. (5) Pest and disease vector control. (6) Environmental quality. (7) Sanitation. (8) Environmental laboratory services. (9) Field preventive medicine. (10) Toxicology. b. Armed Forces Pest Management Board. The Armed Forces Pest Management Board (AFPMB) is a Department of Defense triservice board that develops and recommends pest management policy. The Armed Forces Pest Management Board is also a scientific research/advisor body and coordination/liaison activity for

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DOD. It also operates an information analysis center and coordinates research for the DOD. c. Defense Pest Management Information Analysis Center. The Defense Pest Management Information Analysis Center (DPMIAC) is an agency under the Armed Forces Pest Management Board. (1) Purpose. The DPMIAC personnel collect, analyze, index, store, and disseminate information. They also provide consultation in the areas of vector and pest biology, ecology, geographical distribution, pest management, arthropod-borne diseases, stored products pests, and structural pests, as well as control techniques, organisms, and compounds. (2) Users. Authorized users consist of all Department of Defense pest management personnel and ancillary personnel responsible for dealing with problems professional personnel of other governmental agencies or government sponsored contractors. d. United States Army Center for Health Promotion and Prevention Medicine. (1) The U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion and Prevention Medicine (USACHPPM) based at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, provides support for Army Preventive Medicine programs through services, investigations, and training in environmental quality and engineering, entomology, occupational health, radiation protection, environmental sciences, toxicology, and related laboratory services. (2) The services of USACHPPM are available upon request to worldwide Army commands, installations, and activities. Technical assistance may be obtained as specified in appropriate regulations. (3) The USACHPPM provides support by: (a) Operating three field support activities (FSA): FSA North--Fort Meade, MD: FSA South--Fort McPherson, GA; and FSA West--Army Medical Center, CO. (b) Operating two OCONUS activities: the CHPPM-PAC, the SAGAMAI, Japan; and at the CHPM-EUR, Landstuhl, Germany each activity is staffed with medical entomologists who conduct integrated pest management (PM) surveys, resistance studies, surveillance of medically important pests, and special studies as required. e. Preventive Medicine Services. The Preventive Medicine Services Program for the Army and areas under Army control encompasses medical and command operations pertaining to communicable disease control, environmental health engineering environmental sanitation, personal hygiene, mental hygiene, health nursing,

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occupational health, medical entomology, radiation protection, and nutrition. The effective execution of this program, designed to prevent disease and injury and maintain health, can be the most profitable accomplishment of a commander as disease, injury, or environmental factors can rapidly deplete a command of adequate manpower. f. United States Air Force Special Spray Detachment. This detachment is stationed in Ohio and is available to go anywhere in the world to perform aerial spray as part of a pest management program. They fly specially equipped planes to spray large geographic areas for pests such as mosquitoes, Gypsy moths, and Japanese beetles.

Continue with Exercises

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EXERCISES, LESSON 3 INSTRUCTIONS: Answer the following exercises by marking the lettered response that BEST answers the exercise, or BEST completes the incomplete statement, or by indicating whether a statement is true or false. After you have completed all of these exercises, turn to "Solutions to Exercises" at the end of the lesson and check your answers. For each exercise answered incorrectly, reread the material referenced with the solution.

1.

The purpose of pest management support organizations is to assist local commanders in their responsibility of controlling vector-borne diseases and pests. a. b. True. False.

2.

Which one of the following is NOT a responsibility of the Office of The Surgeon General? a. b. c. d. Health hazard assessment. Sanitation. Field preventive medicine. Determining specific types of pesticides to use.

3.

Which of the following is NOT a duty of the Armed Forces Pest Management Board? a. b. c. Conducts pest management investigations and training to installations. Develops and recommends pest management policy. Serves as pest management scientific research/advisory body for DOD.

4.

An agency under the Armed Forces Pest Management Board is the: a. b. c. d. Surgeon General's Office. The U.S. Air Force Special Spray Detachment. Defense Pest Management Information Analysis Center. United States Army Environmental Hygiene Agency.

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5.

Only preventive medicine personnel in the Department of Defense may use the facilities of the DPMIAC. a. b. True. False.

6.

Each of the five U.S. Army Centers for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine activities is staffed with medical entomologists who conduct: a. b. c. d. Pest Management (PM) surveys, resistance studies and surveillance of medically important pests. Non scientific research/advisory functions. Overall development/oversight of DA pest management policies. None of the above.

7.

The effective execution of the Preventive Medicine Services can be the most profitable accomplishment of a commander in the maintaining the health of his troops. a. b. True. False.

8.

The Air Force Special Spray Detachment will spray pests in small geographic areas. a. b. True. False.

Check Your Answers on Next Page

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SOLUTIONS TO EXERCISES, LESSON 3

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

a d a c b a a b

(para 3-1) (paras 3-2a(3),(7),(9)) (para 3-2b) (para 3-2c) (para 3-2c(2)) (para 3-2d(3)(b)) (para 3-2e) (para 3-2f)

End of Lesson 3

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LESSON ASSIGNMENT

LESSON 4 TEXT ASSIGNMENT LESSON OBJECTIVES

Support of Pest Management Operations. Paragraphs 4-1 through 4-6. After completing this lesson, you should be able to: 4-1. Identify the accounting procedures used to account for pest management supplies and equipment. Select sources of equipment and supplies available to DOD personnel. Select the proper requisitioning procedures for supplies and equipment. Identify the procedures associated with preparing an annual operating budget. Identify the procedures associated with preparing an annual equipment budget.

4-2.

4-3.

4-4.

4-5.

SUGGESTION

After completing the assignment, complete the exercises of this lesson. These exercises will help you to achieve the lesson objectives.

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LESSON 4 SUPPORT OF PEST MANAGEMENT OPERATIONS

Section I. REQUISITIONING OF SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT

4-1.

GENERAL

In order to provide pest management services at the highest level of efficiency, it is essential that a standard mechanism for the ordering of supplies and the replacement of major items of equipment be developed. One of the principal benefits of the annual pest program plan is that supply and equipment requirements can be determined. Also, sufficient lead-time is provided in requisition and procurement actions so materials and equipment are on hand before needed. Many of the pest management operations are year-round and create a constant predictable supply demand. However, other operations are seasonal in nature, and the materials they use might be dropped from the supply cycle during the season of no demand. The planned program will enable these seasonal uses to be tagged in the stock records system and provide a basis for supply action. Normally, supply items will require 90 to 120 days for central procurement. Assistance in establishing stock levels, reorder points, and technical requirements for pest management items should be furnished by supervisory pest management personnel to the supply agencies. Accounting for supplies and equipment is outlined in AR 735-5, Property Accountability. Ordering of supplies is addressed in DA Pam 710-2-2. 4-2. TYPES OF SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT

a. Expendable. Expendable supplies and/or equipment, broadly defined, are items of supply that may be consumed in use, lose their identity in a large assembly, or are considered to be so classified based on chapter 7 of AR 735-5. The physical characteristics of an item, rather than its unit price, will normally be the basis of its classification as expendable. However, items in this category usually cost less than $200. Most of the supplies used in the daily conduct of operations by the pest management shop are expendable items. b. Nonexpendable. Nonexpendable items are all supplies not covered by the definitions of expendable items. These are usually larger pieces of equipment and normally cost more than $200. Nonexpendable items must be accounted for on property book pages. 4-3. SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT

a. Federal Supply System (Standard Items). "Standard” items are defined as those items normally procured and issued by the Army and listed in Department of the

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Army (DA) supply manuals with an established stock number and nomenclature. Normally, only standard pesticides and pest control equipment will be used in pest management operations. Standard pesticides and equipment are developed through a continuing research program and in general are the safest, most efficient, and most economical available. (1) Pesticides. Pesticides are chemicals used for prevention and control of a large number of biological organisms. To prevent application of these materials where unwarranted environmental contamination, risk to human health, or threat to fish and wildlife could occur, procurement controls are required. Standard pesticides are obtained through the Department of the Army supply channels. Even though so listed, restricted-use pesticides must receive approval by MACOM Professional Pest Management Personnel (MPPMP) for procurement. (2) Equipment. The correct selection of pesticide dispersal equipment is essential to the safe, effective, and economical control of pests. Installation commanders are urged to obtain recommendations from the appropriate MPPMP selection of equipment suitable to the needs of the installation. b. Nonstandard Supplies and Equipment. “Nonstandard" items are defined as those items not normally procured and issued through normal Army supply channels. Purchases of nonstandard items required for pest management operations must receive MPPMP approval prior to procurement. When such items are required, the using activity must submit to its approving headquarters a request for local purchase. The request will provide full justification of the need for the nonstandard items. 4-4. REQUISITIONING PROCEDURES

a. Supplies and Minor Equipment Items. Pest management shops should have a standing operating procedure (SOP) established for the requisitioning of supplies and minor pieces of equipment. Local approval must be obtained on all requisitions. The supervisor must keep accurate records of all transactions in order to maintain adequate stock levels of supply items. Seasonal items, except those which can be procured locally as required, will be ordered sufficiently in advance to ensure that the needs of the particular seasonal program or project can be met. b. Equipment. Equipment items programmed on the Annual Equipment Program Budget should be requisitioned through normal command channels for approval and procurement. Such items must also be approved by the MPPMP. Requisitions must contain complete justification of the need for the equipment and the proposed use of each item. c. Personal Protective Clothing and Equipment. Protective clothing and equipment are essential to all operations which are inherently hazardous, which easily become hazardous through unsafe acts, or which are made hazardous by existing conditions such as ventilation, physical and biological hazards, atmospheric

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contaminants, and skin contaminants. Pest management operations should be analyzed by safety or other technically qualified personnel to determine inherent or man-made hazards. Standing operating procedures will reflect the results of such operation as analysis by including requirements for the use of protective clothing and equipment. Items of protective clothing and equipment required by command standing operating procedures will be furnished without cost to personnel. Standard items of protective clothing and equipment will be requisitioned through normal supply channels. Personal protective equipment for pesticide applicators is contained in TIM 14 published by the AFPMB.

Section II. SUPPLY PROGRAMMIING

4-5.

PREPARATION OF ANNUAL OPERATING BUDGET

When preparing the budget for a pest management shop, the supervisor usually must take the current level of expenses into account as a starting point. A review of the past year’s records and reports will provide an estimate of the annual cost of supplies and materials. The supervisor must then consider the programmed work schedule and any new mission requirements. Another factor in planning the operating budget is the possibility of expanded mission capabilities resulting from increased authorizations for personnel or equipment. When all of these factors have been taken into consideration, an accurate budget estimate can be made. 4-6. PREPARATION OF ANNUAL EQUIPMENT PROGRAM BUDGET

In addition to the annual operating budget, an annual equipment program budget must be prepared. It is essential that a budgeting procedure be established which will allow for timely replacement and/or procurement of more advanced items of equipment. Replacement items should be programmed at least five years prior to the end of the life expectancy of present equipment. Consideration should be given to the initial procurement costs, maintenance costs, and the age of present equipment. Recommendations from engineer or medical entomologists may be used as the basis of justification for needed equipment.

Continue with Exercises

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EXERCISES, LESSON 4 INSTRUCTIONS: Answer the following exercises by marking the lettered response that BEST answers the exercise, or BEST complete the incomplete statement, or by indicating whether a statement is true or false. After you have completed all of these exercises, turn to "Solutions to Exercises” at the end of the lesson and check your answers. For each exercise answered incorrectly, reread the material referenced with the solution.

1.

One function of the annual pest program plan is to determine supply and equipment requirements. a. b. True. False.

2.

Which of the following defines expendable supplies and/or equipment? a. b. c. d. Consumed in use. Loses their identity in a large assembly. Considered expendable by AR 735-5. All of the above.

3.

Nonexpendable items are usually: a. b. c. d. Large items valued at least $2,000. Large items valued at over $200. Large items that remain constant in size. None of the above.

4.

Which of the following is a good definition of a standard supply items? a. b. c. d. Items normally procured from local retailers. Items with a unit price of $200 or more. Items listed in the Department of Army supply manuals. An item of standard size.

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5.

Standard, approved pesticides can be obtained through the Department of Army supply channels. a. b. True. False.

6.

To order nonstandard supplies and equipment, the activity must provide: a. b. c. d. Full justification of need for the nonstandard items. A truck to pick up the order. A valid credit card. None of the above.

7.

It is not necessary to keep accurate records of all transactions in order to maintain adequate stock levels of supply items. a. b. True. False.

8.

Equipment requests in which the equipment will be used in pest management operations must be approved by the MPPMP. a. b. True. False.

9.

In preparing a budget, the supervisor must take which of the following into consideration? a. b. c. d. e. Only current levels of expenses. Only review of the past year's records and reports. Only consideration of programmed work schedule and any new mission requirements. Only the possibility of expanded mission capability. All of the above.

10.

An annual equipment budget is prepared to allow for replacement and/or procurement of new equipment. a. b. True. False.

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11.

In replacement of equipment items, which is NOT listed as necessary? a. b. c. d. Initial procurement cost. Maintenance costs. Age of present equipment. How often the equipment is used.

Check Your Answers on Next Page

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SOLUTIONS TO EXERCISES, LESSON 4

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

a d b c a a b a e a d

(para 4-1) (para 4-2(a)) (para 4-2b) (para 4-3a) (para 4-3a(1)) (para 4-3b) (para 4-4a) (para 4-4b) (para 4-5) (para 4-6) (para 4-6)

End of Lesson 4

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COMMENT SHEET SUBCOURSE MD0174 Organization of Pest Management Operations EDITION 100

Your comments about this subcourse are valuable and aid the writers in refining the subcourse and making it more usable. Please enter your comments in the space provided. ENCLOSE THIS FORM (OR A COPY) WITH YOUR ANSWER SHEET ONLY IF YOU HAVE COMMENTS ABOUT THIS SUBCOURSE. FOR A WRITTEN REPLY, WRITE A SEPARATE LETTER AND INCLUDE SOCIAL SECURITY NUMBER, RETURN ADDRESS (and e-mail address, if possible), SUBCOURSE NUMBER AND EDITION, AND PARAGRAPH/EXERCISE/EXAMINATION ITEM NUMBER.

PLEASE COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING ITEMS:
(Use the reverse side of this sheet, if necessary.) 1. List any terms that were not defined properly.

2.

List any errors. paragraph error correction

3.

List any suggestions you have to improve this subcourse.

4.

Student Information (optional)

PRIVACY ACT STATEMENT (AUTHORITY: 10USC3012(B) AND (G))
PURPOSE: To provide Army Correspondence Course Program students a means to submit inquiries and comments. USES: To locate and make necessary change to student records.

Name/Rank SSN Address E-mail Address Telephone number (DSN) MOS/AOC

DISCLOSURE: VOLUNTARY. Failure to submit SSN will prevent subcourse authors at service school from accessing student records and responding to inquiries requiring such follow-ups.

U.S. ARMY MEDICAL DEPARTMENT CENTER AND SCHOOL

Fort Sam Houston, Texas 78234-6130

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